Loads and
Effects
SNIP 2.01.0785
1988
PUBLICATION IS OFFICIAL
GOSSTROY of the USSR Moscow 1988
UDK 69+624.042.4] (083.74)
SNIP 2.01.0785.Loads and Effects by the vozdeystviya/Gosstroy USSR  M.:TSITP OF THE
GOSSTROY of the USSR, 1988. 36 pages.
ARE DEVELOPED TSNIISK im. Kucherenko of GOSSTROY of the USSR (Cand. of tech. sciences A
A. Bat'  leader of theme;I. A. Belyshev, Cand. of the tech. sciences V. A. Otstavnoye, doctor of tech.
sciences, Prof. V. D. Reyzer, A. I. Tseytlin), THE MISY im. v. v. Kuybyshev Minvuz  Ministry of
Higher Education THE USSR (Cand. of tech. sciences/7.V. Klepikov }
ARE INTRODUCED TSNIISK im. Kucherenko of GOSSTROY of the USSR
THEY ARE PREPARED to THE ASSERTION By glavtekhnormirovaniyem of GOSSTROY of the
USSR (Cand. of tech. sciences F. V. Bobrov).
With the introduction into the action SNIP 2.01.0785 Loads and Effects "from 1 January, 1987, lose the
force:
p. 1 of decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR Ob the assertion of chapter SNIP II 674 Loads and Effects
"of 8 February, 1974.16;
the decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR,,0 addition and a change in the chapter SNIP II 674 Loads
and Effects "of 25 December, 1980.206;
the indentation of 2 applications/appendices to the decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR O the addition
of chapters SNIP of 16 January, 1981.4;
the decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR O addition and a change in the chapter SNIP II 674 Loads and
Effects "of 14 September, 1981.164;
the decision of GOSSTROY of the USSR O addition and a change in the chapter SNIP II 674 Loads and
Effects "of 31 December, 1982.343
On s. 34 are given Pravila calculation of the degree of the responsibility of buildings and construction
during the design/projection of constructions/designs "(applications/appendices to the decisions of
GOSSTROY of the USSR of 19 March, 1981.41 and of 29 July, 1982.196).
With the use of principal document should be considered the affirmed changes in the construction
standards and rules and state standards, published in periodical Bhlleten6 of construction technology ",
Sbornike changes to the construction standards and the rules "GOSSTROY of the USSR and the
information indicator Gosudarstvennye the standards of the USSR" state standard
To attention of the readers!
Required appendix 5 Karty division into districts of the territory of the USSR for climatic characteristics
", which consists of the set of maps/charts/cards on 8 sheets, is published in the form of insert/bushing to
SNIP 2.01.0785 (enumeration of maps/charts/cards it is given in the insert/bushing).
TSITP OF THE GOSSTROY of the USSR, 1986
GOSSTROY of the Construction standards and the rule
SNIP 2.01.0785
USSR
Loads and Effects
Instead of chapter SNIP P 674
Present standards apply to the design/projection of structures and bases of buildings and construction and
are established/installed basic condition/positions and rules regarding and to the calculation of permanent
and temporary loads and actions, and also their combinations
Loads and action on the structures and the bases of buildings and construction, which differ from
traditional, it is allowed to determine on the special technical specifications .
Notes:1. further on the text, where this is possible, term vozde1stvie "is omitted and substituted with term
nagruzka", and word zdani4 and construction "is substituted with word soorujeni4".
2. During the reconstruction computed values of loads should be determined on the basis of the results of
the inspection/examination of the existing constructions/designs, in this case atmospheric loads it is
allowed to assume/take taking into account data of Goskomgidromet  State Committee of the Council
of Ministers of the USSR on Hydrometeorology.
CONTENT
Page
1.
General considerations
Classification of loads
Combinations of loads
1
1
2
2.
3.
Loads from the equipment, the people, the animal, stored materials and the articles.
Determination of loads from the equipment, the stored materials and the articles
Evenly distributed loads
Concentrated loads and load on the rails
3
3
4
6
4.
5.
6.
Wind loads
7.
12
8.
14
9.
Other loads
15
APPENDICES
Appendix 1.
16
Appendix 2.
16
Appendix 3.
17
Appendix 4.
23
Appendix 5.
Reference. Maps of the division into districts of the territory of the USSR
for climatic characteristics
34
Rules of the calculation of the degree of the responsibility of buildings and construction during
the design/projection of constructions/designs (application/appendix to the decisions of
GOSSTROY of the USSR of 19 March, 1981..41 and of 29 July, 1982.196)
35
1.
Page 1
GENERAL CONSIDERATIONS
1.1. During the design/projection should be considered the loads, which appear during erection and operation of construction,
and also with the production, the storage and the transportation of the structures
1.2. Their principal values are fundamental load lines, established within the present standards.
1.3.
The load of the specific form is characterized, as a rule, by one principal value.For the loads from the people, animals,
equipment on the overlaps of habitable, public and agricultural buildings, from the bridge and suspension cranes, snow,
from the temperature climatic actions are established/installed two principal values:complete and lowered/reduced (it is
introduced into the calculation if necessary for the calculation of the influence of the duration of loads, checking to the
endurance and in other cases, stipulated within the standards of the design/projection of constructions/designs and bases).
Computed value of load should be defined as the work of its principal value for the coefficient of reliability on load f,
which corresponds to the limiting condition in question and taken:
) during the calculation for the strength and the stability.in accordance with pp.2.2, 3.4, 3.7, 3.11, 4.8, 5.7, 6.11, 7.3 and
8.7;
b) during the calculation for the endurance.equal to one;
c) in the calculations according to the deformations/strains.equal to one, if within the standards of the design/projection of
constructions/designs and bases other values are not established/installed;
d) during the calculation according to other forms of limiting conditions.according to the standards of the
design/projection of constructions/designs and bases
Computed values of loads in the presence of statistical data it is allowed to determine directly on the given probability of
their exceeding
During the calculation of structure and bases for the conditions of the erection of buildings and construction computed
values of snow, wind, glare ice loads and temperature climatic actions should be reduced by 20 %.
If necessary for calculation for the strength and the stability under the conditions of fire, under the explosive influences, the
collision/encounter of transportation means with the parts of construction the coefficients of reliability with respect to the
load for all considered in this case loads should be taken as the equal to one
Note.For the loads with two principal values appropriate computed values should be determined with the identical
coefficient of reliability on the load (for the considered limiting condition).
1.5. The loads, which appear during the production, storage and the transportation of constructions/designs, and also with the
1.6.
1.7.
Page 2
j) loads due to snow with the lowered/reduced principal value, determined by the multiplication of total principal value in
accordance with the indications p. 5.1 for the coefficient:0,3  for III of snow region;0,5.for IV of region;0,6.for V and
VI of regions;
l) temperature climatic actions with the lowered/reduced principal values, determined in accordance with the indications
pp.8.2.8.6 under condition 1 = 2 = 3 =.4 =.5 = 0, I = VII = 0;
m) the actions, caused by the deformations/strains of base, not accompanying by a radical change in the structure of soil, or
by the thawing of permafrost soils;
n) the actions, caused by a change in the humidity, by shrinkage and by the creep of the material
1.8. One should carry to the intermittent loads:
a) load from the equipment, which appear in the startstop, transient and test conditions, and also during its transposition or
replacement;
b) the weight of people, repair materials in the zones of maintenance and repairing the equipment;
c) load from the people, the animals, the equipment on the overlaps of habitable, public and agricultural buildings with the
total principal values, besides the loads, indicated in p. 1.7a, b, g, d;
d) load from the mobile lifting equipment (lift loaders, electric cars, stackerpackers, telphers, and also from the bridge and
suspension cranes with the total principal value);
e) loads due to snow with the total principal value;
f) temperature climatic actions with the total principal value;
g) wind loads;
h) the glare ice loads
1.9. One should carry to the special loads:
a) seismic actions;
b) explosive actions;
c) the loads, caused by the sudden breakdowns of technological process, by temporary malfunction or by a breakdown in
the equipment;
d) the effects, caused by the deformations of base, which are accompanied by radical change in the structure of soil (with
the moistening of settled earth) or by its settling in the regions of mine workings and in the the karstic
Page 3
2.
2.1. The principal value of the weight of the structures of inhouse production should be determined on the basis of standards,
2.2.
3.
working drawings or specifications of manufacturing plants, other structures and soils.according to the design dimensions
and by the specific weight of materials and soils taking into account their humidity under the conditions for erection and
operating the construction
The coefficients of reliability on load factor for the weight of structures and soils are given to table 1.
3.1. The standards of present division apply for loads from the people, animals, equipment, articles, materials, temporary
partitions, that act on the overlaps of buildings and hem on the soils
Table 1
Type of Structures and the form of the soils
Coefficient of reliability
on load factor
Constructions/designs:
metallic
1,05
concrete (with the average density of more than 1600 kg/me), ferroconcrete, rock, reinforced 1,1
stone, wooden
the concrete (with an average density of 1600 kg/me and less), insulating, leveling and
decoration layers (plates/slabs, materials in the cylinders/reels, filling in, tightening
device, etc.), carried out :
under the plant conditions
1,2
on the construction site
1,3
Soils
:in the natural bedding
1,1
filled
1,15
Notes:1. during checking of constructions/designs to the resistance of position to the tilting/reversal, and also in
other cases, when the reduction of the weight of constructions/designs and soils can worsen/impair the
conditions for work of constructions/designs, should be produced calculation, assuming/taking for the
weight of structure or its part the coefficient of reliability on load f = 0,9.
2. ,
, .
3. for the metal constructions, in which the efforts/forces from the dead weight exceed 50 % general/common
efforts/forces, should be assumed/taken f = 1,1.
The versions of the load of the overlaps by these loads should be assumed/taken in accordance with the provided conditions
for erection and operating the buildings.If the data about these conditions are insufficient at the stage of design/projection,
during Structural calculationand bases it is necessary to examine the following versions of the load of the separate overlaps:
continuous load by assumed load;
unfavorable partial load during Structural calculationand bases, sensitive to this diagram of load;
the absence of the temporary load
In this case summary temporary load on the overlaps of multistory building with their unfavorable partial load must not
exceed the load with the continuous load of overlaps, determined taking into account the coefficients of combinations n,
whose values are calculated from formulas (3) and (4).
Page 4
3.3.
3.4.
3.6. The principal values of loads on cross bars and plates/slabs of overlaps from the weight of temporary partitions should be
3.7.
3.8.
taken depending on their construction/design, arrangements also of the nature of support to the overlaps and the walls.The
loads indicated it is allowed to consider as the evenly distributed extra loads, taking their principal values on the basis of
calculation for the assumed schematics of the arrangement/position of partitions, but not less than 0,5 kPa (50 kgs/m2).
The coefficients of reliability on load f for the evenly distributed loads should be assumed/taken:
1,3 with the total principal value less than 2,0 kPa (200 kgs/m2);
1,2 with the total principal value of 2,0 kPa (200 kgs/m2) and more
The coefficient of reliability on the load from the weight of temporary partitions should be assumed/taken in accordance
with the indications p. 2.2.
During the calculation of beams/gullies, cross bars, plates/slabs, and also columns and foundations, which receive loads
from one overlap, total principal value of loads, indicated in table 3, one should descend depending on cargo area A, m2,
the designed element by multiplication for the coefficient of combination A, equal:
a) for the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.1, 2, 12a (with A > Ay = 9 m2),
Error!Error!;
b) for the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.4, 11, 12b ( >2=
Table 3
(1)
362),
Page 5
Not less
2,0 (200)
Not less
1,0 (100)
2,0 (200)
3,0 (300)
4,0 (400)
Not less
4,0 (400)
Not less
5,0 (500)
Not less
5,0 (500)
0,7 (70)
1,0 (100)
1,4 (140)
Not less
1,4 (140)
Not less
5,0 (500)
Not less
1,8 (180)
4,0 (400)
5,0 (500)
0,7 (70)
1.4 (140)
1,8 (180)
4,0 (400)
1,4 (140)
7. Platforms:
a) with the fixed seats
b) for the spectators confronting
8. Garret compartments/rooms
9. Coatings in the sections :
a) with the possible accumulation of people (outgoing from the production
compartments/rooms, halls, audiences/auditoriums and the like.)
0,5 (50)

b) by continuous uniform over the area of balcony (lodzhii), action by which is 2,0 (200)
more unfavorable than determined from pos. 10a
11. Sections of maintenance/servicing and repairing the equipment in the Not less
production compartments/rooms
1,5 (150)
0,7 (70)
1,4 (140)
12. Vestibyuli, foyer, corridors, stairs (with the relating to them passages), which
adjoin the compartments/rooms, indicated in the positions :
) 1, 2 and 3
b) 4, 5, 6 and 11
c) 7
13. Platforms of the stations
14. Compartments/rooms for the cattle:
small
large
Notes:1.
2.
3.
4.
3,0 (300)
4,0 (400)
5,0 (500)
4,0 (400)
1,0 (100)
1,4 (140)
1,8 (180)
1,4 (140)
Not less
Not less
2,0 (200)
0,7 (70)
Not less
Not less
5,0 (500)
1,8 (180)
Loads, indicated in poses.8, one should consider over the area, not occupied with equipment and materials
Loads, indicated in poses.9, one should consider without load due to snow .
Loads, indicated in poses.10, one should consider during the calculation of the frameworks of balconies
(lodzhiy) and sections of walls in the places of jamming these constructions/designs.During the calculation of
the underlying sections of walls, foundations and bases of load on the balconies (lodzhii) should be taken as
the equal to the loads of those adjoining basic compartment/room building and decreased they taking into
account indications pp.3.8 and 3.9.
Principal values of loads for the buildings and the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.3, 4g, 5, 6, 11 and
14, one should assume/take on the construction task on the basis of the technological solutions .
Error!Error!.
(2)
Note. During the calculation of the walls, which receive loads from one overlap, the values of loads should be reduced depending
on the cargo area A of the calculated elements (plates/slabs, beams/gullies), which rest on the walls .
3.9. During the determination of longitudinal forces for calculating of columns, walls and foundations, which receive loads from
two overlaps and more, the total principal values of loads, indicated in table 3, should be reduced by multiplication by the
coefficient of combination n:
a) for the compartments/rooms, indicated in poses.1, 2, 12a,
n1 = 0,4 +
1 0
;
4; n
(3)
Page 6
n2 = 0,5 +
2 0
,
5; n
(4)
3.11.
to the element, in the unfavorable position on square area with the sides not more than 10 cm (in the absence of other
temporary loads).If in the construction task on the basis of the technological solutions the higher principal values of
concentrated loads are not provided, them should be taken as the equal:
) for the overlaps and the stairs.1,5 kN (150 kg);
b) for the garret overlaps, the coatings, the terraces and the balconies.1,0 kN (100 kg);
c) for the coatings, on which it is possible to be moved only with the aid of the ladders and the bridges.0,5 kN (50 kg).
the elements, designed for possible with the erection and operations local loads from equipment and transportation means,
it is allowed not to check against concentrated load indicated.
The principal values of horizontal loads on the handrails of the rails of stairs and balconies should be taken as the equal:
a) for the habitable buildings, the preschool establishments, the houses of leisure, sanatoriums, hospitals and other
therapeutic establishments.0,3 kN/m (30 kG/m);
b) for the platforms and the sport halls.1,5 kN/m (150 kG/m);
c) for other buildings and compartments/rooms in the absence of the special requirements 0,8 kN/m (80 kG/m);
For the operating areas/sites, the bridges, the enclosures/protections of roofs, intended for a short stay of people, the
principal value of horizontal concentrated load on the handrails of rails should be assumed/taken 0,3 kN (30 kg) (in any
place along the length of handrail), if the larger value of the load is not required on the construction task on the basis of the
technological solutions
For the loads, indicated in pp.3.10 and 3.11, should be assumed/taken the coefficient of reliability on load f = 1,2
Page 7
4.7. The principal value of the horizontal load, directed along the crane way and the called party by the impact/shock of crane
against blind rest, should be determined in accordance with the indications, given in required application/appendix 2.this
load must be considered only during the calculation of rests and their fastenings to the beams/gullies of the crane way.
4.8. The coefficient of reliability on the load for the crane loads should be assumed/taken f = 1,1.
Note. Upon consideration of the local and dynamic action of the concentrated vertical load from one wheel of crane the total
principal value of this load should be multiplied during the calculation of the strength of the beams/gullies of crane ways by
the additional coefficient of f1, equal:
1,6 for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the cranes of 8K with the rigid/hard suspension of load;
1,4 for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the cranes of 8K with the flexible suspension of load;
1,3 for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the cranes of 7K;
1,1 for the remaining groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of cranes.During testing of the local stability of the
walls of beams/gullies should be assumed equal the value of additional coefficient to 1,1.
4.9. During the calculation of strength and stability of the beams/gullies of crane method and their fastenings to the frameworks
computed values of vertical crane loads should be multiplied by the dynamicity coefficient, equal:
with the step/pitch of columns not more than 12 m:
1,2 for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the bridge cranes of 8K;
1,1 for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of the bridge cranes of 'K and "K, and also for all groups of the
regimes/conditions of the work of suspension cranes;
with the step/pitch of columns it is more than 12 m.1,1 for the group of the regime/conditions of the work of the bridge
cranes of 8K.
Computed values of horizontal loads from the bridge cranes of the group of the mode of operation of 8K should be
considered with the dynamicity coefficient, equal to 1,1.
In the remaining cases the dynamicity coefficient is taken as equal, 1,0.
During Structural calculationto the endurance, testing of the saggings/deflections of the beams/gullies of crane methods and
displacement of columns, and also upon consideration of the local action of the concentrated vertical load from one wheel
of crane the dynamicity coefficient considered should not be.
4.10. Vertical loads during the calculation of strength and stability of the beams/gullies of crane ways should be considered not
more than from two most unfavorable according to action bridge or suspension cranes. .
4.11. Vertical loads during the calculation of strength and stability of frames, columns, foundations, and also bases in the
buildings with the bridge cranes in several spans (in each span on one tier) should be assumed/taken on each way not more
than from two most unfavorable according to action cranes, but upon consideration of combination in one range of the
cranes of different spans.not more than from four most unfavorable according to action cranes.
4.12. Vertical loads during the calculation of strength and stability of frames, columns, rafter and framesupporting
constructions/designs, foundations, and also bases of buildings with the suspension cranes on one or several ways should be
assumed/taken on each way not more than from two most unfavorable according to action cranes.Upon consideration of
combination in one range of the suspension cranes, which work on the different ways, vertical loads should be
assumed/taken:
not more than from two cranes.for the columns, the framesupporting constructions/designs, the foundations and the bases
of an extreme number with two crane ways in the span;
not more than from four cranes:
for the columns, the framesupporting constructions/designs, the foundations and the bases of an average/mean number;
for the columns, the framesupporting constructions/designs, the foundations and the bases of an extreme number with
three crane ways in the span;
for the rafter constructions/designs with two or three crane ways in the span
4.13. Horizontal loads during the calculation of strength and stability of the beams/gullies of crane ways, columns, frames, rafter
and framesupporting constructions/designs, foundations, and also bases should be considered not more than from two most
unfavorable according to action cranes, arranged/located on one crane way or on the different ways in one range.In this
case for each crane it is necessary to consider only one horizontal load (transverse or longitudinal).
4.14. Number of cranes, considered in the calculations of strength and stability during the determination of vertical and horizontal
loads from the bridge cranes on two or three tiers in the span, during the simultaneous arrangement/position in the span
both of suspension and bridge cranes, and also during the operation of the suspension cranes, intended for the transfer of
load from one crane to another with the aid of the reversable bridges, one should assume/take on the construction task on
the basis of the technological solutions
4.15. During the determination of the vertical and horizontal saggings/deflections of the beams/gullies of crane methods, and also
horizontal displacements of columns the load should be calculated from one most unfavorable on the basis of action crane
4.16. When, on the crane way, one crane is present, and when the second crane will not be established/installed during the
operation of construction, load by this method they must be taken into account only from one crane
4.17. Upon consideration of two cranes of load from them it is necessary to multiply by the coefficient of the combinations:
= 0,85 for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work Of the yk'k cranes ;
= 0,95 for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of the cranes of 7K, 8K.
Upon consideration of four cranes of load from them it is necessary to multiply by the coefficient of the combinations:
= 0,7 for the groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of cranes 16;
Page 8
Upon consideration of one crane vertical and horizontal loads from it must be assumed/taken without the decrease .
During the calculation for the endurance of the beams/gullies of crane ways under the electric traveling cranes and
fastenings of these beams/gullies to the frameworks should be considered the lowered/reduced principal values of loads in
accordance with p. 1.7i.In this case for checking the endurance of the walls of beams/gullies in the zone of action of the
concentrated vertical load from one wheel of crane the lowered/reduced principal values of the vertical effort/force of
wheel should be multiplied by the coefficient, considered during the calculation of the strength of the beams/gullies of
crane ways in accordance with the note to p. 4.8.The groups of the regimes/conditions of the work of the cranes, with
which should be performed the calculation to the endurance, are established by the standards of the design/projection of the
constructions/designs
5.2. The principal value of the weight of snow cover S0 on 1 m2 horizontal earth's surface should be taken depending on the snow
region of the USSR for data of table 4.
5.3. The diagrams of the distribution of load due to snow and value of coefficients. should be assumed/taken in accordance with
required application/appendix 3, in this case the intermediate values of coefficients.it is necessary to determine by linear
interpolation .
When the more unfavorable conditions for work of the elements of constructions/designs appear with the partial load, should be
examined diagrams with load due to snow, which acts on half or fourth of span (for the coatings with the lamps/canopies.in
the sections with a width of b).
Note. In the necessary cases loads due to snow should be determined taking into account the provided further expansion of the
building
5.4. The versions with increased local loads due to snow, given in required application/appendix 3, must be considered during
the calculation of plates/slabs, flooring and girders/drives of coatings, and also during the calculation of those elements of
the frameworks (farms/trusses, beams/gullies, columns, etc.), for which the versions indicated determine the
sizes/dimensions of the sections .
Note. The application of the simplified diagrams of loads due to snow, equivalent on the action to the load diagrams, given in
required application/appendix 3, is allowed during calculations of constructions/designs.During the calculation of frames
and columns of production buildings the calculation only of evenly distributed load due to snow, with exception of the
places of drops/jumps in the coatings, where it is necessary to consider increased load due to snow , is allowed
5.5. Coefficients, established/installed in accordance with the indications of diagrams 1, of 2, 5 and 6 required appendices 3 for
the gently sloping (with the inclines to 12% or with f l < 0,05) coatings of singlespan and multispan buildings without the
lamps/canopies, projected/designed in the regions with average wind speed for three most
Table4
The snow regions of the USSR (they start on
the map/chart/card of 1 required appendix 5)
II
III
IV
0,5 (50)
0,7 (70)
1,0(100)
1,5(150)
VI
Note. The principal value of the weight of snow cover in the mountain and insufficiently studied regions, designated
on the map/chart/card of 1 required appendix 5, and also in the points/items with a height above sea level of
more than 1500 m and in the places with the complex relief should be established/installed on the basis of data
of Goskomgidromet  State Committee of the Council of Ministers of the USSR on Hydrometeorology.In
this case as the principal value of the weight of snow cover s0 should be taken the average/mean value of the
yearly maximums of the water supply according to the results of snow surveying in the section, protected from
the action of wind, during the period not less than 10 years
cold of month.> 2 m/s, one should descend by multiplication by the coefficient for = 1,2.0,yg.
For the coatings with the inclines from 12 to 20 % singlespan and multispan buildings without the lamps/canopies,
projected/designed in the regions s in.4 m/s, coefficients, established/installed in accordance with the indications of the
diagrams of 1 and 5 required appendices 3, one should descend by multiplication by the coefficient, equal to 0,85.
Average wind speed v in three coldest months should be assumed/taken on the map/chart/card 2 required appendices 5.
In the indicated cases for the buildings with a width of b to 90 m and with the height of yu > of 10 m the coefficient for
must be additionally reduced by multiplication by the coefficient
k1 = 1 0,2 Error!, 0,7.
The reduction in load due to snow, provided for by present point/item, is not extended:
) for coatings of buildings in the regions with the average/mean monthly temperature of air during January above minus
of 5 C (see the map/chart/card of 5 required appendices 5);
Page 9
b) for coatings of the buildings, protected from the direct action of wind by the adjacent higher buildings, removed less
than to 10 h1 where h1.altitude difference of adjacent and projected/designed buildings;
c) in the sections of the coatings with a length of b, by and b2 in drops/jumps in the heights of buildings and parapets (see
the diagrams of 8.11 required appendices 3).
5.6. Coefficients.during the determination of loads due to snow for the unheated coatings of shops with the increased heat
5.7.
emissions with the inclines of roofing it is more than 3 % and the guarantee of the proper outlet of melt water one should
descend by 20 % independent of the decrease, provided by p. 5.5.
Should be assumed equal the coefficient of reliability on load f for load due to snow to 1,4.During the calculation of the
elements of the construction/design of coating, for which the relation of the considered principal value of the evenly
distributed load from the weight of coating (including the weight of stationary equipment) to the principal value of the
weight of snow cover S0 less than 0,8, f should be assumed equal to 1,6.
6.2.
6.3.
(for the northlight/sawtooth or wavy coatings, the coatings with the lamps/canopies) or elevation (for the walls with
lodzhiyami and similar constructions/designs);
c) the normal pressure shi, applied to the internal surfaces of buildings with the permeable enclosures/protections, with the
opened/disclosed or constantly open apertures;
or as the normal pressure shkh, shy, caused by the total resistance of construction in the direction of axes X and in and
conditionally applied to the projection of construction on the plane, perpendicular to the appropriate axis
Wind load should be defined as the sum of average/mean and pulsating components .
During the determination of internal pressure shi, and also during the calculation of multistory buildings with a height of up
to 40 m and the singlestory production buildings with a height to 36 m in the ratio of the height to the span of less than 1,5,
the placed in the terrains types A and V (see Section 6.5), pulsating component of wind load it is allowed not to consider
The principal value of average/mean component of wind load shm at the height z above the earth's surface should be
determined from the formula
wm = w0 kc,
(6)
w 0 = 0 , 61 v 02 ,
(7)
where V0 wind speed at the level 10 m above the earth's surface for the terrain of the type A, which corresponds to the 10minute interval of averaging and exceeded on the average of times in 5 years (if the technical specifications, approved in
the routine, do not regulate other periods of the repetition of wind speeds),
6.5. The coefficients k, which calculate a change in the wind pressure on the basis of height z, are determined by
Table 5
The wind regions of the USSR
(they start on the map of 3
required appendices 5)
w0, kPa (kgf/m2)
II
III
IV
VI
VII
0,17(17)
0,23 (23)
0,30(30)
0,38 (38)
0,48 (48)
0,60(60)
0,73(73)
0,85(85)
table 6 depending on the type of terrain .The following types of terrain start:
 the open coasts of seas, lakes and reservoirs, desert, steppe, wooded plain, tundra;
 urban territories, forests and other terrains, evenly covered with obstacles with the height are more than 10 m;
 urban regions with the building by the buildings with a height are more than 25 m .
Construction is considered located in a terrain of this type, if this terrain remains from the windward side of construction at
a distance To z0yu.with height of construction yu to 60 m and 2 km.at the larger height
Table 6
Height of z,m
5
10
0,75
0,5
0,4
1,0
0,65
0,4
Page 10
6.6. During the determination of the components of wind load the we, wf, wi, wx, wy
should be used the appropriate values of the aerodynamic coefficients:external pressure se, friction sf, internal pressure by
SI, and drag chkh or Chews, taken on required application/appendix 4, where by the pointers.wind direction is shown.Sign
plhs "in coefficients che or SI corresponds to the direction of wind pressure on the appropriate surface, sign minus".from
the surface.The intermediate values of loads should be determined by linear interpolation
During the calculation of fastenings of the elements of enclosure/protection to the frameworks in the angles of building and
according to the outer duct of coating should be considered the local negative wind pressure with the aerodynamic
coefficient se = 2, distributed along the surfaces on the width of 1,5 m (diag. 1).
In the cases, not provided by required application/appendix 4 (other forms of construction, calculation with the proper
substantiation of other directions of the wind current or components of the total resistance of body on other directions, etc.),
aerodynamic coefficients it is allowed to assume/take according to reference and experimental data or on the basis of the
results of the testings of model in wind tunnel of constructions/designs in the wind tunnels
Note.During the determination of wind load on the surface of internal walls and partitions in the absence of external
enclosure/protection (at the stage of the installation of building) should be used aerodynamic coefficients of external
pressure se or of drag .
Figure.1. sections with the increased negative wind pressure
6.7. The principal value of pulsating component of wind load shp at the height z
should be determined:
) for construction (and their structural elements), whose first natural vibration
frequency fy, Hz, is more than the limiting value of natural frequency fl (see
Section 6.8)  according to the formula
where
wp = wm v,
wm it is determined in accordance with p. 6.3;
the ripple factor of wind pressure at the level z, taken according to table
7;
Table 7
Height z, m
5
10
20
40
60
80
100
150
200
250
300
350
480
0,85
1,22
1,78
0,76
1,06
1,78
0,69
0,92
1,50
0,62
0,80
1,26
0,58
0,74
1,14
0,56
0,70
1,06
0,54
0,67
1,00
0,51
0,62
0,90
0,49
0,58
0,84
0,47
0,56
0,80
0,46
0,54
0,76
0,46
0,52
0,73
0,46
0,50
0,68
(8)
Page 11
1 1.for the ferroconcrete and concrete construction, and also the buildings with the steel frame in the presence of the
enclosing constructions/designs (. = 0,3);
2.for the steel towers, the masts, the lined chimney stacks, column type apparatuses, including on the ferroconcrete
pedestals (. = 0,15)
b) for the construction (and their structural elements), which can be considered as system with one degree of freedom (transverse
frames of singlestory production buildings, water towers, etc.), when fie < fl  according to the formula
where
wp = wm v ,
(9)
) for the buildings, symmetrical in the plan/layout, which have fy < fl also for all construction, which have fy < fl < f2 (where
f2.the second natural vibration frequency of construction). according to the formula
wp = m y,
(10)
where  the mass of construction at the level z, in reference to the surface area, to which is applied the wind load ;
 dynamicity coefficient (see Section 6.76);
 the horizontal displacement/movement of construction at the level z over the first form of the natural
oscillations/vibrations (for the symmetrical in the plan/layout buildings of a constant height as u it is allowed to assume/take
displacement/movement from evenly distributed horizontally applied static load);
 the coefficient, determined by means of the separation of construction on r of the sections, within limits of which the wind
load is received as constant, according to the formula
r
y w
k =1
r
pk
y Mk
k =1
(11)
2
k
Error!,
(12)
where to shpyu  principal value of pulsating component of wind load at the height yu of the top of construction,
determined from formula (8).
6.8. The limiting value of the natural vibration frequency fl, Hz, with which it is allowed not to consider the inertial forces, which
appear during the oscillations/vibrations on the appropriate its own form, should be determined on Table.8.
Table 8
The wind regions of the USSR (they start
on the map/chart/card of 3 required
appendices 5)
Ia
I
II
III
IV
V
VI
VII
= 0,15
0,85
0,95
1,1
1,2
1,4
1,6
1,7
1,9
2,6
2,9
3,4
3,8
4,3
5,0
5,6
5,9
Page 12
6.9.
For the construction of cylindrical form when fy < fl it is necessary to additionally perform calculation for the vortex/eddy
excitation (wind resonance).
Value of the logarithmic decrement of oscillations/vibrations.one should assume/take :
) for the ferroconcrete and rock construction, and also for the buildings with the steel framework/body in the presence of
the enclosing constructions/designs = 0,3;
b) for the steel towers, the masts, the lined chimney stacks, column type apparatuses, including on the ferroconcrete
pedestals, = 0,15.
The coefficient of the space correlation of the pulsation of pressure in should be determined for the calculated surface of
construction, on which is considered the correlation of the pulsation
Calculated surface includes those parts of the surface of windward, leeward, lateral walls, roofing and similar
constructions/designs, from which the wind
pressure is transferred for designed structural
member .
If calculated surface is close to the rectangle,
oriented so that its sides are parallel to the major
axes (diag. 3), then coefficient in should be
determined according to table 9 depending on
the parameters r and.taken according to table 10.
During the calculation of construction as a whole
the dimensions of calculated surface should be
determined taking into account the indications of
required appendix 4, in this case for the lattice
construction it is necessary to assume/take the
dimensions of calculated surface on its outer
duct
Figure.3. basic coordinate system during the determination of the correlation coefficient in Table 9
Table 9
,
0,1
5
10
20
40
80
160
40
0,83
0,80
0,77
0,73
0,67
0,59
0,50
80
0,76
0,73
0,71
0,68
0,63
0,56
0,47
160
0,67
0,65
0,64
0,61
0,57
0,51
0,44
350
0,56
0,54
0,53
0,51
0,48
0,44
0,38
Table 10
The basic coordinate plane, in parallel which arranged/located the calculated surface
zoy
zox
b
0,4 a
b
h
h
6.10. For the construction, in which f2 < f1 it is necessary to perform dynamic calculation taking into account from the first forms
of natural oscillations/vibrations.The number s should be determined from the condition
7.2. Principal value of linear glare ice load for the elements of the circular section with a diameter of up to 70 mm of on
(wires/conductors, ropes, guys, masts, guys, etc..)i, N/m, one should determine from the formula
i = b k 1 (d + b k 1) g103 .
(13)
Principal value of surface glare ice load i'.Pa, for other elements one should determine from the formula
i' = bk 2 g.
(14)
Page 13
and at the height of 200 m and more.according to table 12.For other periods of repetition the thickness of the wall of icecovered surface should be assumed/taken on the special technical specifications, approved in the routine;
k the coefficient, which calculates a change in the thickness of the wall of icecovered surface on the basis of height and taken
according to table 13;
d  the diameter of wire/conductor, rope, mm;
1 the coefficient, which considers a change of the thickness of the wall of icecovered surface in the dependence on the
diameter of the elements of circular section and determined according to table 14;
2 the coefficient, which considers the relation of the surface area of element, subjected to icing, to the total surface area of
element and taken to the equal to 0,6;
ice density, taken equal to 0,9 g/sme ;
g the acceleration due to gravity, m/s2 .
Table 11
The glare ice regions of the USSR (start on the
map/chart/card of 4 required appendices 5 )
Thicknesses of the wall of icecovered surface b, mm
II
III
IV
10
15
Table 12
Thickness of the wall of icecovered surface b, mm, for the different regions of the USSR
Height above the The region of the glare
In the region of glare icing the northern part of the
earth's surface, m icing of the Asian part of
the rest
and mountain localities
European territory of the USSR
the USSR
It starts on the basis of the It starts on the chart of 4,g
200
15
35
special inspections
required appendices 5
The same
300
20
The same, on the chart 4,
45
400
25
"
The same, on the chart 4,
60
Table 13
Height above the earth's surface, m
Coefficient k
5
0,8
10
1,0
20
1,2
30
1,4
50
1,6
70
1,8
100
2,0
Table 14
Diameter of wire/conductor, rope or rope, mm
5
10
20
30
50
70
Coefficient 1
1,1
1,0
0,9
0,8
0,7
0,6
Notes (to table 11.14):1. v in the region, the mountain and insufficiently studied regions of the USSR, designated on the
map/chart/card of 4 required appendices 5, and also in very rugged terrains (at the peaks of mountains and hills,
on the crossings, on the high mounds, in the closed mountain valleys, basins, the heavy cuts t, p.)the thickness of
the wall of icecovered surface must be determined on the basis of data of special inspections/examinations and
observations
2. The intermediate values of values should be determined by linear interpolation .
3. The thickness of the wall of icecovered surface on the suspended/hung horizontal elements of circular section (ropes,
wires/conductors, ropes) it is allowed to assume/take at the height of the arrangement of their given center of gravity .
4. For determining the glare ice load on the horizontal elements of circular cylindrical form with a diameter of up to 70
mm the thickness of the wall of icecovered surface, given in table 12, should be reduced by 10%
7.3. The coefficient of reliability on load f for the glare ice load should be assumed equal to 1,3, with exception of the cases,
stipulated in other principal documents
7.4. Wind pressure on the elements covered with icecovered surface should be assumed equal 25 % of the principal value of
the wind pressure Sh0, determined according to p. 6.4.
Notes: 1. The separate regions of the USSR, where are observed the combinations of significant wind speeds with the large
sizes/dimensions of glare ice hoarfrost deposits, the thickness of the wall of icecovered surface and its density, and also
wind pressure should be assumed/taken in accordance with actual data .
2. During the determination of wind loads on structural members, arranged/located on the height it is more than 100 m
above the earth's surface, the diameter of iced wires/conductors and ropes, established/installed taking into account the
thickness of the wall of icecovered surface, given in table 12, it is necessary to multiply by the coefficient, equal to 1,5.
7.5. The temperature of air with the rime independent of the height of construction should be assumed/taken in the mountain
regions with the mark:more than 2000 m.minus 15 C, from 1000 to 2000 m  minus 10 C;for the remaining territory of
the USSR for the construction with a height of up to 100 m.minus 5 C, is more than 100 m.minus 10 C .
Note. In the regions, where with the rime is observed temperature below minus 15 s, it should be assumed/taken according to
actual data .
Page 14
Table 15
Buildings and construction in the stage of the operation
unheated buildings
building with artificial climate or with
(without
the
the
heated constant technological heat sources
technological heat
buildings
sources) and the
open emplacements
tw = tew + 1 + 4
w = 5
tc = tec  0,5 1
c = 0
tw = tew
tc = tec
Table 16
Structural Design
Steel
Composite, concrete, reinforced
concrete and rock by thickness, cm :
to 15
from 15 to 39
over 40
8
6
2
6
4
2
4
6
4
Page 15
8.4. Average daily temperatures of surrounding air in warm tew and cold tec season should be determined from the formulas:
tew = tVII + VII ;
(17)
tec = t1  I
(18)
where tI, tVII  longstanding average/mean monthly temperatures of air during January and July, taken respectively on the
maps/charts/cards of 5 and 6 required appendices 5 ;
I, VII  the deviation of average/mean daily temperatures from the average/mean monthly (I  starts on the chart.7
required appendices 5 , VII = 6).
Primechaniya:y.V the heated production buildings at the stage operation for the constructions/designs, protected from the
action of the solar radiation, THE VII is released not to consider .
2. For the mountain and insufficiently studied regions of the USSR, designated on the charts5.7 required appendices 5, tec,
tew are determined from the formulas:
(19)
(20)
where tI,min, tVII,max  average/mean from the absolute values of respectively minimum temperature of air during January and
maximum.during July;
AI, AVII average/mean daily temperature range respectively during January and during July with the clear sky .
tI,min, tVII,max, AI, AVII they start according to the data of Goskomgidromet  State Committee of the Council of
Ministers of the USSR on Hydrometeorology .
8.5. Increases 4 and 5, C, should be determined from the formulas :
where
(21)
(22)
 the coefficient of absorption of solar radiation by the material of the external surface of construction/design, taken on
SNIP II379 **;
Smax  the maximum value of summary (straight line and scattered) solar radiation Of vt/m2, taken on SNIP 2.01.0182;
k  the coefficient, taken according to table 17 ;
k1  the coefficient, taken according to table 18.
Table 17
Form and the orientation of surface (surfaces)
Horizontal
Vertical, oriented to:
the South
the West
the East
Coefficient k
1,0
1,0
0,9
0,7
Table 18
8.6.
Structural Design
Coefficient k
Steel
0,7
Composite, concrete, reinforced concrete and rock by thickness, cm:
to 15
0,6
from 15 to 39
0,4
over 40
0,3
The initial temperature, which corresponds to closing/shorting construction/design or its part into the final system, into
warm TOSh and cold tos the season should be determined from the formulas:
tw = 0,8tVII + 0,2 tI ;
t = 0,2tVII + 0,8tI.
(23)
(24)
Note. With the presence of the data about the calendar period of closing/shorting construction/design, the order of the production
of works, etc. initial temperature it is allowed to refine in accordance with these data.
8.7. Coefficient of reliability on load f for the temperature climatic actions t and.should be assumed equal to 1,1.
9. OTHER LOADS
In the necessary cases, provided for by principal documents or installed in the dependence on the conditions for erection
and of operating the construction, should be considered other loads, not included in the present standards (special
technological loads;humid and shrinkage actions;the wind actions, which cause aerodynamically unstable oscillations of the
type of galloping, buffeting).
Page 16
1.
2.
3.
4.
Present rules are adapted during the structural designs of buildings and construction of the objects of industry, agriculture,
power engineering, transport, connection/communication, water management and civil housing designation/purpose,
besides the objects, for which the order of the calculation of the degree of their responsibility is established/installed in
those corresponding to SNIP.
During the design/projection of constructions/designs the degree of the responsibility of buildings and construction should
be calculated by the coefficient of reliability on the basis of designation/purpose according to ST OF COMECON
(COUNCIL FOR MUTUAL ECONOMIC ASSISTANCE) 38476.
The degree of the responsibility of buildings and construction is determined by the size/dimension of the material and
social damage, possible upon the reaching/achievement by the constructions/designs of the limiting conditions
To the coefficient of reliability according to designation/purpose n should be divided the limiting values of the bearing
capacity, computed values of resistances, limiting values of deformations/strains and crack opening or multiplied computed
values of loads, efforts/forces or other actions
The values of the coefficient of reliability according to designation/purpose n are set in the dependence on the class of the
responsibility of buildings and construction according to the following table
Coefficient of
reliability according to
purpose n
Class I . Basic buildings and the construction of the objects, which have the separately great
nationaleconomic and (or) social value: main housings TES, AES, central knots
of blast furnaces, chimney stacks with a height are more than 200 m, television
towers, constructions of main primary network YEASS, reservoirs for the oil and
the petroleum products by capacity are more than 10 thousand me, the covered
sport construction with the platforms, the building of theaters, cinemas, circuses,
covered markets, educational institutions, children's preschool establishments,
hospitals, maternity wards, museums, archives, etc.
1,0
II. Buildings and the construction of the objects, which have the great national
0,95
Class
economic and (or) social value (objects of industrial, agricultural, civil housing
designation/purpose and connections/communications, not entered in I and III
classes)
Class
III. Buildings and the construction of the objects, which have the limited national
0,9
economic and (or) social value:storages without the processes of sorting and
packing for storing of agricultural products, fertilizers, chemicals, carbon/coal,
peat, etc., hothouse, greenhouses, singlestory apartment houses, the support of
wire communication, support of the illumination of the populated areas, fence,
1
temporary/time buildings both construction and, etc.
For the temporary buildings and the construction with the period of service of up to 5 years it is allowed to assume/take n = 0,8.
Note. For the noncarrying brick walls of the selfsupporting panels, partitions, cross connections above the apertures in the walls
from the piece materials, the fundamental beams/gullies, the fillings of window apertures, bindings of light and aeration
lamps/canopies, constructions/designs the winch, ventilating shafts and ducts, floors on the soil, composite
constructions/designs in the process of transportation and installation, all forms of constructions/designs during the
calculation in the stage of installation should be all values of coefficient of n, given in the table, multiplied by 0,95.
Page 17
Application
CLASSES
responsibility building and the construction of the civil housing and production designation/purpose
Class I Coefficient of reliability according to the designation/purpose = 1
Apartment houses
With height 9 floors and more
Public buildings
The children's preschool construction ;
the educational institutions of all forms (school, VUZ  Institute of Higher Education, training combines);
Extrascholastic establishments for the children and the adolescents;
Hospital to 100 cots and more, maternity wards and obstetrical housings ;
Enterprise of retail trade with a commercial area of 200 sq. meters and more ;
Enterprise of public nutrition in 200 places and more ;
Enterprise of domestic maintenance/servicing in 150 work sites and more;
Hotel, sanatorium, the establishment of leisure and tourism;
Motel, campgrounds, boarding houses, dispensary by the capacity of 250 places and more ;
theaters, circuses, cinemas, concert and dancing halls, palaces and the house of culture, clouds/clubs, museums,
exhibition buildings, library, archives;
administrative buildings, besides entering the group V (SNIP ii 8478) ;
design, prospecting, scientific research and institutes for comprehensive studies and organization, computer centers ,
covered sport construction with the platforms for the spectators in 400 places and more ;
stations of all forms;
cooperated and blocked complexes of public, publictrading VYKh and cultural centers ;
industrial objects (plants, factories, large shops, enterprises with the harmful isolations);
agricultural, production units (large cattlebreeding  400 and more than cows, to 1000 and more than the heads of
fattening, on 5 thousand and more than pigs, poultrybreeding farms/trusses and the factory of more than 10 thousand).
Page 18
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 1
Reference
Use conditions
Any repair and shifting works of the limited
intensity the machine rooms of power stations,
installation works, the shifting works of the
limited intensity
Shifting works of average/mean intensity,
technological works in the machine shops, the
storages of the finished articles of the enterprises
of building materials, the storages of metalsale
the mixed storages, work with the diverse loads
the storages of semi finished products, work with
the diverse.
APPENDIX 2
Required
Error!,
where C  the speed of the movement of crane/valve at the moment of impact/shock, taken equal half of nominal, m/s;
f  the possible greatest sagging/settling of buffer, taken by equal to 0,1 m for the cranes/valves with the flexible suspension
of load load capacity is not more than 50 t of the groups of the modes of operation 1 K."k and 0.2 m  in the remaining
cases;
t  reduced mass of crane/valve, determined from the formula
Error!
here
APPENDICES
Page 19
Cranes/valves
Suspension (manual and electrical) and bridge manual
the electrical bridge:
the general purpose of the groups of the modes of operation 1
the general purpose and special of the groups of the modes of operation
47, and also the foundries
the special groups of the mode of operation 8 K with the suspension of the
load:
flexible
rigid
250 (25)
500 (50)
APPENDIX 3
Required
= 1 with 25;
= 0 " 60.
Versions 2 and 3 should be considered for the buildings with the
twoslope surface coatings (profile/airfoil b), in this case version
2  with 20 30;version 3 with 10 30 only
in the presence of the pilot bridges or aeration devices on the
horse of the coating
Page 20
Diagram
number
APPENDICES
Continuation of Appendix 3
Profiles/airfoils of coatings and diagram of
Coefficients and the field of application of the diagrams
loads due to snow
Buildings with the arched and close to them in
the outline coatings
Error!, but not more 1,0 and not less 0,4.
Version 2 should be considered withError!:
Error! Error!
Error!
Error!
2,0
2,2
1,6
With
1 = 0,8; 2 = Error!;
3 = Error!, but not more:
4,0 for the farms/trusses and the beams with the principal
value of the weight of coating 1,5 kPa and less;
2,5 for the farms/trusses and the beams with the principal
value of the weight of coating it is more than 1,5 kPa;
2,0 for the ferroconcrete flooring slabs with span 6 m and
less and for the steel shaped flooring;
2,5 for the ferroconcrete plates/slabs by span it is above 6
m, and also for the girders/drives independent of span;
b1 = h1, but not more b.
During the determination of load in the end/face of lamp/canopy
for the zone into the value of coefficient.in both versions
should be assumed equal to 1,0.
APPENDICES
Page 21
Continuation of Appendix 3
Diagram
number
Northlight/sawtooth coatings
15
Page 22
APPENDICES
Continuation of Appendix.3
Diagram
number
a)
APPENDICES
Page 23
Continuation of Appendix. 3
Diagram
number
8
0 = 1+
1
(m1 l1 + m2 l 2 ), but it must not exceed :
h
l1 = l1* 2h1h ;
l 2 = l 2* 2 h 2l 2h;
) without the longitudinal lamps/canopies or with the transverse
lamps/canopies
l1 = l1; l2 = l2 2h,
in this case l1 and l2 it is necessary to assume/take not less than 0.
The length of zone b should be taken as the equal:
2h
b = 2 h, but not more 15 m;
s0
1
2h
b= 0
0 >
2 h,
2h
s0
1
s0
0
"
Page 24
Diagram
number
APPENDICES
Continuation of Appendix. 3
Profiles of coatings and diagram of loads due
Coefficients and the field of application of the diagrams
to snow
Buildings with two jumps in the height
Load due to snow on upper and lower coating should be
assumed/taken according to diagram 8.Values 1, b1, 2, b2
should be determined for each drop/jump independently, in this
case:
for the leftist l2 = l2 2h1 5h2;
for the right l2 = l2 2h2 5h1;
( 1b1 + 2 b2 ) 1
l2
b1 + b2
l2
(b1 + b2 )
1 b2 + 2 b1
b1 + b2
10
11
Sections of coatings, which adjoin raised above Diagram relates to the sections with the superstructures with the
the roofing ventilating shafts and other
diagonal of base not more 15.
superstructures
Depending on the calculated construction/design (flooring slabs,
framesupporting and rafter constructions/designs) it is
necessary to consider the most unfavorable position of
the zone of the increased load (at the arbitrary angle ).
Coefficient, constant in the limits of the zone indicated, should
be assumed equal:
1,0 d 1,5 ;
Error! " d > 1,5,
but not less 1,0 and not more:
1,5 with 1,5 < d 5;
2,0 " 5 < d 10 ";
2,5 " 10 < d 15 ";
b1 = 2 h, but not more 2 d
12
1 = 1,0; Error!
Page 25
windward
leeward
2
Notes
= + 0,8
=  0,6
h = h1 + 0,2 l tg
APPENDICES
APPENDIX 4
Required
Notes
Page 26
Continuation of Appendix.4
Diagram
number
APPENDICES
Diagram
number
Notes
cf = 0,04.
2. See that annotated 1 and 2 to
diagram 5
Page 27
Continuation of Appendix.4
Notes
Coefficients se on the external surface should
0,8
APPENDICES
10
Page 28
Continuation of Appendix.4
Diagram
number
Diagram
number
11
Notes
12
Sphere
= 1,3
= 0,6
= 0,2
Re < 105;
2 10 Re 3 105;
4 105 > Re,
where Re.Reynolds number ;
5
Re = 0,88d w 0 k ( z ) f 10 ;
Page 29
Continuation ofAppendix.4
h = 0,7d
APPENDICES
Notes
Page 30
Continuation ofAppendix.4
Diagram Diagrams of buildings, construction, elements
Determination of the aerodynamic coefficients
of structures and wind loads
number
Construction with the circular cylindrical surface
12,
= k1
where k1 = 1 with c > 0;
.
During the determination of
coefficient one should
assume/take
in
accordance with p. 6.9:
b = 0,7d;
h = h1 +0,7f.
2. The coefficient of i should
be considered during the
omitted coating (the
floating roofing ), and also
in the absence of it.
APPENDICES
Notes
Page 31
Continuation ofAppendix.4
Diagram
number
13
= k cx; cy = k cy
Table 1
l
= 0,1 0,5 = 40 b
Table 2
= 0,15b.
2. Re one should determine from
formula to diagram 12, and,
assuming/taking z = h1, d
the diameter of the
circumscribed circle .
During the determination of
the coefficient
correspondence with p. 6.9 h
the height of construction,
b.size/dimension in the
plan/layout with respect to the
axis y.
In table. 2
l
, where l, b the respectively maximum and minimal sizes of
b
APPENDICES
13
Notes
Page 32
Continuation ofAppendix.4
Diagram
number
Table 3
Table 4
APPENDICES
14
= k c
where k they will be determined according to table 1 of diagram 13 ;
c  it is determined according to the graph:
15
cx =
1
Ak
xi
Ai ,
APPENDICES
For the wires/conductors and the ropes (including covered with icecovered
surface) = 1,2
Notes
Page 33
Continuation of Appendix.4
Diagram
number
Notes
2 = 1
= 0,95
Page 34
Continuation of Appendix.4
Diagram
number
16
APPENDICES
Notes
See that annotated.1 to diagram 15.
1. ct it relates to the area of the outline of
the windward face.
2. in the wind direction along the
diagonal of tetrahedral square towers
the coefficient k1 for the steel towers
from the single elements should be
decreased by 10 %; for the wooden
towers from the basic elements.to
increase by 10 %
c x = c x sin 2 ,
where it is determined in accordance with the indications to
diagram 14
18
Page 35
Continuation of Appendix.4
Diagram
number
17
APPENDICES
Page 36
MAPS OF THE DIVISION INTO DISTRICTS OF THE TERRITORY OF THE USSR FOR THE CLIMATIC CHARACTERISTICS
(they are published by various document)
APPENDIX 5
Required
S