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NOTES OF CHAPTER 1 (PHYSICS)

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The

SCOPE OF

PHYSICS

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Ms.Sumaira Ghafoor

Physical sciences Biological sciences: The branch of science that deals with the study of living things is called biological science. Physics: The branch of physical science which deals with the interaction of matter and energy is known as physical science. Molecular and atomic physics 5. Classical physics 2. Biological sciences 2. Particle physics 2.Sumaira Ghafoor Chapter#1 THE SCOPE OF PHYSICS Branches of science: The science can be divided in to two branches namely 1. Branches of physics: There are following two main branches of physics 1. Plasma physics 4. Solid state physics Contribution of Muslim Scientists: Many contribution are made by Muslim scientist to science some of them are as follow Page 1 of 4 SINDH TEXT BOOK BOARD-PHYSICS-XI . Nuclear physics 3. Medical physics 7. Astrophysics 6. Physical science: The branch of science which deals with the study of properties and behavior of non-living matter is called physical science.CHAPTER #1 Prepared by Ms. Quantum physics Other branches of physics are 1.

Bertrand Russell Remarked him in the following Words “Omer Khayyam is the only man known to me who was a poet and mathematician” Ibn-Al-Haitham: Ibn-Al-Haitham was a great physicist of Islamic world. His Famous book “KItab-ul-Qanoo-ul-Masoodi” is considered as encyclopedia of Astronomy. He also discovers the laws of Reflection and Invented the Pin Hole Camera. He wrote about 200 original monographs half of which are pertained to medicine.CHAPTER #1 Prepared by Ms. He is famous because of his medical text book named AlQanoon-fil-Tib and Al-shifa the encyclopedia of philosophy which comprises on logic. Abu-Rehan Al-Beruni: Al-Beruni was an Astronomer. Page 1 of 4 SINDH TEXT BOOK BOARD-PHYSICS-XI . Physician and Mathematician. Yakoob bin Ishaq Al-Kindi: He wrote many books on mathematics. Ibn-e-Sina: Ibn-e-sina was one of the famous physicians of all time. Omer Khayyam: Omer Khayyam was one of the prominent mathematicians of Islamic world. and mathematics and Meta physics. physics. He wrote the famous book “Kitabul-Manazir” the most wonderful chapter of the book is on Human Eye.Sumaira Ghafoor Al-Khwarizmi: Al-Khwarizmi was the founder of analytical algebra his famous book “Hisaul-jaber-wal-muqabla” was the firs work on this subject. He discovers the use of catheters and gives the intravenous injection with the help of silver syringe. astronomy. He is the inventor of term Logarithm. Al-Razi: Al-Razi was the most prominent and greatest physician. medicine and other subjects.

force and time. Page 1 of 4 SINDH TEXT BOOK BOARD-PHYSICS-XI .I (system international) unit is the system of unit which acts as the standard for units to be used in international trade and measurement. Electrical current-Ampere (A): It is define as the current maintained between the two conductors of infinite length and negligible cross section and placed one meter apart in vacuum would produce a force of 2 x 10-7 N/m on each other. Some important S. M.G. Thermodynamic Temperature.Mole (mol): It is defined as the amount of substance which contains as many elementary entities as there are atoms in 0.Candela (ν): It is defined as the luminous intensity in the perpendicular direction of surface 1/600000 square meter of a black body at temperature freezing platinum under a pressure of 101325 Pa.S System: In this system centimeter. gram and seconds are used as the unit of length.Sumaira Ghafoor Measurements and the system of units: As the study of physics depends upon the measurement of physical quantities many system of units are developed to express the physical quantities some of them are as follows.K. pound and seconds are used as the unit of length. Amount of Substance. Luminous intensity.P. mass and time.I System: S.012 kilogram carbon (C-12). mass and time.CHAPTER #1 Prepared by Ms.S System: In this system meter. F.Kelvin (K): It is defined as the 1/273. C.I units are as follow: Time –Seconds (s): It is defined as the 9192631770 periods of radiation corresponding to the transition between two hyperfine levels of the ground sate of cesium -133 atom. S.S System: In this system force is used as fundamental quantity and foot. kilogram and seconds are used as the unit of length.16 of thermodynamic temperature of triple point of water.

final zeros are not significant e-g 780 contains two significant figures. meter and seconds by the M. Remove all the quantity except mass. SINDH TEXT BOOK BOARD-PHYSICS-XI . Replace Kilogram. I-e 0.I unit of physical quantity. 10∓x In an exponential notation is not significant. Replace mass. Zeros at the right of the decimals are significant figure. In numbers without decimals. I-e 89. Rules for Determining Significant Figures: Page 1 of 4 All nonzero digits are significant figure. I-e 9000056 contains seven figures. Zeros between nonzero digits are significant figure.Sumaira Ghafoor Dimensions: The nature of a physical quantity is called its dimension. If there are same terms to be added write them once only. L and T.0078 has two significant figures. Significant figure: A significant figure is a reliably known digit of the magnitude of physical quantity. If there is any multiplication do it by rules of simple algebra. Write down all the physical quantities in terms of fundamental quantities. The method of finding the dimension of a physical quantity is as follows By the unit of physical quantity Write down the S. Before none zero digit all zeros are not significant. length and time by M. If there is any multiplication do it by rules of simple algebra. By the mathematical formula of physical quantity Choose one side of the mathematical formula (it is better to choose the side with more terms in some cases) Remove all the constant numbers. L and T respectively.000 contains five significant figures. Change the derived units by their fundamental units. length and time. I-e 5694 contains four significant figures.CHAPTER #1 Prepared by Ms.

CHAPTER #1 Prepared by Ms.Sumaira Ghafoor Page 1 of 4 SINDH TEXT BOOK BOARD-PHYSICS-XI .

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