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Alcohol

People drink to socialize, celebrate, and relax. Alcohol often has a strong effect on
peopleand throughout history,people have struggled to understand and manage
alcohols power. Why does alcohol cause people to act and feel differently? How
much is too much? Why do some people become addicted while others do not? The
National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism is researching the answers to
these and many other questions about alcohol. Heres what is known:

Alcohols effects vary from person to person, depending on a variety of factors,


including:

How much you drink

How often you drink

Your age

Your health status

Your family history

While drinking alcohol is itself not necessarily a problemdrinking too much can
cause a range of consequences, and increase your risk for a variety of problems. For
more information on alcohols effects on the body, please see theNational Institute
on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholisms related web page describing alcohols effects on
the body.

Ayahuasca
A hallucinogenic tea made in the Amazon from a DMT-containing plant (Psychotria
viridis or Diplopterys cabrerana or other) along with another vine (Banisteriopsis
caapi) that contains an MAO Inhibitor preventing the natural breakdown of DMT in
the digestive system, thereby facilitating a prolonged hallucinatory experience. It
was used historically in Amazonian religious and healing rituals and is increasingly

used by tourists. For more information, see the Hallucinogens and Dissociative
Drugs Research Report

Street

Commercia

Common

Common

DEA

Names

l Names

Forms

Ways

Schedule

Taken

Aya

No

Bre

Swallo

DMT

comm

wed

wed

is

Yag

ercial

as

as tea

Sched

uses

tea

ule

Hoa

I**,

sca

but
plants
contai
ning
it are
not
contr
olled

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Strong hallucinations including


perceptions of otherworldly
imagery, altered visual and
auditory perceptions; increased
blood pressure; vomiting.

Long-term

Unknown.

Other Health-related

Unknown.

Issues

In Combination with

Unknown.

Alcohol

Withdrawal Symptoms

Unknown.

Treatment Options

Medications

It is not known whether ayahuasca


is addictive. There are no FDAapproved medications to treat
addiction to ayahuasca or other
hallucinogens.

Behavioral Therapies

More research is needed to find


out if ayahuasca is addictive and,
if so, whether behavioral therapies
are effective.

Cocaine
A powerfully addictive stimulant drug made from the leaves of the coca plant native
to South America. For more information, see the Cocaine Research Report.

Street

Commercial

Common

Common

DEA

Names

Names

Forms

Ways

Sched

Taken

ule

Blow

Cocaine

Whit

Snort

II*

hydrochl

ed,

Bum

oride

pow

smok

p, C,

topical

der,

ed,

Cand

solution

whiti

inject

y,

(anesthet

sh

ed

Char

ic rarely

rock

lie,

used in

cryst

Coke

medical

al

procedur

Crac

es)

k,
Flak
e,
Rock
,
Sno
w,
Toot

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Narrowed blood vessels; enlarged


pupils; increased body
temperature, heart rate, and blood
pressure; headache; abdominal
pain and nausea; euphoria;
increased energy, alertness;
insomnia, restlessness; anxiety;
erratic and violent behavior, panic
attacks, paranoia, psychosis; heart
rhythm problems, heart attack;
stroke, seizure, coma.

Long-term

Loss of sense of smell, nosebleeds,


nasal damage and trouble
swallowing from snorting; infection
and death of bowel tissue from
decreased blood flow; poor
nutrition and weight loss from
decreased appetite.

Other Health-related

Pregnancy: premature delivery,

Issues

low birth weight, neonatal


abstinence syndrome.
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other
infectious diseases from shared
needles.

In Combination with

Greater risk of overdose and

Alcohol

sudden death than from either


drug alone.

Withdrawal Symptoms

Depression, tiredness, increased


appetite, insomnia, vivid
unpleasant dreams, slowed
thinking and movement,
restlessness.

Treatment Options

Medications

There are no FDA-approved


medications to treat cocaine
addiction.

Behavioral Therapies

Cognitivebehavioral therapy
(CBT)

Community
reinforcement
approach plus
vouchers

Contingency
management, or
motivational

incentives

The matrix model

12-Step facilitation
therapy

DMT
A synthetic drug producing intense but relatively short-lived hallucinogenic
experiences; also naturally occurring in some South American plants (See
Ayahuasca). For more information, see the Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs
Research Report.

Street

Commercial

Common

Common

DEA

Names

Names

Forms

Ways

Sched

Taken

ule

DMT

No

White

Smok

I*

comme

or

ed,

Dimi

rcial

yellow

inject

tri

uses

crystall

ed

ine
powde
r

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Intense visual hallucinations,

depersonalization, auditory
distortions, and an altered
perception of time and body
image, usually resolving in 30-45
minutes or less. Physical effects
include hypertension, increased
heart rate, agitation, seizures,
dilated pupils, involuntary rapid
eye movements, dizziness,
incoordination.

Long-term

Unknown.

Other Health-related

At high doses, coma and

Issues

respiratory arrest have occurred.

In Combination with

Unknown.

Alcohol

Withdrawal Symptoms

Unknown.

Treatment Options

Medications

It is not known whether DMT is


addictive. There are no FDAapproved medications to treat
addiction to DMT or other
hallucinogens.

Behavioral Therapies

More research is needed to find


out if DMT is addictive and, if so,
whether behavioral therapies are
effective.

GHB

A depressant approved for use in the treatment of narcolepsy, a disorder that


causes daytime "sleep attacks."

Street

Commercial

Common

Common

DEA

Names

Names

Forms

Ways

Sched

Taken

ule

G,

Gamma-

Color

Swall

Geor

hydroxyb

less

owed

gia

utyrate

liqui

(often

Hom

or

d,

combi

sodium

whit

ned

Boy,

oxybate

with

Goo

(Xyrem)

pow

alcoh

der

ol or

p,
Grie

other

vous

bever

Bodil

ages)

y
Har
m,
Liqui
d
Ecst
asy,
Liqui
d X,
Soap
,
Scoo
p

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Euphoria, drowsiness, decreased


anxiety, confusion, memory loss,
hallucinations, excited and
aggressive behavior, nausea,
vomiting, unconsciousness,
seizures, slowed heart rate and

breathing, lower body


temperature, coma, death.

Long-term

Unknown.

Other Health-related

Sometimes used as a date rape

Issues

drug.

In Combination with

Nausea, problems with breathing,

Alcohol

greatly increased depressant


effects.

Withdrawal Symptoms

Insomnia, anxiety, tremors,


sweating, increased heart rate and
blood pressure, psychotic
thoughts.

Treatment Options

Medications

Benzodiazepines.

Behavioral Therapies

More research is needed to find


out if behavioral therapies can be
used to treat GHB addiction.

Hallucinogens

Drugs that cause profound distortions in a persons perceptions of reality, such


as ketamine, LSD, mescaline (peyote), PCP, psilocybin, salvia, DMT, and ayahuasca.
For more information, see the Hallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs Research
Report.

Heroin
An opioid drug made from morphine, a natural substance extracted from the seed
pod of the Asian opium poppy plant. For more information, see the Heroin Research
Report.

Street Names

Commerci

Common

Common

DEA

al Names

Forms

Ways

Sched

Taken

ule

Brown

No

Whit

Inje

sugar,

com

e or

cte

China

merci

bro

d,

White,

al

wnis

smo

Dope, H,

uses

ked,

Horse,

pow

sno

Junk, Skag,

der,

rted

Skunk,

or

Smack,

blac

White

Horse

stick

With OTC

cold

subs

medicine

tanc

and

antihistami

kno

ne:Cheese

wn
as
bla
ck
tar
hero
in

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Euphoria; warm flushing of skin;


dry mouth; heavy feeling in the
hands and feet; clouded thinking;
alternate wakeful and drowsy
states; itching; nausea; vomiting;
slowed breathing and heart rate.

Long-term

Collapsed veins; abscesses


(swollen tissue with pus); infection
of the lining and valves in the
heart; constipation and stomach
cramps; liver or kidney disease;
pneumonia.

Other Health-related

Pregnancy: miscarriage, low birth

Issues

weight, neonatal abstinence


syndrome.
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other
infectious diseases from shared
needles.

In Combination with

Dangerous slowdown of heart rate

Alcohol

and breathing, coma, death.

Withdrawal Symptoms

Restlessness, muscle and bone


pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting,
cold flashes with goose bumps
("cold turkey"), leg movements.

Treatment Options

Medications

Methadone

Buprenorphine

Naltrexone (shortand long-acting


forms)

Behavioral Therapies

Contingency
management, or
motivational
incentives

12-Step facilitation
therapy

Inhalants

Solvents, aerosols, and gases found in household products such as spray paints,
markers, glues, and cleaning fluids; also nitrites (e.g., amyl nitrite), which are
prescription medications for chest pain. For more information, see the Inhalants
Research Report.

Street

Commer

Common

Common

DEA

Names

cial

Forms

Ways

Schedule

Names

Taken

Popp

Vari

Paint

Inha

Not

ers,

ous

thinner

led

sched

snap

s or

thro

uled

pers,

remov

ugh

whip

ers,

the

pets,

degrea

nos

laugh

sers,

e or

ing

dry-

mou

gas

cleanin

th

g
fluids,
gasolin
e,
lighter
fluids,
correct
ion
fluids,
perma
nent
marker
s,
electro
nics
cleane
rs and
freeze
sprays,
glue,
spray
paint,
hair or
deodor

ant
sprays,
fabric
protect
or
sprays,
aeroso
l
compu
ter
cleanin
g
produc
ts,
vegeta
ble oil
sprays,
butane
lighter
s,
propan
e
tanks,
whippe
d
cream
aeroso
l
contai
ners,
refrige
rant
gases,

ether,
chlorof
orm,
haloth
ane,
nitrous
oxide

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Confusion; nausea; slurred speech;


lack of coordination; euphoria;
dizziness; drowsiness;
disinhibition, lightheadedness,
hallucinations/delusions;
headaches; sudden sniffing death
due to heart failure (from butane,
propane, and other chemicals in
aerosols); death from
asphyxiation, suffocation,
convulsions or seizures, coma, or
choking.
Nitrites: enlarged blood vessels,
enhanced sexual pleasure,
increased heart rate, brief
sensation of heat and excitement,
dizziness, headache.

Long-term

Liver and kidney damage; bone


marrow damage; limb spasms due
to nerve damage; brain damage
from lack of oxygen that can cause
problems with thinking,
movement, vision, and hearing.
Nitrites: increased risk of
pneumonia.

Other Health-related

Pregnancy: low birth weight, bone

Issues

problems, delayed behavioral


development due to brain
problems, altered metabolism and
body composition.

In Combination with

Nitrites: dangerously low blood

Alcohol

pressure.

Withdrawal Symptoms

Nausea, loss of appetite, sweating,


tics, problems sleeping, and mood
changes.

Treatment Options

Medications

There are no FDA-approved


medications to treat inhalant
addiction.

Behavioral Therapies

More research is needed to find


out if behavioral therapies can be
used to treat inhalant addiction.

Ketamine

A dissociative drug used as an anesthetic in veterinary practice. Dissociative drugs


are hallucinogens that cause the user to feel detached from reality. For more
information, see theHallucinogens and Dissociative Drugs Research Report

Street

Commerci

Common

Common

DEA

Names

al Names

Forms

Ways Taken

Schedu
le

Cat

Ketal

Liqui

Injected

III*

Valiu

ar

d,

m, K,

whit

snorted,

Speci

smoked

al K,

pow

(powder

Vita

der

added

min K

to
tobacco
or
marijua
na
cigarett
es),
swallow
ed

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Problems with attention, learning,


and memory; dreamlike states,
hallucinations; sedation; confusion
and problems speaking; loss of
memory; problems moving, to the
point of being immobile; raised
blood pressure; unconsciousness;
slowed breathing that can lead to
death.

Long-term

Ulcers and pain in the bladder;


kidney problems; stomach pain;
depression; poor memory.

Other Health-related

Sometimes used as a date rape

Issues

drug.
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other
infectious diseases from shared
needles.

In Combination with

Increased risk of adverse effects.

Alcohol

Withdrawal Symptoms

Unknown.

Treatment Options

Medications

There are no FDA-approved


medications to treat addiction to
ketamine or other dissociative
drugs.

Behavioral Therapies

More research is needed to find


out if behavioral therapies can be
used to treat addiction to
dissociative drugs.

Khat
Pronounced "cot," a shrub (Catha edulis) found in East Africa and southern Arabia;
contains the psychoactive chemicals cathinone and cathine. People from African
and Arabian regions (up to an estimated 20 million worldwide) have used khat for
centuries as part of cultural tradition and for its stimulant-like effects.

Street

Commercia

Commo

Common

DEA

Names

l Names

n Forms

Ways

Schedule

Taken

Abyssi

No

Fre

Che

Cathi

nian

comm

sh

wed,

none

Tea,

ercial

or

brew

is a

Africa

uses

dri

ed

Sche

ed

as

dule I

Salad,

lea

tea

drug*

Catha,

ve

*,

Chat,

maki

Kat,

ng

Oat

khat
use
illegal
, but
the
khat
plant
is not
contr
olled

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Euphoria, increased alertness and


arousal, increased blood pressure
and heart rate, depression,
inability to concentrate, irritability,
loss of appetite, insomnia.

Long-term

Tooth decay and gum disease;


gastrointestinal disorders such as
constipation, ulcers, stomach
inflammation, and increased risk
of upper gastrointestinal tumors;
cardiovascular disorders such as
irregular heartbeat, decreased
blood flow, and heart attack.

Other Health-related

In rare cases associated with

Issues

heavy use: psychotic reactions


such as fear, anxiety, grandiose
delusions (fantastical beliefs that
one has superior qualities such as
fame, power, and wealth),
hallucinations, and paranoia.

In Combination with
Alcohol

Unknown.

Withdrawal Symptoms

Depression, nightmares,
trembling, and lack of energy.

Treatment Options

Medications

It is not known whether khat is


addictive. There are no FDAapproved medications to treat
addiction to khat.

Behavioral Therapies

More research is needed to find


out if khat is addictive and, if so,
whether behavioral therapies are
effective.

Kratom
A tropical deciduous tree (Mitragyna speciosa) native to Southeast Asia, with leaves
that contain mitragynine, a psychoactive (mind-altering) opioid. Kratom is
consumed for mood-lifting effects and pain relief and as an aphrodisiac. For more
information, see the Kratom DrugFacts.

Street

Comme

Common

Common

DEA

Names

rcial

Forms

Ways Taken

Schedule

Names

Herba

No

Fres

Chewe

Not

ne

h or

sched

Speed

drie

(whole

uled

ball,

leaves)

Biak-

leav

; eaten

biak,

es,

(mixed

Ketu

pow

in food

m,

der,

or

Kahua

liqui

brewed

m,

d,

as tea);

Ithan

gum

occasio

g,

nally

Thom

smoke
d

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Sensitivity to sunburn, nausea,


itching, sweating, dry mouth,
constipation, increased urination,
loss of appetite.
Low doses: increased energy,
sociability, alertness.
High doses: sedation, euphoria,
decreased pain.

Long-term

Anorexia, weight loss, insomnia,


skin darkening, dry mouth,

frequent urination, constipation.


Hallucination and paranoia with
long-term use at high doses.

Other Health-related

Unknown.

Issues

In Combination with

Unknown.

Alcohol

Withdrawal Symptoms

Muscle aches, insomnia,


irritability, hostility, aggression,
emotional changes, runny nose,
jerky movements.

Treatment Options

Medications

No clinical trials have been


conducted on medications for
kratom addiction.

Behavioral Therapies

More research is needed to find


out if behavioral therapies can be

used to treat addiction to kratom.

LSD

A hallucinogen manufactured from lysergic acid, which is found in ergot, a fungus


that grows on rye and other grains. LSD is an abbreviation of the scientific
name lysergic acid diethylamide. For more information, see the Hallucinogens and
Dissociative Drugs Research Report.

Street

Commercia

Common

Common

DEA

Names

l Names

Forms

Ways

Sched

Taken

ule

Acid,

No

Table

Swallo

Blotte

comm

t;

wed,

r,

ercial

capsu

absorb

Blue

uses

le;

ed

Heav

clear

throug

en,

liquid

Cube

mouth

s,

small

tissues

Micro

(paper

dot,

decor

square

Yello

ated

s)

squar

Suns

es of

hine

absor
bent
paper
that
liquid
has
been
adde
d to

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Rapid emotional swings; distortion


of a persons ability to recognize
reality, think rationally, or
communicate with others; raised
blood pressure, heart rate, body
temperature; dizziness and
insomnia; loss of appetite; dry
mouth; sweating; numbness;
weakness; tremors; enlarged
pupils.

Long-term

Frightening flashbacks (called


Hallucinogen Persisting Perception
Disorder [HPPD]); ongoing visual
disturbances, disorganized
thinking, paranoia, and mood

swings.

Other Health-related

Unknown.

Issues

In Combination with

May decrease the perceived

Alcohol

effects of alcohol.

Withdrawal Symptoms

Unknown.

Treatment Options

Medications

There are no FDA-approved


medications to treat addiction to
LSD or other hallucinogens.

Behavioral Therapies

More research is needed to find


out if behavioral therapies can be
used to treat addiction to
hallucinogens.

Marijuana (Cannabis)

Marijuana is made from the hemp plant, Cannabis sativa. The main psychoactive
(mind-altering) chemical in marijuana is delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, or THC. For
more information, see the Marijuana Research Report.

Street

Commerci

Common

Common

DEA

Names

al Names

Forms

Ways

Sched

Taken

ule

Blunt,

Variou

Green

Smok

I*

Bud,

ish-

ed,

Dope,

brand

gray

eaten

Ganja,

name

mixtur

(mixe

Grass,

s in

e of

d in

Green,

states

dried,

food

Herb,

where

shred

or

Joint,

the

ded

brew

Mary

sale of

leaves

ed as

Jane,

mariju

tea)

Pot,

ana is

stems

Reefer,

legal

Sinsem

seeds,

illa,

and/or

Skunk,

flower

Smoke,

s;

Trees,

resin

Weed;

(hashi

Hashis

sh) or

h:

sticky,

Boom,

black

Gangst

liquid

er,

(hash

Hash,

oil)

Hemp

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Enhanced sensory perception and


euphoria followed by
drowsiness/relaxation; slowed
reaction time; problems with
balance and coordination;
increased heart rate and appetite;
problems with learning and
memory; hallucinations; anxiety;
panic attacks; psychosis.

Long-term

Mental health problems, chronic


cough, frequent respiratory
infections.

Other Health-related

Youth: possible loss of IQ points

Issues

when repeated use begins in


adolescence.

Pregnancy: babies born with


problems with attention, memory,
and problem solving.

In Combination with

Increased heart rate, blood

Alcohol

pressure; further slowing of mental


processing and reaction time.

Withdrawal Symptoms

Irritability, trouble sleeping,


decreased appetite, anxiety.

Treatment Options

Medications

There are no FDA-approved


medications to treat marijuana
addiction.

Behavioral Therapies

Cognitivebehavioral therapy
(CBT)

Contingency
management, or
motivational
incentives

Motivational
Enhancement
Therapy (MET)

Behavioral
treatments geared
to adolescents

MDMA (Ecstasy/Molly)

A synthetic, psychoactive drug that has similarities to both the stimulant


amphetamine and the hallucinogen mescaline. MDMA is an abbreviation of the
scientific name 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine. For more information, see
the MDMA (Ecstasy) Abuse Research Report.

Street

Commercial

Common

Common

DEA

Names

Names

Forms

Ways Taken

Sched
ule

Ada

No

Colorf

Swallo

I*

m,

comme

ul

wed,

Clari

rcial

tablet

snorted

ty,

uses

s with

Eve,

impri

Love

nted

r's

logos,

Spe

capsu

ed,

les,

Peac

powd

e,

er,

Upp

liquid

ers

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Lowered inhibition; enhanced


sensory perception; confusion;
depression; sleep problems;
anxiety; increased heart rate and
blood pressure; muscle tension;
teeth clenching; nausea; blurred
vision; faintness; chills or
sweating; sharp rise in body
temperature leading to liver,
kidney, or heart failure and death.

Long-term

Long-lasting confusion,
depression, problems with
attention, memory, and sleep;
increased anxiety, impulsiveness,
aggression; loss of appetite; less
interest in sex.

Other Health-related

Unknown.

Issues

In Combination with

May increase the risk of cell and

Alcohol

organ damage.

Withdrawal Symptoms

Fatigue, loss of appetite,


depression, trouble concentrating.

Treatment Options

Medications

There is conflicting evidence about


whether MDMA is addictive. There
are no FDA-approved medications
to treat MDMA addiction.

Behavioral Therapies

More research is needed to find


out if behavioral therapies can be
used to treat MDMA addiction.

Mescaline (Peyote)
A hallucinogen found in disk-shaped buttons in the crown of several cacti,
including peyote. For more information, see theHallucinogens LSD, Peyote,
Psilocybin, and PCP DrugFacts.

Street

Commercial

Common

Common

DEA

Names

Names

Forms

Ways Taken

Sched
ule

Butto

No

Fres

Swallo

I*

ns,

comme

h or

wed

Cact

rcial

dried

(chewe

us,

uses

butt

d or

ons,

soaked

caps

in

ule

water

Mesc

and
drunk)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Enhanced perception and feeling;


hallucinations; euphoria; anxiety;
increased body temperature, heart
rate, blood pressure; sweating;
problems with movement.

Long-term

Unknown.

Other Health-related

Unknown.

Issues

In Combination with

Unknown.

Alcohol

Withdrawal Symptoms

Unknown.

Treatment Options

Medications

There are no FDA-approved


medications to treat addiction to
mescaline or other hallucinogens.

Behavioral Therapies

More research is needed to find


out if behavioral therapies can be
used to treat addiction to
hallucinogens.

Methamphetamine

An extremely addictive stimulant amphetamine drug. For more information, see


the Methamphetamine Research Report.

Street

Commerci

Common

Common

DEA

Names

al Names

Forms

Ways Taken

Sched
ule

Cran

Desox

Whit

Swallo

II*

k,

yn

wed,

Chal

powd

snorted

k,

er or

Crys

pill;

smoked

tal,

cryst

Fire,

al

injected

Glas

meth

s, Go

looks

Fast,

like

Ice,

piece

Meth

s of

glass

Spee

or

shiny
bluewhite
rock
s of
differ
ent
sizes

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Increased wakefulness and

physical activity; decreased


appetite; increased breathing,
heart rate, blood pressure,
temperature; irregular heartbeat.

Long-term

Anxiety, confusion, insomnia,


mood problems, violent behavior,
paranoia, hallucinations,
delusions, weight loss, severe
dental problems (meth mouth),
intense itching leading to skin
sores from scratching.

Other Health-related

Pregnancy: premature delivery;

Issues

separation of the placenta from


the uterus; low birth weight;
lethargy; heart and brain
problems.
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other
infectious diseases from shared
needles.

In Combination with

Masks the depressant effect of

Alcohol

alcohol, increasing risk of alcohol


overdose; may increase blood
pressure and jitters.

Withdrawal Symptoms

Depression, anxiety, tiredness.

Treatment Options

Medications

There are no FDA-approved


medications to treat
methamphetamine addiction.

Behavioral Therapies

Cognitivebehavioral therapy
(CBT)

Contingency
management or
motivational
incentives

The matrix model

12-Step facilitation
therapy

Over-the-counter Cough/Cold Medicines (Dextromethorphan or DXM)

Psychoactive when taken in higher-than-recommended amounts. For more


information, see the Cough and Cold Medicine Abuse DrugFacts.

Street

Commer

Commo

Common

DEA

Names

cial

n Forms

Ways

Schedule

Names

Taken

Robotri

Vari

Syr

Swall

Not

pping,

ous

up,

owed

sche

Robo,

(ma

cap

Triple C

ny

sul

bra

duled

nd
na
mes
incl
ude
DM
)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Euphoria; slurred speech;


increased heart rate, blood
pressure, temperature; numbness;
dizziness; nausea; vomiting;
confusion; paranoia; altered visual
perceptions; problems with
movement; buildup of excess acid
in body fluids.

Long-term

Unknown.

Other Health-related

Breathing problems, seizures, and

Issues

increased heart rate may occur


from other ingredients in
cough/cold medicines.

In Combination with

Increased risk of adverse effects.

Alcohol

Withdrawal Symptoms

Unknown.

Treatment Options

Medications

There are no FDA-approved


medications to treat addiction to
over-the-counter cough/cold
medicines.

Behavioral Therapies

More research is needed to find


out if behavioral therapies can be
used to treat addiction to over-thecounter cough/cold medicines.

PCP

A dissociative drug developed as an intravenous anesthetic that has been


discontinued due to serious adverse effects. Dissociative drugs are hallucinogens
that cause the user to feel detached from reality. PCP is an abbreviation of the
scientific name, phencyclidine. For more information, see theHallucinogens and
Dissociative Drugs Research Report

Street

Commercial

Common

Common

DEA

Names

Names

Forms

Ways Taken

Sched
ule

Ang

No

Whit

Injecte

I,

el

comme

e or

d,

II*

Dus

rcial

color

snorted

t,

uses

ed

Boa

powd

swallow

t,

er,

ed,

Ho

table

smoked

g,

t, or

(powde

Lov

caps

r added

ule;

to mint,

Boa

clear

parsley,

t,

liquid

oregan

Pea

o, or

ce

marijua

Pill

na)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Delusions, hallucinations,
paranoia, problems thinking, a
sense of distance from ones
environment, anxiety.
Low doses: slight increase in
breathing rate; increased blood
pressure and heart rate; shallow
breathing; face redness and
sweating; numbness of the hands
or feet; problems with movement.
High doses: lowered blood
pressure, pulse rate, breathing
rate; nausea; vomiting; blurred
vision; flicking up and down of the
eyes; drooling; loss of balance;
dizziness; violence; suicidal
thoughts; seizures, coma, and
death.

Long-term

Memory loss, problems with


speech and thinking, depression,
weight loss, anxiety.

Other Health-related

PCP has been linked to self-injury.

Issues
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other
infectious diseases from shared
needles.

In Combination with

Increased risk of coma.

Alcohol

Withdrawal Symptoms

Headaches, sweating.

Treatment Options

Medications

There are no FDA-approved


medications to treat addiction to
PCP or other dissociative drugs.

Behavioral Therapies

More research is needed to find


out if behavioral therapies can be
used to treat addiction to
dissociative drugs.

Prescription Opioids

Pain relievers with an origin similar to that of heroin. Opioids can cause euphoria
and are often used nonmedically, leading to overdose deaths. For more information,
see the Prescription Drug Abuse Research Report

Street

Commercial

Commo

Commo

DEA

Names

Names

n Forms

n Ways

Sched

Taken

ule

Captai

Codeine

Tab

Inje

II

(various

let,

cte

Cody,

brand

cap

d,

II

Cody,

names)

sul

swa

I,

Lean,

e,

llo

School

liqu

we

boy,

id

Sizzur

(oft

p,

en

Purple

mix

Drank

ed

With

wit

glutet

himid

sod

e:Door

s&

and

Fours,

flav

Loads,

orin

Panca

gs)

kes

and
Syrup

Apach

Fentanyl

Loz

Inje

II

e,

(Actiq ,Dur

eng

cte

China

agesic,Sub

e,

d,

sub

sm

China

ling

oke

White,

ual

d,

Dance

tabl

sno

Fever,

et,

rte

Friend,

film

Goodf

ella,

buc

Jackpo

cal

t,

tabl

Murde

et

Girl,

limaze )

r 8,
Tango
and
Cash,
TNT

Vike,

Hydrocodon

Ca

Sw

II

Watso

e or

psu

allo

n-387

dihydrocod

le,

we

einone

liqu

d,

(Vicodin,

id,

sno

tabl

rte

Lortab ,

Lorcet, an

et

d others)

d,
inje
cte
d

D,

Hydromorp

Liq

Inje

II

Dillies,

hone

uid,

cte

sup

d,

lls,

pos

rect

Juice,

itor

al

Smack

Footba

Demm

(Dilaudid )

Tab

Sw

II

let,

allo

Pain

liqu

we

Killer

id

d,

ies,

Meperidine

(Demerol )

sno
rte
d,
inje
cte
d

Amido

Methadone

Tab

Sw

II

ne,

(Dolophine

let,

allo

Fizzies

dis

we

With

Methadose

per

d,

MDMA

sibl

inje

cte

Chocol

tabl

ate

et,

Chip

liqu

Cookie

id

M,

Morphine

Tab

Inje

II

Miss

(Duramorph

let,

cte

Emma

liqu

d,

II

id,

swa

Monke

cap

llo

y,

sul

we

White

e,

d,

Stuff

sup

sm

pos

oke

itor

Roxanol )

O.C.,

Oxycodone

Ca

Sw

II

Oxyce

(OxyContin

psu

allo

t,

le,

we

Oxyco

Percodan ,

liqu

d,

tton,

Percocet,

id,

sno

Oxy,

and others)

tabl

rte

et

d,

Hillbill
y

inje

Heroin

cte

, Percs

Biscuit

Oxymorpho

Tab

Sw

II

s, Blue

ne

let

allo

Heave

(Opana)

we

n,

d,

Blues,

sno

Mrs.

rte

O, O

d,

Bomb,

inje

Octag

cte

ons,

Stop
Signs

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Pain relief, drowsiness, nausea,


constipation, euphoria, confusion,
slowed breathing, death.

Long-term

Unknown.

Other Health-related

Pregnancy: Miscarriage, low birth

Issues

weight, neonatal abstinence

syndrome.
Older adults: higher risk of
accidental misuse or abuse
because many older adults have
multiple prescriptions, increasing
the risk of drug-drug interactions,
and breakdown of drugs slows
with age; also, many older adults
are treated with prescription
medications for pain.
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other
infectious diseases from shared
needles.

In Combination with

Dangerous slowing of heart rate

Alcohol

and breathing leading to coma or


death.

Withdrawal Symptoms

Restlessness, muscle and bone


pain, insomnia, diarrhea, vomiting,
cold flashes with goose bumps
("cold turkey"), leg movements.

Treatment Options

Medications

Methadone

Buprenorphine

Naltrexone (shortand long-acting)

Behavioral Therapies

Behavioral therapies that have


helped treat addiction to heroin
may be useful in treating
prescription opioid addiction.

Prescription Sedatives (Tranquilizers, Depressants)

Medications that slow brain activity, which makes them useful for treating anxiety
and sleep problems. For more information, see the Prescription Drug Abuse
Research Report.

Street

Commercial

Commo

Common

DEA

Names

Names

Ways

Sched

Forms

Taken

ule

Barbs

Barbiturate

Pill

Swal

II,

s:pentobarb

lowe

III

Phen

ital

ca

d,

nies,

(Nembutal

ps

injec

Red

),

ule

ted

Birds,

phenobarbit

Reds,

al

liq

Tooie

(Luminal)

uid

Cand

Benzodiaze

Pill

Swal

y,

pines:

lowe

Down

alprazolam

ca

d,

ers,

(Xanax),

ps

injec

Sleep

chlorodiaze

ule

ted

ing

poxide

s,
Yello
w
Jacke
ts,
Yello
ws

Pills,

(Limbitrol ),

liq

Trank

diazepam

uid

(Valium ),
lorazepam
(Ativan),
triazolam
(Halicon)

Forge

Sleep

Pill

Swal

t-me

Medications

lowe

Pill,

ca

d,

Mexi

eszopiclone

ps

injec
ted

can

(Lunesta ),

ule

Valiu

zaleplon

m,

(Sonata ),

liq

R2,

zolpidem

uid

Roch

(Ambien )

e,
Roofi
es,
Roofi
nol,
Rope,
Rophi
es

Possible Health Effects

Short

Drowsiness, slurred speech, poor concentration,

-term

confusion, dizziness, problems with movement and


memory, lowered blood pressure, slowed breathing.

Long-

Unknown.

term

Other

Sleep medications are sometimes used as date rape

Healt

drugs.

hrelat

Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases

ed

from shared needles.

Issue
s

In

Further slows heart rate and breathing, which can lead

Com

to death.

binati
on
with
Alcoh
ol

With

Must be discussed with a health care provider;

draw

barbiturate withdrawal can cause a serious abstinence

al

syndrome that may even include seizures.

Symp
toms

Treatment Options

Medi

There are no FDA-approved medications to treat

catio

addiction to prescription sedatives; lowering the dose

ns

over time must be done with the help of a health care


provider.

Beha

More research is needed to find out if behavioral

vioral

therapies can be used to treat addiction to prescription

Ther

sedatives.

apies

Prescription Stimulants

Medications that increase alertness, attention, energy, blood pressure, heart rate,
and breathing rate. For more information, see the Prescription Drug Abuse Research
Report.

Street

Commercial

Common

Common

DEA

Names

Names

Forms

Ways

Sched

Taken

ule

Benni

Ampheta

Tabl

Swall

II

es,

mine

et,

owed,

Black

(Adderall

caps

snort

Beauti

ule

ed,

es,

Benzedri

Cross

ne )

smok
ed,

es,

inject

Heart

ed

s, LA
Turnar
ound,

Speed
,
Truck
Driver
s,
Upper
s

JIF,

Methylp

Liqu

Swall

II

MPH,

henidate

id,

owed,

R-ball,

(Concert

tabl

snort

Skipp

a,

et,

ed,

che

smok

Smart

wabl

ed,

Drug,

inject

Vitami

tabl

ed,

nR

et,

chew

caps

ed

y, The

Ritalin )

ule

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Increased alertness, attention, energy;


increased blood pressure and heart rate;
narrowed blood vessels; increased blood sugar;
opened-up breathing passages.
High doses: dangerously high body temperature

and irregular heartbeat; heart failure; seizures.

Long-term

Heart problems, psychosis, anger, paranoia.

Other

Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious

Health-

diseases from shared needles.

related
Issues

In

Masks the depressant action of alcohol,

Combination

increasing risk of alcohol overdose; may

with Alcohol

increase blood pressure and jitters.

Withdrawal

Depression, tiredness, sleep problems.

Symptoms

Treatment Options

Medications

There are no FDA-approved medications to treat


stimulant addiction.

Behavioral

Behavioral therapies that have helped treat

Therapies

addiction to cocaine or methamphetamine may


be useful in treating prescription stimulant
addiction.

Psilocybin

A hallucinogen in certain types of mushrooms that grow in parts of South America,


Mexico, and the United States. For more information, see the Hallucinogens and
Dissociative Drugs Research Report.

Street

Commerci

Common

Common

DEA

Names

al Names

Forms

Ways

Sched

Taken

ule

Little

No

Fresh

Swall

Smoke

comm

or

owed

, Magic

ercial

dried

(eate

Mushr

uses

mushr

n,

ooms,

ooms

brewe

Purple

with

d as

Passio

long,

tea,

n,

slende

or

Shroo

added

ms

stems

to

toppe

other

d by

foods)

caps
with
dark
gills

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Hallucinations, altered perception of time,


inability to tell fantasy from reality, panic,
muscle relaxation or weakness, problems with
movement, enlarged pupils, nausea, vomiting,
drowsiness.

Long-term

Risk of flashbacks and memory problems.

Other

Risk of poisoning if a poisonous mushroom is

Health-

accidentally used.

related
Issues

In
Combinatio
n with
Alcohol

May decrease the perceived effects of alcohol.

Withdrawal

Unknown.

Symptoms

Treatment Options

Medications

It is not known whether psilocybin is addictive.


There are no FDA-approved medications to treat
addiction to psilocybin or other hallucinogens.

Behavioral

More research is needed to find out if psilocybin

Therapies

is addictive and whether behavioral therapies


can be used to treat addiction to this or other
hallucinogens.

Rohypnol (Flunitrazepam)
A benzodiazepine chemically similar to prescription sedatives such as Valium and
Xanax. Teens and young adults tend to abuse this drug at bars, nightclubs,
concerts, and parties. It has been used to commit sexual assaults due to its ability
to sedate and incapacitate unsuspecting victims.

Street

Commercial

Commo

Common

DEA

Names

Names

Ways

Schedule

Forms

Taken

Circl

Flunitra

Ta

Swall

IV** -

es,

zepam,

bl

owed

Rohyp

Date

Rohypn

et

(as a

nol

Rape

ol

pill or

is not

Drug

as

appro

dissol

ved

Forg

ved

for

et

in a

medic

Pill,

drink

al use

Forg

),

in the

et-

snort

Unite

Me

ed

Pill,

State

La

s; it is

Roch

availa

a,

ble as

Lunc

prescr

Mon

iption

ey,

sleep

Mexi

aid in

can

other

Valiu

count

m,

ries

Mind
Eras
er,
Ping
us,
R2,
Reyn
olds,
Rib,

Roac
h,
Roac
h 2,
Roac
hes,
Roac
hies,
Roap
ies,
Roch
as
Dos,
Roofi
es,
Rope
,
Roph
ies,
RowShay
,
Ruffi
es,
TripandFall,
Wolfi
es

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Drowsiness, sedation, sleep; amnesia, blackout;


decreased anxiety; muscle relaxation, impaired
reaction time and motor coordination; impaired
mental functioning and judgment; confusion;
aggression; excitability; slurred speech;
headache; slowed breathing and heart rate.

Long-term

Unknown.

Other

Unknown.

Healthrelated
Issues

In

Severe sedation, unconsciousness, and slowed

Combinatio

heart rate and breathing, which can lead to death.

n with
Alcohol

Withdrawal

Headache; muscle pain; extreme anxiety, tension,

Symptoms

restlessness, confusion, irritability; numbness and


tingling of hands or feet; hallucinations, delirium,
convulsions, seizures, or shock.

Treatment Options

Medication

There are no FDA-approved medications to treat

addiction to Rohypnol or other prescription


sedatives.

Behavioral

More research is needed to find out if behavioral

Therapies

therapies can be used to treat addiction to


Rohypnol or other prescription sedatives.

Salvia

A dissociative drug (Salvia divinorum) that is an herb in the mint family native to
southern Mexico. Dissociative drugs are hallucinogens that cause the user to feel
detached from reality. For more information, see the Hallucinogens and Dissociative
Drugs Research Report.

Street

Commerci

Commo

Common

DEA

Names

al Names

Ways

Schedule

Forms

Taken

Magic

Sold

Fre

Smo

Not

mint,

legall

sh

ked,

Sche

Maria

y in

or

che

duled

Pastora,

most

dri

wed,

(but

Sally-D,

state

ed

or

label

Shepher

lea

bre

ed

desss

asSal

ve

wed

drug

Herb,

via

as

of

Diviner

divin

tea

conc

s Sage

orum

ern
by
DEA
and
illega
l in
some
state
s)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Short-lived but intense hallucinations; altered


visual perception, mood, body sensations; mood
swings, feelings of detachment from ones
body; sweating.

Long-term

Unknown.

Other Health-

Unknown.

related
Issues

In

Unknown.

Combination
with Alcohol

Withdrawal

Unknown.

Symptoms

Treatment Options

Medications

It is not known whether salvia is addictive.


There are no FDA-approved medications to treat
addiction to salvia or other dissociative drugs.

Behavioral

More research is needed to find out if salvia is

Therapies

addictive, but behavioral therapies can be used


to treat addiction to dissociative drugs.

Steroids (Anabolic)

Man-made substances used to treat conditions caused by low levels of steroid


hormones in the body and abused to enhance athletic and sexual performance and
physical appearance. For more information, see the Anabolic Steroid Abuse
Research Report.

Street

Commercial

Common

Common

DEA

Names

Names

Forms

Ways

Sched

Taken

ule

Juice

Nandrol

Table

Inject

III

one

t,

ed,

**

Gym

(Oxandr

caps

swallo

Cand

in ),

ule,

wed,

y,

oxandro

liquid

applie

Pum

lone

drop

d to

pers,

(Anadro

s,

skin

Roid

l ),

gel,

oxymet

crea

holone

m,

(Winstro

patc

l ),

h,

stanozol

injec

ol

table

(Durabo

lin ),

soluti
on

testoste
rone
cypiona
te
(Depotestoste
rone)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Headache, acne, fluid retention (especially in the


hands and feet), oily skin, yellowing of the skin
and whites of the eyes, infection at the injection
site.

Long-term

Kidney damage or failure; liver damage; high


blood pressure, enlarged heart, or changes in
cholesterol leading to increased risk of stroke or
heart attack, even in young people; aggression;
extreme mood swings; anger (roid rage);
paranoid jealousy; extreme irritability; delusions;
impaired judgment.

Other

Males: shrunken testicles, lowered sperm count,

Health-

infertility, baldness, development of breasts,

related

increased risk for prostate cancer.

Issues
Females: facial hair, male-pattern baldness,
menstrual cycle changes, enlargement of the
clitoris, deepened voice.
Adolescents: stunted growth.
Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious
diseases from shared needles.

In

Increased risk of violent behavior.

Combinatio
n with
Alcohol

Withdrawal

Mood swings; tiredness; restlessness; loss of

Symptoms

appetite; insomnia; lowered sex drive; depression,


sometimes leading to suicide attempts.

Treatment Options

Medication

Hormone therapy

Behavioral

More research is needed to find out if behavioral

Therapies

therapies can be used to treat steroid addiction.

Synthetic Cannabinoids

A wide variety of herbal mixtures containing man-made cannabinoid chemicals


related to THC in marijuana but often much stronger and more dangerous.
Sometimes misleadingly called synthetic marijuana and marketed as a natural,
"safe," legal alternative to marijuana. For more information, see
theSynthetic Cannabinoids DrugFacts.

Street

Commercia

Common

Common

DEA

Names

l Names

Forms

Ways

Sched

Taken

ule

K2,

No

Dried,

Smok

I*

Spice

comm

shred

ed,

ercial

ded

swallo

Black

uses

plant

wed

Mam

materi

(brew

ba,

al that

ed as

Bliss,

looks

tea)

Bomb

like

ay

potpo

Blue,

urri

Fake

and is

Weed

somet

, Fire,

imes

Genie

sold

as

Moon

incen

Rocks

se

,
Skun
k,
Smac
ked,
Yucat
an,
Zohai

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Increased heart rate; vomiting; agitation;


confusion; hallucinations, anxiety, paranoia;
increased blood pressure and reduced blood
supply to the heart; heart attack.

Long-term

Unknown.

Other

Use of synthetic cannabinoids has led to an

Health-

increase in emergency room visits in certain

related

areas.

Issues

In

Unknown.

Combination
with Alcohol

Withdrawal

Headaches, anxiety, depression, irritability.

Symptoms

Treatment Options

Medications

There are no FDA-approved medications to treat


K2/Spice addiction.

Behavioral

More research is needed to find out if behavioral

Therapies

therapies can be used to treat synthetic


cannabinoid addiction.

Synthetic Cathinones (Bath Salts)

An emerging family of drugs containing one or more synthetic chemicals related to


cathinone, a stimulant found naturally in the khat plant. Examples of such
chemicals include mephedrone, methylone, and 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone
(MDPV). For more information, see the Synthetic Cathinones DrugFacts.

Street

Commerc

Common

Common

DEA

Names

ial Names

Forms

Ways

Schedule

Taken

Bloo

No

White

Swall

m,

com

or

owed

Some

Clou

merc

brown

formu

ial

crysta

snort

lation

Nin

uses

lline

ed,

e,

for

powde

injec

have

Cos

inges

r sold

ted

been

mic

ted

in

bann

Blas

"bath

small

ed by

t,

salts

plastic

the

Flak

"

or foil

DEA

ka,

packa

Ivor

ges

labele

Wav

d "not

e,

for

Lun

huma

ar

Wav

consu

e,

mptio

Scar

n" and

face

somet

imes

Vani

sold

lla

as

Sky,

jewelr

Whi

te

cleane

Ligh

r;

tnin

tablet,

capsul
e,
liquid

Possible Health Effects

Short-

Increased heart rate and blood pressure; euphoria;

term

increased sociability and sex drive; paranoia,


agitation, and hallucinations; psychotic and violent
behavior; nosebleeds; sweating; nausea, vomiting;
insomnia; irritability; dizziness; depression; suicidal

thoughts; panic attacks; reduced motor control;


cloudy thinking.

Long-term

Breakdown of skeletal muscle tissue; kidney


failure; death.

Other

Risk of HIV, hepatitis, and other infectious diseases

Health-

from shared needles.

related
Issues

In

Unknown.

Combinati
on with
Alcohol

Withdraw

Depression, anxiety, problems sleeping, tremors,

al

paranoia.

Symptom
s

Treatment Options

Medicatio

There are no FDA-approved medications to treat

ns

addiction to synthetic cathinones.

Behaviora

Cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT)

Contingency management, or

Therapies

motivational incentives

Motivational Enhancement Therapy


(MET)

Behavioral treatments geared to


teens

Tobacco
Plant grown for its leaves, which are dried and fermented before use. For more
information, see the Tobacco/Nicotine Research Report.
Street
Names

Commerc
ial
Names

Common
Forms

Common
Ways
Taken

DEA
Schedule

No
ne

Multi
ple
bran
d
nam
es

Cigare
ttes,
cigars,
bidis,
hooka
hs,
smoke
less
tobacc
o
(snuff,

Smok
ed,
snort
ed,
chew
ed,
vapor
ized

Not
Sched
uled

spit
tobacc
o,
chew)

Possible Health Effects

Short-term

Increased blood pressure, breathing, and heart


rate.

Long-term

Greatly increased risk of cancer, especially lung


cancer when smoked and oral cancers when
chewed; chronic bronchitis; emphysema; heart
disease; leukemia; cataracts; pneumonia.

Other
Healthrelated
Issues

Pregnancy: miscarriage, low birth weight,


premature delivery, stillbirth, learning and
behavior problems.

In
Combinatio
n with
Alcohol

Unknown.

Withdrawal
Symptoms

Irritability, attention and sleep problems,


increased appetite.

Treatment Options

Medication
s

Bupropion (Zyban)
Varenicline (Chantix)
Nicotine replacement (gum,
patch, lozenge)

Behavioral
Therapies

Cognitive-behavioral therapy
(CBT)
Self-help materials
Mail, phone, and Internet quit
resources