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Abortion - is the termination of pregnancy by the

removal or expulsion from the uterus of a fetus or

embryo before viability.
Algor mortis (Latin: algor - coldness; mortis death) is the reduction in body temperature
following death.
Rigor mortis (Latin: rigor - stiffness, mortis death") is one
of the recognizable signs of
death, caused by chemical changes
in the
muscles after death, causing the limbs of the
corpse to
become stiff and difficult to move or
Importance Of Rigor Mortis
- Rigor mortis is utilized to approximate the
time of death.
Generalized muscular contractions occur
from 3 to 6 hours until 36 hours.

3. To determine whether any medical diagnosis

and treatment before death was appropriate.
Types of Autopsies
1. Medico-Legal Autopsy or Forensic or coroner's
autopsies seek to find the cause and manner of
death and to identify the decedent.
2. Clinical or Pathological autopsies are
performed to diagnose a particular disease or for
research purposes.
3. Anatomical or Academic Autopsies - are
performed by students of anatomy for study
purpose only.
4. Virtual or Medical Imaging Autopsies - are
performed utilizing imaging technology only,
primarily magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and
computed tomography (CT).
Forensic Autopsy - is used to determine the cause
and manner of death.

Autopsy - a post-mortem examination to discover

the cause of death orthe extent of disease.
Autopsy is derived from the Greek word autos" oneself and "opsis" - sight/view.

Anatomy - the branch of science concerned with

the bodily structure of humans, animals, and other
living organisms, especially as revealed by
dissection and the separation of parts.

Who are authorized to perform autopsy

1. Health officers
2. Medical officer of law enforcement agencies
3. Members of the medical staff of accredited

Biochemistry - the branch of science concerned

with the chemical and physico-chemical
processes and substances which occur within
living organisms.

When Autopsy performed

1. Written request of nearest kin to ascertain
cause of death
2. Order of competent court, mayor, prosecutor
3. Written request of a law enforcement officer
4. When required by special law
5. Solgen, prosecutor to determine cause of death
Principal Aim Of An Autopsy
1. To determine the cause of death
2. To determine the state of health of the person
before he or she died,

Cadaveric Spasm - also known as postmortem

spasm, instantaneous rigor,cataleptic rigidity, or
instantaneous rigidity, is a rare form of muscular
stiffening that occurs at the moment of death,
persists into the period of rigor mortis and can be
mistaken for rigor mortis.
Cadaveric spasm occurs immediately after death
and is useful to ascertain the circumstances of
Cerebral Concussion there is a brief loss of
consciousness and sometimes memory after
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ahead injury that doesnt cause obvious physical


become very slow for a period of time while a

person or animal is unconscious.

Cerebral Contusion they are bruises to the brain,

usually caused by a direct, strong blow to the
head. They are more serious than concussions.

Leading Causes of Death In The World

1. Ischaemic heart disease
2. Stroke (cerebrovascular diseases)
3. Lower respiratory infections
4. Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease

Circulatory System
cardiovascular system, is an organ system that
permits blood to circulate and transport nutrients
(such as amino acids and electrolytes), oxygen,
carbon dioxide, hormones, and blood cells to and
from cells in the body to nourish it and help to fight
diseases, stabilize body temperature and pH, and
to maintain homeostasis.
Contempt of Court - any willful disobedience to or
disregard of a court order or any misconduct in
the presence of a court action that interferes with
a judge's ability to administer justice or that insults
the dignity of the court. Punishable by fine or
imprisonment or both.
Contusion - also called a bruise, is a type of
hematoma of tissue in which capillaries and
sometimes venules are damaged by trauma,
allowing blood to seep, hemorrhage, or
extravasate into the surrounding interstitial
Death - Complete cessation of all cardiopulmonary (heart-lungs)
and/or cessation of brain activity.
Death is the termination of all biological functions
that sustain a
living organism.
Kinds of Death
1. Somatic or Clinical Death - permanent
cessation of all vital bodily functions.
2. Molecular or Cellular Death - refers to the
death of cells. 3 to 6 hours after cessation of
3. Apparent death or State of Suspended
Animation - a state in which the processes of
the body (such as blood circulation) stop or

Signs Of Death
1. Cessation of heart action and circulation
2. Cessation of respiration
3. Cooling of the body (Algor Mortis) - The
temperature of 1520 degrees Fahrenheit
is considered as ascertain sign of death.
4. Loss of motor power
5. Loss of sensory power
6. Changes in the skin
7. Changes in and about the eye - There is loss
of corneal reflex
Declaration of Tokyo - is a set of international
guidelines for physicians concerning torture and
other cruel, inhuman or degrading treatment or
punishment in relation to detention and
imprisonment, which was adopted in October
1975 during the 29th General assembly of the
World Medical Association.
Defloration - is the laceration or rupture of the
hymen as a result of sexual intercourse.
Dermis - the thick layer of living tissue below the
epidermis which forms the true skin, containing
blood capillaries, nerve endings, sweat glands,
hair follicles, and other structures.
Digestive System - digestive system is a group of
organs working together to convert food into
energy and basic nutrients to feed the entire body.
Ecchymosis - a discoloration of the skin resulting
from bleeding underneath, typically caused by
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Endocrine System - refers to the collection of

glands of an organism that secrete hormones
directly into the circulatory system to be carried
towards a distant target organ.

Frostbite - injury to body tissues caused by

exposure to extreme cold,
typically affecting the nose, fingers, or toes and
often resulting in gangrene.

Epidermis - the outermost layer of the skin of a

human or other vertebrate animal.

Frostnip - the initial stages of frostbite.

Euthanasia - Meaning good death ( well or good ),

Refers to the practice of ending life in a painless
manner. Deliberate intervention undertaken with
the express intention of ending life, to relieve
intractable suffering.
Excretory System - is a passive biological system
that removes excess, unnecessary materials from
an organism, so as to help maintain homeostasis
within the organism and prevent damage to the
Homeostasis -means
remaining the same.



Gynecology - the branch of physiology and

medicine which deals with the functions and
diseases specific to women and girls, especially
those affecting the reproductive system.
Hematoma - is a collection of blood outside of a
blood vessel.
Incision - a surgical cut made in skin or flesh.
Injury - is the damage to a biological organism
caused by physical harm.


Coup Injury - injury at the site of application of


Firearm identification - used to determine whether

the gun that is subject of the investigation has the
same gun used or fired.

Contre-Coup Injury - injury opposite the site of

application of force.

Forensic Medicine - application of medical science

to elucidate legal problems.
Forensic Science - involves the application of the
sciences to answer questions of interest to the
legal system.
Four 4 Signs of Inflammation
1. Rubor - redness
2. Calor - heat
3. Tumor - swelling
4. Dulor - pain
Fracture - comes from the Latin word fractura
which means a break in the continuity of the bone.
It is also a combination of a break in the bone and
soft tissue injury.

Coup-Conre-Coup Injury - injury at the site and

opposite the site of application of force.
Locus Minoris Resistentiae - injury not at the site
and not opposite the site of application of force
but at the site offering least resistance.
Extensive Injury - injury on greater area more than
the site of application of force.
Integumentary system - is the organ system that
protects the body from various kinds of damage,
such as loss of water or abrasion from outside.
The system comprises the skin and its
appendages, including hair, scales, feathers,
hooves, and nails.
Laceration - a deep cut or tear in skin or flesh. A
wound that is produced by the tearing of soft body
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tissue. This type of wound is often irregular and

Lazarus Syndrome - is also called Lazarus
Phenomenon, is the spontaneous return of
circulation after failed attempts at resuscitation.
Lazarus Sign - or Lazarus reflex is a reflex
movement in brain dead patients, which causes
them to briefly raise their arms and drop them
crossed on their chests.
Legal Medicine - Branch of medicine which deals
with the application of medical knowledge to the
purpose of law and in the administration of justice.
Application of medicine to legal cases.
Livor Mortis - is a settling of the blood in the lower
(dependent) portion of the body, causing a
purplish red discoloration of the skin. From the
latin word "livor" - bluish color and "mortis" - of
death. Also known as post-mortem lividity.

Medico-Legal officer - (medical examiner) a

physician who determines the cause of
patient/cadaver and testify in court to aid in the
administration of justice.
Mental Deficiency or mental retardation, is sub
average intellectual ability present from birth or
early infancy. Intelligence is both determined by
heredity and environment. In most cases of
mental deficiency, the cause is unknown.
Classification of Mental Deficiency
1. Idiot The idiots intelligence never exceeds
that of a normal child over 2years old. The
IQ is between 0 20. This is usually
2. Imbecile the imbeciles intelligence is
compared to a normal child from 2 7 years
old and the IQ is 20 40.
3. Feeble Minded his mentality is similar to
that of a normal child between 7 12 years
old and an IQ of 40 70.

Mayhem - intentional maiming of another person.

Mechanical Trauma - is an injury to any portion of
the body from a blow, crush, cut, or penetrating
Medical Evidence - is the means sanctioned by
the rules of court of ascertaining in a judicial
proceeding the truth respecting a matter of fact.
Types of Evidence
1. Real Evidence/Autoptic - made known to the
2. Testimonial Evidence - oral testimony under
3. Experimental Evidence
4. Documentary Evidence
Medical Jurisprudence - knowledge of law in
relation to the practice of medicine.

The Legal Importance of determining the persons

state of mind are the following:
1. In Criminal law, insanity exempts a person
from criminal liability.
2. In Civil law, Insanity is a restriction of the
capacity of a natural person to act as
provided in Article 38 of the Civil Code.
3. Insanity modifies or limits the capacity of a
natural person to act as provided in Article
39 of the Civil Code.
4. Insanity at the time of marriage of any or
both parties is a ground for the annulment
of marriage.
Mental Health Disorders include disturbances in
thinking, emotion, and behavior. There is a
complex interaction between the physical,
psychological, social, cultural and hereditary

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Factors that Contribute to the Development of

Mental Disorders
1. Heredity the most frequent factor that
contributes to insanity and a good history
will reveal the ascendants afflicted with the
2. Incestuous Marriage The mental illness is
accentuated when they are blood relative.
3. Impaired Vitality Stress, tension,
worry,grief may predispose to insanity.
4. Poor Moral Training and Breeding Corrupt
moral upbringing in the family due to
immorality of the parents.
5. Psychic Factors Factors like love,
6. Physical Factors
a. Non toxic factors exhaustion resulting
from severe physical and mental
strain and traumatic injuries to the
b. Toxic factors drug addiction,
infections of the brain.

Kinds of Mental Health Disorders

1. Psychosomatic disorders physical
disorders caused by psychological
2. Somatoform disorders encompasses
several psychiatric disorders in which
people report physical symptoms but deny
having psychiatric problems.
3. Generalized Anxiety Disorders
4. Panic Attacks and Panic Disorder
5. Phobic Disorders
a. Agoraphobia
b. Specific phobias
c. Social phobia
6. Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
7. Post Traumatic Stress Disorder
8. Depression and Mania
9. Bipolar Disorder
10.Suicidal Behavior
11.Eating Disorders

a. Anorexia nervosa
b. Bulimia nervosa
c. Binge eating disorder
12.Personality Disorders
a. Paranoid
b. Schizoid
c. Histrionic
d. Narcissistic
e. Antisocial
f. Borderline
g. Avoidant
h. Dependent
i. Obsessive Compulsive
j. Passive Aggressive
k. Dissociative
13.Schizophrenia a serious mental disorder
characterized by loss of contact with
delusions (false beliefs), abnormal
thinking, disrupted
work and social
Types of Schizophrenia
a. Paranoid - is a mental disorder
characterized by paranoia and a
suspiciousness and generalized
mistrust of others.
b. Hebephrenic - it is characterized by
speech, as well as disturbances in
emotional expression.
c. Catatonic - does not respond to
external stimuli. characterized by a
marked lack of movement, activity,
or expression.
14.Delusional Disorder
15.Psychological Incapacity a waste basket
diagnosis because it is so broad a term,
that it covers all possible Mental

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Some Manifestations of Mental Disorders

1. Disorders of Cognition (Knowing)
a. Illusion
b. Hallucination
2. Disorders of Memory
a. Dementia
3. Disorders in the Content of Thought
A. Delusion
a. Delusion of grandeur
b. Delusion of persecution
c. Delusion of reference
d. Delusion of Self Accusation
e. Delusion of infidelity
f. Nihilistic delusion
g. Delusion of poverty
h. Delusion of control
i. Delusion of depression
B. Obsession
4. Disorders in the trend of thought
Types a. Mania
b. Melancholia
5. Disorders of Emotions or Feelings a
disorder in the state of mind, fervor, or
sensibility, not in accord with reality.
6. Disorders of volition or conation (doing)
Conation - the mental faculty of purpose,
desire, or will to perform an action; volition.
Kinds of Conation
A. Impulsion or Impulse (Compulsion) a
sudden and irresistible force compelling a
person to the conscious performance of
some action without motive or forethought.
Types of Compulsion
a. Pyromania - from the Greek word "pyr" fire, is an impulse control disorder in which
individuals repeatedly fail to resist
impulses to deliberately start fires in order
to relieve tension or for

b. Kleptomania - is the inability to refrain from

the urge to steal items and is done for
reasons other han personal use or financial
c. Dipsomania - an uncontrollable craving for
alcoholic liquors.
d. Homicidal impulse - occurs when one
person kills another suddenly and without
premeditation or planning.
e. Sex impulse - a sudden strong and
unreflective urge or desire to have sex..
f. Suicidal impulse - recurring thoughts of or
preoccupation with suicide.
Mortal Wound - capable of causing death.
Muscular System - is an organ system consisting
of skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscles. It permits
movement of the body, maintains posture, and
circulates blood throughout the body.
Mutilation - or maiming is an act of physical injury
that degrades the appearance or function of any
living body.
Nervous System - consists of the brain, spinal
cord, sensory organs, and all of the nerves that
connect these organs with the rest of the body.
Obstetrics - branch of medecine that deals with
pregnancy, childbirth, and postpartum period,
including care of the newborn.
Paraffin test or Dermal Nitrate test present on
the skin of the hand or site of the wound of
entrance. This test is not conclusive because
fertilizers, cosmetics, cigarettes, urine and other
nitrogenous compounds with nitrates will give a
positive reaction.
A negative test is also not conclusive . The test
usually gives a positive result even after a lapse
of 3days or even if the hands are subjected to
ordinary washing.

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Pathology - the science of the causes and effects

of diseases, especially the branch of medicine that
deals with the laboratory examination of samples
of body tissue for diagnostic or forensic purposes.
Paulus Zacchias - (15841659) is the Father of
Forensic Medicine.
Petechiae a circumscribe extravasation of blood
in the subcutaneous tissue.
Physical Injury - is the effect of some stimulus on
the body.
Physical injuries - include those caused by
mechanical trauma, heat and cold, electrical
discharges, changes in pressure, and radiation.
Mechanical trauma is an injury to any portion of
the body from a blow, crush, cut, or penetrating
Physics - The subject matter of physics includes
mechanics, heat, light and other radiation, sound,
electricity, magnetism, and the structure of atoms.
Physiology - the branch of biology that deals with
the normal functions of living organisms and their
Post-Mortem - (meaning after death) internal
examination of the dead to determine the cause of

tack. This type of wound usually does not bleed

excessively and can appear to close up.
Putrefaction - or decomposition is the final stage
following death, produced mainly by the action of
bacterial enzymes, mostly anaerobic organisms
derived from the vowel. Other enzymes are
derived from fungi and sometimes from insects.
Kinds of Putrefaction:
1. Mummification - is the preservation of a
2. Saponification also called Adipocere
3. Maceration - Softening of the tissues after
death by autolysis.
Reproductive System - or genital system is a
system of sex organs within an organism which
work together for the purpose of sexual
reproduction. Many non-living substances such as
fluids, hormones, and pheromones are also
important accessories to the reproductive system.
Respiratory System - (or ventilatory system) is a
biological system consisting of specific organs
and structures used for the process of respiration
in an organism. The respiratory system is involved
in the intake and exchange of oxygen and carbon
dioxide between an
organism and the environment.
Scald - is a type of burn injury caused by hot
liquids or gases.

Ante-Mortem - before death.

Post-Mortem Caloricity - is the rise of temperature
of the body after death due to rapid and early
putrefactive changes, usually in the first two

Sex Crimes - generally involve illegal or coerced

sexual conduct by one person towards another.

Post Mortem Lividity - it occurs in most extensive

areas of the most dependent portions of the body.

Chaste An unmarried woman who has had no

carnal knowledge with men or that she never
voluntarily had unlawful sexual intercourse. These
also denotes purity of mind and innocence of

Puncture Wound - is usually caused by a sharp

pointy object such as a nail, animal teeth, or a

Virgin A woman who has had no carnal

knowledge of man.
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Her genital organs have not been altered by carnal

Kinds of Virginity
1. Moral virginity the state of not knowing the
of sexual life and not having
experience sexual relation.
2. Physical Virginity A condition whereby a
woman is conscious of the nature of sexual
life but has not experienced sexual
3. Demivirginity This term refers to a
condition of a woman who permits any form
of sexual liberties long as they abstain from
rupturing the hymen by sexual act. The
woman allows sexual intercourse, but only
inter femora or even inter labia, but not to the
extent of rupturing the hymen.
4. Virgo intacta A truly virgin woman. There is
no structural change in her organ,not
withstanding the fact of a previous sexual
Carnal Knowledge - is the act of a man in having
sexual bodily connection with a woman. There is
carnal knowledge if there
is the slightest
penetration in the sexual organ of the female by
the sexual organ of the male.
Shrapnel - fragments of a bomb, shell, or other
object thrown out by an explosion.
Skeletal System - gives the body its basic
framework, providing structure, protection, and
Subpoena - order issued by the court to a person
to appear in court.
Subpoena ad Testificandum- is a court summons
to appear and give oral testimony for use at a
hearing or trial.
Surgery - is an ancient medical specialty that uses
operative manual and instrumental techniques on

a patient to investigate and/or treat a pathological

condition such as disease or injury, to help
improve bodily function or appearance or to repair
unwanted ruptured areas.
Topinard and Rolet - two french anatomist who
devised a formula for the determination of the
height for male and female.
Toxicology - the branch of science concerned with
the nature, effects, and detection of poisons.
Trauma - injury, a physical wound to the body
caused by an external source.
Virginity - A condition of a female who has not
experience sexual
intercourse and whose genital organs have not
been altered by carnal connection and whose
hymen is still intact.
Virgo Intacta - literally the term refers to a truly
virgin woman; that there are structural changes in
her organ to infer previous sexual intercourse and
that she is a virtuous woman.
Virtuous Female - If her body is pure and if she
has never had any sexual intercourse with another
though her mind and heart is impure.
Vital Reaction - the response of living body
tissues to injury.
Wound - in legal medicine,it means strictly a
solution of continuity. An injury to living tissue
caused by a cut, blow, or other impact, typically
one in which the skin is cut or broken.
Open Wound - there is a break in the continuity of
the skin.
1. Abrasion - a wound consisting of superficial
damage to the skin. Scratch, friction mark.
2. Bruise - is a common skin injury that results
from the breakage of tiny blood vessels
leaking under the skin. Blood from damaged
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blood vessels beneath the skin collects near

the surface of the skin to appear as what we
recognize as a black and blue mark. Cause
by a blunt injury to the tissues which damage
blood vessels beneath the surface, allowing
blood to extravasate or leak into the
surrounding tissues.
3. Incised Wound - caused by a clean, sharpedged object suchas a knife, razor, or glass
4. Stab Wound - is a specific form of penetrating
trauma to the skin that results from a knife or
a similar pointed object that is "deeper than it
is wide".
5. Punctured Wound - is a deep wound caused
by something sharp and pointed, like a nail.
The opening on the skin is small, and the
puncture wound may not bleed much.
Puncture wounds can easily become
6. Perforating Wound - a wound with an
entrance and exit opening.
7. Lacerated Wound - that occurs when skin,
tissue, and/or muscle is torn or cut open.
Lacerations may be deep or shallow, long or
short, and wide or narrow. Most lacerations
are the result of the skin hitting an object, or
an object hitting the skin with force.
8. Bite - is a wound received from the teeth of
an animal, including humans.
9. Gunshot Wound (GSW) - (Ballistic Trauma) is
a form of physical trauma sustained from the
discharge of arms or munitions.
Barotrauma - wound/injury caused by a change in
atmospheric pressure.
Defense Wound - or self-defense wound is an
injury received by the victim of an attack while
trying to defend against the assailant. often found
on the hands and forearms, where the victim has
raised them to protect the head and face or to fend
off an assault, but may also be present on the feet
and legs where a victim attempts defense while
lying down and kicking out at the assailant.
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