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A NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION

OF AIR LUBRICATION EFFECT


ON SHIP RESISTANCE
Ali Dorul
Department of Naval Architecture and Marine Engineering
Yildiz Technical University

TURKIYE

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OUTLINES
OBJECTIVE

INTRODUCTION
COMPUTATIONAL

RESULTS

MODEL

and DISCUSSION

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OBJECTIVE

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Objective
In this study,
The air lubrication method is presented and the effect of air
lubrication on resistance of a chemical tanker is investigated
numerically.
Five different Froude numbers are taken into account.
Computational solution is performed by using Standart k-
turbulence model with enhanced-wall treatment.
Design speed of the tanker is 14 knots.
Effects of the air lubrication are investigated by taking two
different air velocities, V=0.1 m/s and 0.72 m/s.
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Main particulars of the chemical tanker


Length between perp., LBP

87.55 m

Waterline length, LWL

89.38 m

Breadth, B

14.26 m

Depth, D

6.85 m

Draught, T

5.42 m

Displacement,
Block coefficient, CB

5500 ton
0.77

Wetted Area, S

945 m2

Design speed, VS

14 knot

Air inlet position, % LWL


behind FP

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% 10

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INTRODUCTION

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For

reduced fuel consumption and for low CO2 emissions on


ships, it is desired to reduce the ship drag. The drag force is
divided into form drag and frictional drag.

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There are many possibilities to reduce the form drag by


means of form optimization procedures. A reduction in the
frictional drag depends on the wetted surface area of the ship
and the fluid flow around it.

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Because of the difficulty of changing the wetted surface


area, an application to vary the viscosity or the boundary layer
around the ship has to be made. There are three general
approaches about air lubrication:
9 Injection of air bubbles (micro bubbles) along the hull
9Air films under the hull
9Air cavities in the bottom of the hull

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The micro bubble method gives the possibility to reduce the


friction with the less need of change in the present hull form of
the ship instead of other applications.
The application of the micro bubble method reduces the
surface friction by a variation of the viscosity of the fluid around
the ship and makes a modification in the structure of the
turbulent boundary layer.

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Bubbles generated
by supplying air to
the vessels bottom

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In this work, micro bubble method is applied on a chemical


tanker to reduce the ship resistance. The analyses are made
by a CFD program FLUENT by considering ships wetted
surface area as a flat plate.
The analyses are carried out firstly without air lubrication for
a comparison with the results found by the ITTC 1957 formula
for validation.

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ITTC 1957 formula

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COMPUTATIONAL MODEL

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Computational

domain used in this paper is taken as threedimensional (3-D).


Ships length is equal to the length of the flat plate.
The breadth of the flat plate is 10.58 m.
Bubble diameter is chosen as 10 m.
The computational domain is decomposed into 500x100x100
structured non-uniform grid in the x-, y- and z- directions.

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Boundary conditions
LWL

LWL

Stern

Bow
Air Inlet

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Froude number used in analyses are 0.1, 0.2, 0.24, 0.3 and
0.4.
Air velocities are; V=0.1 m/s and 0.72 m/s.

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Governing equations and assumptions:

Standart k- turbulence model with near-wall treatment.

Equations discretized using first order upwind


interpolation scheme.
The solution is considered converged when the
continuity residual is lower than 10-6 and all the other
variables is lower than 10-5.
Solved using SIMPLE algorithm.
Approximately 400000 elements used for mesh
structure.

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Mesh structure

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CF values gathered from ITTC and CFD


for validation
CF *103
Fn

ITTC

CFD

(%)

0.1

1.9

1.9

2.8

0.2

1.7

1.7

3.2

0.2

1.6

1.7

3.3

0.3

1.6

1.7

3.4

0.4

1.5

1.6

3.5

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Relaxation factors used for turbulence


model
k-
Pressure

0.3

Density

Body forces

Momentum

0.7

Slip velocity

0.1

Volume fraction

0.2

Turb.kin. en.(k)

0.2

Turb.kin.en. diss.rate ()

0.2

Turbulent viscosity

0.2

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default

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RESULTS and DISCUSSION

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Effects of the air lubrication on the flat plate is showed in


Figure 1 for bubble velocity 0.72, Figure 2 for bubble
velocity 0.1 m/s.

In the figures, red color stands for air (phase=1) and blue
shows water (phase=0).

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(a) Fn=0.1

(b) Fn=0.2

(c) Fn=0.24

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(d) Fn=0.3

(e) Fn=0.4

Vb=0.72 m/s

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(a) Fn=0.1

(b) Fn=0.2

(c) Fn=0.24

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(d) Fn=0.3

(e) Fn=0.4

Vb=0.1 m/s

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For air velocity of 0.72 m/s, the gain obtained from the air
lubrication method for low Froude numbers reach % 57.
This gain decreases by the increase of the Froude
number and is about % 44.5 in the design speed.
For the case where the air velocity is 0.1 m/s, the gain in
the design speed about % 3 while in low Froude numbers
it can increase up to % 18.

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Fn

RF (N)

CF *103

Gain (%)

0,1

3379,90

0,796

57,05

0,2

14596,54

0,859

49,13

0,24

22968,26

0,914

44,48

0,3

37443,85

0,980

38,90

0,4

72543,27

1,068

30,96

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Vb=0.72 m/s

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Fn

RF (N)

CF *103

Gain (%)

0,1

6440,08

1,517

18,16

0,2

27085,74

1,595

5,61

0,24

40072,61

1,595

3,14

0,3

60811,65

1,591

0,77

0,4

106992,79

1,575

-1,83

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Vb=0.1 m/s

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As a conclusion;
In this paper, effect of air lubrication on ship resistance
in a 3-D domain is investigated numerically.
According to the analyses, reduction of drag increases
for low Froude number and high air flow velocity. But the
increase of the air flow velocity may have a negative
effect on the propulsive performance of the ship.
In the next studies, it is considered to investigate the
influence of the air flow velocity and location for the 3-D
ship geometry with propeller.

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