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{$l G{r-l s$t$.. -$..

Ml-VS yl*
yl$-l--]l#-l$-.. Al B-_]l M>-iZ r$ ]l^la
A]l-M> -$$ Gl! As -$$ M>
$]l M>-iZ ^ll$MS$ ]l*Y.. l$l-g-l$s Ms.
{ls MS->-$ ll rZ Ms lV>
^l$-MS$l l$-$-s.. l$l-g -l$s Ms! D Ms r
MS _]l --O -..

Gs.. Is..

l-R$ ^l>>?

MS{l BMS >Q --Z yl-t-l$s B GMS--$MS


BOZ $VS {--]l, MS]l-ts $t lR-$MS$ _]l l: O 18
-]l-s B Ol->-l (-K--^l).. i-&-l-s-]l-PVS r &*P B h-MSZ
tl$ Ayl--[t-r, GMS--l$s B--r, Ayl--[tsl A-ts $t l-R-$MS$ _]l l: O 28

Gs, Is.. yl$ l$VS$ >Z yl$ {]l


G{rl st$! G-s sMS.. I-s GH,
GH M$Z {l -$. l]l$ >MS$MS$
M$-MS$]l MS->-Z r$ >MS $---MS VS$$
-$$ Gl! Cs -$MS$, ll-{yl$-MS$ lrl VS$^la ]l*r l$l-g-l$s Ms.
D MsZ r MS Gs $-]l$---l-]l$
A]l$--]l#-l$--$l O -$$, l-l{yl$-MS$ A]l-V>-]l Eylrl$. Cl Al$-]l$V>
"M-s' r { s M>-iZ V>
f$VS$--ll B--$ E.

l$lgl$s Ms..

&-MS-r-W r$..

& MSr-W-Z yl$ M>-$V>

GMS C

A-M>-MS A]l$-]l$ C..

VSyl]l# l ]lW-]l l>l MS->-


*f-]l*-$ l]l$MS$ A]l l-R$-]l$ l$s {---MSV> t-t
^l*. ]ll$V> Gl-B-I $ l$s g *--^.
l> {MS]l$Z gDD >MS-]l$, B
l>l Gs >MS-]l$ -VS--]l-ZMS
$-M-.
s B-V> O]l t *-_ &-MS-rW r MS *--_]l {lMS l tZ l$-->a.
r$ -^l -$ ]l->$ Ol
l$-->a.

CfVS

MS->- *f-]l*-$ l]l$-MS$]l 30


>l r l$-$-r$ {MS]l$Z &MSr-W(l$-lg-l$s Ms) r]l$ yl$ M>-$V>
^l*. lls.. Gl-B-I (l -yls
Cyl-$-l) Ms. y.. B* M$-MS$
-_ --_]l G{rl st-Z
l$s B-V> Ayl-l MS-^. Gl-B-I
Ms MSl 15 >l r$ (30 >l rZ VS);
l$l-g-l$s Ms MSl $VS 15 >l r$
Es.

{lMS l t l--
yl$ l$VS$ > E]ll ]l$yl-$ yl$-l
^l]l -l-]l {M>..
&-MS-r-W r MS MS->-$ {lMS l t]l$ *--^.
&MSr-W r MS l---V> CW, l$VS$
]l--{-MSZ {MS-r]l C.
l-V> >-Z MS->-$ l$VS$, CW--r$ E* ]l--{-MSZ MS*y {MS-r]l C.
D {MS-r-]lZ l]l$ MS->-Z Al$-r$Z E]l r$, M$$, A-MS-l h{t-l k, Ayl-l yl*-]l$ l--V> P-.
A-$$ Bl-O-lZ l-R$ ^l$-MS$l
MS-^. Al-M>-MS$y Bl-Ol lR$ {{MS$ N-*MS -l {l$-MS-
{ yl-Zyl ^l$-MS$l l$-$ MS-^lyl
MS*y l--.
Bl-Ol l-R-$--r$ A-$$ ]lMS-VS-lV>
MS->-MS$ l B-Ol -]lZ l-R$ ^l$MS$l Ol A]l$$ ^l*.
Bl-Ol A-MS-l ]l$-$Z A-$$ l$ MS>-Z E]l M$-MS$ l]l$ {-]ll {MS]l*
(B-z B {--l]l$-) l$g lV>
*--^.

B 17-7-2016

NUTRITION- FOOD SUPPLYING SYSTEM-2

{l->-MS$ {-]l*$..
B* G{r-l-Z l$s, >MS$ B-V>
ll 70 >l r]l$ A-M>--MSV> -^l Ml-VS > ^l$. $W-]l 30 >l r]l$
&-MS-r-W $ *f-]l*]l Ms MSl MS->-$
lV> ^l$-M-]l^l$a. D l$-$-r$ M>-V>
B* {ls MS->-$ Ct->-fV>
]l]l---$--$l B-- llZ yl$ l$VS$ > E]ll
]l$yl$ &-MS-r-W r MS tV> ---]l$ *--^.

* ]ll l

t A-l$ l--
&-MS-r-W r {MS]l$Z l-R-$-]l$ MS-^l
*f-]l*-$ t Al -l-]l-]l$ s-^.
E]ll ]l$yl-$ *--_]l -
{M> -$ Al -l-]l$..
Gl-B-I Ms -Z l-R$ ^l$-MS$l $$ l$ M$MS$ A-lV> --_]l AMS-yl-$MS
M$Z {VS* j-MS$tZ 50 >l ]l*$P$
ll-]l*]l i-H (Il$) . As.. sMS
L-MS -$$ G {VS* j-MS$tZ 50
>l ]l*$P$ .
gDD >MS$ G {VS* j-MS$tZ 45 >l
]l*$P- E-~l -^.
_]l-V> CM> r$ $W--l Gs E-~l]l$ A-lV> P-.
D ]lyl$ --Z]l* &MSr-W r$
M>MS-l G {VS* j-MS$tZ MS 45 >l
]l*$P- E-~l (-f-yl MSr-W A-$-MS$ 40
>l) B-V> l-R-$-]l$ MS-_.. ]l_a]l lR-$-]l$ l$s B-V> t- t ^l
^l*.

&-MS-r-W r N-^l-]l
l>l MS->- *f-]l*$ Al$MS$ A-M>-MS
A]l$-]l$ $-M-]lyl l--.
r ]l->-]l$ l]l$ MS-> l-OsZ
P-. Al lV> B* E]ll
]l$yl (H--G----^lD/sG----^l-D-)MS
-l ]l]l-Z B ]l->$ A_ A]l$]l$ . B{l-{-l--Z MS->-
*f-]l*-$ H-G----^l-DMS, l-V>Z MS->- *f-]l*-$ sG----^lDMS D ]l->$ l-$-g-*. s --_]l A-M>-$$.. l$ r MS A-M>-MS
A]l$-]l$ ]l$$ ^l$. Al lV>
^l -]lZ Z$ E]lr$ ll B r
l$ ^l A-M> MS*y Er$.
B{l-{-lZ sMS, - M$ &-MS-rW r l-R$ -$Z HOl$ Cl$$ Gl$-Ol -$$ lrl H-G---^lD O^ll ltMS $-MS$-]l_a >l$
^l^l$a. O -l A-M>-MS
]l>Y$ lT ^l. l$ MS->-$
-l-]l]l$ A-{MS-$-_-]lr$ ll MS->O MSv]l ^l$ $-M-]l-yll$ M>MS$y.. A>l $$]l ^l A-M> MS*y E]ll
]l$yl-MS Er$.

MS. -l, ` Ml-VS B-, H s


&-MS-r-W r Z l-R-$-]l$ MS--^l-ryl$ Al -l-]l {M> {MS]l$--l-
A]l$---^lyl l--. ]ll$V> gDD
>MS-.. B l>l Gs >MS- r
^l*. Bl-OlZ l-R-$]l$
Al$--r$Z E^l-MS--, l-R-$]l$ M> MS$y -P--_
-$$ sG----^lD O^l-lMS$ >l$
^l^l$a. As MS->--O ^l$ $MS$s.
{- G.]l$, Ol O^ll, sG----^lD

Glucose: Glucose is a simple carbohydrate. We obtain glucose (C6H12O6)


through our diet. Glucose gives us energy.
Grana: Membrane of chloroplast showing
stacked sac like structures. These are thylakoid stacks. Light reaction takes place in
this
Haustoria: The root like structures of
cuscuta plant that penetrate the tissue of a
host water and nutrients are
drawn through these.
Heterotrophic nutrition: The
method in which some
organisms acquire food by
depending on others.
Light reaction:
This is
Photochemical phase of photo
synthesis. In this reaction events
like splitting of water molecule and
formation of ATP and NADPH occur by
absorbing Photons. For this light is
essential.
Lipase: The enzyme secreted by stomach
and pancreas. It converts fats into fatty
acids and glycerol
Liver: The biggest digestive gland. It
performs so many functions. It secretes
bile which helps in emulsification of fats.
Its special function is to store Glucose in
the form of Glycogen.
Pancreas: The most important digestive
gland, located near the curve of duodenum.
It secretes Trypsin, Lipase, Amylase etc.
Parasitic nutrition: Obtaining food
(nutrients) from animals or plants without
doing any harm to them Eg: Dodder plant.
Pepsin: The enzyme present in gastric
juice. It breaks down proteins into
peptones.
Peristaltic Movement: The wave like
movements that occur in different parts of
alimentary canal. These are involuntary
movements.
Salivary glands: These are the three pairs
of digestive glands present in the oral
cavity. These secrete Salivary Amylase
(ptyalin) which converts complex carbo
hydrates to simple carbohydrates.
Sphincter: Ring like muscular structures
present at different parts of the alimentary
canal Ex: Sphincter at the end of stomach,
anus etc..
Starch: It is a form of carbohydrate. It is
synthesised by the process of Photo
synthesis.
Stroma: Colourless part of chloroplast is
called stroma. Dark phase of Photosynthesis takes place in stroma.

*i (DG)

l {-]l]l${ VSl yl l->VS


-- E{VS-l *-]l {V> E]lr$ t]l$]l#l$. Al ]l$$Z BMS ]l*l l$Z]l* -]l$
VS$ MSV> l$MS$ l* ]lN-lMS l>VS A]l$$. l r$t-yl$$, MS-MS -gq]l, $VS$ l>-
Ol${, Al>j$ -M> ]ls A>MS$
_.. A--$, , Al$-M>,
lS, BVS-*-* l>-Z l* f-]l -r]l$, A]l$---_]l -$ l {-t]l$
^lV> E. D {MS]l$Z A$ ->
l> l(G--G--i)Z MS l$gs l>$ MS$ ]l$ll$ {MSs^. IMS>f$-- {l]l$yl-Z l >l
MS {^l l> ]l$ll$ MS*ylVSrtylZ
^ ]lMS$ l* f$]ll]l$*$.

l -r-]l$ & {-]l-l$


{- - ]l{l l* 51 (-G- ]l*l->- ) l -r-]l$ ^l>$.
AlMSV> Al$M>Z $VS$$
s^$.
AY, {, l, , VS-N,
Eg-MS-Z yl$ -$ -s-^$.
-]l-{l l* {-V> lrtlls

*s(20-14 16-&-17)Z s^$.


l* {-V> Y]l -l-ls Al->j-$
l$..- {hZ fW]l B {M l$
(O 13-&-16, 20-1-4)

1. How Does Gaseous exchange occur

]l-{l -l* gV> Il$ k r$


$VS$ B{M> l>Z s^$.
- l -g-M (O 7)
l-S--{M> (O 8&-9)
s-g-* (O 10)
-MS (O 11)
-l* B{M> -r-]lZ MS-M>->$
1) E{VS- l *]l, 2) B {ll 3)
"Z l*-'MS _]l r$t--yl$
BMS (- Cl-t-l$s l$M C
Cyl*).
4) Al->j-$ {ll.

{-]ll

20-15 AMt--Z ]l*lZ ]ly &


B{M> l> l$ f-W. Al$Z 41
B{M> l> ]l$_ 51 ]l$ ll$ Y$.
$ MSMS A>-O ^la^$. B ^laMS$ M]l-W-#V> l >{t- { ]lQj D
Hy Z $, I]l--Mt, ]l$-*Z;
l E->-{t- $ A (l$&- )
l>M, r*-* l>Z -s-^$. D
{MS]l$Zl { ]l{l l* MS*y B{-M>Z $VS$ l*$ l>Z ]lN-l-MS
r]l f$.
D -r-]lZ l l {f-O lt
MS{-MS--^$.
-B-{-M>MS$ l*$]l, -MS$ lS, a-]l*]l
E]l l* ]l$--]l-{lO lt
st.
-]lN--l-MS, P-MS ]l$ Zl
^l$yl.
-B-{M> JMS `MSs Qyl-]l$-l JMS-s ]l*r.
lyl$ A-]l ^ll$l$]l l>-MS$ JMS lMSV>
E. MS*y VS$_.
Cl$Z VSV>l l* ]lN-l-MS-V>
B{M> l>Z s^$.

30 "G--' --]l$ -l-g-MMS$ Al-g-. - Cl-MS$-]ll$


lgMMS$ C-]l]l 45 S y
(*. 30 Mr$) $ ]lst-]lr$ l>VS >Q A-M>-$$ l--$.
lgM BVS ]l]l-]l$ st ^l$ylZ VSV> Gy - L$, Cl Al-]l- L--]l$ >-V>
C]l]l$.
B l --S l ]l$-> --^ly-MS $ ^l$yl r$ S]l$
A^l]l$.

B{M> l> r]l

lg--M
-O 7]l lg-M >f- ]l$#sZ ^l$MS$]l l* B l Al-S$yl$ - -]l*-
]l*-l]l$*$.
-C-$-l-> ]l$l BMS, f, r$t--yl$MS$
_]l A>-O ^la$ fV>.
-l-g--M]l$ "B-{M>&{l---' V> l*
A-]l-~-^$. lyl$ {^l Gl$-P-r$]l
A -l ]l$ E{VS--l-l$-]l l* P$.
]l*-lMS {l A{MS]l$ ]ls l>-MS$,
E{VS---MS lVSY --$--$,
s *--^-- $#^a$.

lS--{-M>

J-$

l-g-M ]l$_ -MS$ #---


VS$-]l$MS _ M>MS Jl
(20-2-0-&-21) MS$-. D JlZ
VSV> lgM Hy S r]l$
#]l$ MS$ GVS$]l$ ^l$]l$. ]l^la $VS sMS yl-l$
(yl$ S r]l$-$) ^- ~^$. Gl$-P-r$]l #- Ml Ml -]l-MS$ ]l$.
--]lf]l, {MSy>MS$ _ A]l-V> Jl.
-l* ]l$--]l-{ M> -fZ Gl$-]l#-l$]l ]l$-$, -]l$ Gl$-P-]l-y-MS
C$- l-> ]l$l Jl MS$.

{ ]l{ll* lS{M> r]lZ


VSV> -(O 8&9) yl, g-l---Y-Z
-s-^$.
-l-S--{M> Al-S$yl$ gMS k]l* Ol-SMS
^la$ f$.
-A-l->j-$ l-MS-O, 48 l>$ $-$V>
VS G-G-i (]l*-MS-$ $ {VS*)Z
- MS ]l$ll$ l]ll$MS$ lS-{M> Al-S$-ylMS l* MSl-fq-l$ l-$.
-l-S--{M>&- MS B- l*-MS
l M>- l* $#^a$.
-VS-]l$$, -$-$, L-$, l*, #]l$--lMS Cl]l, ]l*-^&MS-MS (I-s)
V>Z C$ l>$ MS ^ll$MS$ AlMS
A]lM>>$$ P-$.
-_]l -{-]l$ H>-r$Z lS--{M>MS$
l]l A]l$-- A-^l-l$MS$ ll ]lMS ^l.
-2-0-1-7-&-19 M>-MS "l* ]l$--]l{l
l> $' AlS l-l$ MS--$]l
lS--{-M>MS$ l* $-M>-S$ l-$.
-- ll-lZ "->-]l- --S
S-' Al->j-$ - MS*-r$ H>r$MS$ f$-VS$-l$]l {$--MS$ lS--{M>
]l$ll$ l-.
-I--G-H, {M, i&-20 ]ls l-MS-O

through stomata?
Ans. 1. In Leaves, gaseous exchange takes
place through stomata.
2. The gases like CO2 and O2 are exchanged between atmosphere(outside) and the
tissues of leaves (inside) by diffusion.
2. What are autotrophs?
Ans. The organisms which prepare food by
their own are called autotrophs.
Ex: Green plants and photosynthetic
bacteria.
3. What are the other materials required
for photosynthesis along with CO2 and
water?
Ans. Photosynthesis requires two factors:
1) External factors 2) Internal factors
1. External factors: These are raw
materials like (i) sunlight (ii) carbon
dioxide (iii) Water
4. Leaves prepare substance A through
photosynthesis. It is converted into
substance B. What are A and B?
Ans. Leaves prepare glucose (A) through
photosynthesis. Glucose is converted into
starch (B) and stored in plants.
5. Observe the table and answer the
questions
S.No
Nutrition
Organism
1
Autotrophism
Plants
2
a
Animal
3.
b
Cascuta
i .a ___________
b___________
ii. Animals are not having chloroplasts. States
why they depend on other organism.
Ans. i. a. Heterotrophism
b. Parasitism

. MSu$
jMt #$$

CONCEPTUAL UNDERSTANDING

B{M>Z l { ]lNlMS r]l


l {]l]l${ ]l{ll* l]l
yl M>Z 42 l>Z s-^$. AlMS Al->j-$ l-$Z
Y$. H l>-MS l B$]lMS$
AN VSl . lMS HOl
"E-{VS-- A-MS-st--l' l-> l*
{^l l> ]ll$ E^l$l$$.
r$ B$]l l A>MS$
_ Al>j$ ]l*f
]l$ll$]l$ MS*ylVSrtylZ
MSl$*$. gV> {
f]l B{M> r]l MS*y
{*fMS$ FlV> ]l]l$.

M>

sl & "*i (DG) ^t&1 {$'..


s lZ..

M>ssl OVSyll

-MS--^l$-M-- C$- l->$ ~-^.


Is, MS$, P, >-rMS, >{ MSMS V>Z - --MS$ C$- l>
]l$l J-$ MS$>.
--Z l {lS r$t--yl$ (G--yl-I) -l-]l]l$ Cs-]l ]l--_]l * VS$$ ^l*, -MS$ E]l A
A]l-M>->-]l$
--*VS
^l$MV> lS--{M> ll]l$ l* B--^$.

sg--*
-O 10]l l* sg-*Z s^$.
sg* Al-S$yl$ g- gZ
]l$VS$# BMS, f -M>->O ^la^$.
-A-]l-l C$ l> ll$ -MS -MS$ ]l*-l-Z Y$.
-A--]l {-]l-l-]l$ ^l$-M-]l-ylZ C$- l> ]l$l -M>.
--S,
{l---Ol$] A> r$
{]lV> M>*]l VSZ VS-]l* ^l$M C$ l>$ ~^.

$& J-$

s-g--*MS$ 9.20 Mr y ($]l*$ *. 616.40 Mr$) $ $


A^l]l$.
-s-g--*-Z 17 ]lVS->Z s ->
l-M>-MS$ _ ]l$ Il$ Mr y
($-]l*$ *.335 Mr$) $ C]l-y-MS
AX-M>.
B l>-MS A]l---Ol$]l L-$, Oll -MS> ->MS$ ll.
f ]l]l-$ -, A-]l-O C$ l>
]l$l A]l-V>-]l Jl.
g-h--Z ]l S MS{l H>r$MS$ Jl.
l A-M>-MS --$t-O sg-*
]l$_ MS$ ]l^laMS $]l--#

f]l G

-l g$ _]l l -{-]l$ ,
sg-* _]l -{-]l$ A-]l
]l$l A]l-V>-]l Jl(G--).

Cl {-]ll A>$

-]l-]l-$, B {l V>Z -M>> l ^l$-M-]lyl.


--f VSZ C$- l->$ MS ^l-$yl.
---{-]l$ ]l$l - > r$t-yl$Z VS--]l* ^l$-M--l ~-*MS C$- l->-l-l$ ]l^a$.
-- ^-]l H>-Os]l Al->j-$
MS*r-$Z MSMS VS--$V> sg--*MS$
B]l.
--MS >MS--MS-MS$ E-*-VS-yl s-]l$
{ sg--*MS$ A-^$.
--l-Ol$-]ll lV> -MS$ >--V>
sg-* Al-S$ l* B--^$.

MS
- l* Il$ k B{M> l> -r-]lZ
_]l-V> -O 11]l MSZ s^$.
-MS Al-S$yl$ E$$ MS]l-st l
{ Ol-SMS ^la$ f$.

J-$&Cl A>$
--S, {ll, $- -]l$ - l-l
V>Z -M>l$ SV> C$ l> ]l$l
J$ MS$>.
-Ol- ----$Z V> {VS-*-MS 10 S y > l* {MSs-^$.
-l* ]l$--]l-{lZ ]l-{l# VS
yll -W_, Al-MS M>
^le]l$ MS-^ll$MS$ MS ^l* B
l> M.

y G.S
Ats {,
g M>i