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ON SHIP RESISTANCE

Ali Dorul

Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering

Yildiz Technical University

TURKIYE

OUTLINES

OBJECTIVE

INTRODUCTION

COMPUTATIONAL

RESULTS

MODEL

and DISCUSSION

OBJECTIVE

Objective

In this study,

The air lubrication method is presented and the effect of air

lubrication on resistance of a chemical tanker is investigated

numerically.

Five different Froude numbers are taken into account.

Computational solution is performed by using Standart k-

turbulence model with enhanced-wall treatment.

Design speed of the tanker is 14 knots.

Effects of the air lubrication are investigated by taking two

different air velocities, V=0.1 m/s and 0.72 m/s.

Int. Con. on Ship Drag Reduction

Length between perp., LBP

87.55 m

89.38 m

Breadth, B

14.26 m

Depth, D

6.85 m

Draught, T

5.42 m

Displacement,

Block coefficient, CB

5500 ton

0.77

Wetted Area, S

945 m2

Design speed, VS

14 knot

behind FP

% 10

INTRODUCTION

For

ships, it is desired to reduce the ship drag. The drag force is

divided into form drag and frictional drag.

means of form optimization procedures. A reduction in the

frictional drag depends on the wetted surface area of the ship

and the fluid flow around it.

area, an application to vary the viscosity or the boundary layer

around the ship has to be made. There are three general

approaches about air lubrication:

9 Injection of air bubbles (micro bubbles) along the hull

9Air films under the hull

9Air cavities in the bottom of the hull

10

friction with the less need of change in the present hull form of

the ship instead of other applications.

The application of the micro bubble method reduces the

surface friction by a variation of the viscosity of the fluid around

the ship and makes a modification in the structure of the

turbulent boundary layer.

11

Bubbles generated

by supplying air to

the vessels bottom

12

tanker to reduce the ship resistance. The analyses are made

by a CFD program FLUENT by considering ships wetted

surface area as a flat plate.

The analyses are carried out firstly without air lubrication for

a comparison with the results found by the ITTC 1957 formula

for validation.

13

14

COMPUTATIONAL MODEL

15

Computational

Ships length is equal to the length of the flat plate.

The breadth of the flat plate is 10.58 m.

Bubble diameter is chosen as 10 m.

The computational domain is decomposed into 500x100x100

structured non-uniform grid in the x-, y- and z- directions.

16

Boundary conditions

LWL

LWL

Stern

Bow

Air Inlet

17

Froude number used in analyses are 0.1, 0.2, 0.24, 0.3 and

0.4.

Air velocities are; V=0.1 m/s and 0.72 m/s.

18

interpolation scheme.

The solution is considered converged when the

continuity residual is lower than 10-6 and all the other

variables is lower than 10-5.

Solved using SIMPLE algorithm.

Approximately 400000 elements used for mesh

structure.

19

Mesh structure

20

for validation

CF *103

Fn

ITTC

CFD

(%)

0.1

1.9

1.9

2.8

0.2

1.7

1.7

3.2

0.2

1.6

1.7

3.3

0.3

1.6

1.7

3.4

0.4

1.5

1.6

3.5

21

model

k-

Pressure

0.3

Density

Body forces

Momentum

0.7

Slip velocity

0.1

Volume fraction

0.2

Turb.kin. en.(k)

0.2

Turb.kin.en. diss.rate ()

0.2

Turbulent viscosity

0.2

default

22

23

Figure 1 for bubble velocity 0.72, Figure 2 for bubble

velocity 0.1 m/s.

In the figures, red color stands for air (phase=1) and blue

shows water (phase=0).

24

(a) Fn=0.1

(b) Fn=0.2

(c) Fn=0.24

25

(d) Fn=0.3

(e) Fn=0.4

Vb=0.72 m/s

26

(a) Fn=0.1

(b) Fn=0.2

(c) Fn=0.24

27

(d) Fn=0.3

(e) Fn=0.4

Vb=0.1 m/s

28

For air velocity of 0.72 m/s, the gain obtained from the air

lubrication method for low Froude numbers reach % 57.

This gain decreases by the increase of the Froude

number and is about % 44.5 in the design speed.

For the case where the air velocity is 0.1 m/s, the gain in

the design speed about % 3 while in low Froude numbers

it can increase up to % 18.

29

Fn

RF (N)

CF *103

Gain (%)

0,1

3379,90

0,796

57,05

0,2

14596,54

0,859

49,13

0,24

22968,26

0,914

44,48

0,3

37443,85

0,980

38,90

0,4

72543,27

1,068

30,96

30

Vb=0.72 m/s

31

Fn

RF (N)

CF *103

Gain (%)

0,1

6440,08

1,517

18,16

0,2

27085,74

1,595

5,61

0,24

40072,61

1,595

3,14

0,3

60811,65

1,591

0,77

0,4

106992,79

1,575

-1,83

32

Vb=0.1 m/s

33

As a conclusion;

In this paper, effect of air lubrication on ship resistance

in a 3-D domain is investigated numerically.

According to the analyses, reduction of drag increases

for low Froude number and high air flow velocity. But the

increase of the air flow velocity may have a negative

effect on the propulsive performance of the ship.

In the next studies, it is considered to investigate the

influence of the air flow velocity and location for the 3-D

ship geometry with propeller.

34

35

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