You are on page 1of 111

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

TO THE TEACHER

This Lesson Guide (LG) in Science serves as a framework of


everyday teaching - learning episode. It aims to develop competence
and reinforce the delivery of instruction to improve learners
performance.
This material is aligned with the existing Learners Module and
Teachers Guide anchored in the K to 12 Basic Education Curriculum
packed with suggested activities, strategies and video clips. It also
coupled with suggested Daily Lesson Log (DLL) template.
Let us take part in the present revolution in education by
rendering quality instruction and making science easy and meaningful
to develop scientifically literate 21st century learners.

THE AUTHORS
.

Quarter I- Matter

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

First Quarter

Quarter I- Matter

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


TOPIC OUTLINE
SCIENCE GRADE 7
UNIT 1: MATTER
Module Number

1. Ways of acquiring
knowledge and solving
problems

Topics

Learning
Competency Code

Scientific Method/ Scientific


Investigation

S7MT-Ia-1

1. Nature of Solutions

S7MT-Ic-2

2.Properties of solutions

S7MT-Ic-2

3. Saturated and Unsaturated


Solutions

S7MT-Ic-2

4. Concentration of Solutions

S7MT-Id-3

5. Factors Affecting Solubility

S7MT-Id-3

1. Separating Component of
Mixtures

S7MT-Ie-f-4

2. Distinguishing Substances
and Mixtures

S7MT-Ie-f-4

1. Classifying substances as
elements or compounds

S7MT-Ig-h-5

2. The Periodic Table of


Elements

S7MT-Ig-h-5

1. Investigating properties of
acids and bases using a
plant indicator

S7MT-Ii-6

2. Determining the pH scale of


common mixtures

S7MT-Ii-6

3. Safety in Handling Acids


and Bases

S7MT-Ii-6

2. Diversity of Materials
in the Environment

2.1 Solutions

2.2 Substances
and Mixtures

2.3 Elements and


Compounds

2.4 Acids and


Bases

Quarter I- Matter

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

2.5 Metals and


Nonmetals

1. Properties of Metals and


Nonmetals

S7MT-Ij-7

2. Metals and Nonmetals in


and Around You

S7MT-Ij-7

WRITERS:
WILHELM D. SISCAR
Taal Natuonal High School

JACKELYN U. DE CASTRO
Payapa National High School

EDITORS/EVALUATORS:
JIMMY P. PENAFLOR
Wencislao Trinidad Memorial NHS
MARICHU C. MANALO
Dacanlao G. Agoncillo National HS

LEONARDA G. MARQUINEZ
Gov. Feliciano Leviste Memorial NHS
JEORGE C. BAUTISTA
Lucsuhin National High School

MARIO B. MARAMOT
EPS I Science

Quarter I- Matter

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 1
Competency:
Describe the components of a scientific investigation.
I. Objective:
1. Identify the steps of scientific methods using an abstract of a
science research or an investigation
.
II. Topic: Scientific Investigation/scientific Method
III. Resources Needed: For the teacher: Laptop and projector
IV. References: Integrated Science book pp.35
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KIFz_-KzURY
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Scientific Method Video Presentation
( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KIFz_-KzURY)
VI. Activity: Identifying the Parts of Science Investigation
VII. Analysis:
a. What was the problem to be solved?
b. State the hypothesis and the basis for the hypothesis.
c. What are the variables in the study?
d. Which of the variables are dependent? Independent? Controlled?
e. How are dependent, independent and controlled variables differ from
one another?
f. What were the findings of the study?
g. State in your own words the conclusion of the study.
VIII.

Abstraction:
What are the important steps in a scientific investigation?

The Scientific Method involves a series of steps that are used to


investigate a natural occurrence or to find answers on questions about the world
around us. These steps include: Identify or define the problem, Gather enough
information and study them, Formulate a hypothesis, Test the hypothesis, Collect
and analyze the results, Make a conclusion, Communicate the results.

IX.

Application:
In what real-life scenario could you use the scientific method?

Quarter I- Matter

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


X. Assessment:
Directions: Read each statement carefully. Choose the letter of the
correct answer.
1. Jackhyla and Shantell wanted to do an experiment with magnets.
They listed the things they needed to do the experiment: magnets, toy
cars, and rubber bands. What step of the scientific method is being
described by the situation?
a. hypothesis
b. materials c. procedure
d. data
2. Jaden, Sincere, and Ashante were testing to see which ball, a
basketball or volleyball, would bounce higher. Before they did the
experiment, each of them guessed what they thought would happen
before the experiment. What step of the scientific method is this?
a. purpose
b. materials
c. hypothesis
d. data
3. Pamela and Paloma wanted to test if sugar or salt dissolved faster in
hot water. In order to do this, they followed certain steps to complete
the experiment. What part of the scientific method is this called?
a. data
b. procedure
c. purpose
d. results
4. Mayne and Richard were testing which balloon rocket would go the
fastest. After they did each test, they recorded their findings on a chart.
These findings are what part of the scientific method?
a. hypothesis
b. materials
c. procedure
d. data
5. Abigail and Alden were testing which color candle would burn the
fastest with their teacher. They thought the red one would burn the
fastest and made their prediction before doing the experiment. What
part of the scientific method is this called?
a. hypothesis

b. procedure

c. materials

d. data

XI. Agreement:
1. What are solutions?
2. What are the two components of a solution?
3. Differentiate between a solute and a solvent.
Reference: Any Chemistry books, Learners Material pp. 1-2

Quarter I- Matter

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 1
Identifying the Parts of a Science Investigation

Your Tasks

Identify the parts of a science investigation.

Materials Needed

a sheet of manila paper


marker/pentel pen

Procedure

1. Read the following abstract of a research.


A Research Abstract
The Nobel Prize winning scientist Karl von Frisch studied the
behavior of honeybees. He thought that bees could distinguish one kind of
flower from another. He suspected that the bees could distinguish flowers by
color.
To determine if this was true, he designed a set of simple
experiments. He first trained bees to come to a source of honey located on a
piece of blue card. The bees made many trips between their hives and the
source of food on the blue card.
The blue card was then removed and replaced with a clean blue card
and a clean red card which did not contain honey. The bees returned to the
blue card and avoided the red card. The bees were able to distinguished the
blue card from the red card.
After von Frisch published his results, other scientists designed
similar experiments. Their findings supported von Frischs hypothesis.
2. From the research abstract,
a. identify the following:
Problem to be solved
Hypothesis
Basis for the hypothesis ( the rationale )
b. describe the following:
Variables in the study
Quarter I- Matter

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

Dependent variable
Independent variable
Control set up
Experimental set up

c. state the following:


Findings of the study
Conclusion
Recommendations
From the research abstract, the following can be derived:
a. Problem: Can bees distinguished one flower from another?
Hypothesis: Bees can distinguish flowers through its color.
Rationale or basis for the hypothesis: Bees visit colored flowers.
b. Variables in the study: color of cards: blue card with honey; red card without honey;
trips
between the hive and the source of food, number of bees.
Independent variable: changed or manipulated variable: cards without honey
Dependent variable: response of bees to the card without honey
Control set up: blue card with honey; red card without honey
Experimental setup: both blue and red card without food source.
c. Findings of the study: Bees visited blue card with food, no bees went to the red card.
When
food source was removed from the blue card, bees visited the blue card only.
Conclusion: The bees were able to distinguish the blue card from the red card.
Recommendations: For other scientists to repeat the experiment.

Quarter I- Matter

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 2
Competency:
Investigate properties of unsaturated or saturated solutions.
I. Objectives:
1. Describe what solutions are.
2. Identify the components of a solution.
II. Topic: The Nature of a Solution
III. Resources Needed:
For the teacher: Laptop and projector
For the students: clear glasses, graduated cylinder,
measuring spoon, water, salt, sugar and stirrer
IV. References: You and the Natural World Science pp.73,
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Present the following pictures to the class.

brass

bronze

Air

Gatorade

saltwater

Ask: What do these things have in common?


VI. Activity: Looks PureBut Its Aint!

VII. Analysis:
a. What did you observe when you mix sugar and water? Salt and
water?
b. Describe its appearance.
c. After dissolving salt and sugar in water, how many phases of matter
can you see? What do you call the mixture? What is a solution?
d. Is sugar and water mixture a solution? salt and water?
e. In sugar and water mixture, which is the solute? the solvent?
Quarter I- Matter

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

f. How about in salt and water mixture?


g. What are the components of a solution?
h. How is solute differ from a solvent?
VIII. Abstraction:
Based on the activity, how will you describe a solution? What makes
up a solution? How do you compare the amount of components in a
solution?

A solution is a specific type mixture where one substance is


dissolved into another. It consists of a solute and a solvent. A solute
is the substance that is present in a smaller amount while solvent is
present in larger amounts. In sugar and water solution, the sugar is
the solute and water is the solvent.

IX. Application:
Do you think solutions are important to you? to the society? to the
environment? Why?
X. Assessment:
Given the following solutions, complete the table below by identifying
the solute and the solvent.
SOLUTIONS
1. 25 g potassium
chloride crystals and
100 g water
2. 10cm3 acetone and
20cm3 alcohol
3. 75% nitrogen gas and
25 % oxygen gas

SOLUTE

SOLVENT

XI. Agreement:
1. What are the observable properties of solutions?

Quarter I- Matter

10

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 2
Looks PureBut Its Aint!

Your Tasks

1. Describe what solutions are.


2. Identify the components of solutions.

Materials Needed

2 clear glasses
Graduated cylinder
1 tsp, salt
1 tsp. sugar
100 mL water
measuring spoon
stirrer

Procedure

A. Label clear glasses as glass A and B.


B. Put 50 mL of water in glass A.
C. Measure 1 tsp of sugar and place it in glass A. Stir it vigorously.
D. Observe what happens.
1. What did you observed when you mix sugar and water?
2. Describe its appearance.
3. After dissolving sugar in water, how many phases can you
see?
4. In your mixture, which is the solute? solvent?
solute_____________________
solvent____________________
D. Repeat procedure B and C using glass B and 1 tsp. of salt.
E. Observe what happens.
Quarter I- Matter

11

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


5. What happens to the salt when you mixed it in water?
6. How many phases of matter can you see?
7. Identify the solute and solvent.
solute____________________
solvent___________________
8. Differentiate between a solute and a solvent.

Quarter I- Matter

12

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 3
Competency:
Investigate properties of unsaturated or saturated solutions.
I.

Objective:
1. Describe the observable properties of solutions.

II.

Topic: Properties of Solutions

III.

Resources Needed: vinegar, juice, coins, vinegar, wine

IV.

References: Learners Material pp. 2-3


2. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Present some common household items . Which of these do you
think are solutions? not solutions? Why?

3. Activity: What Solutions do you find in your home?


VII. Analysis:
a. Fill in Table 1
Products or
Solutions found
at home

Characteristics

Solute

Solvent

b. What are some of the common solutions found at home that you
listed in column 1 of Table 1.
c. How will you describe each product?
d. Which among the solutions are in liquid phase? solid phase?
Quarter I- Matter

13

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


e. From the solutions that you have listed, which do you think is the
solute? Solvent?
VIII. Abstraction:
How do you describe solutions? What are the observable properties
of solutions?
Based on the activity, solutions have the following characteristics:
1. It is homogenous. It is a mixture of one phase only. The components are so
well mixed that all parts of the solution appear the same. Solutions have the same
composition and properties throughout.
2. A solution is often clear and transparent.

IX. Application:
Air is an example of naturally occurring solution. Cite some other
example of a naturally occurring solution? Manufactured/processed
solution? How are those solutions important to us?
X. Assessment:
Which of the following is an example of solution? Choose more than
one. Why do you think these are solutions.
a. vinegar
d. sugar dissolved in water
b. mud in water
e. ice cream
c. food coloring in water
XI. Agreement:
1. Differentiate saturated from unsaturated solution.
2. What are the evidences that a solution is saturated and
unsaturated?

Quarter I- Matter

14

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 3
What Solutions Do You Find In Your Home

Your tasks

1. Describe the observable characteristics or properties of common


solutions found at home or in stores.
2. Present the data gathered using the table below to show the
different properties of common solutions.

Materials Needed

samples of solutions found at home or in stores

Procedure

1. Observe closely the sample of solutions you have.


2. Make a table similar to the one below.
3. Fill in the table by giving the characteristics of each samples and
identifying the
solute and solvent.

Data and Results

Products or
solutions found at
Home or in
Stores

Characteristics

Solute

Solvent

Note: Please add rows as necessary.


Quarter I- Matter

15

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 4
Competency:
Investigate properties of unsaturated or saturated solutions.
I. Objectives:
1. Prepare and compare saturated and unsaturated solution.
2. Cite evidences that a solution is saturated and unsaturated.
II. Topic: Saturated and Unsaturated Solutions
III. Resources Needed:
6 tsp. of sugar, 1 cup of water, 1 measuring cup,
measuring spoon, 2 small clear, transparent bottles, 2 stirrers,
1 thermometer
IV. References: Learners Material pp. 7-8, TG. pp. 4-6
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Teacher Demonstration
Materials: 2 clear glasses, measuring spoon, salt, stirrer
Procedure:
1. Prepare 2 clear glasses half filled with water.
2. Label glasses as glass 1 and 2.
3. Place 1 tbsp. of salt in glass 1. Stir
4. Place another 1 tbsp. of salt in glass 2. Stir. Continue adding
salt until the time that no more salt dissolves.
Ask: In which part of the demonstration shows a saturated solution?
unsaturated solution? When do we say that a solution is
unsaturated? Saturated?
VI. Activity: What is the evidence that a solution is saturated?
VII.

VIII.

Analysis:
a. What is the appearance of the solutions? Write your
observations.
b. How many tsp. of sugar have you added until the sugar no
longer dissolves?
c. How many teaspoons of sugar dissolved completely in 20 mL of
water?
d. From the solutions that you have made, which is the saturated
solution and which is the unsaturated solution? Support your
answer.
e. Using your own words, differentiate saturated from unsaturated
solution.

Abstraction:
How do you differentiate a saturated solution from unsaturated
solution?
Quarter I- Matter
16

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


The solution that contains the maximum amount of solute dissolved by a given
amount of solvent is called a saturated solution. If you add more solute to the
solvent, it will no longer dissolve. The solution has reached its saturation point.
The presence of an excess solid which can no longer dissolve is evidence that the
solution is saturated.
A solution is unsaturated when it contains less solute that the maximum
amount it can dissolve at a given temperature.

IX. Application:
The procedure for preparing salted egg requires 1 litre saturated salt
solution. How will you prepare a one litre saturated salt solution? How do you
know if the salt solution is saturated?
X. Assessment:
Study the illustration below:
25g of salt

to be mixed

50g of salt

to be mixed

50 mL of
water

100g of salt

to be mixed

50 mL of
water

100 mL of
water

Which of the following combinations is the saturated solution? Justify


your answer.
XI. Agreement:
1.Compare % by mass and % by volume.
2.What is the equation used to determine % by mass and % by volume
of a solution?
Quarter I- Matter

17

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 4
What is the evidence that a Solution is saturated?

Your Tasks

1. Prepare and compare saturated and unsaturated solution.


2. Cite evidences that a solution is saturated and unsaturated.

Materials Needed

10 teaspoon sugar
50 mL water
Graduated cylinder
1 measuring spoon ( tsp capacity )
1 small clear, transparent glasses
stirrer

Procedure

1. Put 50 mL of water in a small, clear transparent glass. Add teaspoon


of sugar and stir. Q1. What is the appearance of the solution?
Write your observations.
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
_____________________________________________________________________
2. To the sugar solution in step 1, add teaspoon sugar, a small portion
at a time and stir the solution to dissolve the sugar. At this point, you have
added 1 teaspoon sugar.
3. Add teaspoon of sugar to the sugar solution in step 2 and stir the
solution. At this point, you have added 1 and teaspoon of sugar.
4. Continue adding teaspoon sugar to the same cup until the added
sugar no longer dissolves.
Q2. How many teaspoon of sugar have you added until the sugar no
longer dissolves? _____________ teaspoons
Note: At this step, you will observe that there is already excess
sugar which did not dissolve.

Quarter I- Matter

18

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

Q3. So, how many teaspoons of sugar dissolved completely in 50 mL


of water?
Note: This is now the maximum amount of sugar that will
completely dissolve in 50 mL water.

Quarter I- Matter

19

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 5
Competency:
Express concentration of solutions quantitatively by preparing different
concentrations of mixtures according to uses and availability of
materials
I. Objectives:
1. Describe the concentration of solutions quantitatively
2. Calculate for the percentage by mass and percentage by
volume of a given solution.
II. Topic: Concentration of Solutions
III. Resources Needed:
5 glasses of strawberry juice with different concentration,
25 g sugar, 2 beakers, 25 g NaCl, 40 mL ethanol, water,
platform balance, stirrer
IV. References: Learners Material pp. 10-11
Textbook: You and the Natural World Science by Vengco
& Religioso pp.80-81
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
The teacher will prepare glasses of strawberry juice and
present this to the class.
Ask: How will you describe these glasses of juice? Which among these
do you think are diluted solution? Concentrated solution?

VI. Activity:
Activity 5: How many is too much?
Teacher demonstration:
1.Prepare a solution by dissolving 25 g of NaCl in a 100 g of
water.
2. Prepare another solution by dissolving 40 mL of ethanol in a
20 mL of water.
Quarter I- Matter

20

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


VII. Analysis:
a. What is the formula in finding the percentage (%) by mass of solute
and solvent/
b. What is the percentage by mass composition of the first solution?
c. Calculate for the percentage by volume composition of the second
solution.
d. In what way is percentage by mass and percentage by volume the
same? Differ from one another?
e. Suppose a solution was prepared by dissolving 20.0 g of sugar into
100 g of water. How is its percentage by mass calculated?
VIII. Abstraction:
In what way can you express concentration of solution? What is
percentage by mass? percentage by volume?
Concentration of solutions may be expressed quantitatively in terms of percentage by
mass and percentage by volume.
Percentage by mass of solute is the mass of solute divided by the total mass of the
solution x 100. The mass of the solution is equal to the sum of the masses of the solute and
the solvent. This can be written as:
% by mass of solute =mass of the solute x 100
mass of the solution
Percentage by mass of solvent is the mass of the solvent divided by the mass of the
solution x 100. Mathematically expressed:
mass of the solvent
% by mass of the solvent=________________ x 100
ass of the solution
Note: It is important to note that the units of the masses of solute, the solvent and the
solution must be uniform. If the masses of these substances are expresses in different units,
it is necessary to convert them into a common unit.

Percentage by volume of solute is the volume of the solute divided by the


total volume of the solution x 100. The total volume of the solution is the sum of the
volume of the solute and the solvent. This can be written mathematically as:
volume of the solute
% by volume of the solute = __________________ x 100
Volume of the solution
Percentage by volume of solvent is the volume of the solvent divided by the total
volume of the solution x 100. This can be written as:
volume of the solvent
% by volume of the solvent = ___________________ x 100
volume of the solution
Note: Any unit of volume may be used in the computation of the percentage composition of
the volume of the solution. It is, however important that all volumes must be expressed in
uniform units.

IX. Application:
Quarter I- Matter

21

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

How is percentage composition by mass and volume important in


the production of different household items?
X. Assessment :
Which is more concentrated, a solution containing 5 grams of salt in
10 grams of water or a solution containing 18 grams of salt in 90 grams
of water? Show your calculations.
XI. Agreement :
1. What are the factors affecting solubility.
2. Cite some situations showing how each factor affects solubility of a
material.

Quarter I- Matter

22

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 6
Competency:
Express concentration of solutions quantitatively by preparing different
concentrations of mixtures according to uses and availability of
materials
I. Objective:
1. Investigate how the size of solid affects its solubility.
II. Topic: The Effect of Particle Size in Solubility of Matter
III. Resources Needed:
1 tsp of crushed rock salt,
1 tsp of uncrushed rock salt/fine table salt,
tap water, 2 clear glasses, measuring cup,
measuring spoon and stirrer, timer/stopwatch
IV. References:
Learners Material pp.12-13
Teachers Guide pp.6-7
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Teacher Demonstration:
The Effect of Stirring ( TG. pp.6-7)
Asks the students: What differences do you observe between cup A
and B?
What makes mixture in cup A to dissolve faster
than mixture in cup B?
Do you know of other factors that may affect
solubility of a matter?
VI. Activity: Size Matters
VII.

Analysis:

a. What did you observed when table salt dissolved in water?


b. How long does it takes for the crushed salt to dissolve in water?
uncrushed salt?
c. Which dissolved faster in a cup of water, crushed or uncrushed salt?
d. Why does crushed salt dissolved faster than uncrushed salt
e. Does the size of the salt particle affect its solubility in water?

VIII.

Abstraction:
Based on the activity, what factor affects the solubility of solid
solute? How does it affect solubility?

Quarter I- Matter

23

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


The solubility of a substance is the maximum amount of
that solute that will dissolve in a given amount of solvent at a
certain temperature. There are several factors that affect
solubility. In the above activity, the factors that affect
solubility is particle size. Smaller particles dissolve faster
than larger ones because they have more surface area. In
short, the smaller the particle size, the faster the rate of
solubility or vice versa.
IX. Application:
How do you relate the concept you have learned today ( the smaller
the particle size, the faster it will dissolve) to digestion of food in our
body?
X. Assessment:
Multiple choice: Choose the letter of the best answer from choices
lettered A, B, C, and D.
1. Imagine that you performed an experiment in which you dissolve
different samples of sugar ( sugar cubes, extra fine sugar and regular
table sugar ) into water samples to compare how long they took to
dissolve . Which factor would be the least important to the design of
this experiment?
a. the same amount of sugar must be used in each sample.
b. all the samples must be tested at the same time of the day.
c. the water samples must be all at the same temperature.
d. the sugar samples must all contain only sugar and water.
2. Which factor would not affect the rate solubility of sugar in water?
a. Heat the water and sugar
c. Grind the sugar to make it finer.
b. Stir the water and sugar
d. Add the sugar to the water .
3. Which statement about the process of dissolving is true?
a. The process of dissolving releases energy in the form of heat.
b. Applying heat often speeds up the process of dissolving because it
breaks down the repellent barrier of the solute particles.
c. Once a solute, such as a salt crystals, is dissolved in a solvent, it can
never return to its original crystal state?
d. the solute spreads out in all direction in a solvent because the
solvent and solute particles affect the other.

Quarter I- Matter

24

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


4. If you pound the granules of sugar before adding it in your cup of
coffee, does it affect the solubility?
a. No, it has really no effect on solubility because we did not
heat it at all.
b. Yes, it has increased the surface area so it speeds up the
dissolving process.
c. Yes, it decreases the solubility.
d. Yes, it has increased the surface area and so it increases
the maximum solubility.
5. Which of the following will greatly affect the solubility of solid at room
temperature?
a. thickness
b. pressure
c. particle size
d. texture

XI. Agreement:
1. How does temperature affect solubility?

Quarter I- Matter

25

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 6
Size Matters!

Your Tasks

1. Investigate how the size of the solid affects its solubility.

Materials Needed

crushed rock salt/fine table salt


uncrushed/coarse rock salt
tap water
measuring cup
measuring spoon
stirrer
stopwatch/timer
2 clear glasses/container

Procedure

1. Measure the same amount ( 1 cup ) of tap water into each


container.
2. Place one teaspoon of fine table salt into the first container.
3. Stir the solution and measure the time it takes for the salt to
dissolve completely. Record the time in the table below.
4. Repeat steps 2-3 with the coarse rock salt.

Quarter I- Matter

26

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

Data and Results

Table 5.1
The effect of grain size on dissolving

Situation

Time to dissolve (in


seconds)

Fine salt in water


Coarse salt in water
Questions:
1. What did you observe as salt dissolve in water?
__________________________________________________
2. How long does it take for the fine salt and coarse salt to
dissolve in a cup of water?
________________________________________________
3. Which type of salt dissolved faster in a cup of water?
_________________________________________________
4. Why do you think the fine salt dissolves faster than coarse
salt?
__________________________________________________
5. How does particle size affect its solubility?
_________________________________________________

Quarter I- Matter

27

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


L3sson 7
Competency:
Express concentration of solutions quantitatively by preparing different
concentrations of mixtures according to uses and availability of
materials
I. Objective:
1. Demonstrate the effects of temperature on the solubility of
matter.
II. Topic: The Effect of Temperature on the Solubility of Matter.
III. Resources Needed:
tap water, hot water, cold water, 3 tsp. coffee,
3 clear glasses, timer or watch with seconds,
measuring cup, measuring spoon
IV. References: Learners Material pp.13-14, TG.pp.10-11
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Solubility#Factors_affecting_solubility
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Daniel Padilla was an endorser of a popular brand of coffee. In a
TV commercial, he was asked to prepare two cups of coffee, a black
coffee for his Queen mother and an ice cold coffee for Kathryn. If other
factors will be kept constant except to temperature, what do you think
will be his observations?
VI. Activity: How Fast Does Coffee Dissolve in Hot water?
Cold water?
( Refer to LM pp. 13-14)
VII.

Analysis:
Guide Questions:
a. Does coffee dissolve in cold water? hot water?
b. How long does it take coffee to dissolve in cold water? hot water?
c. In which glass of water does coffee dissolve faster?
d. What factor affects solubility of coffee in water?

VIII.

Abstraction:
How does temperature affect solubility of matter?

Temperature affects how fast a solid solute dissolves in water. An


increase in temperature means an increase in solubility. In other words,
when we increase the temperature of the solvent, the rate at which the
solute dissolves in it also increases. The higher the temperature of the
solvent, the greater the solubility of the solute.
Exception: gaseous solutes dissolve less in hotter liquid solvents than
in colder liquid solvents.
Quarter I- Matter

28

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


IX. Application:
Why do you think fish kill is rampantly reported during El Nio
phenomenon? Explain it briefly.
X. Assessment:
Construct a graph based from the data table showing solubility of
gases
Table 1
Solubility of gases

Gas
O2
CO2

0oC
4.8
171.0

Solubility (cm3/100cm3 of H2O)


20oC
40oC
3.3
2.5
92.3
56.6

60oC
1.9
36.0

Based on the graph, what happens to the solubility as the temperature


increases?

XI. Agreement:
A. 1.Dissolve 1 tsp. of sugar in a cup of hot water.
2. Dissolve 1 tsp of salt in a cup of hot water.
3. Which of the two given solutes dissolve faster in a given amount
of water?
B. Does nature of solute affect solubility of matter? Explain.

Quarter I- Matter

29

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 7
How Fast Does Coffee Dissolve in Hot Water? In Cold Water?

Your Tasks

Demonstrate the effect of temperature on solubility.

Materials

tap water
hot water
ice water
measuring cup
3 teaspoon coffee
measuring spoon
stirrer/spoon
stopwatch or watch with seconds
3 containers/clear glasses

Procedure

1. Measure 1 cup of hot water, tap water and cold water


respectively in three clear glasses. Look at the
diagram of the set up.
2. Place one teaspoon of coffee into a container with
hot water.
3. Stir the solution.
4. Measure the time it takes for the coffee to dissolve
completely in hot water. Record your observation in
the table below.
5. Repeat steps 1-4 , with the tap water.
6. Repeat steps 1-4 with the ice water.

Quarter I- Matter

30

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

Data and Results


Observat

Table 7.1
The Effect of Temperature on Dissolving
Situation

Time to dissolves ( in seconds)

Coffee in hot water


Coffee in tap water
Coffee in cold water

Questions:
1. Does coffee dissolve in hot water? Tap water? Cold water?
___________________________________________________________
2. How long does it take coffee to dissolve in hot water?____________
In tap water? ____________ in cold water? _______________
2. In which of the three situations does coffee dissolve fastest?
______________________________________________________
4. Why do you think coffee dissolve faster in hot water?
______________________________________________________
5. How does temperature affect the solubility of a solid solute?
_______________________________________________________

Quarter I- Matter

31

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 8
Competency:
Express concentration of solutions quantitatively by preparing different
concentrations of mixtures according to uses and availability of
materials
I. Objective:
1. Conduct an investigation to determine the effect of nature of
solute in the solubility of matter.
II. Topic: The Effect of Nature of Solute in Solubility of Matter
III. Resources Needed: 1 tsp of sugar, 1 tsp of rock salt and 1 cup of hot
and cold water,
measuring cup
IV. References: Learners Material pp.14-15, TG.pp.10-12
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlo4VhP65W8
http://www.science-sparks.com/2011/11/17/exploringwhich-solids-dissolve-in-water/
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Video Presentation
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jlo4VhP65W8
VI. Activity:
VII.

VIII.

Solubility Lab

Analysis:
Guide Questions:
1. Is the prediction you made the same as your observation?
2. Which among the substances dissolve in a given amount of water?
3. Which among the substances does not dissolve in a given amount
of water?
4. What factor affect the solubility of each substances?
5. What does this statement mean Like dissolves like?
Abstraction:
How does the nature of solute affect the solubility of matter?

Solubility is the ability of a substance to dissolve another


substance. Solubility of a solute in a solvent purely depends on the
nature of both solute and the solvent. Like dissolves like . A polar
solute dissolves in a polar solvent. At the same time, non polar
solvent will dissolves a non polar substances. A polar solute has
high solubility or soluble in a polar solvent and a non polar solute
has a low solubility or insoluble in a polar solvent.
Quarter I- Matter

32

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Sample data on the data table
Substances
sugar

Solubility
prediction
Answers vary

salt

Answers vary

Baking soda

Answers vary

Baby powder

Answers vary

cornstarch

Answers vary

Solubility
observation
It dissolves into
the liquid
It dissolves into
the liquid
It disappears into
the liquid
A solid float on
top of the liquid
A solid float on
top of the liquid

Solubility
(High or Low)
high
high
high
low
low

IX. Application:
Water and ethanol are the two major components in making
perfume. Can we use 1-pentanol as substitute ingredient if ethanol is not
available? Explain your answer comprehensively.
X. Assessment:
Directions: Read each statements/questions carefully. Choose the
letter of the best answer from choices A, B, C, and D.
1. What factors affect solubility?
I. Nature of solute
II. Shaking
III. Nature of solvent
IV. Amount of solvent
a. I and II
b. I and III c. II and III d. III and IV
2. The phrase "like dissolves like" refers to the fact that __________.
a. polar solvents dissolve nonpolar solutes and vice versa
b. solvents can only dissolve solutes of similar molar mass
c. gases can only dissolve other gases
d polar solvents dissolve polar solutes and nonpolar solvents
dissolve nonpolar solutes
3. What kind of substances tend to be soluble in water?
a. crystalline substances
b. more powdery substances
c. denser substances
d. solid form substances
XI. Agreement:
1. What are the methods of separating mixtures?
2. What is distillation? Evaporation?
3. What are the practical uses of distillation?
Quarter I- Matter

33

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 8
Solubility Lab

Your tasks

Conduct an investigation to determine the effect of nature of solute


in the solubility of matter.

Materials Needed

5 clear glasses or plastic cups


5 stirrer or plastic spoon
tap water
measuring cup
measuring spoon
1 tsp salt
1 tsp sugar
1 tsp talc powder
1 tsp cornstarch
1 tsp baking soda

Procedure

1. Make a prediction on the solubility of 5 solid samples in a given amount


of water. Write your prediction in the second column of table 7.1
2. Fill each five clear glasses with cup of tap water. Label it as glass
1, 2, 3, 4 and 5.
3. Add 1 tsp of solid samples in each glass. ( glass 1-sugar, glass 2-salt,
glass 3- baking
soda, Glass 4-cornstarch and glass 5- flour )
4. Mix well and observe what happens in each substances.
( Note: Use different spoon in mixing each substances.)
5. Record your observations in the data table.

Quarter I- Matter

34

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

Data and Results

Data Table 8
Substances

Solubility
Prediction

Solubility
Observation

Solubility
( High or Low )

sugar
salt
Baking soda
Talc powder/baby
powder
cornstarch

Quarter I- Matter

35

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 9
Competency:
Distinguish mixtures from substances based on a set of properties.
I. Objectives:
1. Separate the components of seawater.
2. Identify the processes involved in separating components of
mixtures.
II. Topic: Separating components of mixtures.
III. Resources Needed:
seawater, Erlenmeyer flask , test tube, small boiling chips,
glass tube bent at right angle with rubber/ cork
attachment or dextrose hose ( delivery tube ),
alcohol lamp, tripod, safety matches, spoon, water bath,
wire gauze ( asbestos scraped off ),
evaporating dish( or aluminium foil ), hand lens
IV.

References: Learners Material pp.18-19


Teachers Guide pp.17-18

V.

Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Present to the class a glass of seawater/saltwater.

Ask: In what classification of matter does this seawater belong? What


composes seawater? Do you think you can separate the water from the salt or
vice versa? In what way can you do it?
VI.
VII.

VIII.

Activity: Seawater! See water and Salts!


Analysis:
Guide Questions:
a. What do you call to the liquid that you have collected in the test tube?
b. What is the taste of the distillate? Is the taste the same as seawater?
c. After all the liquid has evaporated, did you notice the solid that was
left on the aluminium foil? What do you call this?
d. What is the taste of the residue?
Abstraction:
How did you able to separate components of seawater? What
processes are involved?
Distillation is the method used to separate pure water in saltwater
solution. The liquid undergo the process of evaporation and condensation.
The liquid with the lower boiling point is the first to evaporate and
condenses and be collected as distillate. Dissolved salt can be collected
from the solution through evaporation . The solid that was left behind
after all the liquid has evaporated is known as residue.

Quarter I- Matter

36

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


IX.

Application:
Many of the products we use everyday are the result of distillation,
from the gasoline that powers our cars to the water we drink. Can you cite
some other practical application of distillation?
X.

Assessment:
Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer.

1. The flow diagram shows how a pupil extracted pure, dry salt from rock salt.

Crushing

Dissolving

Filtration

Which of the following processes will complete the flow diagram?


a. Condensation b. Freezing
c. Evaporation
d. Distillation
2. Which of the following pair of substance may be separated through
distillation?
a. sand and soil b. water and soil c. salt and sand d. water and alcohol
3. Which one of the following is a disadvantage of evaporation?
a. It always requires heat
c. All of the solute is recovered
b. The solvent is not recovered
d. It cannot be used for insoluble solid
4. Which one of the following shows the separation technique of
evaporation?

a.

b.

c.

d.

5. What will happen when the components of a mixture are mixed very well?
a. can no longer be separated by physical means.
b. combine to form an entirely new substance
c. still retain their individual properties
d. lose their individual properties
XI.

Agreement:
1. In what way are substances differ from mixtures?
2. What is melting point? Boiling point?

Quarter I- Matter

37

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 9
Seawater! See water and Salts!

Your Tasks

1. Separate the components of seawater.


2. Identify the processes involve in separating the components
mixture.

Materials Needed

Seawater ( if not available, saltwater solution may be used?


Erlenmeyer flask
Glass tube bent at right angle, with rubber, cork attachment
( dextrose hose may be used also as delivery tube)
Test tube ( receiver)
Water bath
Small boiling chips
Spoon
Alcohol lamp
Tripod
Safety matches
Wire gauze ( asbestos scraped off )
Evaporating dish ( or aluminum foil )
Hand lens

What to do

1. Prepare a distillation setup as shown in Figure 1. Place about 60 mL


of seawater in the sample flask. Add 2-3 small boiling chips.

Take
Care!!!

Handle
properly the
glassware and
flammable
materials.

Figure 1: Simple Distillation Setup

2. Apply heat to the sample flask until you have collected about 15 mL
of the distilled water (distillate).
Quarter I- Matter

38

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Note: Make sure the source of heat is not removed while the distillation
is in progress
3. Taste a portion of the distillate. Compare the taste of the distillate
with that of seawater.
Take
Care!!!

Never taste any sample


permitted by the teacher or
s stated in the activity
procedure.

4. Set the rest of the distillate aside. You will use it in Activity 2. Label it
properly.
5. While allowing the remaining seawater to cool, prepare an
evaporation setup as shown in Figure 2.
Top view of the
improvised
evaporating dish
using aluminum foil

Figure 2: Evaporation using a water bath


6. Transfer the cooled liquid to the evaporating dish. Aluminum foil may
be used as an alternative for evaporating dish. Note that the aluminum
foil was shaped like a bowl so it can hold the sample.
7. Apply heat to the seawater until all the liquid has evaporated. Let it
cool. Using a hand lens, examine what is left in the evaporating dish.
8. The solid that is left behind in the evaporating dish is called the
residue. Taste a small portion of the residue.

Data and Observation

Q1. What is the taste of the distillate? Is the taste the same as
seawater?
Q2. After all the liquid has evaporated, what do you see? Did you
notice the solid that was left in the evaporating dish?
Q3. What is the taste of the residue?

Quarter I- Matter

39

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 10 (2 days)
Competency:
Distinguish mixtures from substances based on a set of properties.
I. Objectives:
1. Determine the boiling point of unknown liquid samples.
2. Describe in terms of sharpness of the melting point of
different solid samples.
3. Differentiate between substances and mixtures based on
their boiling point.
II. Topic: Distinguishing substances and mixtures
III. Resources Needed:
For Part A
distilled water, seawater, beaker, aluminium foil,
thermometer, cork, iron stand, safety matches,
watch/timer, graphing paper,
For Part B
Benzoic acid, benzoic acid-salt mixture ball pen cap,
alcohol lamp, tripod, wire, Gauze, safety matches,
watch/timer, cover of an ice cream can, paper, scissors,
marker pen
( Note: In case materials are not available in part b, a
video may be presented simply go to
http://curriculum.nismed.upd.edu.ph/2014/08/looks-maybe-deceiving-substances-mixtures)
or some other readily available materials may be use.ie;
white sugar, and white sugar fine salt mixture
IV. References: Learners Material pp.20-25, TG pp. 21-24
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming
Present to the class four containers with 2 different liquid
samples and solid samples that appear identical ( liquid and solid samples in
the activity can also be used. Let the students describe the appearance, color,
and odor of the given samples. Let them also try to distinguish between the
two liquid and solid samples. How can you distinguish this samples from one
another?

Quarter I- Matter

40

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


VI. Activity: Looks may be Deceiving
VII.

Analysis:
Guide Questions:
1. In part A, did the boiling point of sample A and sample B
change with time or was it constant?
2. In part B, what did you observe while sample A is melting?
Sample B?
3. Which of the liquid samples and solid samples is most likely a
substance? Which is most likely a mixture?

VIII.

Abstraction
Based on the activity, how will you differentiate a substance
from a mixture in terms of boiling point and melting point?

During boiling, the temperature of a substance changes at the


start then it becomes the same, while the temperature of a mixture is
different at different times.
During melting, a substance melts completely/smoothly within a short
time; while the mixtures have portions that seem to be not melting.
IX. Application:
A brand of bottled orange juice is labelled as 100% pure
orange juice. Does this mean that orange juice is a pure substance?
Explain.
X. Assessment:
1. You were tasked to check if the liquid sample you have is a
substance or a mixture. Which among these tests is the BEST way to
do so?
I. Color comparison
II. Taste comparison
III. Boiling test
IV. Melting test
A. I, II, III and IV
C. I, II and IV only

B. I, II and III only


D. I and III only

2. Which of the following makes pure substances differ from mixtures?


A. Pure substances melt and boil at fixed temperatures while
mixtures has a varying boiling point and melting point.
B. Pure substances consist of different phases of matter whereas
mixtures do not.
C. Pure substances exist in nature
D. Pure substances are made up of two or more kinds of atom.
Quarter I- Matter

41

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


3. Which of the following observations shows that seawater is a
mixture and not a pure substance?
A. It has uniform properties all throughout.
B. When seawater is heated, all the liquid evaporates.
C. When seawater is heated, it boils at a varying temperature.
D. The temperature at which seawater freezes is lower than at
which pure water freezes
4. All of the following are examples of mixtures EXCEPT:
A, bronze B. aluminum C. stainless steel
D. brass
5. Jill has an unopened box of a 2-meter foil labeled 100% made of
aluminum. Aluminum is a substance. Jill takes just a thumb-size piece
of the aluminum foil. Which of the following statements is TRUE about
the piece of aluminum foil that Jill took compared with the rest that was
left in the box?
A. Its mass and melting behavior are different.
B. Its mass and melting behavior are the same.
C. The mass is different but the melting behavior is the same.
D. The mass is the same but the melting behavior is different.
XI. Agreement:
1. What is electrolysis?
2. What are the components of water?

Quarter I- Matter

42

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 10
Looks may be Deceiving

Your Task

Part A
1. Assemble the setup for boiling properly.
2. Describe the change in temperature of a substance during
boiling.
3. Describe the changes in temperature of a mixture during
boiling.
4. Differentiate between substances and mixtures based on
how temperature changes during boilng.

Materials Needed
distilled water
seawater
beaker (50-mL), 2 pcs
aluminum foil, 2 pcs
o
thermometer (with readings up to 110 C)
cork/rubber to fit thermometer
iron stand/clamp
alcohol lamp
safety matches
watch/timer
graphing paper

What To Do

1. Place about 15 mL of distilled water into a beaker. Label it


properly. Describe the appearance and odor of your
sample. In your worksheet, write your descriptions in Table 10.
.
Take
Note!

Handle the glassware and


flammable materials
properly.

2. Cover the mouth of the beaker with aluminum foil. Using the tip
of your pen, poke a hole at the center of the foil. The hole should be big
enough for the thermometer to pass through.
Quarter I- Matter

43

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


3. Prepare the setup as shown in Figure 3.

Fig.1 Setup for boiling


Note: Make sure that the thermometer bulb is just above the surface of
the sample (about 1 mm). Also, make sure that the heat is evenly
distributed at the bottom of the beaker.
4. Begin recording the temperature when the sample starts to boil
vigorously. Record your temperature reading in Table 1 under the
column, Distilled water.
5. Continue boiling and take at least 5 readings at intervals of 30
seconds after the liquid has started to boil vigorously. Note even
the slight changes in temperature. Record your temperature
readings in Table 1 under the column, Distilled water.
6. Stop heating when the liquid sample reaches half of its original
volume.
7. Present your data for distilled water in a graph. Place the
temperature reading along the y-axis and the time along the x-axis.
Label the graphs appropriately.
8. Repeat steps 1 to 7 using seawater. This time, record your
temperature readings in table 10 under the column, seawater.
Note even the slight changes in temperature.

TAKE
CARE!

Make sure that the beaker is cool


enough to hold. Use another beaker for
seawater. Rinse the thermometer and wipe
dry before using it to test other samples.

Data and Observation

Q1. Refer to the graph and your data for distilled water, what do
you notice about its temperature during boiling?
Q2. How would you define a substance based on what you have
observed?
Quarter I- Matter
44

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

Q3. Refer to the graph and your data for seawater, what do you
notice about its temperature during boiling?
Q4. How would you define a mixture based on what you have
observed?
Table 10: Temperature Readings of the liquid samples during boiling at
30-sec interval
Distilled Water

Seawater

Appearance/ Odor
Temperature (00C) at start of boiling
30 sec
Temperature in
60 sec
0
( 0 C ) after
90 sec
120 sec
150 sec

Part B

Your Task

1. Assemble properly the setup for melting.


2. Describe the appearance of a substance while it is melting.
3. Describe the appearance of a mixture while it is melting.
4. Differentiate between substances and mixtures based on how
they appear as they melt.

Materials Needed

Quarter I- Matter

benzoic acid
benzoic acid-salt mixture
ballpen cap
alcohol lamp
tripod
wire gauze
watch timer
cover of an ice cream can ( about 7-8 cm diameter )
paper/graph paper
marker pen

45

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

What To Do

1. Construction of an improvised melting dish from a cover of an ice


cream can. This maybe prepared ahead.
a.Trace the outline of the cover of an ice cream can on a piece of
paper. Cut the paper following the outline. Adjust the cut-out so
its fits well in the inner part of the ice cream can cover. See
Figure 4a.
b. Fold the cut-out into 4 equal parts. Place the folded cut-out on
top of the cover ( inner part ) of the ice cream can.
See figure 4b.
c. Following the crease of the paper, trace lines using a marker
pen into the cover. Remove the cut-out, See Figure 4c.
d. In each radius, locate points which are equidistant from the
center. Using the tip of a cutter, etch and mark this point as X1,
X2, X3, and X4. See Figure 5.

4a
4b
4c
Figure 2: Guide in constructing an improvised melting dish
Your improvised melting dish should look similar as Figure 5.
Samples will be placed at the X marks. This melting dish may hold as
much as 4 samples at one time.

Figure 3: Improvised melting dish


Quarter I- Matter

46

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


2. Prepare the setup as shown in Figure 4.

TAKE
NOTE!

Handle flammable
materials properly.

Figure 4. Setup for melting


3. Using the tip of a ballpen cap, place about a scoop of benzoic acid in
X1 and benzoic
acid-salt mixture in X4 marks of the improvised melting dish. Do not
put anything in the X2 and X3 marks.
Note: The figure below illustrates how much one scoop of sample is.

Figure 5. Ballpen cap as improvised spatula with a scoop of sample.


4. Examine each sample. Describe the appearance in your worksheet,
write your descriptions for the two samples in Table 11.
5. Make sure that each samples receives the same amount of heat.
Observe each sample as they melt.
Do not inhale the
fumes / vapor.

TAKE
NOTE
!
Data and Observation

Table 11. Appearance of the solid samples.

Benzoic acid ( X1 )

Benzoic acid-salt
mixture
( X4 )

Appearance

Quarter I- Matter

47

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

Q1. What did you observe while benzoic acid is melting?


Q2. How would you define a substance based on what you have
observed?
Q3. What did you observe while benzoic acid-salt mixture is melting?
Q4. How would you define a mixture based on what you have
observed?

Quarter I- Matter

48

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 11
Competency:
Recognize that substances are classified into elements and
compounds.
I. Objectives:
1. Separate the components of water through electrolysis.
2. Identify the components of water.
II. Topic: Electrolysis of Water
III. Resources Needed:
improvised electrolysis apparatus.
5 % sodium hydroxide ( NaOH ) solution,
connecting wires ( black and red insulation ), 9 V dry cell,
test tube, plastic syringe will serve as collecting syringe ,
bamboo stick, safety matches
IV. References: Learners Material pp. 28-30, Teachers Guide pp.29-33
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming

Weve all been told that water is made up of hydrogen and


oxygen. But how do we really know that? Can this wet substance that
quenches our thirst and cools our bodies on hot summer days really be made
up of two gases?
VI. Activity : Water, Wat-er You Made Of?
VII. Analysis:
1. What did you observe after you have connected the connecting
wires to the dry cell?
2. What was collected in the syringe?
3. In which test tube was the hydrogen collected? oxygen?
4. What happened when you placed a lighted match near the mouth
of the test tube?
5. What happened when you thrust a glowing bamboo stick inside
the test tube?
6. What process is involved in decomposing water into hydrogen and
oxygen?

Quarter I- Matter

49

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


VIII. Abstraction:
Based on the activity, what is electrolysis? What are the two
components of water.
Electrolysis of water is the decomposition of water (H2O)
into oxygen (O2) and hydrogen gas (H2) due to an electric
current being passed through the water.
In this activity, the gas which is in the test tube that burns the
flame brightly is oxygen while the gas that produces a pop sound
is the hydrogen.
IX. Application:
How is electrolysis important in our daily living? In industry?
X. Assessment
Identify the terms being referred to.
1. The gas that produces the pop sound when burned.
2. The process of decomposing a substance through the passage of
electricity.
3. The component of water that is present in larger amount.
4. The gas that makes up water that produces a bright spark when
burned.
5. It refers to a positive electrode.
XII.

Agreement:
1. What are elements?
2. What are the important features of a Periodic Table of Elements?

Quarter I- Matter

50

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 11
Water, Wat-er You Made Of?

Your Task

1. Carry out the electrolysis of water


2. Identify the components of water.

Materials Needed

improvised electrolysis apparatus


5% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution
connecting wires (black and red insulation)
9V dry cell
test tube
plastic syringes will serve as collecting syringe
incense or bamboo stick
safety matches
TAKE
CARE!

Be careful in handling
the sodium hydroxide

What To Do

1. Fill the sample container of the electrolysis apparatus half-full


with 5% sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution.

Figure 2. Filling up the electrolysis syringe with the sample


2. Fill each electrolysis syringe with 5% sodium hydroxide (NaOH)
solution up to the zero mark. To do this, insert the tip of the
collecting syringe through the hole of the plastic straw and suck
out the air.
Quarter I- Matter

51

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Refer to Figure 2. Initially, the plunger of the collecting syringe
should b in the zero position. The basic solution will rise and fill
the electrolysis syringe as you pull the plunger of the collecting
syringe.
3. When the solution reaches the zero mark, fold the straw with the
collecting syringe. Refer to the figure on the right. Repeat the
procedure for the other syringe.

Note: In case the 10mL syringe is used for sucking out the air, you
may need to repeat the suction of air to fill up the electrolysis
syringe with the basic solution.
4. Attach the connecting wires to the bottom tips of the stainless
screws. Attach the black wire to the negative (-) terminal of the dry
cell. Attach the red wire to the positive (+) terminal of the dry cell.
The stainless screw that is attached to the black wire is the negative
electrode; while the stainless screw that is attached to the red wire
is the positive electrode.
5. Once the wires are connected with the dry cell, electrolysis will start.
Electrolyze until 6-8 mL of a gas is obtained at the negative
electrode.
6. Draw out the gas at the negative electrode with the collecting
syringe. To do this, insert the tip of the collecting syringe into the
straw on the side of the negative electrode. See figure on the right.
Remove the clip and draw out gas.

Note: The plunger of the collecting syringe should be at


the zero mark before drawing up the gas.
While drawing out the gas, you will notice that the solution will
rise up and fill the electrolysis syringe again. Make sure that the
collecting syringe will only contain the gas generated. However, take
this chance to refill the electrolysis syringe with the solution When
the level of the solution reaches the zero mark in the electrolysis
syringe, slowly lower down the collecting syringe and immediately
cover its tip with your finger.
Quarter I- Matter
52

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

7. Refer to the figure on the right. Inject the collected gas into an
inverted test tube and again cover the mouth of the test tube with
your thumb. Immediately test the gas collected with a lighted
match or bamboo stick/ incense.

Q1. What happened when you placed a lighted match near the mouth
of the test tube?
8. Continue to electrolyze until 6-8 mL of the gas is obtained at the
positive electrode.
9. Refer to the figure on the right. Draw out the gas from the
positive electrode and immediately inject into a test tube held in
upright position. Immediately test the gas collected by thrusting a
glowing (no flame) bamboo stick all the way down towards the
bottom of the test tube.

Note: Extinguish any flame from the burning stick but leave it
glowing before thrusting it inside the test tube.
Q2. What happened when you thrust a glowing bamboo stick inside
the test tube?

Quarter I- Matter

53

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 12
Competency:
Recognize that substances are classified into elements and
compounds
I. Objectives:
1. Trace the history of the arrangement of elements in periodic table
2. Differentiate group number from period in a periodic table of
elements
II. Topic: Elements
III. Resources Needed:
Periodic table worksheet, periodic table of elements
IV. References:
Chemistry for the New Millenium by Emil Soriano pp. 103 104
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Video presentation for three pictures one word
VI. Activity:
A. 3 PICs ONe WORd
Directions: Three different pictures for each item are presented below.
Use these pictures as clues to reveal the name of scientists along with
their contributions in the discovery and development of the periodic
table of elements. Write the name of scientists on the space provided.
1. In 1863 - ____________________organized the 62 known elements
based on their chemical properties in an interval of eight which he later
called as the Law of Octaves.

First name

2. In 1869 ___________________ arranged elements according to their


increasing atomic masses.

Quarter I- Matter

54

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


3. In 1914 - ___________________ labeled the elements with atomic
numbers based upon the number of electrons in an atom rather than on
their atomic mass.

4. In 1932 - _____________________discovered neutrons and identified


isotopes.

5. In 1945 - __________________ identified lanthanides and actinides


which are elements with atomic numbers higher than 92 and are placed
in a separate section on the bottom in today's Periodic table.

B. Periodic Table Worksheet

Quarter I- Matter

55

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


VII. Analysis:
Guide Questions:
a. When was the first comprehensive periodic table made?
b. Who is given credit for the first periodic table?
c. How do elements arrange in the modern periodic table?
d. Based on the periodic table worksheet, what are the elements listed
under group O?
e. What are the elements listed under period R?
f. Which group of elements in the sample worksheet has the same
arrangement as seen in the modern periodic table? In what group
does it belong?
VIII. Abstraction:
1. Who are the scientists that contributed in the development of
periodic table?
2. How do you differentiate group number from period in a periodic
table of elements?
IX. Application:
Identify the names of elements as described by their group and
period number.
1. Group 1, period 1
2. Group 2, period 6
3. Group 18, period 3
4. Group 16, period 4
5. Group 14, period 2
X. Assessment:
Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. The Law of Octaves was given by __________________
A. Bohr B. Mendeleev
C. Newlands
D. Dobereiner
2. Which metal has atomic number 3?
A. Boron
B. Sodium
C. Beryllium D. Lithium
3. What do you call the vertical rows in a periodic table?
A. Groups
B. Noble gases
C. Periods D. Alkali metals
4. It is the horizontal rows in a periodic table.
A. Periods
B. Lathanides
C. Atomic size

D. Groups

5. How many groups does a Modern Periodic Table have?


A. 2
B. 4
C. 10
D. 18
XI. Agreement:
Identify some elements where symbols derived from the following:
a. Latin or Ancient name
b. Name of People / Scientists
c. Name of Places
Quarter I- Matter

56

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Answer key:
Activity:
A. 3 PICs ONe WORd
Directions: Three different pictures for each item are presented below.
Use these pictures as clues to reveal the name of scientists along with
their contributions in the discovery and development of the periodic
table of elements. Write the name of scientists on the space provided.
1. In 1863 JOHN NEWLANDS organized the 62 known elements based
on their chemical properties in an interval of eight which he later called
as the Law of Octaves.
2. In 1869 MENDELEEV arranged elements according to their atomic
masses.
3. In 1914 HENRY MOSELY labeled the elements with atomic numbers
based upon the number of electrons in an atom rather than on their
atomic mass.
4. In 1932 JAMES CHADWICK discovered neutrons and identified
isotopes.
5. In 1945 GLENN SEABORG identified lanthanides and actinides which
are elements with atomic numbers higher than 92 and are placed in a
separate section on the bottom in today's Periodic table
B. Periodic Table Worksheet
Please refer to your Periodic Table of Elements
Analysis:
a. When was the first comprehensive periodic table made?
In 1869 Russian chemist Dimitri Mendeleev started the development of
the periodic table, arranging chemical elements by atomic mass. He
predicted the discovery of other elements, and left spaces open in his
periodic table for them.
b. Who is given credit for the first periodic table?
With the discovery of isotopes of the elements, it became apparent
that atomic weight was not the significant player in the periodic law as
Mendeleev, Meyers and others had proposed, but rather, the
properties of the elements varied periodically with atomic number.
c. How do elements arrange in the modern periodic table?
Elements are now arranged according to their atomic masses.
Quarter I- Matter

57

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


d. Based on the periodic table worksheet, what are the elements listed
under group O?
Nitrogen, Phosphorous, Copper, Silver and Platinum
e. What are the elements listed under period R?
Sodium, Aluminum, Phosphorous, Chlorine and Argon
f. Which group of elements in the sample worksheet has the same
arrangement as seen in the modern periodic table? In what group does
it belong?
Group P In a modern periodic table, they belong to Noble gases
Abstraction:
1. Who are the scientists that contributed in the development of
periodic table?
John Newlands, Dimitri Mendeleev, Henry Mosely and Glenn
Seaborg
2. How do you differentiate group number from period in a periodic
table of elements?
Rows of elements are called periods. The period number of an
element signifies the highest unexcited energy level for an electron in
that element.
Columns of elements help define element groups. Elements within a
group share several common properties. Groups are elements have
the same outer electron arrangement.
Application:
Identify the names of elements as described by their group and
period number.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

Group 1, period 1
Group 2, period 6
Group 18, period 3
Group 16, period 4
Group 14, period 2

Please refer to your Periodic Table of Elements


Assessment:
1. C 2. D

Quarter I- Matter

3. A

4. A

5. D

58

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 13
Competency:
Recognize that substances are classified into elements and
compounds.
I. Objectives:
1. Be familiar with the layout of the periodic table.
2. Know some information about the elements that may be found in
the periodic table.
3. Identify the group number an element it belongs to.
II. Topic: Periodic Table of Elements
III. Resources Needed: periodic table of elements
IV. References: Learners Material pp.32-34
V. Preliminary Activity:
Video Presentation on Periodic Table
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=KYSAo9e_H9k
VI. Activity: The Periodic Table: Its Element-ary!
VII. Analysis:
Guide Questions:
1. What are the symbols for elements with long names such as
beryllium, phosphorus, germanium, and darmstadtium?
2. What are the symbols for boron, nitrogen, fluorine, and vanadium?
3. What are the symbols for lithium, chlorine, argon, calcium and
manganese?
4. What are the symbols for iron, silver, mercury, and lead?
5. What are the symbols for silicon, magnesium and gold?
6. What are the symbols for aluminum, copper, tin and carbon?
7. What is the symbol for potassium?
8. What is the elements name and symbol that comes before titanium?
Barium?
9. In which group does each of the elements belong to?
VIII. Abstraction:
What are the important features in the Periodic Table of Elements?
How are elements arranged in the Modern Periodic Table of Elements?

The Periodic Table is a useful way to arrange elements.


The vertical columns are called groups.
The horizontal rows are called periods.
Elements in the same group have similar properties.
Three quarters of the elements are metals.
One quarter of the elements are non-metals.
Elements are arranged in terms of increasing atomic number.

Quarter I- Matter

59

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

IX. Application:
The chemical formula for table sugar is C12H22O11. What
elements is sugar made of? In what group number do the elements
belong?
X. Assessment:
Complete the story below by filling in the blanks with the name
of elements being referred to from the symbols given.
An Elemental Tale: The Gold Dust Kid
The Kid mounted his trusty steed, old [B] ___________. His shooting [Fe]
____________ strapped to his side, he headed out for the bright [Ne] ____________
lights of Toronto, aiming to rob the mid-day stage. There was sure to be a load of
precious [U] ______________ aboard, and probably [K] ____________, too. Inhaling
a deep breath of [O] __________ he coughed on the [S] ____________ from the
nearby mills. Since the [Hg] ______________ was climbing, he quenched his thirst
with some H2O, tasting the [Cl] ____________ all big cities like Brockville had. As
he headed north his bones ached from [Ca] _____________deposits built up over the
years of riding the [Zn] ____________ trail. Overhead a [He] __________-filled
balloon floated in the breeze; the sun beat down like burning [P] ____________.
Soon he spotted the stage, guarded only by a sheriff with a [Sn] ____________
badge. "Halt," he yelled. "or I'll fill you full of [Pb] ____________." The sheriff drew
his gun, but alas, was too slow. The Kid's gun, blazing like flaming
[Mg] ______________ did the [Cu] ____________ in. Anyone who drew on the Kid
should know his life wasn't worth a plugged [Ni] ______________. A [Pt]
____________ blonde riding beside the [Al] ___________-framed coach rode for her
life when the Kid pulled out some [N] ____________ compounds, preparing to blow
Quarter I- Matter
60

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


the safe to atoms. Suddenly, a shout rang out, "Hi Ho [Ag] ___________ and a
masked man on a white horse raced across the [Si] ____________ sands like [Na]
______________ skittering on H2O. A [H] ___________ bomb would not have
stopped the lawman; the Kid had met his doom. The rest of his life was to be spent
behind [Co] ___________ steel bars, a warning to all who flirt with danger. Your first
detention may be the initial step in a [C] ____________ copy life of the saga of the
[Au] ____________ dust Kid.
XI. Agreement:
1. Trace the origin of some elements in the periodic table.
2. How are chemical symbols written?

Quarter I- Matter

61

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 13
The Periodic Table: Its Element-ary!

Your Task

1. Be familiar with the layout of the periodic table;


2. Know some information about the elements that may be found in
the periodic table
3. Identify the group number an element it belongs to.

Materials Needed

Periodic Table of Elements

What To Do

1.

Every element has a name. In each box of the table, you will find
only one name. One box corresponds to one element. Using the
partial figure of the periodic table on the right, find where oxygen is.

2. For the next questions, please refer to the periodic table of the
elements found at the back page of this module. Write your answers
for each question in Table 1.
a. Scientists agreed to give symbols for each element. This is
very helpful especially to those elements with long names.
Instead of writing the full names, a one-letter or two-letter
symbol may be used. You can find these symbols in the
periodic table too. It is written inside the same box for that
element. For instance,
O is the symbol for oxygen.
Q1. What are the symbols for elements with long names such as
beryllium, phosphorus, germanium, and darmstadtium?
b. Notice that most of the one-letter symbols are the first letters of
these elements.

Quarter I- Matter

62

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Q2. What are the symbols for boron, nitrogen, fluorine and vanadium?
c. For the two-letter symbols, most of them start with the first letter
of the element. Notice that the second letter in the symbol may
be any letter found in the elements name. Notice as well that
only the first letter is capitalized for the two-letter symbols.
Q3. What are the symbols for lithium, chlorine, argon, calcium and
manganese?
d. There are symbols that use letters that were taken from the
ancient name of the element.
Examples of ancient names are ferrum (iron), argentum
(silver), hydrargyrum (mercury) and plumbum (lead).
Q4. What are the symbols for iron, silver, mercury, and lead?
e. In the earlier grade levels, you already encountered elements.
You studied rocks and learned that some are composed of
silicon and magnesium. Some even have gold.
Q5. What are the symbols for silicon, magnesium and gold?
f. When you were recycling materials, you segregated the objects
according to what these are made of. Some of them are made
from aluminum, copper, tin or carbon.
Q6. What are the symbols for these 4 elements?
g. In nutrition, you were advised to eat enough bananas because it
is a good source of potassium.
Q7. What is the symbol for potassium?
h. In each box, you will find a number on top of each symbol. This
is the atomic number. In the higher grade levels, you will learn
what this number represents. For now, use it as a guide on how
the elements are sequenced.
Q8. What is the elements name and symbol that comes before
titanium? How about that comes after barium?
i. Elements that are in the same column have similar properties.
For this, each column is called a family and has a family name.
However, at this point, you will refer first to each family with their
corresponding group number. Notice that the columns are
numbered 1 to 18 from left to right.
Q9. In which group does each of the elements listed in Table 1
belongs to?
Quarter I- Matter

63

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

Data and Results

Table 1. Name, symbol and group number of some elements


Name

Symbol

Group Number

Note: Please add rows if necessary.

Quarter I- Matter

64

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 14
Competency:
Recognize that substances are classified into elements and
compounds
I. Objectives:
1. Identify some common elements by showing their names and
symbols.
2. Describe the elements that may be found in the periodic table.
II. Topic: Elements
III. Resources Needed:
IV. References:

Periodic Table of Elements

Learners Material pp. 32-34

www.franklinboe.org/site/.../filedownload.ashx?https://www.goog
le.com.ph/?gfe_rd=cr&ei=WteVs3_Ea_C8Af75ajQBg#q=sample
+work sheet+for+elements
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming: Periodic Table Elements Song
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=VgVQKCcfwnU
&ebc=ANyPxKrQWSNGiK5TweWAWXjMlisnxmLc
JtUMfj3uxrKx021pf2x9xcJY7B2wurmECLDWRk5TMY7oFYq65qFQOoSNg9eh4zgnQ
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=xQu2eSeM66o
VI. Activity: The Periodic Table: Its Element-ary! (Refer to LM pp 36-39)
VII. Analysis:
I. The Names of the Elements:
A. Some elements are named after places. Write the name of
the element that is named after the place given in each question.
1. The country of France. ___________________________________
2. The country of Germany.___________________________________
3. America: _________________________________________________
4. The country of Poland. ___________________________________
5. Scandinavia: _____________________________________________
6. One of our states._________________________________________
7. The city of Berkeley: ______________________________________
Quarter I- Matter

65

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


8. The continent of Europe.___________________________________
B. Four of the elements are named after planets. Complete the
chart below for the elements named after planets.
Element Name
____________________________

Planet Name
____________________________

____________________________ ____________________________
____________________________ ____________________________
____________________________ ____________________________
C. Many elements are named after famous scientists. The
scientists last name is used along with the ending ium.
Write the element after each scientist given.
1. Albert Einstein:
___________________________________
2. Pierre and Marie Curie: ___________________________________
3. Enrico Fermi:
___________________________________
4. Alfred Nobel:
___________________________________
5. Dmitri Mendeleev:
___________________________________
6. Ernest Lawrence:
___________________________________
II. Element Symbols:
An element symbol is an abbreviation for the name of an
element. A symbol can have one or two letters. The first letter of a
symbol is always capitalized. The second letter (if there is one) is never
capitalized. Symbols for the naming of elements are part of an
international language. Chemists all over the world use the same
symbols.
1. Complete the following table by filling in the missing word or symbol.
Element
Carbon
Hydrogen
Oxygen
Nitrogen
Sulfur
Iodine
Iron
Lead
Mercury
Phosphorus

Quarter I- Matter

Symbol
C

Element
Chlorine

Symbol
Cl
Cu
Au
Ag
He
Al
Ca
Ne
K
Na

66

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


VIII. Abstraction:
How did the scientist come up with the name and symbols of the
elements in the periodic table?

Elements are named after the places, planets and from the
scientists last name.
Most of the one-letter symbols are the first letters of the element.
For the two-letter symbols, most of them start with the first letter
of the element and the second letter in the symbol may be any
letter found in the elements name.
(Only the first letter found in the element is capitalized for the
two-letter symbols)

IX. Application:
Its easy to see where some of the symbols came from by
looking at the names of the elements. The symbol seems to be a
combination of one or two of the beginning letters in the elements
name.
The elements in the following table are ones that have symbols
that come from their Latin names. See how many Latin names you can
get right in this table. Study the element symbol, and then pick the
Latin names from the list in the last column of the table.
English Name

Symbol

Antimony

Sb

Latin Name
Choices
Argentum

Copper

Cu

Aurum

Gold

Au

Cuprum

Iron

Fe

Ferrum

Lead

Pb

Hydragyrum

Mercury

Hg

Kalium

Potassium

Natrium

Silver

Ag

Plumbum

Sodium

Na

Stannum

Tin

Sn

Stibium

Tungsten

Wolfram

Quarter I- Matter

Latin Name

67

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


X. Assessment:
1. What is the name of the following elements?
a. Kr
b. C
c. Se
d. Cd
e. Ga
2. What is the symbol of the following elements?
a. Cesium
b. Arsenic
c. Berkelium
d. Bromine
e. Bismuth
XI. Agreement:
Solve the Element-ary Crossword Puzzle.
1
2
3
4
5

1. Down: a yellow element that stinks when burned


2. Down: a reddish-orange element used for electrical wiring
2. Across: element named after a female scientist
3. Down: an element that is a coin
4. Across: name of an element and the closest planet to the sun
5. Across: an element (gas) used to make colourfully lit advertising
signs

Quarter I- Matter

68

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 15
Competency:
Recognize that substances are classified into elements and
compounds.
I. Objectives:
1. Familiarize with the different elements symbols
2. Trace the origin of the symbol of the elements.
II. Topic: Elements
III. Resources Needed: coloring materials
IV. References: Worktext in Science and Technology 7 pp. 64-66,
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Video Presentation (BINGO)

VI. Activity: Lets Play SYMBO!


Directions: Different symbols are written on each letter of the
SYMBO card with a corresponding color. Write the answer in the blank
that best describes the statement or illustration that will serve as clue
presented for each box. Shade it as directed by the color coding.
(Note: Five similar colors in a row must form whether straight,
horizontal or diagonal pattern to win SYMBO)

Quarter I- Matter

69

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


VII. Analysis:
Guide Questions:
a. What elements have only one-letter symbol? What did you notice with
their symbols?
b. What elements have two-letter symbol? What did you notice with their
symbols?
c. What are the elements with symbols derived from their ancient
names?
d. How did scientist arrived at giving symbols of elements?
VIII. Abstraction:
How do scientists give symbol for each element?
The system of chemical symbols was proposed by the great Swedish
chemist, John Jacob Berzelius, in 1811.
Berzelius suggested that the first letter of the element be used as the
symbol for the element. He later suggested that if two or more elements
start with the same letter, the first and second letters would be used as the
symbol. You may observe that sometimes symbols appear to be very
different from the names of the elements. This is because their Latin or
Greek names were used.

IX. Application:
Decipher the element symbols from the sentences given.
1.
2.
3.
4.
5.
X.

Fire is fun.
Accept that you can be psychic.
Clark fixes ham with fries, cokes plus snacks
Candy canes taste crunchy.
Chocolate chip cookies amuse fat lads.
Assessment:
Crossword puzzle
(refer to http://education.jlab.org/elementcrossword/strange_symbols_01.pdf

XI.

Agreement:
1. What is formed when element is combined with another element?

Quarter I- Matter

70

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Answer key

Quarter I- Matter

71

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 16
Competency:
Recognize that substances are classified into elements and
compounds
I. Objectives:
1. Name elements that are listed in the Nutrition Facts of food label
2. Recognize that the elements listed in the Nutrition Facts are not
added as the elements themselves.
3. Infer the food ingredient that could be the source of the listed
elements.
4. Recognize that most of the food ingredients are examples of
compounds.
II. Topic: Elements
III. Resources Needed: food labels
IV. References: Learners Material pp. 36-39
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
You won P2000 worth of gift certificate in a raffle at SM
Supermarket what are the lists of products that you will buy?
VI. Activity: The Matter on Labels (refer to LM pp 36-39)
VII. Analysis:
a. Fill in Table
Compounds and their constituent element written in food
labels
Food Product
Cereal Drink
Chocolate candy
Soy sauce

Compound

Constituent Element

Note: Please add rows as necessary


b. What are the two major elements listed in the Nutrition Facts for the
cereal drink? Identify the sources of these two elements based from
the ingredients presented.
c. Name three elements present in the ingredients of the cereal drink
which are not listed in the Nutrition Facts.
d. Are majority of food ingredients examples of compounds? Explain
your answer.
Quarter I- Matter

72

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


VIII. Abstraction:
How do you distinguish an element from a compound?
Elements are the simplest form of pure substances, made up of
only one kind of atom. It is represented by a chemical symbols.
A compound is a pure substance made from a chemical
combination of at least two different elements. Compounds are
represented by their chemical formula.
IX. Application:
Why do you think it is important to always check on the elements
listed in the Nutrition Facts of food label?
X. Assessment:
A certain brand of softdrinks contains carbonic acid, HCO3 and
sucrose C12H22O11. Name the elements present on the said ingredients.
XI. Agreement:
Identify and describe some elements that are essential to life.

Quarter I- Matter

73

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 16
The Matter on Labels

Your Task

1. Name elements that are listed in the Nutrition Facts of a food


label.
2. Recognize that the elements listed in the Nutrition Facts are not
added as the
elements themselves.
3. Infer the food ingredient that could be the source of those listed
elements.
4. Recognize that most of these food ingredients are examples of
compounds.

Materials Needed

Food labels

What To Do

1. Refer to the labels of different food products below.

Cereal drink

Quarter I- Matter

Ingredients:
sucrose, creamer (glucose syrup,
hydrogenated palm kernel oil,
sodium
caseinate containing milk,
sequestrants,
emulsifiers, nature-identical
flavors,
sodium chloride, anticaking
agents),
maltodextrin, cereal flakes
(wheat flour,
rice flour, malt extract, sucrose,
corn
grits, acidity regulator), sweet
whey
powder, cocoa powder, iodized
salt,
thickener, artificial flavour, zinc
sulfate,
iron pyrophosphate.
May contain traces of soya.

74

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


INGREDIENTS: SUGAR,
GLUCOSE SYRUP,
MILK NGREDIENTS,
MODIFIED PALM OIL,
UNSWEETENED
CHOCOLATE,
MODIFIED
VEGETABLE OIL, PALM
OIL, VEGETABLE
OIL, COCOA BUTTER,
SALT CALCIUM
CHLORIDE, CITRIC
ACID, SODIUM
BICARBONATE, SOY
LECITHIN, NATURAL
AND ARTIFICIAL
FLAVORS.
MAY CONTAIN
PEANUTS, TREE NUTS
OR EGG.

Chocolate candy
Ingredients: water,
hydrolysed soybean
protein, iodized salt,
sugar, natural and
artificial colors with
tartrazine, acidulant,
monosodium glutamate,
0.1% potassium
sorbate, natural flavor
and flavor enhancer.

Soy sauce
2. List down in Table 3 the compounds in the product label and the
constituent elements. There are cases that you will need to look up
the constituent elements because they may not be obvious from the
compound name (e.g., citric acid, oil).
3. The elements iron and zinc are listed in the Nutrition Facts for the
cereal drink. Find out from the ingredients the source of these
elements.
4. Name three elements present in the Ingredients of the cereal drink
which are not listed in the Nutrition Facts.
Quarter I- Matter

75

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

Data and Results

Table 3. Compounds and their constituent elements written in the food labels
Food Product

Compound

Constituent Element

Cereal drink
Chocolate candy
Soy sauce
Note: Please add rows if necessary.

Quarter I- Matter

76

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 17
Competency:
Recognize that substances are classified into elements and
compounds
I. Objectives :
1. Recover iron from a food product.
2. Name other food / food products that are rich in iron.
3. Enumerate human benefits from iron as part of the daily
meal.
II. Topic: Iron-y in Food
III. Resources / Materials Needed:
processed food product rich in reduced iron e.g. cereal meal
magnetic stirrer (magnet with white coating) or a piece of neodymium
magnet wrapped in a small Ziplocs / plastic bag
blender (optional)
water
beaker / hollow or concave plastic container
measuring cup
forceps (optional)
dropper
a piece of clean white paper
IV. References:
Learners Material pp. 42-43
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4_QWC-WytnQ
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dK9BuSrvj1A
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:

Present an example of food nutrition label which includes reduced


iron in the list.
Recall the magnetic property of iron.
Present a video clip regarding Iron rich food

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4_QWC-WytnQ
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dK9BuSrvj1A

Quarter I- Matter

77

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


VI. Activity:
The Iron-y of Food (refer to LM pp 42-43)
Procedure
1. Place one cup of the food sample in a blender. Add one cup of
water. If no blender is available, use a hollow or concave plastic
container and manually
mash the food sample.
2.

Transfer the crushed sample to a beaker. If a concave container


is use , no need to transfer the mashed sample. If the mixture is
too thick, add more water.

3.

Make sure that the magnetic stirring bar or the Ziplock with the
neodymium magnet inside ( whichever is available) is clean.
Place it in the beaker containing the mixture.

4.

Stir the mixture for about 15 minutes with a magnetic stirrer or


magnet.

Note: If the magnet does not seem


to move, the mixture might still be thick. If
this happens, add enough water.
5.
6.
7.

TAKE
CAR
E!

Do not eat the


food samples
and the iron that
will be extracted
in the activity.

Using the forceps, retrieve the magnetic stirring bar from the
mixture. Take a closer look at the magnetic stirring bar.
If neodymium magnet is used, carefully washed it with drops of
water using the dropper.
Blow dry the neodymium while it is still inside the plastic. Once
dry, carefully remove the magnet from the plastic using the
clean white paper as the mat.

VII. Analysis:
Do you notice anything that clings to the magnetic stirring bar or with
the neodymium magnet?
What do you notice about the clean sheet of paper during your removal
of the neodymium inside the plastic?
Why do you think these materials cling to the magnetic stirring bar?
VIII. Abstraction:
Why is it important to check on the nutrition label of food products?
What are the benefits from iron rich food?
How will you know that a certain food contains iron?
IX. Application:
Why do you think we need iron in our body?
List 3 reasons.
.
Quarter I- Matter

78

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


X. Assessment:
Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. What element in the food sample is found present from the activity?
a. Copper
b. Iron
c. Manganese
d. Sodium
2. Which among the food listed below is classified iron rich food?
a. cereals
b. banana
c. pineapple
d. ampalaya
3. What property of iron is dominant in the activity?
a. conductivity b . malleability
c. magnetic
4. What symbol is used for iron?
a. Cl
b. Au
c. Na

d. durability

d. Fe

5. Which among the diseases are related to iron deficiency?


a. anemia
b. psoriasis c. mumps d. pneumonia
XI. Agreement:
What are acids and bases? Define each briefly.

Quarter I- Matter

79

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 17
The Iron-y of Food

Your Task

1. Recover iron from a food product.

Materials Needed

processed food product rich in reduced iron e.g. cereal meal


magnetic stirrer (magnet with white coating) or a piece of neodymium
magnet wrapped
in a small Ziplocs / plastic bag
blender (optional)
water
beaker / hollow or concave plastic container
measuring cup
forceps (optional)
dropper
a piece of clean white paper

What to do

1. Place one cup of the food sample in a blender. Add one cup of
water. If no blender is available, use a hollow or concave plastic
container and manually mash the food sample.
2. Transfer the crushed sample to a beaker. If a concave container is
use, no need to transfer the mashed sample. If the mixture is too
thick, add more water.
3. Make sure that the magnetic stirring bar or the Ziplock with the
neodymium magnet inside (whichever is available) is clean. Place it
in the beaker containing the mixture.
4. Stir the mixture for about 15 minutes with a magnetic stirrer or
magnet.
Note: If the magnet does not seem to move,
the mixture might still be thick. If this
happens, add enough water.
Quarter I- Matter

TAKE
CARE!

Do not eat the food


samples and the iron
that will be extracted
in the activity.

80

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


5. Using the forceps, retrieve the magnetic stirring bar from the
mixture. Take a closer look at the magnetic stirring bar.
6. If neodymium magnet is used, carefully washed it with drops of
water using the dropper.
7. Blow dry the neodymium while it is still inside the plastic. Once dry,
carefully remove the magnet from the plastic using the clean white
paper as the mat.

Data and Results

1. Do you notice anything that clings to the magnetic stirring bar or


with the neodymium magnet?
2. What do you notice about the clean sheet of paper during your
removal of the neodymium inside the plastic?
3. Why do you think these materials cling to the magnetic stirring
bar?

Quarter I- Matter

81

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 18
Competency:
Investigate properties of acidic and basic mixtures using natural
indicators
I. Objectives:
1. Prepare a plant indicator using a red cabbage.
2. Find out if a given sample is acidic or basic using a plant indicator
3. Examine how acidic or basic the samples of water from different
sources
II. Topic: Acids and Bases
III. Resources Needed:
Part A. For the students: red cabbage, blender or knife, boiling water,
filter paper (coffee filters work well) and One large glass beaker or
other glass container
Part B. Plant indicator prepared in part A, medicine dropper
(depending on the number of samples), vinegar, distilled water, tap
water, baking soda, baking powder, calamansi, 6 plastic teaspoons,
stirrer, (may be a barbecue stick or drinking straw) 8 small plastic
containers, Other food/home items with no color: ( toothpaste,
shampoo, soap, detergent, sugar in water, softdrink)
Part C. Plant indicator prepared in part A, rainwater, water from pond,
canal, faucet, deep well, mineral water or distilled water, 8 small
containers, 6 droppers and 6 teaspoons
IV. References: Learners Material pp. 49-52
http://chemistry.about.com/od/acidsbase1/a/red-cabbage-phindicator.htm
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Are you familiar with the name Chef Boy Logro? Have you
imagined yourself to be a chef? What recipe are you going to make or
prepare?
VI. Activity: How Can You Tell if a Mixture is Acidic or Basic?
Part A. Preparation of Indicator
Part B. Determining the acidity or basicity of some common
household items
Part C. Determining the acidity or basicity of water from different
sources

Quarter I- Matter

82

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


VII.

Analysis:

a. Fill in Table 1
Sample
Color of indicator
calamansi
tap water
disilled water
vinegar
sugar in water
baking soda
baking powder
softdrink (colorless)
toothpaste
shampoo
soap
Note: Please addd rows as necessary.

Nature of sample

b. Fill in Table 2
Water sample from
Color of indicator
Nature of sample
source
rainwater
river, lake or stream
pond
canal
water from faucet
Note: Please addd rows as necessary.
a.
How do you find out that the given samples are acidic or basic?
b. What are the items/samples considered as acidic? Basic?
c. Which of the items listed are strongly acidic? Weakly acidic? Weakly
basic? Strongly acidic?
VIII.

Abstraction:
How do you distinguish acids from bases?

IX. Application:
Why do you think a small amount of muriatic acid is added to
swimming pool?
X. Assessment:
Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1.

Which one of the following statements about bases is correct?


A. They have a pH less than 7.
B. They react with metals to form hydrogen gas.
C. They have a sour taste
D. They have a slippery feeling

Quarter I- Matter

83

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

2. Which one of the following substances should you rub to the sting of
a bee (an acidic bite insect) to neutralize it?
A. Water
B. Vinegar C. Lemon Juice
D. Baking soda
3. Acid waste from a factory is found to be killing fish in a nearby river.
Which one of the following if added to the water would help prevent
the fish kill?
A. sand
B. salt
C. lime
D. chlorine
4. If suffering from an upset stomach, you may use a remedy such as
Andrews, Gaviscon, Rennie, Alka-Seltzer etc. These are all examples
of___________
A. salts
B. painkillers C. bases
D. acids
5. Which ONE of the following is NOT a property of an acid?
A. It turns litmus to red
B. It has sour taste
C. It reacts with metals to produce hydrogen gas
D. Its pH is greater than 7
XI. Agreement:
1. What is pH scale?
2. How can you determine an acid or base using pH scale?
3. What is the importance of pH in the human body?, in society ?, and
in industry?

Quarter I- Matter

84

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 18
How Can You Tell if a Mixture is Acidic or Basic?

Your Task

1. Prepare a plant indicator using a red cabbage.


2. Find out if a given sample is acidic or basic using a plant indicator.

Materials Needed

Part A. For the students: red cabbage, ( Note: in the absence of red
cabbage, a dark mature violet eggplant may also be used)
blender or knife, boiling water, filter paper (coffee filters work
well) and one large glass beaker or other glass
container
Part B. Plant indicator prepared in part A, medicine dropper
(depending on the number of samples), vinegar, distilled water,
tap water, baking soda, baking powder, calamansi, 6 plastic
teaspoons, stirrer, (may be a barbecue stick or drinking straw)
8 small plastic containers, Other food/home items with no color:
(toothpaste, shampoo, soap, detergent, sugar in water,
softdrink)
Part C. Plant indicator prepared in part A, rainwater, water from pond,
canal, faucet, deep well, mineral water or distilled water, 8 small
containers, 6 droppers and 6 teaspoons

What To Do

Part A. Preparation of Indicator


In this part of the activity, you will prepare a plant indicator that
you will use to determine if a given sample is acidic or basic.
1. Chop a piece of red cabbage into small pieces. Place 1 cup of
shredded red cabbage into the pan. Add 2 cups water and boil for
five minutes. Stir from time to time. Cool the mixtture. In the case of
eggplant, peel an eggplant as thin as possible. Cut the materials
into small pieces and place in a small caserole. Add about cup
tap water to the peel depending on the size of eggplant. Boil for 5
minutes. Stir from time to time.
Quarter I- Matter

85

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


2. Pour the mixture into a strainer. Collect the liquid portion. The liquid
portion should be purple in color.
Part B. Determining the acidity or basicity of some common
household items.
In this part of the activity, you will find out if a given household
material is acidic or basic using the plant indicator you have prepared
in Part A.
1. Place one teaspoon of each sample in a transparent plastic
container.
2. Add 8-10 drops of the plant indicator to the first sample.
Note: If the sample is solid, wet a pinch ( size of 2-3 match heads ) of the
solid with about teaspoon of distilled water.
TAKE
NOTE

Use one dropper for one


Kind of sample. Wash each
dropper after one use. Do not
mix samples.

3. Note the color produced. Record your observation in column


2 of Table 1.
4. Repeat step number 1 of Part B for the other samples.
5. Determine the acidic or basic nature of your sample using the
color scheme below and record the nature of each sample in
Table 1.
Strongly acidic: red to pale red
Weakly acidic: blue
Weakly basic: green
Strongly basic: yellow
Part C. Determining the acidity or basicity of water from different
sources.
1. Place one teaspoon of each water sample in each container.
2. Add 8-10 drops of the plant indicator to the first sample.
TAKE
NOTE

Use one dropper for one


Kind of sample. Wash each
dropper after one use. Do not
mix samples.

3. Note the color produced. Record your observation in column


2 of Table 2.
4. Repeat procedure 2 and 3 for other samples.
Quarter I- Matter

86

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


5. Determine the acidic or basic nature of your sample using the
color scheme below and record the nature of each sample in
Table 1.
Strongly acidic: red to pale red
Weakly acidic: blue
Weakly basic: green
Strongly basic: yellow

Data and Observations

Table 1. Acidic or basic Nature of household materials


Sample

Color of Indicator

Nature of sample

Calamansi
Tap water
Distilled water
vinegar
sugar in water
baking soda
soft drink ( colorless )
coconut water
toothpaste
baking powder
shampoo
soap

Table 2. Acidic or basic nature of water from different sources.


Water sample from
different
sources
rainwater
river water
pond
canal
Water from faucet

Quarter I- Matter

Color of Indicator

Nature of sample

87

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 19
Competency:
Investigate properties of acidic and basic mixtures using natural
indicators
I. Objectives:
1. Determine the pH of common household items/solutions.
2. Identify whether a substance is acidic or basic in terms of pH value.
3. Explain the importance of pH scale.
II. Topic: The pH scale and its Importance
III. Resources Needed: results in activity no.16, manila paper, marking pen
IV. References: Learners Material pp. 54-55, Teachers Guide pp.45-46
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming
Are you familiar with pH?
A song/video about pH scale
( https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3U9n4BV2618)
VI. Activity:
Color Range, pH scale!
VII. Analysis:
1. Fill in Table 1, pH of samples from activity 16
Samples

pH based on plant
indicator

Acidic or Basic

Note: please add rows if necessary


2. Which of the samples are acidic? basic?
3. What is the pH value of acidic substances? basic substances?
VIII. Abstraction
Based on the activity, how did you know the acidity and basicity of a
substance?
Using the pH scale, when do we say that a substance/solution is
acidic? basic?
Quarter I- Matter
88

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


IX. Application:
Why is it important to know the pH of materials? How is pH scale
important to us, to industry, and to our environment?
X. Assessment:
Complete the table below by identifying whether a substance is acidic,
basic or neutral given their pH value.
SUBSTANCES/MIXTURES
1. milk
2. lemon juice
3. pure water
4. blood
5. detergent

pH

ACIDIC/BASIC/NEUTRAL

6.3-6.5
2.1
7.0
7.4
11

XI. Agreement:
Look for the pH values of the following: limewater, vinegar, tomato
juice, black coffee, urine, egg, baking soda , milk of magnesia, carbonated
drinks.

Quarter I- Matter

89

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 19
Color Range, pH Scale!

Your Task

1. Determine the pH scale of common household material.


2. Tell whether a given substance is acidic or basic using a ph scale.

Materials Needed

A diagram of ph scale, pen, paper, results in Activity 17

What To Do

1. Use the pH scale below for plant indicator to determine the pH of


the common mixtures you tested in activity 16.
pH

3 4 5 6
red/
pale
red/

8 9
blue

ACIDIC

becoming more acidic

10 11 12
/green
N
E
U
T
R
A
L

13 14
/yellow

BASIC

becoming more basic

2. Present your results in Table 1.

Quarter I- Matter

90

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

Data and Observations

1. Fill in Table 1: pH of samples from activity no. 16


Samples

pH based on plant
indicator

Acidic or Basic

Note: Please add rows if necessary.

Quarter I- Matter

91

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 20
Competency:
Investigate properties of acidic and basic mixtures using natural
indicators
I. Objectives:
1. Describe acids and bases according to their observable
characteristics
2. Classify items as to whether examples of acids or bases
II. Topic: Acids and Bases
III. Resources Needed: science book
IV. References: Learners Material
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Song in Acids or Bases with a tune of Call me Maybe
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kzcAFtm-n0w)

VI. Activity: Bitter-sweet or Sour grape?


Directions: Write the word or term being described by the following
statement in a rectangular box. Then write the code that is next to each answer
in the correct box below the picture as clue. Read the secret message.
Question

Answer

1. A dye that changes into a different color depending


on whether it is an acid or in base
2. They are generally sour in taste and some are corrosive

3. A strip of paper which is commonly used as indicator


which turns red in acidic mixtures and becomes blue in
basic mixtures

4. A pigment found in plants which produce specific


colors in solutions of different acidity or basicity

5. Proponent of pH scale

6. It is the taste of most bases

7. Example of strong acid

8. Any substance having a base pH higher than 7

Quarter I- Matter

I
92

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

VII.

Analysis:
Can you cite other examples of acids and bases aside from the
items given in the activity? Give at least five (5) examples for
each category.

VIII.

Abstraction:

Based from the decoded message, how do you characterize


acids and bases?
Acids have a sour taste while bases have a bitter taste

IX. Application:
Why do you think vinegar is commonly used as treatment for
wasp bite? Justify your answer.
X. Assessment:
Your mother had shopped for groceries which are intended for a 3day family consumption. You are tasked to classify the following items as to
whether examples of acids or bases and put these items in two separate
cabinets. (Note: Red cabinets for acids and Blue cabinets for bases
Acids

Quarter I- Matter

Bases

93

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


XI. Agreement:
1. What happens to metal when exposed to an acidic mixture?
Answer key
Question
1. A dye that changes into a different color depending
on whether it is an acid or in base

Answer
Indicator

Acids

3. A strip of paper which is commonly used as indicator


which turns red in acidic mixtures and becomes blue in
basic mixtures

Litmus paper

4. A pigment found in plants which produce specific


colors in solutions of different acidity or basicity

Anthocyanin

S.P.L. Sorensen

Bitter

Hydrochloric acid

Alkaline

2. They are generally sour in taste and some are corrosive

5. Proponent of pH scale
6. It is the taste of most bases
7. Example of strong acid
8. Any substance having a base pH higher than 7

Quarter I- Matter

94

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 21
Competency:
Investigate properties of acidic and basic mixtures using natural
indicators.
I. Objective:
1. Investigate the effect of an acidic mixture on metal.
II. Topic: Acids and Bases
III. Resources Needed:
3 pieces, small iron nail (about 2.5cm long)
1 cup white vinegar (with 4.5 to 5% acidity)
3 small clear bottles or 100mL beaker
1 bottled water
3 droppers
IV. References: Learners Material pp. 57 - 58
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
Word Hunt
The student will locate the following words in the word puzzle.
Water
Acid
Rust
Nail
Hydrogen
F
H
Y
D
R
O
G
E
N
R

A
W
G
L
I
A
N
A
A
R

R
C
T
H
J
H
H
G
H
T

E
D
I
A
G
A
E
A
Y
H

T
A
A
D
I
N
K
S
T
K

Acetic acid
Metal
Vinegar
Iron
Gas
A
S
O
B
I
J
R
I
E
U

W
P
L
V
A
R
A
R
R
I

Q
R
U
S
T
H
M
O
E
L

O
T
I
P
A
G
A
N
Y
I

A
C
E
T
I
C
A
C
I
D

T
H
L
A
T
E
M
Q
D
C

Activity: What Happens to a Metal When Exposed to an Acidic Mixture?


Follow the procedure found at the learners material on page 57 and 58
and answer the following questions.

Quarter I- Matter

95

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Analysis:
Prepare a table similar to the one below.
Setup
After one day

Observations
After 2 days

After 3 days

Iron Nail (A)


Iron Nail (B)
Iron Nail (C)
1.
2.
3.

Why do you think there are three different bottles for each
sample of iron nail?
After the given time/days, describe completely what happened
to each sample.
Give explanations for the results you have observed on the
three set-ups.

VIII. Abstraction:
1. How do you explain the effect of acidic mixture when
exposed to metals?
Rust is hydrated iron or iron (III) hydroxide, Fe(OH)3, sometimes
written as Fe2O33H2O. This layer does not securely stick to the surface
of the iron. It flakes off, weakening the metal and leaving it exposed to
further rusting and structural decay.
If an iron nail were submerged in vinegar, the acetic acid in the
vinegar would slowly dissolve the iron and produce hydrogen gas.
However, vinegar is a dilute solution of acetic acid, and the reaction
would likely be quite slow. Chemical changes occur when iron nail
submerged into vinegar.
Iron forms rust upon prolonged exposure to oxygen and
moisture in the air and in the presence of acid.
IX. Application:
Why do you think it is important to understand the reaction of
metals with different solution found in our home or school?
X. Assessment:
Direction: Choose the letter of the correct answer.
1. What happens when iron nail submerged to an acid like vinegar?
a.The iron nail become shiny
b.The iron nail dissolved in the vinegar
c. Rust was formed when iron nail submerged in vinegar
d. There is no reaction between iron nail and vinegar

Quarter I- Matter

96

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


2. How many set-up is needed for every experiment?
a. One only
b. Duplicate
c. Triplicate
d. None of the given
3. What kind of acid is used in the experiment?
a. Hydrochloric acid
b. Sulfuric acid
c. Acetic acid
d. Nitric acid
4. What is the chemical formula of rust?
a. Fe2O3 3 H2O
b. Fe2O3 O2
c. Fe2O3 CO2
d. Fe2O3 NO2
5. What changes take place between iron nail and vinegar
a. Physical change
b. Chemical change
c. No reaction occurs
XI. Agreement:
What are the different safety guidelines in handling acids and
bases?
Reference: Learners Material pp.58-60

Quarter I- Matter

97

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 21
What Happens to Metal when Exposed to an Acidic Mixture?

Your Task

1. Find out the effect of an acidic mixture on metals.

Materials Needed

3 pieces, small iron nails (about 2.5 cm long)


1 cup white vinegar (with 4.5 to 5 % acidity)
3 small, clear bottles or 100 mL beaker
1 cup water
2 droppers

What To Do

1. Prepare a table similar to the one below.


Setup

Observations
After 1 day

After 2 days

After 3 days

Iron nail (1)


Iron nail (2)
Iron nail (3)
2. Clean and wipe dry all the iron nails and the bottles.
3. Place one piece of the iron nail in each bottle.
4. Put two to three drops (just enough to barely cover the sample)
of vinegar on top of the iron nail in each bottle.
5. After adding vinegar to all samples, put aside the bottles where
you can observe changes for three days.
6. Write your observations after one day, two days, and three days
on the data table in step #1.

Quarter I- Matter

98

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

Data and Observation

1. Fill in Table 1

Setup

Observations
After 1 day

After 2 days

After 3 days

Iron nail (1)


Iron nail (2)
Iron nail (3)
2. Why do you think there are three different bottles for
each sample of iron nail?
3. At the end of three days, describe completely what
happened to each sample.
4. Give explanations for the results you have observed.

Quarter I- Matter

99

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

Lesson 22
Competency:
Demonstrate the different properties of metals and non-metals such as
luster, malleability, ductility, and conductivity.
I. Objectives:
1. Identify the different properties of metal and non-metals.
2. Classify the given element as a metal or non-metal.
3. Show some properties of metals that are useful to every life.
II. Topic: Properties of Metals and Non-metals
III. Resources Needed: Pictures, Internet
IV. References: Learners Material pp. 61 - 62
V.

Preliminary Activity:
Look at the two pictures and spot the difference.

A. What material was used to build house A?


B. What material was used to build house B?
C. Write down at least three other materials that could be used for building
a house.
VI.

Activity: ( Science Breakthrough, Basic Education Curriculum


by Perocho and others, pp. 68 69.)
Activity: Some Properties of Matter

I. Objective: At the end of the activity, the students should be able to classify
matter in the environment in terms of their special properties.
II. Materials: rubber band, empty milk can, chalk, hammer, copper wire, one
half teaspoon of salt, glass of water, magnet.
III. Procedure:
A. Hammer a tin can
B. Examine the copper wire then bend it.
Quarter I- Matter

100

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


C. Stretch the rubber band by pulling one end and holding the other
end. Then slowly release the stretch end.
D. Add half a teaspoon of sugar into a glass of water. Stir.
E. Hammer a piece of chalk.
F. Bring all materials close to magnet. Observe.
IV. Observations: Complete the data table.
SET -UP

Observations

Property of Matter
Shown

A
B
C
D
E
F
VII.

Analysis:
Guide Questions:
1. Does malleability and ductility exists in similar material in the
activity? What materials and Why?
2. What do you call to a material that is malleable and ductile?
3. What are the properties of metal? non-metal?
4. Which are metals? non-metals?

VIII.

Abstraction:
How will you classify metals from non-metals?

IX.

Application:
Explain why goldsmiths are able to make bracelets and
necklaces out of certain metal.

X.

Assessment:
Investigate the photos of different objects made from metal and
answer the questions about each object.
1.

A metal pot.
http://www.flickr.com/photos/txberiu/2608488360/
Quarter I- Matter

101

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


1.a. Describe the properties of the metal that this pot is made from.
______________________________________________________
_____________
1.b. Why are some of the properties useful to the function of the
pot?
______________________________________________________
_____________
2.

A barbed wire fence.

2.a. What property of metal allows us to make this barbed wire


fence from metal?
______________________________________________________
_____________

3.

A spanner made from metal.


3.a. What properties does a spanner need to have in order to be used
to tighten bolts?
________________________________________________________
_____________
3.b. How do the properties of metal help the functioning of a spanner?
________________________________________________________
______________
3.c. If the spanner was made from plastic, do you think it would work as
well? Why?
________________________________________________________
______________

Quarter I- Matter

102

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7

4.

Coins
4.a.Why do you think coins are made from metals?
_______________________________________________________________
___________

5.

A tank made from corrugated iron.


. 5.a. What property of metal allows people to make sheets of metal
like this?
_______________________________________________________________
____________

XI.

Agreement:
1. What materials can conduct electricity?
2. List down some of the materials that have electrical conductivity.

Quarter I- Matter

103

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 23
Competency:
Describe some properties of metals and non-metals such as luster,
malleability, ductility and conductivity.
I. Objective: Distinguish between metals and non-metals based on its
electrical conductivity.
II. Topic: Properties of Metals and Nonmetals
III. Resources Needed: samples of copper, aluminium, sulphur, iron and
iodine.
IV. References: Learners Material pp. 62
V. Preliminary Activity/ Priming

Which of samples looks like metals? Non-metals? Which are electrically


conductive, metals or non-metals?
Video presentation
(https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=QZPURSF5iH4)
VI.

Activity:
Which can conduct electricity, metals or non-metals?

VII. Analysis:
1. Which of the samples look like metals?
2. Which are non-metals?
3. Which of the samples are electrical conductors? Which are not?
Quarter I- Matter

104

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


VIII. Abstraction:
Based on the activity, how can you distinguish metals from nonmetals?
IX. Application:
Silver is a very ductile metal but it is not used for making electrical
wires. What do you think is the reason for this?
Graphite is the material used as the central rod in a dry cell. What
property of graphite is being utilized for this use?
X. Assessment:
Refer to the table below in answering questions 1 and 2.
Observation of Unknown Substances
Samples

Appearance

Observation

Conducts
Electricity
No

Black and gritty

2
3

Yes
No

Shiny
Blue

Yes

clear

Snaps easily into


small pieces.
Bends easily
Bends and snap
back to original
shape
Shatters easily

1. Which of the observation best helps you know if a substance is metal?


a. it is black and gritty
b. it does not conduct electricity
c. it shatters easily
d. it conducts electricity
2. The unknown substances shown here have properties that help identify
them. Which of the
substances is likely a metal?
a. 1
b. 2
c. 3
d. 4
3. If an element is a semi-conductor, which classification correctly describes
it?
a. metals b. non metals
c. metalloids
d. compound
4. Which is true of non-metals?
a. they are conductors of heat and electricity.
b. they are found at the left side of the periodic table
c. they are poor conductors of heat and electricity
d. they comprises of about 80% of Earth s elements.

5. What property of metals makes them useful as electrical wires?


Quarter I- Matter

105

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


a. malleable
b. luster
c. ductile
d. good electrical conductors
XI. Agreement:
1. What element are you made up of the most? Is it metal or nonmetal?
2. What element is the most abundant in the earths crust?

Quarter I- Matter

106

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 23
Which can Conduct Electricity. Metals or Non metals?

Your Task

Distinguish between metals and nonmetals based on its electrical


conductivity.
Materials Needed

samples of copper, aluminum, sulfur, iron and iodine


white paper
improvised conductivity apparatus

What To Do

1. Place a sample in a sheet of white paper. This will help you


observe the samples better. In Table 1, note down the
appearnce of each of them.
2. Place the end of the improvised conductivity apparatus in
contact with each sample. If the tester gives off a sound, the
sample is said to be electrically conductive. Otherwise, it is
electrically nonconductivity.

Data and Observations

1. Fill in Table 1
Table 1: Electrical Conductivity of different materials
Sample

Appearance

Electrical Conductivity

aluminum
copper
iodine
iron
sulfur
2. Which of the samples look like metals? How about non-metals?
3. Which of the samples are electrical conductors? Which are not?
Quarter I- Matter

107

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Lesson 24
Competency:
Describe some properties of metals and non-metals such as luster,
malleability, ductility and conductivity.
I. Objectives: Distinguish between metals and non-metals based on the
acidity of their oxides.
II. Topic: Oxides of Metals and Nonmetals
III. Resources Needed: magnesium ribbon, sulphur, iron wire, alcohol
lamp, test tube, beaker, red and blue litmus paper, cork, watch
glass, dropper, stirring rod
IV. References: Learners Material pp. 67-69, Teachers Guide pp.56
V. Preliminary Activity/Priming:
What do you expect to happen if you burn this magnesium and sulfur
in the air?
VI. Activity:
Acidity of the oxides of metals and non-metals
VII. Analysis:
1. Is magnesium a metal or a non-metal?
2. Which litmus paper changed in color? Describe its change?
3. Is the oxide of magnesium acidic or basic?
4. Is the oxide of sulfur acidic or basic?
VIII. Abstraction:
What type of elements form oxides that produce acidic solutions?
What type of elements form oxides that produce basic properties?
Combining with oxygen, a metal and non-metal may form an oxides.
A metal oxide is generally basic while a non-metal oxide is
generally acidic. Metals from basic oxides with oxygen which turns red
litmus paper to blue. Non-metals form acidic oxides with oxygen which
turns blue litmus paper to red.
IX. Application:
Why should foodstuffs with acid components not be stored in metallic
containers?
Why do silver articles get blackened after sometime?

Quarter I- Matter

108

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


X. Assessment:
Direction: Read each item carefully. Choose the letter of the correct
answer.
1. An element was subjected into flame and the acidity of the oxide
formed was tested. Solution of this oxide turned red litmus paper to
blue. Which is most likely that element?
A. Chlorine B. Nickel
C. Phosphorus
D. Silicon
2. A substance was burned in air. The white residue obtained was added
to water. This water solution turns red litmus paper into blue. Which is
more likely that substance?
A. metal
B. non-metal
C. metalloids
D. salts
3. Which of the following elements have an oxides solution that will turn
blue litmus paper into red?
A. calcium
B. sulphur
C. iron
D. sodium
4. What type of oxide is formed when non-metals combine with oxygen?
A. acidic oxides
B. basic oxides
C. non-metallic oxides
D. metallic oxides
XI. Agreement:
Give your reasons:
a.) Aluminum is highly reactive metal, yet it is used to make
utensils for cooking.
b.) Platinum, gold and silver are used to make jewelry

Quarter I- Matter

109

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


Activity 24
Acidity of the Oxides of Metals and Nonmetals

Your Task

Distinguish between metals and nonmetals based on the acidity


of their oxides.

Materials Needed

magnesium (Mg) ribbon


sulfur
iron wire ( holder)
alcohol lamp
test tube
beaker
litmus paper ( blue and red)
water
cork
watch glass
dropper/stirring rod

What To Do

1. Get a piece of iron wire. Make a small loop at one end.Insert the other
end into a cork to serve sas a handle.
2. Get a piece of magnesium ribbon. Describe its appearance. Note this
in Table 3.
3. Coil a small piece of Mg ribbon (about 2 cm) and place on top of the
loop. Place the looped end of the wire into the flame of an alcohol
lamp. Note what happens. Record your observations in Table 3.
TAKE
NOTE
!

Do not inhale the


Fumes/vapor

4. Place 2 mL of water in a small test tube. Add the ash produced when
you burn the Mg ribbon. Shake the test tube gently.
5. Get a watch glass and place a piece each of red and blue litmus
papers.
Quarter I- Matter

110

Lesson Guide in Science Grade 7


6. Wet one end of a stirring rod with the solution and place a drop of this
solution on a piece of blue litmus paper. Repeat the test on red
litmus paper.
7. Place 2 mL of water in another test tube. Clean the wire loop and dip
in powdered sulfur (S).
8. Place the looped end of the wire containing the sample over the
flame. As soon as the sulfur starts to burn, put the loop into the test
tube without touching the water. Remove the loop into the test tube
once the sulfur is completely burned. Cover the test tube immediately
and shake well.
9. Get a watch glass and place a piece each of red and blue litmus
papers.
10. Wet one end of a stirring rod with the solution and place a drop of this
solution on a piece of blue litmus paper. Repeat the test on red litmus
paper.

Data and Observation

1. Fill in Table 1.

Before
heating

Observations
During
heating

After heating

Reaction of
its oxide with
litmus paper

Magnesium
(Mg)
Sulfur (S)
2. Is magnesium a metal or a non-metal?
3. Which litmus paper changed in color? Describe the change.
4. Is the oxide of magnesium acidic or basic?
5. Is sulphur a metal or non-metal?
6. Is the oxide of sulphur acidic or basic?

Quarter I- Matter

111