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NATIONAL CODES & STANDARDS OF RUSSIA

Loads and
Effects
SNIP 2.01.07-85

1988

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

PUBLICATION IS OFFICIAL
GOSSTROY of the USSR Moscow 1988
UDK 69+624.042.4] (083.74)
SNIP 2.01.07-85.Loads and Effects by the vozdeystviya/Gosstroy USSR - M.:TSITP OF THE
GOSSTROY of the USSR, 1988.- 36 pages.
ARE DEVELOPED TSNIISK im. Kucherenko of GOSSTROY of the USSR (Cand. of tech. sciences A
A. Bat' - leader of theme;I. A. Belyshev, Cand. of the tech. sciences V. A. Otstavnoye, doctor of tech.
sciences, Prof. V. D. Reyzer, A. I. Tseytlin), THE MISY im. v. v. Kuybyshev Minvuz - Ministry of
Higher Education THE USSR (Cand. of tech. sciences/7.V. Klepikov }
ARE INTRODUCED TSNIISK im. Kucherenko of GOSSTROY of the USSR
THEY ARE PREPARED to THE ASSERTION By glavtekhnormirovaniyem of GOSSTROY of the
USSR (Cand. of tech. sciences F. V. Bobrov).
With the introduction into the action SNIP 2.01.07-85 Loads and Effects "from 1 January, 1987, lose the
force:
p. 1 of decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR Ob the assertion of chapter SNIP II -6-74 Loads and Effects
"of 8 February, 1974.16;
the decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR,,0 addition and a change in the chapter SNIP II -6-74 Loads
and Effects "of 25 December, 1980.206;
the indentation of 2 applications/appendices to the decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR O the addition
of chapters SNIP of 16 January, 1981.4;
the decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR O addition and a change in the chapter SNIP II -6-74 Loads and
Effects "of 14 September, 1981.164;
the decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR O addition and a change in the chapter SNIP II -6-74 Loads and
Effects "of 31 December, 1982.343
On s. 34 are given Pravila calculation of the degree of the responsibility of buildings and construction
during the design/projection of constructions/designs "(applications/appendices to the decisions of
GOSSTROY of the USSR of 19 March, 1981.41 and of 29 July, 1982.196).
With the use of principal document should be considered the affirmed changes in the construction
standards and rules and state standards, published in periodical Bhlleten6 of construction technology ",
Sbornike changes to the construction standards and the rules "GOSSTROY of the USSR and the
information indicator Gosudarstvennye the standards of the USSR" state standard
To attention of the readers!
Required appendix 5 Karty division into districts of the territory of the USSR for climatic characteristics
", which consists of the set of maps/charts/cards on 8 sheets, is published in the form of insert/bushing to
SNIP 2.01.07-85 (enumeration of maps/charts/cards it is given in the insert/bushing).
TSITP OF THE GOSSTROY of the USSR, 1986
GOSSTROY of the Construction standards and the rule
SNIP 2.01.07-85
USSR
Loads and Effects
Instead of chapter SNIP P -6-74
Present standards apply to the design/projection of structures and bases of buildings and construction and
are established/installed basic condition/positions and rules regarding and to the calculation of permanent
and temporary loads and actions, and also their combinations
Loads and action on the structures and the bases of buildings and construction, which differ from
traditional, it is allowed to determine on the special technical specifications .
Notes:1. further on the text, where this is possible, term vozde1stvie "is omitted and substituted with term
nagruzka", and word zdani4 and construction "is substituted with word soorujeni4".
2. During the reconstruction computed values of loads should be determined on the basis of the results of
the inspection/examination of the existing constructions/designs, in this case atmospheric loads it is
allowed to assume/take taking into account data of Goskomgidromet - State Committee of the Council
of Ministers of the USSR on Hydrometeorology.

CONTENT
Page
1.

General considerations
Classification of loads
Combinations of loads

1
1
2

2.

Weight of structures and soils

3.

Loads from the equipment, the people, the animal, stored materials and the articles.
Determination of loads from the equipment, the stored materials and the articles
Evenly distributed loads
Concentrated loads and load on the rails

3
3
4
6

4.

Loads from the bridge and suspension cranes

5.

Loads due to snow

6.

Wind loads

7.

Glare ice loads

12

8.

Temperature climatic actions

14

9.

Other loads

15

APPENDICES
Appendix 1.

Reference. Bridge and suspension cranes/valves of the different groups of


the modes of operation (exemplary/approximate enumeration)

16

Appendix 2.

Reference. Load from the impact/shock of crane/valve against blind rest

16

Appendix 3.

Reference. Diagrams of loads due to snow and coefficients

17

Appendix 4.

Reference. Diagrams of wind loads and the aerodynamic coefficients

23

Appendix 5.

Reference. Maps of the division into districts of the territory of the USSR
for climatic characteristics

34

Rules of the calculation of the degree of the responsibility of buildings and construction during
the design/projection of constructions/designs (application/appendix to the decisions of
GOSSTROY of the USSR of 19 March, 1981..41 and of 29 July, 1982.196)

35

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

1.

Page 1

GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS

1.1. During the design/projection should be considered the loads, which appear during erection and operation of construction,
and also with the production, the storage and the transportation of the structures

1.2. Their principal values are fundamental load lines, established within the present standards.

1.3.

The load of the specific form is characterized, as a rule, by one principal value.For the loads from the people, animals,
equipment on the overlaps of habitable, public and agricultural buildings, from the bridge and suspension cranes, snow,
from the temperature climatic actions are established/installed two principal values:complete and lowered/reduced (it is
introduced into the calculation if necessary for the calculation of the influence of the duration of loads, checking to the
endurance and in other cases, stipulated within the standards of the design/projection of constructions/designs and bases).
Computed value of load should be defined as the work of its principal value for the coefficient of reliability on load f,
which corresponds to the limiting condition in question and taken:
) during the calculation for the strength and the stability.in accordance with pp.2.2, 3.4, 3.7, 3.11, 4.8, 5.7, 6.11, 7.3 and
8.7;
b) during the calculation for the endurance.equal to one;
c) in the calculations according to the deformations/strains.equal to one, if within the standards of the design/projection of
constructions/designs and bases other values are not established/installed;
d) during the calculation according to other forms of limiting conditions.according to the standards of the
design/projection of constructions/designs and bases
Computed values of loads in the presence of statistical data it is allowed to determine directly on the given probability of
their exceeding
During the calculation of structure and bases for the conditions of the erection of buildings and construction computed
values of snow, wind, glare ice loads and temperature climatic actions should be reduced by 20 %.
If necessary for calculation for the strength and the stability under the conditions of fire, under the explosive influences, the
collision/encounter of transportation means with the parts of construction the coefficients of reliability with respect to the
load for all considered in this case loads should be taken as the equal to one
Note.For the loads with two principal values appropriate computed values should be determined with the identical
coefficient of reliability on the load (for the considered limiting condition).

CLASSIFICATION OF THE LOADS


1.4. Depending on period of loading should be distinguished the permanent and temporary (prolonged, short-term, special)
loads

1.5. The loads, which appear during the production, storage and the transportation of constructions/designs, and also with the
1.6.

erection of construction, should be considered in the calculations as the intermittent loads


The loads, which appear at the stage of the operation of construction, should be considered in accordance with pp, 1.6-1.9.
One should carry to the dead loads:
) the weight of the parts of the construction, including weight of the carrying and enclosing structures;
b) weight and the pressure of soils (mounds, fillings in), the rock pressure
Being preservable in construction/design or base of force from the preliminary stress it follows
They are introduced TSNIISK im.
Kucherenko of GOSSTROY of the
USSR

1.7.

They are affirmed by the decision


Period the introduction in the action
GOSSTROY of the USSR of 29 August,
on 1 January 1987.
1985, N 135

to consider in the calculations as forces from the dead loads


One should carry to the constant loads:
) the weight of temporary partitions, dressings and footings for the equipment
b) the weight of the stationary equipment: machine tools, apparatuses, motors, capacities/capacitances, conduits/manifolds
with the steel framework, the supporting/reference parts and the isolation, belt conveyors, conveyors, constant hoisting
machines with their ropes and guides, and also the weight of liquids and solid bodies, which fill equipment;
c) the pressure of gases, liquids and loose materials in the tanks and the conduits/manifolds, excess pressure and the
rarefaction/evacuation of air, that appear during the ventilation of mines/shafts;
d) of load on the overlaps from the stored materials and the drying equipment in the warehouse compartments/rooms, the
refrigerators, the granaries, the libraries, the archives and similar compartments/rooms;
e) temperature technological actions from the stationary equipment;
f) the weight of the layer of water on the water-filled flat/plane coatings;
g) the weight of the deposits of production dust, if its accumulation is not excluded by the appropriate measures;
h) of load from the people, animals, equipment on the overlaps of habitable, public and agricultural buildings with the
lowered/reduced principal values, given in table 3;
i) vertical loads from the bridge and suspension cranes with the lowered/reduced principal value, determined by the
multiplication of the total principal value of vertical load from one crane (see Section 4.2) in each span of building to
the coefficient:0,5.for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of cranes YAK.'K;0,6.for the group of the
regime/conditions of the work of the cranes of "K;0,7.for the group of regime/conditions the work of the cranes of 8K.
of the group of the regimes/conditions of the work of cranes start according to GOST 25546-82;

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SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

j) loads due to snow with the lowered/reduced principal value, determined by the multiplication of total principal value in
accordance with the indications p. 5.1 for the coefficient:0,3 - for III of snow region;0,5.for IV of region;0,6.for V and
VI of regions;
l) temperature climatic actions with the lowered/reduced principal values, determined in accordance with the indications
pp.8.2.8.6 under condition 1 = 2 = 3 =.4 =.5 = 0, I = VII = 0;
m) the actions, caused by the deformations/strains of base, not accompanying by a radical change in the structure of soil, or
by the thawing of permafrost soils;
n) the actions, caused by a change in the humidity, by shrinkage and by the creep of the material
1.8. One should carry to the intermittent loads:
a) load from the equipment, which appear in the start-stop, transient and test conditions, and also during its transposition or
replacement;
b) the weight of people, repair materials in the zones of maintenance and repairing the equipment;
c) load from the people, the animals, the equipment on the overlaps of habitable, public and agricultural buildings with the
total principal values, besides the loads, indicated in p. 1.7a, b, g, d;
d) load from the mobile lifting equipment (lift loaders, electric cars, stacker-packers, telphers, and also from the bridge and
suspension cranes with the total principal value);
e) loads due to snow with the total principal value;
f) temperature climatic actions with the total principal value;
g) wind loads;
h) the glare ice loads
1.9. One should carry to the special loads:
a) seismic actions;
b) explosive actions;
c) the loads, caused by the sudden breakdowns of technological process, by temporary malfunction or by a breakdown in
the equipment;
d) the effects, caused by the deformations of base, which are accompanied by radical change in the structure of soil (with
the moistening of settled earth) or by its settling in the regions of mine workings and in the the karstic

COMBINATIONS OF THE LOADS


1.10. Structural calculation and bases according to the limiting conditions of the first and second groups should be carried out
taking into account the most unfavorable combinations of loads or corresponding to them efforts/forces.
These combinations are established from the analysis of the real versions of joint action of different loads for the stage of
the work of construction/design or base taking into account the possibility of the appearance of different diagrams of the
application of temporary loads in question or in the absence of some of the loads
1.11. Depending on the composition of loads considered one should distinguish
a) the basic combinations of loads, which consist of the constants, prolonged and short-term;
b) the special combinations of loads, which consist of the constants, prolonged, short-term and one of the special loads
Temporary loads with two principal values should be included in combinations as prolonged.upon consideration of the
reduced principal value as short-term - upon consideration of the total principal value
In the special combinations of the loads, which include explosive actions or loads, caused by the collision/encounter of
transportation means with the parts of construction, it is allowed not to consider the intermittent load, indicated in p. 1.8.
1.12. Upon consideration of the combinations, which include constants and not less than two temporary loads, computed values
of temporary loads or corresponding to them forces it follows to multiply by the coefficients of combinations, equal :
in the basic combinations for constant loads 1 = 0,95;for the the short-term 2 = 0,9;
in the special combinations for constant loads 1 = 0,95;for the the short-term 2 = 0,8, besides the cases, stipulated within
the standards of the design of construction for the seismic regions and within other standards of the design of constructions
and bases. In this case special load should be taken without the decrease
Upon consideration of the basic combinations, which include constant loads and one temporary load (prolonged or shortterm), coefficients 1, 2 introduced should not be.
Note. In the basic combinations upon consideration of three or more intermittent loads of their computed values it is allowed to
multiply by the coefficient of combination 2, taken for the first (according to the degree of influence) intermittent load.1,0,
for the second.0,8, for the rest.0,6.
1.13. One should assume/take upon consideration of the combinations of loads in accordance with the indications p. 1.12 for one
temporary load :
a) the load of the specific kind from one source (pressure or rarefaction/evacuation into the capacity/capacitance, the snow,
wind, glare ice loads, the temperature climatic actions, the load from one lift loader, electric car, bridge or suspension
crane);
b) load from several sources, if their combined action is taken into account in principal and computed values of load (load
from the equipment, the people and the stored materials to one or several overlaps taking into account coefficients A
and n, led in pp.3.8 and 3.9;load from several bridge or suspension cranes taking into account the coefficient, led in p.
4.17;glare ice- the wind load, determined in accordance with p. 7.4).

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SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

2.

WEIGHT OF STRUCTURES and SOILS

2.1. The principal value of the weight of the structures of in-house production should be determined on the basis of standards,

2.2.
3.

working drawings or specifications of manufacturing plants, other structures and soils.according to the design dimensions
and by the specific weight of materials and soils taking into account their humidity under the conditions for erection and
operating the construction
The coefficients of reliability on load factor for the weight of structures and soils are given to table 1.

LOADS FROM THE EQUIPMENT, THE PEOPLE, THE ANIMAL, STORED


MATERIALS And THE ARTICLES

3.1. The standards of present division apply for loads from the people, animals, equipment, articles, materials, temporary
partitions, that act on the overlaps of buildings and hem on the soils
Table 1
Type of Structures and the form of the soils

Coefficient of reliability
on load factor

Constructions/designs:
metallic
1,05
concrete (with the average density of more than 1600 kg/me), ferroconcrete, rock, reinforced 1,1
stone, wooden
the concrete (with an average density of 1600 kg/me and less), insulating, leveling and
decoration layers (plates/slabs, materials in the cylinders/reels, filling in, tightening
device, etc.), carried out :
under the plant conditions
1,2
on the construction site
1,3
Soils
:in the natural bedding
1,1
filled
1,15
Notes:1. during checking of constructions/designs to the resistance of position to the tilting/reversal, and also in
other cases, when the reduction of the weight of constructions/designs and soils can worsen/impair the
conditions for work of constructions/designs, should be produced calculation, assuming/taking for the
weight of structure or its part the coefficient of reliability on load f = 0,9.
2. ,
, .
3. for the metal constructions, in which the efforts/forces from the dead weight exceed 50 % general/common
efforts/forces, should be assumed/taken f = 1,1.
The versions of the load of the overlaps by these loads should be assumed/taken in accordance with the provided conditions
for erection and operating the buildings.If the data about these conditions are insufficient at the stage of design/projection,
during Structural calculationand bases it is necessary to examine the following versions of the load of the separate overlaps:
continuous load by assumed load;
unfavorable partial load during Structural calculationand bases, sensitive to this diagram of load;
the absence of the temporary load
In this case summary temporary load on the overlaps of multistory building with their unfavorable partial load must not
exceed the load with the continuous load of overlaps, determined taking into account the coefficients of combinations n,
whose values are calculated from formulas (3) and (4).

DETERMINATION OF LOADS FROM THE EQUIPMENT,


THE STORED MATERIALS and THE ARTICLES
3.2. Loads from the equipment (including of conduits/manifolds, transportation means), the stored materials and the articles are
established/installed in the construction task on the basis the technological solutions, in which they must be given:
a) are possible on each overlap and floors on the soil of location and the overall sizes of the supports of equipment, the
sizes/dimensions of the sections of storing and storage of materials and articles, place of the possible rapprochement of
equipment in the process of operation or re-planning;
b) the principal values of loads and the coefficients of reliability on the load, taken in accordance with the indications of
present standards, for the machines with the dynamic loads.the principal values of inertial forces and the coefficients of
reliability on the load for the inertial forces, and also other necessary characteristics.
During the replacement of actual loads on the overlaps by the equivalent evenly distributed loads the latter should be
calculated and assigned differentiated for different structural elements (plates/slabs, joists, cross bars, columns,
foundations).The values of equivalent loads adopted must ensure the bearing capacity and the hardness of the elements of
constructions/designs, their required on conditions loads with actual loads.The total principal values of the equivalent
evenly distributed loads for the production and warehouse compartments/rooms should be taken for the plates/slabs and
joists not less than 3,0 kPa (300 kgs/m2), for the cross bars, columns and foundations.not less than 2,0 to Pa (200 kgs/m2).
The calculation of a promising increase in the loads from the equipment and the stored materials is allowed with the

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3.3.

3.4.

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS


technical and economic substantiation
The principal value of the weight of equipment, including of conduits/manifolds, should be determined on the basis of
standards or catalogs, and for the optional equipment.on the basis of specifications of manufacturing plants or working
drawings
In the composition of load from the weight of equipment should be included the dead weight of installation or machine
(including of drive, constant adaptations, supporting devices, dressings and footings), the weight of isolation, fillers of
equipment, possible with the operation, heaviest workpiece, the weight of the transported cargo, which corresponds to
nominal load capacity and, etc.
Loads from the equipment on the overlaps and the hem on the soils must be assumed/taken depending on the conditions for
its arrangement/position and virtual displacement during the operation.In this case should be provided for the measures,
which prevent the need of amplifying the frameworks, the connected/bonded with the displacement/movement
technological equipment during installation or operation of the building
The number simultaneously of the lift loaders considered or electric cars and their arrangement/position on the overlap
during the calculation of different elements should be assumed/taken on the construction task on the basis of the
technological solutions
The dynamic effect of vertical loads from the lift loaders and the electric cars is allowed to consider by the multiplication of
the principal values of static loads on the dynamicity coefficient, equal to 1,2
The coefficients of reliability on load f u for the weight of equipment are given in table 2.
Table 2
Coefficient of reliability on load
Weight
factor
1,05
Stationary equipment
1,2
Isolations of stationary equipment
1,0
Fillers of equipment (including of reservoirs and conduits/manifolds):
1,1
liquids
1,2
suspensions, slimes, loose materials
Lift loaders and electric cars (with the load)

EVENLY DISTRIBUTED LOADS


3.5. The principal values of the evenly distributed temporary loads on the plates/slabs of overlaps, stairs and hem on the soils
are given in table 3

3.6. The principal values of loads on cross bars and plates/slabs of overlaps from the weight of temporary partitions should be

3.7.

3.8.

taken depending on their construction/design, arrangements also of the nature of support to the overlaps and the walls.The
loads indicated it is allowed to consider as the evenly distributed extra loads, taking their principal values on the basis of
calculation for the assumed schematics of the arrangement/position of partitions, but not less than 0,5 kPa (50 kgs/m2).
The coefficients of reliability on load f for the evenly distributed loads should be assumed/taken:
1,3 with the total principal value less than 2,0 kPa (200 kgs/m2);
1,2 with the total principal value of 2,0 kPa (200 kgs/m2) and more
The coefficient of reliability on the load from the weight of temporary partitions should be assumed/taken in accordance
with the indications p. 2.2.
During the calculation of beams/gullies, cross bars, plates/slabs, and also columns and foundations, which receive loads
from one overlap, total principal value of loads, indicated in table 3, one should descend depending on cargo area A, m2,
the designed element by multiplication for the coefficient of combination A, equal:
a) for the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.1, 2, 12a (with A > Ay = 9 m2),
Error!Error!;
b) for the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.4, 11, 12b ( >2=
Table 3

(1)
362),

Principal values of loads r, kPa


(kgs/m2 )
complete
lowered/reduced
1. Apartments of habitable buildings;sleeping quarters of children's pre-school 1,5 (150)
0,3 (30)
establishments and boarding schools;living quarters of the houses of leisure
and boarding houses, the hostel also of hotels;the chamber of hospitals and
sanatoriums;the terrace
2. Official compartments/rooms of administrative, technical-engineering, scientific 2,0 (200)
0,7 (70)
personnel
of
organizations
and
establishments;the
class
compartments/rooms of the establishments of education;the everyday
compartments/rooms (wardrobe, showers, wash, restrooms) of industrial
enterprises and public buildings and construction
Buildings and the compartment/room

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SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS


3. Offices and the laboratory of the establishments of public health;the laboratory
of the establishments of education, science;the compartment/room of
electronic computers;the kitchen of public buildings;technical floors;the
basement compartments/rooms
4. Halls
.a) are reading
b) dinner (in the cafe, the restaurants, dining rooms )
c) of meetings and conferences, the expectations, visual and concert, sport
d) commercial, exhibition and exposure
5. Libraries;the archives
6. Scenes of the entertainment enterprises

Not less
2,0 (200)

Not less
1,0 (100)

2,0 (200)
3,0 (300)
4,0 (400)
Not less
4,0 (400)
Not less
5,0 (500)
Not less
5,0 (500)

0,7 (70)
1,0 (100)
1,4 (140)
Not less
1,4 (140)
Not less
5,0 (500)
Not less
1,8 (180)

4,0 (400)
5,0 (500)
0,7 (70)

1.4 (140)
1,8 (180)

4,0 (400)

1,4 (140)

7. Platforms:
a) with the fixed seats
b) for the spectators confronting
8. Garret compartments/rooms
9. Coatings in the sections :
a) with the possible accumulation of people (outgoing from the production
compartments/rooms, halls, audiences/auditoriums and the like.)

b) of those utilized for leisure


1,5 (150)
c) of other
0,5 (50)
10. balconies (lodzhii) taking into account the load:
a) by band uniform in the section with a width of 0,8 m along the 4,0 (400)
enclosure/protection of balcony (lodzhii)

0,5 (50)
-

b) by continuous uniform over the area of balcony (lodzhii), action by which is 2,0 (200)
more unfavorable than determined from pos. 10a
11. Sections of maintenance/servicing and repairing the equipment in the Not less
production compartments/rooms
1,5 (150)

0,7 (70)

1,4 (140)

12. Vestibyuli, foyer, corridors, stairs (with the relating to them passages), which
adjoin the compartments/rooms, indicated in the positions :
) 1, 2 and 3
b) 4, 5, 6 and 11
c) 7
13. Platforms of the stations
14. Compartments/rooms for the cattle:
small
large
Notes:1.
2.
3.

4.

3,0 (300)
4,0 (400)
5,0 (500)
4,0 (400)

1,0 (100)
1,4 (140)
1,8 (180)
1,4 (140)

Not less
Not less
2,0 (200)
0,7 (70)
Not less
Not less
5,0 (500)
1,8 (180)
Loads, indicated in poses.8, one should consider over the area, not occupied with equipment and materials
Loads, indicated in poses.9, one should consider without load due to snow .
Loads, indicated in poses.10, one should consider during the calculation of the frameworks of balconies
(lodzhiy) and sections of walls in the places of jamming these constructions/designs.During the calculation of
the underlying sections of walls, foundations and bases of load on the balconies (lodzhii) should be taken as
the equal to the loads of those adjoining basic compartment/room building and decreased they taking into
account indications pp.3.8 and 3.9.
Principal values of loads for the buildings and the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.3, 4g, 5, 6, 11 and
14, one should assume/take on the construction task on the basis of the technological solutions .

Error!Error!.
(2)
Note. During the calculation of the walls, which receive loads from one overlap, the values of loads should be reduced depending
on the cargo area A of the calculated elements (plates/slabs, beams/gullies), which rest on the walls .
3.9. During the determination of longitudinal forces for calculating of columns, walls and foundations, which receive loads from
two overlaps and more, the total principal values of loads, indicated in table 3, should be reduced by multiplication by the
coefficient of combination n:
a) for the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.1, 2, 12a,

n1 = 0,4 +

1 0
;
4; n

(3)

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SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS


b) for the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.4, 11, 12b,

n2 = 0,5 +

2 0
,
5; n

(4)

where A1, A2.they are determined in accordance with p. 3.8;


the total number of overlaps (for the compartments/rooms, indicated in table 3, poses.1, 2, 4, 11, 12a, b), loads from which
are considered during the calculation of the section in question column, wall, the foundation
Note. With the determination of the bending moments in the columns and the walls should be considered a reduction in the loads
for the adjacent them beams/gullies and the cross bars in accordance with the indications p. 3.8.

CONCENTRATED LOADS And LOADS ON THE RAILS


3.10. The carriers of overlaps, coatings, stairs and balconies (lodzhiy) must be checked for the concentrated vertical load, applied

3.11.

to the element, in the unfavorable position on square area with the sides not more than 10 cm (in the absence of other
temporary loads).If in the construction task on the basis of the technological solutions the higher principal values of
concentrated loads are not provided, them should be taken as the equal:
) for the overlaps and the stairs.1,5 kN (150 kg);
b) for the garret overlaps, the coatings, the terraces and the balconies.1,0 kN (100 kg);
c) for the coatings, on which it is possible to be moved only with the aid of the ladders and the bridges.0,5 kN (50 kg).
the elements, designed for possible with the erection and operations local loads from equipment and transportation means,
it is allowed not to check against concentrated load indicated.
The principal values of horizontal loads on the handrails of the rails of stairs and balconies should be taken as the equal:
a) for the habitable buildings, the pre-school establishments, the houses of leisure, sanatoriums, hospitals and other
therapeutic establishments.0,3 kN/m (30 kG/m);
b) for the platforms and the sport halls.1,5 kN/m (150 kG/m);
c) for other buildings and compartments/rooms in the absence of the special requirements 0,8 kN/m (80 kG/m);
For the operating areas/sites, the bridges, the enclosures/protections of roofs, intended for a short stay of people, the
principal value of horizontal concentrated load on the handrails of rails should be assumed/taken 0,3 kN (30 kg) (in any
place along the length of handrail), if the larger value of the load is not required on the construction task on the basis of the
technological solutions
For the loads, indicated in pp.3.10 and 3.11, should be assumed/taken the coefficient of reliability on load f = 1,2

4. LOADS FROM THE BRIDGE And SUSPENSION CRANES


4.1. Loads from the bridge and suspension cranes should be determined depending on the groups of the modes of their
operation, established BY GOST 25546.82, from the type of drive and from the method of the suspension of load.The
exemplary/approximate enumeration of the bridge and suspension cranes of the different groups of the operating modes is
given in reference application/appendix 1.
4.2. The total principal values of the vertical loads, transferred by the wheels of cranes to the beams/gullies of crane way, and
others necessary for the calculation data should be assumed/taken in accordance with the requirements of state standards
for the cranes, and for the nonstandard cranes.in accordance with the data, indicated in the passports of the manufacturing
plants .
Note. By crane way are understood both beams/gullies, which carry one bridge crane, and all beams/gullies, which carry one
suspension crane (two beams/gullies.with the single-span, three.with the double-transit suspension crane and the like.)
4.3. The principal value of the horizontal load, directed along the crane way and the called party by braking the bridge of
electrical crane, should be assumed equal 0,1 total principal value of vertical load on the brake wheels of the side of the
crane in question
4.4. The principal value of the horizontal load, directed across the crane way and the electrical cart caused by braking, should be
assumed equal:
for the cranes with the flexible suspension of load.0,05 sums of the lift of crane and weight of cart;
for the cranes with the rigid/hard suspension of load.0,1 sum of the lift of crane and weight of the cart
this load should be considered during the calculation of the transverse frames of buildings and beams/gullies of crane
ways.In this case it starts that the load is transferred to one side (beam/gully) of crane way, is distributed equally between
all resting on it wheels of crane and can be directed both inward and the outside considered/examined span
4.5. The principal value of the horizontal load, directed across the crane way and the called party by the misalignments of
travelling electric cranes and by the nonparallelism of crane ways (lateral force), for each running wheel of crane should be
assumed equal 0,1 total principal value of vertical load on the wheel
this load must be considered only during the calculation of strength and stability of the beams/gullies of crane methods and
their fastenings to the columns in the buildings with the cranes of the groups of the modes of operation of "K, 8K.In this
case it starts that the load is transferred to the beam/gully of crane way from all wheels of one side of crane and can be
directed both inward and the outside considered/examined span of building.The load, indicated in p. 4.4, should not be
considered together with the lateral force
4.6. Horizontal loads from braking of bridge and crane truck and lateral forces are considered applied in the place of the contact
of running wheels of crane with the rail

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

Page 7

4.7. The principal value of the horizontal load, directed along the crane way and the called party by the impact/shock of crane
against blind rest, should be determined in accordance with the indications, given in required application/appendix 2.this
load must be considered only during the calculation of rests and their fastenings to the beams/gullies of the crane way.
4.8. The coefficient of reliability on the load for the crane loads should be assumed/taken f = 1,1.
Note. Upon consideration of the local and dynamic action of the concentrated vertical load from one wheel of crane the total
principal value of this load should be multiplied during the calculation of the strength of the beams/gullies of crane ways by
the additional coefficient of f1, equal:
1,6 for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the cranes of 8K with the rigid/hard suspension of load;
1,4 for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the cranes of 8K with the flexible suspension of load;
1,3 for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the cranes of 7K;
1,1 for the remaining groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of cranes.During testing of the local stability of the
walls of beams/gullies should be assumed equal the value of additional coefficient to 1,1.
4.9. During the calculation of strength and stability of the beams/gullies of crane method and their fastenings to the frameworks
computed values of vertical crane loads should be multiplied by the dynamicity coefficient, equal:
with the step/pitch of columns not more than 12 m:
1,2 for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the bridge cranes of 8K;
1,1 for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of the bridge cranes of 'K and "K, and also for all groups of the
regimes/conditions of the work of suspension cranes;
with the step/pitch of columns it is more than 12 m.1,1 for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the bridge
cranes of 8K.
Computed values of horizontal loads from the bridge cranes of the group of the mode of operation of 8K should be
considered with the dynamicity coefficient, equal to 1,1.
In the remaining cases the dynamicity coefficient is taken as equal, 1,0.
During Structural calculationto the endurance, testing of the saggings/deflections of the beams/gullies of crane methods and
displacement of columns, and also upon consideration of the local action of the concentrated vertical load from one wheel
of crane the dynamicity coefficient considered should not be.
4.10. Vertical loads during the calculation of strength and stability of the beams/gullies of crane ways should be considered not
more than from two most unfavorable according to action bridge or suspension cranes. .
4.11. Vertical loads during the calculation of strength and stability of frames, columns, foundations, and also bases in the
buildings with the bridge cranes in several spans (in each span on one tier) should be assumed/taken on each way not more
than from two most unfavorable according to action cranes, but upon consideration of combination in one range of the
cranes of different spans.not more than from four most unfavorable according to action cranes.
4.12. Vertical loads during the calculation of strength and stability of frames, columns, rafter and frame-supporting
constructions/designs, foundations, and also bases of buildings with the suspension cranes on one or several ways should be
assumed/taken on each way not more than from two most unfavorable according to action cranes.Upon consideration of
combination in one range of the suspension cranes, which work on the different ways, vertical loads should be
assumed/taken:
not more than from two cranes.for the columns, the frame-supporting constructions/designs, the foundations and the bases
of an extreme number with two crane ways in the span;
not more than from four cranes:
for the columns, the frame-supporting constructions/designs, the foundations and the bases of an average/mean number;
for the columns, the frame-supporting constructions/designs, the foundations and the bases of an extreme number with
three crane ways in the span;
for the rafter constructions/designs with two or three crane ways in the span
4.13. Horizontal loads during the calculation of strength and stability of the beams/gullies of crane ways, columns, frames, rafter
and frame-supporting constructions/designs, foundations, and also bases should be considered not more than from two most
unfavorable according to action cranes, arranged/located on one crane way or on the different ways in one range.In this
case for each crane it is necessary to consider only one horizontal load (transverse or longitudinal).
4.14. Number of cranes, considered in the calculations of strength and stability during the determination of vertical and horizontal
loads from the bridge cranes on two or three tiers in the span, during the simultaneous arrangement/position in the span
both of suspension and bridge cranes, and also during the operation of the suspension cranes, intended for the transfer of
load from one crane to another with the aid of the reversable bridges, one should assume/take on the construction task on
the basis of the technological solutions
4.15. During the determination of the vertical and horizontal saggings/deflections of the beams/gullies of crane methods, and also
horizontal displacements of columns the load should be calculated from one most unfavorable on the basis of action crane
4.16. When, on the crane way, one crane is present, and when the second crane will not be established/installed during the
operation of construction, load by this method they must be taken into account only from one crane
4.17. Upon consideration of two cranes of load from them it is necessary to multiply by the coefficient of the combinations:
= 0,85 for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work Of the yk-'k cranes ;
= 0,95 for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of the cranes of 7K, 8K.
Upon consideration of four cranes of load from them it is necessary to multiply by the coefficient of the combinations:
= 0,7 for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of cranes 1-6;

Page 8

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

= 0,8 for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of cranes 7, 8.


4.18.

Upon consideration of one crane vertical and horizontal loads from it must be assumed/taken without the decrease .
During the calculation for the endurance of the beams/gullies of crane ways under the electric traveling cranes and
fastenings of these beams/gullies to the frameworks should be considered the lowered/reduced principal values of loads in
accordance with p. 1.7i.In this case for checking the endurance of the walls of beams/gullies in the zone of action of the
concentrated vertical load from one wheel of crane the lowered/reduced principal values of the vertical effort/force of
wheel should be multiplied by the coefficient, considered during the calculation of the strength of the beams/gullies of
crane ways in accordance with the note to p. 4.8.The groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of the cranes, with
which should be performed the calculation to the endurance, are established by the standards of the design/projection of the
constructions/designs

5. LOADS DUE TO SNOW


5.1. The total principal value of load due to snow on the horizontal projection of coating s should be determined from the formula
s = s0 ,
(5)
where S0 the principal value of the weight of snow cover on 1 m2 horizontal earth's surface, taken in accordance with p. 5.2;
the conversion factor from the weight of snow cover of the earth/ground to load due to snow on the coating, taken in
accordance with pp.5.3-5.6.

5.2. The principal value of the weight of snow cover S0 on 1 m2 horizontal earth's surface should be taken depending on the snow
region of the USSR for data of table 4.

5.3. The diagrams of the distribution of load due to snow and value of coefficients. should be assumed/taken in accordance with
required application/appendix 3, in this case the intermediate values of coefficients.it is necessary to determine by linear
interpolation .
When the more unfavorable conditions for work of the elements of constructions/designs appear with the partial load, should be
examined diagrams with load due to snow, which acts on half or fourth of span (for the coatings with the lamps/canopies.in
the sections with a width of b).
Note. In the necessary cases loads due to snow should be determined taking into account the provided further expansion of the
building
5.4. The versions with increased local loads due to snow, given in required application/appendix 3, must be considered during
the calculation of plates/slabs, flooring and girders/drives of coatings, and also during the calculation of those elements of
the frameworks (farms/trusses, beams/gullies, columns, etc.), for which the versions indicated determine the
sizes/dimensions of the sections .
Note. The application of the simplified diagrams of loads due to snow, equivalent on the action to the load diagrams, given in
required application/appendix 3, is allowed during calculations of constructions/designs.During the calculation of frames
and columns of production buildings the calculation only of evenly distributed load due to snow, with exception of the
places of drops/jumps in the coatings, where it is necessary to consider increased load due to snow , is allowed
5.5. Coefficients, established/installed in accordance with the indications of diagrams 1, of 2, 5 and 6 required appendices 3 for
the gently sloping (with the inclines to 12% or with f l < 0,05) coatings of single-span and multispan buildings without the
lamps/canopies, projected/designed in the regions with average wind speed for three most
Table4
The snow regions of the USSR (they start on
the map/chart/card of 1 required appendix 5)

II

III

IV

s0, kPa (kgs/m2 )

0,5 (50)

0,7 (70)

1,0(100)

1,5(150)

VI

2,0 (200) 2,5 (250)

Note. The principal value of the weight of snow cover in the mountain and insufficiently studied regions, designated
on the map/chart/card of 1 required appendix 5, and also in the points/items with a height above sea level of
more than 1500 m and in the places with the complex relief should be established/installed on the basis of data
of Goskomgidromet - State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on Hydrometeorology.In
this case as the principal value of the weight of snow cover s0 should be taken the average/mean value of the
yearly maximums of the water supply according to the results of snow surveying in the section, protected from
the action of wind, during the period not less than 10 years
cold of month.> 2 m/s, one should descend by multiplication by the coefficient for = 1,2.0,yg.
For the coatings with the inclines from 12 to 20 % single-span and multispan buildings without the lamps/canopies,
projected/designed in the regions s in.4 m/s, coefficients, established/installed in accordance with the indications of the
diagrams of 1 and 5 required appendices 3, one should descend by multiplication by the coefficient, equal to 0,85.
Average wind speed v in three coldest months should be assumed/taken on the map/chart/card 2 required appendices 5.
In the indicated cases for the buildings with a width of b to 90 m and with the height of yu > of 10 m the coefficient for
must be additionally reduced by multiplication by the coefficient
k1 = 1 0,2 Error!, 0,7.
The reduction in load due to snow, provided for by present point/item, is not extended:
) for coatings of buildings in the regions with the average/mean monthly temperature of air during January above minus
of 5 C (see the map/chart/card of 5 required appendices 5);

Page 9

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

b) for coatings of the buildings, protected from the direct action of wind by the adjacent higher buildings, removed less
than to 10 h1 where h1.altitude difference of adjacent and projected/designed buildings;

c) in the sections of the coatings with a length of b, by and b2 in drops/jumps in the heights of buildings and parapets (see
the diagrams of 8.11 required appendices 3).

5.6. Coefficients.during the determination of loads due to snow for the unheated coatings of shops with the increased heat
5.7.

emissions with the inclines of roofing it is more than 3 % and the guarantee of the proper outlet of melt water one should
descend by 20 % independent of the decrease, provided by p. 5.5.
Should be assumed equal the coefficient of reliability on load f for load due to snow to 1,4.During the calculation of the
elements of the construction/design of coating, for which the relation of the considered principal value of the evenly
distributed load from the weight of coating (including the weight of stationary equipment) to the principal value of the
weight of snow cover S0 less than 0,8, f should be assumed equal to 1,6.

6. THE WIND LOADS


6.1. Wind load on the construction should be considered as the totality :
) the normal pressure she, applied to the external surface of construction or element;
b) the frictional forces shf, directed tangentially toward the external surface and in reference to the area of its horizontal

6.2.

6.3.

(for the north-light/sawtooth or wavy coatings, the coatings with the lamps/canopies) or elevation (for the walls with
lodzhiyami and similar constructions/designs);
c) the normal pressure shi, applied to the internal surfaces of buildings with the permeable enclosures/protections, with the
opened/disclosed or constantly open apertures;
or as the normal pressure shkh, shy, caused by the total resistance of construction in the direction of axes X and in and
conditionally applied to the projection of construction on the plane, perpendicular to the appropriate axis
Wind load should be defined as the sum of average/mean and pulsating components .
During the determination of internal pressure shi, and also during the calculation of multistory buildings with a height of up
to 40 m and the single-story production buildings with a height to 36 m in the ratio of the height to the span of less than 1,5,
the placed in the terrains types A and V (see Section 6.5), pulsating component of wind load it is allowed not to consider
The principal value of average/mean component of wind load shm at the height z above the earth's surface should be
determined from the formula

wm = w0 kc,

(6)

where W0 the principal value of wind pressure (see p.6.4);


k the coefficient, which calculates a change in the wind pressure on the basis of height (see p.6.5);
aerodynamic coefficient (see p. 6.6).
6.4. The principal value of wind pressure Sh0 should be taken depending on the wind region of the USSR for data of table 5 .
For the mountain and insufficiently studied regions, designated on map/chart/card 3, the principal value of wind pressure Sh0 is
allowed to establish/install on the basis of data of the meteorological stations of Goskomgidromet - State Committee of
the Council of Ministers of the USSR on Hydrometeorology, and also results of the inspection/examination of the regions
of building taking into account experience of operating construction.In this case the principal value of wind pressure Sh0,
Pa, should be determined from the formula

w 0 = 0 , 61 v 02 ,

(7)

where V0 wind speed at the level 10 m above the earth's surface for the terrain of the type A, which corresponds to the 10minute interval of averaging and exceeded on the average of times in 5 years (if the technical specifications, approved in
the routine, do not regulate other periods of the repetition of wind speeds),
6.5. The coefficients k, which calculate a change in the wind pressure on the basis of height z, are determined by
Table 5
The wind regions of the USSR
(they start on the map of 3
required appendices 5)
w0, kPa (kgf/m2)

II

III

IV

VI

VII

0,17(17)

0,23 (23)

0,30(30)

0,38 (38)

0,48 (48)

0,60(60)

0,73(73)

0,85(85)

table 6 depending on the type of terrain .The following types of terrain start:
- the open coasts of seas, lakes and reservoirs, desert, steppe, wooded plain, tundra;
- urban territories, forests and other terrains, evenly covered with obstacles with the height are more than 10 m;
- urban regions with the building by the buildings with a height are more than 25 m .
Construction is considered located in a terrain of this type, if this terrain remains from the windward side of construction at
a distance To z0yu.with height of construction yu to 60 m and 2 km.at the larger height
Table 6
Height of z,m
5
10

Coefficients k for the types of the terrain

0,75
0,5
0,4
1,0
0,65
0,4

Page 10

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS


20
1,25
0,85
0,55
40
1,5
1,1
0,8
60
1,7
1,3
1,0
80
1,85
1,45
1,15
100
2,0
1,6
1,25
150
2,25
1,9
1,55
200
2,45
2,1
1,8
250
2,65
2,3
2,0
300
2,75
2,5
2,2
350
2,75
2,75
2,35
2,75
2,75
2,75
480
Note: During the determination of wind load the types of
terrain can be different for the different calculated wind
directions.

6.6. During the determination of the components of wind load the we, wf, wi, wx, wy
should be used the appropriate values of the aerodynamic coefficients:external pressure se, friction sf, internal pressure by
SI, and drag chkh or Chews, taken on required application/appendix 4, where by the pointers.wind direction is shown.Sign
plhs "in coefficients che or SI corresponds to the direction of wind pressure on the appropriate surface, sign minus".from
the surface.The intermediate values of loads should be determined by linear interpolation
During the calculation of fastenings of the elements of enclosure/protection to the frameworks in the angles of building and
according to the outer duct of coating should be considered the local negative wind pressure with the aerodynamic
coefficient se = 2, distributed along the surfaces on the width of 1,5 m (diag. 1).
In the cases, not provided by required application/appendix 4 (other forms of construction, calculation with the proper
substantiation of other directions of the wind current or components of the total resistance of body on other directions, etc.),
aerodynamic coefficients it is allowed to assume/take according to reference and experimental data or on the basis of the
results of the testings of model in wind tunnel of constructions/designs in the wind tunnels
Note.During the determination of wind load on the surface of internal walls and partitions in the absence of external
enclosure/protection (at the stage of the installation of building) should be used aerodynamic coefficients of external
pressure se or of drag .
Figure.1. sections with the increased negative wind pressure

6.7. The principal value of pulsating component of wind load shp at the height z
should be determined:
) for construction (and their structural elements), whose first natural vibration
frequency fy, Hz, is more than the limiting value of natural frequency fl (see
Section 6.8) - according to the formula
where

wp = wm v,
wm it is determined in accordance with p. 6.3;
the ripple factor of wind pressure at the level z, taken according to table
7;

v the coefficient of the space correlation of the pulsation of wind


pressure (see Section 6.9);

Table 7
Height z, m
5
10
20
40
60
80
100
150
200
250
300
350
480

Ripple factors of wind pressure.for the types of the terrain

0,85
1,22
1,78
0,76
1,06
1,78
0,69
0,92
1,50
0,62
0,80
1,26
0,58
0,74
1,14
0,56
0,70
1,06
0,54
0,67
1,00
0,51
0,62
0,90
0,49
0,58
0,84
0,47
0,56
0,80
0,46
0,54
0,76
0,46
0,52
0,73
0,46
0,50
0,68

(8)

Page 11

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

Figure.2. Dynamic coefficients

1 1.for the ferroconcrete and concrete construction, and also the buildings with the steel frame in the presence of the
enclosing constructions/designs (. = 0,3);
2.for the steel towers, the masts, the lined chimney stacks, column type apparatuses, including on the ferroconcrete
pedestals (. = 0,15)
b) for the construction (and their structural elements), which can be considered as system with one degree of freedom (transverse
frames of single-story production buildings, water towers, etc.), when fie < fl - according to the formula
where

wp = wm v ,

(9)

the dynamicity coefficient, determined from Figure.2 depending on the parameter


= Error! and the logarithmic decrement of oscillations/vibrations 6 (see Section 6.8);
f the coefficient of reliability on the load (see Section 6.11) ;
wo the principal value of wind pressure, Pa (see Section 6.4);

) for the buildings, symmetrical in the plan/layout, which have fy < fl also for all construction, which have fy < fl < f2 (where
f2.the second natural vibration frequency of construction). according to the formula
wp = m y,
(10)
where - the mass of construction at the level z, in reference to the surface area, to which is applied the wind load ;
- dynamicity coefficient (see Section 6.76);
- the horizontal displacement/movement of construction at the level z over the first form of the natural
oscillations/vibrations (for the symmetrical in the plan/layout buildings of a constant height as u it is allowed to assume/take
displacement/movement from evenly distributed horizontally applied static load);
- the coefficient, determined by means of the separation of construction on r of the sections, within limits of which the wind
load is received as constant, according to the formula
r

y w
k =1
r

pk

y Mk
k =1

(11)

2
k

where Mk - the mass of the k-th section of the construction ;


yk - the horizontal displacement/movement of the center of the k-th section ;
wpk - the resultant of pulsating component of the wind load, determined from formula (8), in the k-th section of the
construction .
For the multistory buildings with the constants on the height by hardness, the mass and the width of windward surface the
principal value of pulsating component of wind load at the level g is allowed to determine from the formula

Error!,

(12)

where to shpyu - principal value of pulsating component of wind load at the height yu of the top of construction,
determined from formula (8).
6.8. The limiting value of the natural vibration frequency fl, Hz, with which it is allowed not to consider the inertial forces, which
appear during the oscillations/vibrations on the appropriate its own form, should be determined on Table.8.

Table 8
The wind regions of the USSR (they start
on the map/chart/card of 3 required
appendices 5)
Ia
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII

fl, Hz, with


= 0,3

= 0,15

0,85
0,95
1,1
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,7
1,9

2,6
2,9
3,4
3,8
4,3
5,0
5,6
5,9

Page 12

6.9.

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

For the construction of cylindrical form when fy < fl it is necessary to additionally perform calculation for the vortex/eddy
excitation (wind resonance).
Value of the logarithmic decrement of oscillations/vibrations.one should assume/take :
) for the ferroconcrete and rock construction, and also for the buildings with the steel framework/body in the presence of
the enclosing constructions/designs = 0,3;
b) for the steel towers, the masts, the lined chimney stacks, column type apparatuses, including on the ferroconcrete
pedestals, = 0,15.
The coefficient of the space correlation of the pulsation of pressure in should be determined for the calculated surface of
construction, on which is considered the correlation of the pulsation
Calculated surface includes those parts of the surface of windward, leeward, lateral walls, roofing and similar
constructions/designs, from which the wind
pressure is transferred for designed structural
member .
If calculated surface is close to the rectangle,
oriented so that its sides are parallel to the major
axes (diag. 3), then coefficient in should be
determined according to table 9 depending on
the parameters r and.taken according to table 10.
During the calculation of construction as a whole
the dimensions of calculated surface should be
determined taking into account the indications of
required appendix 4, in this case for the lattice
construction it is necessary to assume/take the
dimensions of calculated surface on its outer
duct
Figure.3. basic coordinate system during the determination of the correlation coefficient in Table 9

Table 9
,
0,1
5
10
20
40
80
160

Coefficients in pri., m, equal


5
10
20
0,95
0,92
0,88
0,89
0,87
0,84
0,85
0,84
0,81
0,80
0,78
0,76
0,72
0,72
0,70
0,63
0,63
0,61
0,53
0,53
0,52

40
0,83
0,80
0,77
0,73
0,67
0,59
0,50

80
0,76
0,73
0,71
0,68
0,63
0,56
0,47

160
0,67
0,65
0,64
0,61
0,57
0,51
0,44

350
0,56
0,54
0,53
0,51
0,48
0,44
0,38

Table 10
The basic coordinate plane, in parallel which arranged/located the calculated surface

zoy
zox

b
0,4 a
b

h
h

6.10. For the construction, in which f2 < f1 it is necessary to perform dynamic calculation taking into account from the first forms
of natural oscillations/vibrations.The number s should be determined from the condition

fs < fl < fs+1.


6.11. The coefficient of reliability on wind load f should be assumed equal 1,4
7. GLARE ICE LOADS
7.1. Glare ice loads must be considered during the design of the air electric power lines and communications, overhead electric
transport power lines of the electrified transport, antenna- mast devices and similar construction

7.2. Principal value of linear glare ice load for the elements of the circular section with a diameter of up to 70 mm of on
(wires/conductors, ropes, guys, masts, guys, etc..)i, N/m, one should determine from the formula

i = b k 1 (d + b k 1) g103 .

(13)

Principal value of surface glare ice load i'.Pa, for other elements one should determine from the formula

i' = bk 2 g.

(14)

In formulas (13) and (14):


b the thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface, mm (exceeded of times in is 5 years), on the elements of the circular
section with a diameter of 10 mm, arranged/located on height 10m above the earth's surface, taken according to table 11,

Page 13

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

and at the height of 200 m and more.according to table 12.For other periods of repetition the thickness of the wall of icecovered surface should be assumed/taken on the special technical specifications, approved in the routine;
k the coefficient, which calculates a change in the thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface on the basis of height and taken
according to table 13;
d - the diameter of wire/conductor, rope, mm;
1 the coefficient, which considers a change of the thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface in the dependence on the
diameter of the elements of circular section and determined according to table 14;
2 the coefficient, which considers the relation of the surface area of element, subjected to icing, to the total surface area of
element and taken to the equal to 0,6;
ice density, taken equal to 0,9 g/sme ;
g the acceleration due to gravity, m/s2 .

Table 11
The glare ice regions of the USSR (start on the
map/chart/card of 4 required appendices 5 )
Thicknesses of the wall of ice-covered surface b, mm

II

III

IV

Not less than 3

10

15

Not less than 20

Table 12
Thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface b, mm, for the different regions of the USSR
Height above the The region of the glare
In the region of glare icing the northern part of the
earth's surface, m icing of the Asian part of
the rest
and mountain localities
European territory of the USSR
the USSR
It starts on the basis of the It starts on the chart of 4,g
200
15
35
special inspections
required appendices 5
The same
300
20
The same, on the chart 4,
45
400
25
"
The same, on the chart 4,
60

Table 13
Height above the earth's surface, m
Coefficient k

5
0,8

10
1,0

20
1,2

30
1,4

50
1,6

70
1,8

100
2,0

Table 14
Diameter of wire/conductor, rope or rope, mm
5
10
20
30
50
70
Coefficient 1
1,1
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
Notes (to table 11.14):1. v in the region, the mountain and insufficiently studied regions of the USSR, designated on the
map/chart/card of 4 required appendices 5, and also in very rugged terrains (at the peaks of mountains and hills,
on the crossings, on the high mounds, in the closed mountain valleys, basins, the heavy cuts t, p.)the thickness of
the wall of ice-covered surface must be determined on the basis of data of special inspections/examinations and
observations
2. The intermediate values of values should be determined by linear interpolation .
3. The thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface on the suspended/hung horizontal elements of circular section (ropes,
wires/conductors, ropes) it is allowed to assume/take at the height of the arrangement of their given center of gravity .
4. For determining the glare ice load on the horizontal elements of circular cylindrical form with a diameter of up to 70
mm the thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface, given in table 12, should be reduced by 10%
7.3. The coefficient of reliability on load f for the glare ice load should be assumed equal to 1,3, with exception of the cases,
stipulated in other principal documents
7.4. Wind pressure on the elements covered with ice-covered surface should be assumed equal 25 % of the principal value of
the wind pressure Sh0, determined according to p. 6.4.
Notes: 1. The separate regions of the USSR, where are observed the combinations of significant wind speeds with the large
sizes/dimensions of glare ice- hoarfrost deposits, the thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface and its density, and also
wind pressure should be assumed/taken in accordance with actual data .
2. During the determination of wind loads on structural members, arranged/located on the height it is more than 100 m
above the earth's surface, the diameter of iced wires/conductors and ropes, established/installed taking into account the
thickness of the wall of ice-covered surface, given in table 12, it is necessary to multiply by the coefficient, equal to 1,5.

7.5. The temperature of air with the rime independent of the height of construction should be assumed/taken in the mountain
regions with the mark:more than 2000 m.minus 15 C, from 1000 to 2000 m - minus 10 C;for the remaining territory of
the USSR for the construction with a height of up to 100 m.minus 5 C, is more than 100 m.minus 10 C .
Note. In the regions, where with the rime is observed temperature below minus 15 s, it should be assumed/taken according to
actual data .

Page 14

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

8. TEMPERATURE CLIMATIC ACTIONS


8.1. In the cases, provided by the standards of the design/projection of constructions/designs, should be considered change in
time t of mean temperature and temperature differential.over the section of the element .
8.2. The principal values of changes in mean temperatures over the section of element respectively in warm tw, and cold tc the
season should be determined from the formulas :
tw = tw toc;
(15)
tc = tc tow,
(16)
where tw, tc - the principal values of mean temperatures over the section of element in the warm and cold time of the year, taken
in accordance with p. 8.3 ;
tow, toc - initial temperatures in the warm and cold time of the year, taken in accordance with p. 8.6.
8.3. The principal values of mean temperatures tsh and tch and of temperature differentials over the section of element in warm
w and cold s the season for the single-layer constructions/designs should be determined according to table 15 .
Note. For the multilayer constructions/designs tsh, tch, w, s they are calculated. The constructions, prepared from several
materials, close ones in the thermo physical parameters, it is allowed to consider as the single-layer

Table 15
Buildings and construction in the stage of the operation
unheated buildings
building with artificial climate or with
(without
the
the
heated constant technological heat sources
technological heat
buildings
sources) and the
open emplacements

Constructions/designs of the buildings

Not protected from the action of solar


radiation
(including
external
enclosing)

Protected from the action of solar


radiation (including internal )

tw = tew + 1 + 4
w = 5
tc = tec - 0,5 1
c = 0
tw = tew

tw = tiw + 0,6(tew - tiw)+ 2 + 4


w = 0,8 (tew - tiw) + 3 + 5
tc = tic + 0,6 (tec - tic) - 0,5 2
c = 0,8 (tec - tic) - 0,5 3
tw = tiw
w = 0
tc = tic
= 0

tc = tec

Designations, accepted in table 15:


tew, te - average/mean daily temperatures of surrounding air respectively in the warm and cold time of the year, taken in
accordance with p . 8.4;
tiw, ti - the temperature of internal air of compartments/rooms respectively in the warm and cold time of the year, taken
according to GOST 12.1.005.76 or on the construction task on the basis of the technological solutions;
1, 2, 3 - the increases in average/mean over the section of element temperatures and temperature differential from
daily variations of the temperature of surrounding air, taken according to table 16 ;
4, 5 - increase in average/mean over the section of element temperatures and temperature differential from the solar
radiation, taken in accordance with p. 8.5.
Notes: 1. in the presence of the initial data about construction/design temperature in the stage of the operation of
buildings with constant technological sources of heat of value tsh, tch, w, s one should assume/take on the basis
of these data
2. For the buildings and the construction in the stage the erections tsh, tch, w, c are defined as for the unheated
buildings in the stage of their operation .

Table 16
Structural Design
Steel
Composite, concrete, reinforced
concrete and rock by thickness, cm :
to 15
from 15 to 39
over 40

Increases in the temperature, C


1
2
3
8
6
4

8
6
2

6
4
2

4
6
4

Page 15

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

8.4. Average daily temperatures of surrounding air in warm tew and cold tec season should be determined from the formulas:
tew = tVII + VII ;
(17)
tec = t1 - I
(18)
where tI, tVII - long-standing average/mean monthly temperatures of air during January and July, taken respectively on the
maps/charts/cards of 5 and 6 required appendices 5 ;
I, VII - the deviation of average/mean daily temperatures from the average/mean monthly (I - starts on the chart.7
required appendices 5 , VII = 6).
Primechaniya:y.V the heated production buildings at the stage operation for the constructions/designs, protected from the
action of the solar radiation, THE VII is released not to consider .
2. For the mountain and insufficiently studied regions of the USSR, designated on the charts5.7 required appendices 5, tec,
tew are determined from the formulas:

tec = tI,min + 0,5AI;


tew = tVII,max 0,5 AVII,

(19)
(20)

where tI,min, tVII,max - average/mean from the absolute values of respectively minimum temperature of air during January and
maximum.during July;
AI, AVII average/mean daily temperature range respectively during January and during July with the clear sky .
tI,min, tVII,max, AI, AVII they start according to the data of Goskomgidromet - State Committee of the Council of
Ministers of the USSR on Hydrometeorology .
8.5. Increases 4 and 5, C, should be determined from the formulas :

4 = 0,05 Smax k k1;


5 = 0,05 Smax k (1 k1),

where

(21)
(22)

- the coefficient of absorption of solar radiation by the material of the external surface of construction/design, taken on
SNIP II-3-79 **;
Smax - the maximum value of summary (straight line and scattered) solar radiation Of vt/m2, taken on SNIP 2.01.01-82;
k - the coefficient, taken according to table 17 ;
k1 - the coefficient, taken according to table 18.
Table 17
Form and the orientation of surface (surfaces)
Horizontal
Vertical, oriented to:
the South
the West
the East

Coefficient k
1,0
1,0
0,9
0,7

Table 18

8.6.

Structural Design
Coefficient k
Steel
0,7
Composite, concrete, reinforced concrete and rock by thickness, cm:
to 15
0,6
from 15 to 39
0,4
over 40
0,3
The initial temperature, which corresponds to closing/shorting construction/design or its part into the final system, into
warm TOSh and cold tos the season should be determined from the formulas:

tw = 0,8tVII + 0,2 tI ;
t = 0,2tVII + 0,8tI.

(23)
(24)

Note. With the presence of the data about the calendar period of closing/shorting construction/design, the order of the production
of works, etc. initial temperature it is allowed to refine in accordance with these data.
8.7. Coefficient of reliability on load f for the temperature climatic actions t and.should be assumed equal to 1,1.

9. OTHER LOADS
In the necessary cases, provided for by principal documents or installed in the dependence on the conditions for erection
and of operating the construction, should be considered other loads, not included in the present standards (special
technological loads;humid and shrinkage actions;the wind actions, which cause aerodynamically unstable oscillations of the
type of galloping, buffeting).

Page 16

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS


APPLICATIONS to THE DECISIONS
GOSSTROY of the USSR OF 19 MARCH, 1981.41
OF 29 JULY, 1982.196
RULES OF THE CALCULATION OF THE DEGREE OF THE RESPONSIBILITY OF BUILDINGS And
CONSTRUCTION DURING THE DESIGN/PROJECTION OF THE CONSTRUCTIONS/DESIGNS

1.

2.

3.

4.

Present rules are adapted during the structural designs of buildings and construction of the objects of industry, agriculture,
power engineering, transport, connection/communication, water management and civil housing designation/purpose,
besides the objects, for which the order of the calculation of the degree of their responsibility is established/installed in
those corresponding to SNIP.
During the design/projection of constructions/designs the degree of the responsibility of buildings and construction should
be calculated by the coefficient of reliability on the basis of designation/purpose according to ST OF COMECON
(COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE) 384-76.
The degree of the responsibility of buildings and construction is determined by the size/dimension of the material and
social damage, possible upon the reaching/achievement by the constructions/designs of the limiting conditions
To the coefficient of reliability according to designation/purpose n should be divided the limiting values of the bearing
capacity, computed values of resistances, limiting values of deformations/strains and crack opening or multiplied computed
values of loads, efforts/forces or other actions
The values of the coefficient of reliability according to designation/purpose n are set in the dependence on the class of the
responsibility of buildings and construction according to the following table

Class of the responsibility of buildings and construction

Coefficient of
reliability according to
purpose n

Class I . Basic buildings and the construction of the objects, which have the separately great
national-economic and (or) social value: main housings TES, AES, central knots
of blast furnaces, chimney stacks with a height are more than 200 m, television
towers, constructions of main primary network YEASS, reservoirs for the oil and
the petroleum products by capacity are more than 10 thousand me, the covered
sport construction with the platforms, the building of theaters, cinemas, circuses,
covered markets, educational institutions, children's pre-school establishments,
hospitals, maternity wards, museums, archives, etc.

1,0

II. Buildings and the construction of the objects, which have the great national-

0,95

Class

economic and (or) social value (objects of industrial, agricultural, civil housing
designation/purpose and connections/communications, not entered in I and III
classes)
Class

III. Buildings and the construction of the objects, which have the limited national-

0,9

economic and (or) social value:storages without the processes of sorting and
packing for storing of agricultural products, fertilizers, chemicals, carbon/coal,
peat, etc., hot-house, greenhouses, single-story apartment houses, the support of
wire communication, support of the illumination of the populated areas, fence,
1
temporary/time buildings both construction and, etc.

For the temporary buildings and the construction with the period of service of up to 5 years it is allowed to assume/take n = 0,8.
Note. For the noncarrying brick walls of the self-supporting panels, partitions, cross connections above the apertures in the walls
from the piece materials, the fundamental beams/gullies, the fillings of window apertures, bindings of light and aeration
lamps/canopies, constructions/designs the winch, ventilating shafts and ducts, floors on the soil, composite
constructions/designs in the process of transportation and installation, all forms of constructions/designs during the
calculation in the stage of installation should be all values of coefficient of n, given in the table, multiplied by 0,95.

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

Page 17

ON CLASS ESTABLISHMENT OF THE RESPONSIBILITY OF BUILDINGS AND CONSTRUCTION CIVIL


HOUSING OF THE PRODUCTION DESIGNATION/PURPOSE
Order of 30 October, 1992, N 91 for the purpose of providing safety of life and health of people, protection of the environment
1.
To establish/install the class of the responsibility of buildings and construction of civil housing and production
designation/purpose according to the application/appendix.
2
During the design/projection of buildings and construction of civil housing and production designation/purpose to calculate
the coefficient of reliability p on the basis of designation/purpose, established by SNIP 2.01.07-85.

Application
CLASSES
responsibility building and the construction of the civil housing and production designation/purpose
Class I Coefficient of reliability according to the designation/purpose = 1
Apartment houses
With height 9 floors and more
Public buildings
The children's pre-school construction ;
the educational institutions of all forms (school, VUZ - Institute of Higher Education-, training combines);
Extra-scholastic establishments for the children and the adolescents;
Hospital to 100 cots and more, maternity wards and obstetrical housings ;
Enterprise of retail trade with a commercial area of 200 sq. meters and more ;
Enterprise of public nutrition in 200 places and more ;
Enterprise of domestic maintenance/servicing in 150 work sites and more;
Hotel, sanatorium, the establishment of leisure and tourism;
Motel, campgrounds, boarding houses, dispensary by the capacity of 250 places and more ;
theaters, circuses, cinemas, concert and dancing halls, palaces and the house of culture, clouds/clubs, museums,
exhibition buildings, library, archives;
administrative buildings, besides entering the group V (SNIP ii -84-78) ;
design, prospecting, scientific research and institutes for comprehensive studies and organization, computer centers ,
covered sport construction with the platforms for the spectators in 400 places and more ;
stations of all forms;
cooperated and blocked complexes of public, public-trading- VYKh and cultural centers ;
industrial objects (plants, factories, large shops, enterprises with the harmful isolations);
agricultural, production units (large cattle-breeding - 400 and more than cows, to 1000 and more than the heads of
fattening, on 5 thousand and more than pigs, poultry-breeding farms/trusses and the factory of more than 10 thousand).

Class II Coefficient of reliability according to designation/purpose = 0,95


Apartment houses.
with height 3 floor and more
Public buildings.
hospital with a quantity of cots to 100 places;
polyclinic, dispensary, the station of first aid, female consultations, sanitary-epidemiological stations, drugstore ;
enterprises of retail trade with a commercial area are more than 50 square meters ;
enterprises of public nutrition with a quantity of places are more than 20 ;
enterprises of domestic maintenance/servicing with a quantity of work sites are more than 5;
hotel, sanatorium, the establishments of leisure, tourism, moteli, campgrounds, boarding houses, dispensary by capacity
to 250 places;
administrative buildings, entering the group on SNIP II-84-78);
covered sport construction without the places for the spectators, and also with the places for the spectators to 250 ;
industrial type separate buildings, agricultural, production farms/trusses and the complexes, which did not enter in I the
class of the responsibility.
Class III. Coefficient of reliability according to the designation/purpose = 0,90
apartment houses to the echo of floors;
building of auxiliary and economic designation/purpose in the composition of the complexes of public, industrial and
agricultural designation/purpose;
temporary buildings and construction;
enterprise of retail trade with the commercial area to 50 sq. m .;
enterprise of public nutrition with a quantity of places to 20 ;
enterprise of domestic maintenance/servicing with a quantity of work sites to 5.

Page 18

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

APPENDICES

APPENDIX 1
Reference

BRIDGE AND SUSPENSION CRANES/VALVES OF THE DIFFERENT


GROUPS OF THE MODES OF OPERATION
(EXEMPLARY/APPROXIMATE ENUMERATION)
Groups of
the
Cranes/valves
operating
modes
Manual of all forms with the driving/homing
1-
suspension pulley blocks, including with the
attached seizures with the winch cargo carts,
including with the attached seizures
With the winch cargo carts, including with the
4-6
attached seizures

With two-cable type grabs, the magnetic- grab


magnetic
Tempering, forging, bolt, foundries.With twocable type grabs, magnetic- grab
With the winch cargo carts, including with the
attached seizures
Transverse/traverse,
mul'dogreyfernye,
mul'dozavalochnye, for undressing of ingots, pile
driver, cupola, kolodtsevye magnetic

Use conditions
Any repair and shifting works of the limited
intensity the machine rooms of power stations,
installation works, the shifting works of the
limited intensity
Shifting works of average/mean intensity,
technological works in the machine shops, the
storages of the finished articles of the enterprises
of building materials, the storages of metal-sale
the mixed storages, work with the diverse loads
the storages of semi finished products, work with
the diverse.

Shops of metallurgical enterprises the storages of


bulk cargos and scrap metal with the uniform
loads (with the work in one or two changes)
technological cranes/valves with the round-theclock operation

Shops of the metallurgical enterprises

With two-cable type grabs, magnetic- grab

Shops and the storages of metallurgical


enterprises, large metal-bases with the uniform
loads
Storages of bulk cargos and scrap metal with the
uniform loads (with the round-the-clock operation)

APPENDIX 2
Required

LOAD FROM THE IMPACT/SHOCK OF CRANE/VALVE AGAINST THE BLIND REST


The principal value of horizontal load F, kN, directed along the crane way and the called party by the impact/shock of
crane/valve against blind rest, should be determined from formula

Error!,
where C - the speed of the movement of crane/valve at the moment of impact/shock, taken equal half of nominal, m/s;
f - the possible greatest sagging/settling of buffer, taken by equal to 0,1 m for the cranes/valves with the flexible suspension
of load load capacity is not more than 50 t of the groups of the modes of operation 1 K."k and 0.2 m - in the remaining
cases;
t - reduced mass of crane/valve, determined from the formula

Error!
here

tb. the mass of the bridge of crane, t;


c the mass of cart, t;
mq crane load, t;
k the coefficient ; k = 0 for the cranes/valves with the flexible suspension ;
the rigid/hard suspension of the load ;

k = 1 for the cranes/valves with

APPENDICES

Page 19

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

l the flight/span of crane/valve, m;


l1 the approximation/approach of cart, m. computed value of the considered/examined load taking into account the
coefficient of reliability on load f (see Section 4.8) starts not more limiting values, indicated in the following table:

Cranes/valves
Suspension (manual and electrical) and bridge manual
the electrical bridge:
the general purpose of the groups of the modes of operation 1-
the general purpose and special of the groups of the modes of operation
47, and also the foundries
the special groups of the mode of operation 8 K with the suspension of the
load:
flexible
rigid

Limiting values of loads F, kN


(c)
10 (1)
50 (5)
150 (15)

250 (25)
500 (50)

APPENDIX 3
Required

DIAGRAMS OF LOADS DUE TO SNOW AND THE COEFFICIENTS


Diagram
number

Profiles/airfoils of coatings and diagram of


loads due to snow
Buildings with the lean-to and two-slope
surface coatings

Coefficients.and the field of application of the diagrams

= 1 with 25;
= 0 " 60.
Versions 2 and 3 should be considered for the buildings with the
two-slope surface coatings (profile/airfoil b), in this case version
2 - with 20 30;version 3- with 10 30 only
in the presence of the pilot bridges or aeration devices on the
horse of the coating

Page 20

Diagram
number

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

APPENDICES

Continuation of Appendix 3
Profiles/airfoils of coatings and diagram of
Coefficients and the field of application of the diagrams
loads due to snow
Buildings with the arched and close to them in
the outline coatings
Error!, but not more 1,0 and not less 0,4.
Version 2 should be considered withError!:

Error! Error!

Error!

Error!

2,0

2,2

1,6

For the ferroconcrete flooring slabs coefficient.should be


assumed/taken not more than 1,4

Coatings in the form of the lancet arches

15 it is necessary to use diagram 1,b, assuming l


= l; with < 15 diagram 2

With

Buildings with the longitudinal lamp/canopy

1 = 0,8; 2 = Error!;
3 = Error!, but not more:
4,0 for the farms/trusses and the beams with the principal
value of the weight of coating 1,5 kPa and less;
2,5 for the farms/trusses and the beams with the principal
value of the weight of coating it is more than 1,5 kPa;
2,0 for the ferroconcrete flooring slabs with span 6 m and
less and for the steel shaped flooring;
2,5 for the ferroconcrete plates/slabs by span it is above 6
m, and also for the girders/drives independent of span;
b1 = h1, but not more b.
During the determination of load in the end/face of lamp/canopy
for the zone into the value of coefficient.in both versions
should be assumed equal to 1,0.

APPENDICES

Page 21

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

Continuation of Appendix 3
Diagram
number

Profiles/airfoils of coatings and


diagram of loads due to snow

Coefficients and the field of application of the diagrams

Notes: 1. diagrams of versions 1, 2 should be also used for two-slope


surface and vaulting of two- trispan buildings with the
lamps/canopies in the middle of the buildings
2. influence of the vetrootboynykh panels on the distribution of
load due to snow near the lamps/canopies not to consider.
3. for the flat/plane slopes with b > of 48 m should be
considered the local increased load in lamp/canopy as in the
drops/jumps (see diagram 8)

North-light/sawtooth coatings

Diagrams should be used for the north-light/sawtooth coatings,


including with the inclined glazing and the arched outline of the
roofing

Two and multispan buildings with the


two-slope surface coatings

Version 2 should be considered with

15

Page 22

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

APPENDICES
Continuation of Appendix.3

Diagram
number

Profiles/airfoils of coatings and diagram of


loads due to snow
Two- and multispan buildings with the arched
and close to them in the outline coatings

Version 2 should be considered with Error!


For the ferroconcrete flooring slabs of the value of
coefficients.should be assumed/taken not more than 1,4

Coefficients and the field of application of the diagrams

Two- and multispan buildings with two-slope


surface and vaulting with the longitudinal
lamp/canopy
Coefficient.should be assumed/taken for the spans with the
lamp/canopy in accordance with versions 1 and 2 diagrams 3,
for the spans without the lamp/canopy.with versions 1 and 2
diagrams 5 and 6.
For the flat/plane two-slope surface ( < 15) and the arched
Error! coatings with l > 48 m should be considered the local
increased load, as in the drops/jumps (see diagram 8)

Buildings with a drop/jump in the height

a)

Load due to snow on the top coat should be assumed/taken in


accordance with diagrams 1.7, and to the lower as most
unfavorable of the diagrams 1.7 and the diagram 8.

APPENDICES

Page 23

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

Continuation of Appendix. 3
Diagram
number
8

Profiles/airfoils of coatings and diagram


of loads due to snow

Coefficients and the field of application of the diagrams


Coefficient should be assumed equal:

0 = 1+

1
(m1 l1 + m2 l 2 ), but it must not exceed :
h

Error! (where h - ; s0 - kPa);


4 - for the buildings (profile/airfoil A);
6 - for the sheds (profile/airfoil b).
Values m1 (m2) for the upper (lower) coating depending on its
profile/airfoil should be taken as the equal:
0,5 - for the flat/plane coatings 20 and arched -
Error!
0,3 - for the flat/plane coatings > 20 , arched -
Error! and coatings with the transverse lamps/canopies
For the lower coatings by width < 21 m (profile/airfoil c) value
m2 should be determined from formula
m2 = 0,5k1 k2 k3 but not less than 0,1,
where Error!; Error!; Error!, but not less than 0,3
( - ; , - degree).
The height of drop/jump yu should be counted off from the cornice
of lower coating in the place of its contiguity to the wall
The values of l1 (l2) for the upper (lower) coating depending on
the presence and orienting the lamps/canopies should be taken as the
equal:
) with the longitudinal lamps/canopies:

l1 = l1* 2h1h ;
l 2 = l 2* 2 h 2l 2h;
) without the longitudinal lamps/canopies or with the transverse
lamps/canopies
l1 = l1; l2 = l2 2h,
in this case l1 and l2 it is necessary to assume/take not less than 0.
The length of zone b should be taken as the equal:

2h
b = 2 h, but not more 15 m;
s0
1
2h
b= 0
0 >
2 h,
2h
s0
1
s0

0
"

but not more 5h and 15 m.


Notes:1. with d1, (d2) > 12 m value.for the section of drop/jump by
the length d1 (d2 it follows to determine without taking into account
the influence of lamps/canopies on the increased (lowered/reduced)
coating.
2. If the spans of upper (lower) coating have different
profile/airfoil, then during the determination it is necessary to take the
appropriate value m1 (m2) for each flight/span in the limits of l1 (l2).
3. Local load in drop/jump should not be considered, if the height of
drop/jump, m, between two adjacent coatings is less
Error! (where s0 kPa)

Page 24

Diagram
number

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

APPENDICES

Continuation of Appendix. 3
Profiles of coatings and diagram of loads due
Coefficients and the field of application of the diagrams
to snow
Buildings with two jumps in the height
Load due to snow on upper and lower coating should be
assumed/taken according to diagram 8.Values 1, b1, 2, b2
should be determined for each drop/jump independently, in this
case:
for the leftist l2 = l2 2h1 5h2;
for the right l2 = l2 2h2 5h1;

If, l2 < b1 + b2,

( 1b1 + 2 b2 ) 1

but not more

l2
b1 + b2

l2

(b1 + b2 )

1 b2 + 2 b1
b1 + b2

10

Coating with the parapets

11

Sections of coatings, which adjoin raised above Diagram relates to the sections with the superstructures with the
the roofing ventilating shafts and other
diagonal of base not more 15.
superstructures
Depending on the calculated construction/design (flooring slabs,
frame-supporting and rafter constructions/designs) it is
necessary to consider the most unfavorable position of
the zone of the increased load (at the arbitrary angle ).
Coefficient, constant in the limits of the zone indicated, should
be assumed equal:

Diagram should be used with


Error! (h ; s0 kPa);
Error! but not more 3

1,0 d 1,5 ;
Error! " d > 1,5,
but not less 1,0 and not more:
1,5 with 1,5 < d 5;
2,0 " 5 < d 10 ";
2,5 " 10 < d 15 ";
b1 = 2 h, but not more 2 d

12

Suspended rooves of the cylindrical form

1 = 1,0; Error!

Page 25

DIAGRAMS OF WIND LOADS and THE AERODYNAMIC COEFFICIENTS


Diagram
number

Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements of


structures and wind loads
The
separate
flat/plane
continuous
constructions/designs.
Vertical and deflecting from the vertical not are
more than to 15 surfaces:

windward
leeward
2

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients

Notes

= + 0,8
= - 0,6

Buildings with the two-slope surface coatings


SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

1. With the wind, perpendicular


to the end/face of buildings, for
the entire surface = - 0,7
2. During the determination of
coefficient.in accordance with 6.9

h = h1 + 0,2 l tg

APPENDICES

APPENDIX 4
Required

Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements


of structures and wind loads
Buildings with the arched and the close ones to
them in the outline to the coatings

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients

Notes

Page 26

Continuation of Appendix.4
Diagram
number

1. cm. of that annotated.1 to


diagram 2.
2. During the determination of
coefficient.in accordance
with p. 6.9 h = h1 + 0,7 f

Buildings with the longitudinal lamp/canopy

The coefficients this, 1, 2 and 3 should be determined in


accordance with the indications to diagram 2

During the calculation of the


transverse frames of buildings
with the lamp/canopy and the
vetrootboynymi panels the
value of the summary drag
coefficient of system of fonar6panels is taken as equal to 1,4
1. During the determination of
coefficient.in accordance
with p. 6.9 h = h1

Buildings with the longitudinal lamps/canopies

1. For the windward, the

APPENDICES

For coating of building in the section AV the coefficients se should be


assumed/taken according to diagram 4.
For the lamps/canopies of section SV with 2 = 0,2; with 2
8 for each lamp/canopy = 0,1; with > 8 = 0,8, here Error!
For the remaining sections of coating = - 0,5

leeward and lateral walls of


buildings the pressure
coefficients should be
determined in accordance
with the indications to
diagram 2.
2. During the determination of
coefficient v in accordance
with p . 6.9 h = h1

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

The value of see starts according to diagram 2

Diagram
number

The coefficients of 1, 1 and 2 should be determined in


accordance with the indications to diagram 2, where during the
determination this after 1 h1 it is necessary to assume/take the
height of the windward wall of the building
For the section AV se one should define just as for the section
VS of diagram 5, where after h1 h2 it is necessary to assume/take
the height of the lamp/canopy

Buildings with the north-light/sawtooth coatings

See that annotated 1 and 2 to diagram


5

1. Frictional force must be


considered in any direction of
wind, in this case
For the section AV se one should determine in
accordance with the indications to diagram 2.
For the section VS = 0,5

Notes

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients

cf = 0,04.
2. See that annotated 1 and 2 to
diagram 5

Buildings with the zenith


lamps/canopies

For the windward lamp/canopy the coefficient se should be


determined in accordance with the indications to diagram 2,
for the remaining part of the coating.as for the section VS of
diagram 5

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements of


structures and wind loads
Buildings with the longitudinal lamps/canopies of
different height

Page 27

Continuation of Appendix.4

See that annotated 1 and 2 to diagram


5
APPENDICES

Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements of


structures and wind loads
Buildings, constantly opened from one side

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients

Notes
Coefficients se on the external surface should

With 5% i1 = i2 = 0,2; with 30% i1


should be assumed equal of see, determined in
accordance with the indications to diagram 2; i2 = +

0,8

For each wall of building sign plhs. or minus.


for the coefficient of siy with..5% one should
determine on the basis of the condition of the
realization of the most unfavorable version of
load
Ledges of buildings with < 15

For the section CD = 0,7. For the section


it follows to determine by linear interpolation of
values, adopted at points and .
The coefficients this and see in the section

APPENDICES

should be assumed/taken in accordance with the


indications to diagram 2 (where b and l sizes/dimensions in the plan/layout of entire
building).
For the vertical surfaces the coefficients se must be
determined in accordance with the indications
to diagrams 1 and 2

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

be assumed/taken in accordance with the


indications to the diagram
Permeability of enclosure/protection should be
defined as the ratio of the summary area of the
existing/available in it apertures to the total area
of enclosure/protection for the airtight building
should be assumed/taken i = 0. In the
buildings, indicated in p. 6.1v, the principal
value of internal pressure on the light partitions
(at their surface density less than 100 kg/m2)
should be assumed equal to 0,2 w0, but not

less 0,1 (10 kg/2).

10

Page 28

Continuation of Appendix.4
Diagram
number

Diagram
number

11

Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements


of structures and wind loads
Sheds

Notes

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients

1. The coefficients this 1, 2, 3,


4 sowing one should carry to the

12

Sphere

= 1,3
= 0,6
= 0,2

Re < 105;
2 10 Re 3 105;
4 105 > Re,
where Re.Reynolds number ;
5

Re = 0,88d w 0 k ( z ) f 10 ;

1. Coefficients se are given with Re


> 4 105.
2. During the determination of

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

sum of pressures on the upper and


lower surfaces of the sheds.
For the negative values this 1, 2,
3, 4 sowing the direction of
pressure on the diagrams one
should change to the the opposite.
2. For the sheds with the wavy
coatings cf = 0,04

Page 29

Continuation ofAppendix.4

coefficient in accordance with


p.6.9 should be assumed/taken b =

h = 0,7d

APPENDICES

w0 the diameter of sphere, m;


k (z) it is determined in accordance with p. 6.4 , Pa;
z distance, m, from the earth's surface to the center of the
sphere;
f it is determined in accordance with p .6.11

Notes

Page 30

Continuation ofAppendix.4
Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements
Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients
of structures and wind loads
number
Construction with the circular cylindrical surface
12,
= k1
where k1 = 1 with c > 0;

c it is necessary to assume with Re > 4 105 according to the graph

from formula to diagram 12,


and, assuming/taking z = h1

.
During the determination of
coefficient one should
assume/take
in
accordance with p. 6.9:

b = 0,7d;
h = h1 +0,7f.
2. The coefficient of i should
be considered during the
omitted coating (the
floating roofing ), and also
in the absence of it.

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

1. Re one should determine

APPENDICES

Diagrams of buildings, construction,


elements of structures and wind loads

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients

Notes

Prismatic of the construction

Page 31

Continuation ofAppendix.4
Diagram
number
13

1. For the walls with lodzhiyami

= k cx; cy = k cy
Table 1

with the wind, parallel to


these walls,, cf = 0,1; for the
wavy coatings cf = 0,04.
For the rectangular in the
plan/layout buildings with

l
= 0,1 0,5 = 40 b

Table 2

= 0,15b.
2. Re one should determine from
formula to diagram 12, and,
assuming/taking z = h1, d
the diameter of the
circumscribed circle .
During the determination of
the coefficient
correspondence with p. 6.9 h
the height of construction,
b.size/dimension in the
plan/layout with respect to the
axis y.

In table. 2

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

it is necessary to determine according to table 2.

50 cy = 0,75; the resultant


of wind load is applied at
point 0, in this case
eccentricity

l
, where l, b the respectively maximum and minimal sizes of
b
APPENDICES

construction or its element in the plane, perpendicular to wind direction .

13

Diagrams of buildings, construction,


elements of structures and wind loads
Prismatic construction

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients

Notes

Page 32

Continuation ofAppendix.4
Diagram
number

Table 3

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

Table 4

APPENDICES

Diagrams of buildings, construction,


elements of structures and wind loads

14

Construction and their elements with the


circular cylindrical surface (reservoirs,
cooling tower/salt pan, tower, chimney
stacks), wire/conductor and ropes, and
also the circular tubular and continuous
elements of the through construction

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients

= k c
where k they will be determined according to table 1 of diagram 13 ;
c - it is determined according to the graph:

15

The separate flat/plane lattice frames

cx =

1
Ak

xi

Ai ,

1. Aerodynamic coefficients for diagrams


15-17 are given for the lattice frames
with the arbitrary form of outline and
Ai
0,8.
= i
Ak
2. Wind load should be carried to the area,
limited by the outline Ak.
3. The direction of axis X coincides with
the wind direction and it is perpendicular
to the plane of the construction/design

APPENDICES

where cxi the aerodynamic coefficient of the i- element of


constructions/designs; for the profiles/airfoils of cxi = 1,4; for the
tubular elements of cxi one should determine according to graph
to diagram 14, in this case it is necessary to assume/take e =
(see Table 2 of diagram 13 );
Ai the projected area of the i- element on the plane of the
construction/design;
Ak the area, limited by the outline of the construction/design

1. Re one should determine from formula


to diagram 12, and, assuming/taking z =
h, d the diameter of construction.
Values they assume/take for the
wooden constructions = 0,005 m; for
the brickwork = 0,01 m; for the
concrete and ferroconcrete
constructions/designs = 0,005 m; for
the steel constructions/designs = 0,001
m; for the wires/conductors and the
ropes with a diameter of d = 0,01d; for
the ribbed surfaces with the edges/fins
with a height of b = b.
2. For the wavy coatings
cf = 0,04.
3. For the wires/conductors and the ropes d
20 mm, free from the ice-covered
surface, values are allowed to descend
by 10%

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

For the wires/conductors and the ropes (including covered with ice-covered
surface) = 1,2

Notes

Page 33

Continuation of Appendix.4
Diagram
number

Diagrams of buildings, construction,


elements of structures and wind loads
Number of the flat/plane in parallel
arranged/located lattice frames

Notes

For the windward construction/design the coefficient of skhy is


defined just as for diagram 15.
For the second and subsequent constructions/designs

See annotated 1-3 to diagram 15.


1. Re one should determine from formula to
diagram 12, and, where d the mean
diameter of tubular elements; z it is
allowed to take as the equal to distance from
the earth's surface to upper flange.
2. In the table to diagram 16 :
h the minimal size of outline;for the
rectangular and trapeziform farms/trusses h
length of the smallest side of outline;for the
circular lattice frames h - their diameter;for
the elliptical and close ones to them in the
outline constructions/designs h - length of
minor axis;
b the distance between the connections by the
farms/trusses
Coefficient.one should determine in accordance
with the indications to diagram 15

2 = 1

For the farms/trusses from the pipes with Re 4 10

= 0,95

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients

Page 34

Continuation of Appendix.4
Diagram
number
16

APPENDICES

Lattice towers and the three-dimensional trusses

Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients


ct = cx (1 + ) k1,
where cx - it is defined so as for the diagram 15;
- it is defined so as for diagram 16 .

Notes
See that annotated.1 to diagram 15.
1. ct it relates to the area of the outline of
the windward face.
2. in the wind direction along the
diagonal of tetrahedral square towers
the coefficient k1 for the steel towers
from the single elements should be
decreased by 10 %; for the wooden
towers from the basic elements.to
increase by 10 %

Guys and the inclined tubular elements, located in


flow plane

c x = c x sin 2 ,
where it is determined in accordance with the indications to
diagram 14

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS

18

Diagrams of buildings, construction,


elements of structures and wind loads

Page 35

Continuation of Appendix.4
Diagram
number
17

APPENDICES

Page 36

MAPS OF THE DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS OF THE TERRITORY OF THE USSR FOR THE CLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS
(they are published by various document)

SNIP 2.01.07-85. LOADS AND EFFECTS


APPENDICES

APPENDIX 5
Required
S