Fuels

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Fuels

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(a) Six Hundred Twenty three cubic metres of a fuel gas are passed through a

meter at 0.35 kg/cm ga, 9.4C. Barometer, 756mm Hg. Find the commercial

sales volume of this gas. (b) Tank contains 214 m of fuel oil at 11.7C. SG =

0.945. Find the volume and weight of this quantity of oil measured at

15.6/15.6.

(a) Atmospheric pressure

= 756 mm Hg (

kg

cm ) = 1.028

1 mm Hg

1.36 x 103

kg

cm

P = 0.35

kg

cm

+ 1.028

kg

cm

= 1.378

kg

cm

T = 9.4 C + 273 = 282.4 K

Absolute Temperature of atmosphere (assume standard) :

T = 15.6 C + 273 = 288.6 K

Volume of gas through meter = 623 m

Volume of gas at atmospheric conditions:

P1V 1

T1

V2 = (

P2V 2

T2

P1V 1

T2

)

(

T1

P2 )

P1

T2

V2 = V 1 ( P 2 ) ( T 1 )

kg

cm

288.6 K

V2 = 623 m (

)

(

kg

282.4 K )

1.028

cm

1.378

V2 = 853 m ans.

(b) Volume at 11.7 C = 214 m

From page 118 text for fuel oils the volumetric coefficient of expansion

is 0.0007 per C

Thus corrected volume

= 214 m + 214 m (0.0007 per C) (15.6 -11.7)C

= 214.58 m

Weight of this volume of oil at SA = 0.945

W = 214.58 m (0.945) (

1000 kg

) = 203,000 kg ans.

m

these results. T, 3.49C. Fuel sample, 1.0535 g. Fuse wire consumed, 0.0073

g. Water charged, 1855.68 g. Water equivalent of bomb, 470 g. Test coal had

0.96% moisture. Calculate Qh for dry coal. (Q of fuse wire, 1600 Cal per g.)

Solution:

Heat released by combustion

Qt = wCT

Where:

w = weight of water bath plus the equivalent weight of the

apparatus

w = 1855.68 g + 470 g

w = 2325.68 g

C = specific weight of water, 1 cal per g per C

T = temperature rise of water, 3.49 C

Therefore,

cal

Heat from fuse wire

Qfw = 0.0073 g (1600

cal

g ) = 11.68 cal

Qf = Qt - Qfw

Qf = 8116.6 cal 11.68 cal

Qf = 8104.92 cal

Thus, heat value of fuel

Qh =

Qf

m

8104.92cal

1.0535 g

cal

g

10.96

7693

= 7693

= 7767

cal

g

cal

g

ans.

steaming rate is 6804 kg per hr at 150 psig. Feedwater, 48.9C. Average

thermal efficiency, 70%. Consider that plants capacity factor is 45% and that

1 months supply is carried. Make any necessary assumptions and

calculate the number of 1.8 m dia x 4.6 m long cylindrical tanks needed to

hold this quantity.

Solution:

Capacity factor =

actual production

maximum possible

kg

hr ) = 3062

kg

hr

t =

energy output

energy input

steam fuel

Ws (hshf )

Wf x Qh

Where:

Ws = steam rate,

kg

hr

kJ

kg

hs = enthalphy of steam,

kJ

kg

hf = enthalpy of feedwater ,

kg

hr

wf = fuel rate,

kJ

kg

For saturated steam at 10.54

hs = 2782

kg

cm

kJ

kg

hf = 204.5

kJ

kg

Qh = 42, 450 43 (B +10)

kJ

kg

Qh = 42,450 43 (16+10)

Qh = 40,032

Thus, wf =

of fuel

kJ

kg

ws(hshf )

t Qh

3062

=

kg

kJ

(2782204.5)

hr

kg

kJ

70 (40,032 )

kg

= 281.64

kg

hr

month and 24 hrs. per day)

wf = 281.64

kg

hr

24 hrs

30 days

)

(

1 day

1 month

1 months = 304,

200 kg

Volume of fuel =

wf

pf

, but f = safh2O

Saf =

140

B +130

Thus, vf =

140

16+ 130

304,200 kg

1000 kg

0.96(

)

1 m3

= 0.96

= 317 m

(1.8m)

=

317 m

m

11.70

tank

= 27 tanks ans.

10.Reduce the analysis of a coal designated from table 5-4 to (a) moisture-free

basis (b) moisture-and ash-free basis.

Solution:

Take coal no. 1, Penna Anthracite

Proximate analysis

Moisture

2.19

%

Volatile Matter.

5.67 %

Fixed Carbon..

86.24

%

Ash

5.90

%

Total.

100.0 %

Ultimate Analysis

Sulphur..

0.57

%

Hydrogen.

2.70%

Carbon

86.37

%

Nitrogen

0.91

%

Oxygen

3.55

Ash

5.40

%

Total.

100.0 %

Composition of water

1mol H2O

1mol H2 + mol O2

Mol. Weight of 1 mol H2O = 2+16 = 18

Atomic weight of 1 mol H2 = 2

Atomic weight of mol O2 = (32) = 16

Thus,

H2

2/18 or 1/9 H2O

O2

16/18 or 8/9 H2O

From the proximate analysis for 1 kg of the coal portion of moisture

that is hydrogen is 1/9 (0.0219 kg) = 0.00243 kg, portion that is

oxygen = 8/9 (0.219 kg) = 0.01947 kg

Thus, comparing with the ultimate analysis,

Free Hydrogen in 1 kg of coal:

= 0.0270 kg 0.00243 kg

= 0.02457 kg

Free Oxygen in 1 kg of coal:

= 0.0355 kg 0.01947 kg

= 0.01603 kg

(a) Analysis on moisture free basis =

1moisture

Proximate analysis

Volatile Matter

0.9781 = 5.80 %

Fixed Carbon

0.9781 = 88.17 %

Ash..

0.9781 = 6.03 %

Total.

100.00 %

Ultimate analysis (moisture-free)

Sulphur.

0.969 = 0.59 %

Hydrogen

0.969 = 2.54 %

5.67

86.24 %

5.90

0.57

2.46

Carbon.

86.37 %

Oxygen

1.60

Ash.

5.90

0.969 = 89.13 %

0.969 = 1.65 %

0.969 = 6.09 %

Total

100.00 %

(b) Moisture and Ash-free

For : Proximate Analysis

1 moisture ash = 1 0.0219 0.059 = 0.9191

Thus,

Proximate analysis

Volatile Matter.

0.9191 = 6.17 %

Fixed Carbon.

0.9191 = 93.83 %

Total..

100.0 %

Ultimate Analysis

Sulphur..

0.9191 = 0.63 %

Hydrogen.

0.9191 = 2.70 %

Carbon

0.9191 = 94.91 %

Oxygen..

0.9191 = 1.76 %

Total..

100.00 %

5.67

86.24

0.57

2.46

86.37 %

1.60

12.Given a coal with proximate analysis as follows, find heating value and kg air

required per kg coal at 50% excess. Moisture, 4.47; volatile, 22.74; fixed

carbon, 53.72; ash, 19.07.

Solution:

(a) From table 5-5, for a coal with a range of volatile matter in

combustible of 16-36%

The heat value is

H.V. = (16,160 2,250) 2.326

J

g

combustible

J

g

= 35,000

J

g

of

Percentage of combustible

= 1- moisture ash

= 1 4.47 % - 19.07 %

= 0.7646

g combustible

g coal

H.V. = 35,000

760

J

g coal

J

g combustible

0.7646 g combustible

) = 26,

1 g coal

ans.

Hydrogen in combustible for 16 %up volatile matter

H = 0.0457 + 0.0206 (22.74 %)

H = 0.0504

g hydrogen

g combustible

C = 0.943 0.242 (22.74 %)

C = 0.8879

g carbon

g combustible

Theoretical air needed per kg coal = 11.5C + 34.5(H -

O

8 ) + 4.3 S

Disregarding oxygen and sulphur

Theoretical air per kg combustible

= 11.5 (0.8879) + 34.5

(0.0504)

11.95

kg air

kg combustible

kg air

kg combustible

Per kg coal:

Theoretical

air:

0.7646 kg combustible

) = 9.13

kg coal

kg air

kg coal

11.95

Actual air supply = 1.5 (9.13

ans.

kg air

kg coal ) = 13.7

kg air

kg coal

Moisture, 1.75; volatile, 21.70; fixed carbon, 69.13; ash, 7.42. When burned

with what is presumed to be sufficient air for complete combustion, the CO 2

tests 10% by volume. What percent excess air is indicated?

Solution:

kg combustible

kg coal

kg VM

kg coal

kg vombustible

0.9083

kg coal

= 0.239

kg FC

kg coal

kg combustible

0.9083

kg coal

= 0.761

0.217

kg VM

kg combustible

0.6913

kg FC

kg combustible

From table 5-5, p. 129

Carbon in combustible (with value from 0 to 36 %)

C = 0.943 0.242 (0.239) = 0.885

kg carbon

kg combustible

H = 0.0457 + 0.0206 (.239) = 0.0506

kg hydrogen

kg combustible

For complete combustion

Excess air =

20.9 R

CO 2(R+3)

R+ 2.37

R+ 3

Where:

R=

C'

H

C = 0.885

kg carbon

kg combustible

0.9083 kg combustible

)

1 kg coal

kg carbon

kg coal

C = (0.885 x 0.9083)

kg Hz

kg combustible

H = 0.0506

(0.885 x 0.9083)

(0.0506 x 0.9083)

0.9083 kg combustible

)

kg coal

kg Hz

kg coal

H = (0.0506 x 0.9083)

Thus, R =

= 17.5

20.9(17.5)

10 (17.5+3)

(17.5+2.37)

(17.5+3)

= 0.815 or

81.5 % ans.

16.Predict the Orsat analysis resulting from the combustion of a coal designated

from table 5-4, with 50% excess air. 10% combustible in the refuse.

Solution:

With coal no.1 on table 5-4, the ultimate analysis given is

Sulphur

0.57 %

Hydrogen..

2.70 %

Carbon.

85.37 %

Nitrogen.

0.91 %

Oxygen

3.55 %

Ash.

5.90 %

Theoretical air requirement

= 11.5 C + 34.5 (H -

O

8 ) + 4.3 S

kg air

kg coal

= 10.735

Thus,

kg ash

kg coal

kg ash

kg coal

kg ash

0.90

kg refuse

0.059

Refuse =

= 0.0655

kg refuse

kg coal

0.0355

)

8

kg carbon unburned

kg refuse

x 0.0655

kg refuse

kg coal

kg unburned carbon

kg coal

= 0.00655

Amount of burned carbon

= 0.8637 0.00655

= 0.85715

kg burned carbon

kg coal

From Figure A-4 Appendix

Avail if the combustion constants:

kg C

3.146

kg H 2

kg coal

kg S

kg coal

(2

kg air

kg coal

kg H 2 O

kg H 2 )

kg SO 2

)

kg S

(0.232

kg O2

kg air )

kg O 2

kg coal ,

N2 = 1.5 x 10.735

kg N 2

kg coal

(9

kg SO 2

kg coal

O2 = 0.5 x 10.735

1.245

kg H 2 O

kg coal

SO2 = 0.0057

0.0114

kg CO 2

)

kg C

kg CO 2

kg coal

H2O = 0.027

0.243

(3.67

= 12.376

kg air

kg coal

(0.768

kg N 2

kg air ) + 0.0091

kg N 2

kg coal

Mols of products for 1kg coal: (CO2, O2 and N2 only for orsat analysis)

3.146 kg CO 2

kg

44

mol

CO2 =

O2 =

1.245 kg O 2

kg

32

mol

N2 =

12.376 kg N 2

kg

28

mol

= 0.389 mol O2

= 0.442 mol N2

Total

= 0.5524 mols

Probable Orsat Analysis:

0.0715

0.5524

CO2 =

x 100 % = 12.94 %

O2 =

0.0389

0.5524

x 100 %

= 7.04 %

N2 =

0.442

0.5524

x 100 %

= 80.02 %

Total

= 100.00 %

19.From the analysis of a coal sample taken during a test it is estimated that the

as-fired total carbon was 76.5% and free hydrogen was 4.7%. From other

tests C = 0.7263, Orsat: C0 2, 10.53; O2, 3.74; CO, 0.49; N2, 85.24. Find A:F

ratio.

Solution:

From Equation 5-15, p.139

N2

85.24

17.0

kg air

kg coal

ans.

25.A coal as designated from table 5-4 is burned in a pulverized coal furnace

with 20% excess air. Preheated air temperature, 148.9C; furnace outlet

temperature, 1010C. No incomplete combustion. Calculate the kJ absorbed

by the gases leaving the furnace, per kg coal.

Solution:

Again, Let us make use of coal no.1 :

Sulphur..

0.57 %

Hydrogen.

2.70 %

Carbon..

86.37 %

Nitrogen..

0.91 %

Oxygen.

Ash..

Theoretical air required

3.55 %

5.9 %

= 11.5 C + 34.5 (H -

O

8 ) + 4.3 S

0.0355

)+

8

4.3 (0.0057)

kg air

kg coal

= 10.735

Products of combustion are

CO2 = 3.67

= 3.17

kg CO 2

kg C

(0.8637

kg CO 2

kg coal

H 2O = 9

= 0.243

= 0.0114

kg H 2 O

kg H 2

(0.027

kg Hz

kg Coal )

(0.0057

kg S

kg coal )

kg H 2 O

kg coal

SO2 = 2

kg SO 2

kg S

kg SO 2

kg coal

N2 = 1.2 x 10.735

kg N 2

kg coal

= 4.902

kg air

kg coal

(0.768

kg N 2

kg air ) + 0.0091

kg N 2

kg coal

O2 = 0.2 x 10.735

= 0.498

kg C

kg coal )

kg air

kg coal

(0.232

kg O2

kg air )

kg O 2

kg coal

= 3.17 + 4.902 + 0.498

= 13.57 kg per kg coal

From Figure 5-5, p.138 at 1010 C, The specific heat:

kcal

kg C

kcal

For Oxygen is 0.249

kcal

kg C

kcal

kg C

kg CO 2

kg coal

mtc = 3.17

kcal

kg C ) + 9.902

kg N 2

kg coal

mtc = 3.6237

kcal

kg O 2

)

+

0.498

kg C

kg coal

(0.27

(0.267

kcal

kg C )

kcal

kg coal C

kcal

kg coal C

kg dry gas

( 3.17+ 0.498+9.902 )

kg coal

3.6237

c=

(0.249

= 0.267

kcal

kg C

= Sensible Heat absorbed by dry flue gas + sensible heat

absorbed by water vapor.

= 13.57

kg gas

kg coal

= (3120 + 107)

= 3227

(0.267

kcal

kg gas C ) (1010 148.9)

kcal

kg coal

kcal

kg coal

= mass of H2O vapour (hfg)

hfg = latent heat of vaporization of water at

148.9 C

= 560

Thus,

kcal

kg

kg H 2 O

kg coal

(560

kcal

kg H 2 O

= 136.1

kcal

kg coal

Therefore:

Total heat absorbed by products of combustion are 3227

kcal

kg coal

+ 136.1

kcal

kg coal

= 3363.1

kcal

kg coal

ans.

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