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Cytokine

Function

Source

Disease
Association

G-CSF

stimulates neutrophil
development/release from BM

Macs, Fibroblasts

acute infection

TGF1

Anti-inflammatory, switch to IgA

T reg, TH3 cells,


monocytes

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IL-1 family

Proinflammatory, Acute Phase


Response

Macs/mono, lymphocytes,
neutrophils

Increased in RA, IBD,


gout, psoriasis

IL-2

B, NK, T cell prolif/growth

CD4, CD8, NK, DC

deficient in T cell-deficient
diseases

IL-3

activation of eosinophils and


basophils

T cells, macs, NK,


eosinophils, mast

Increased in allergic
diseases,
lymphocytic/acute myeloid
leukemia

IL-4

TH2 differentiation, IgE class


switch,
Class II on B cells

TH2 cells, basophils, mast


cells, NK, T, eosinophils

Increased in
allergy/asthma,
CLL

IL-5

Differentiation & function of


eosinophils

TH2 cells, eosinophils,


mast cells, NK, NKT

Increased in
asthma/allergy
Hypereosinophilic
syndrome

IL-6

synthesis of acute phase


proteins, T cell
5/2/12differentiation/
activation/function,
B cell differentiation/growth, IgG,
IgA, IgM production

Endothelial cells
monocytes, macrophages,
T cells

Increased in SLE, Multiple


Myeloma, autoimmune
diseases

IL-7

Proliferation of T, pre-T, pre-B,


pro B cells,
VDJ recombination,
naive T cell survival factor

DC, B cells,
monocytes/macrophages

Increased in psoriasis,
allergy

IL-8

Chemoattractant for neutrophils,


NK, CD8+T cell, basophils,
eosinophils

Monocytes/macrophages,
neutrophils, lymphocytes

in inflammatory diseases
(RA, psoriasis, infections)

IL-9

TH2/mast cell growth factor,


inhibit TH1 development, IgE
production

TH2, mast cells,


eosinophils

Increased in helminth
infections, Hodgkins
lymphoma, allergy

IL-10

Immune suppression

T cells, B cells, monocytes,


macrophages, DC

Increased in some
cancers, allergy;
in autoinflammatory
disease

5/2/12

Cytokine

Function

Source

Disease
Association

IL-11

inhibit macrophage function;


growth factor for myeloid,
erythroid, megakaryocyte
progenitors

fibroblasts, epithelial cells,


vascular smooth muscles
cells

allergic inflammation

IL-12

induce TH1 differentiation;


increase cytotoxicity/activation of
NK cells; TH1 polarization

monocytes/macs,
neutrophils/DC

When deficient, impaired


TH1,
susceptibility to
intracellular pathogens

IL-13

Switch to IgG4 and IgE; TH2


polarization;
eosinophil/mast cell activation
recruitment/survival of
eosinophils

T, NKT, mast cells,


basophils, eosinophils

Increased in asthma,
allergic rhinitis, parasite
infections

IL-15

T Cell activation,
Monocytes/macrophages
proliferation/activation NK cells,
CD8 memory T cell homeostasis,
enhance TH2 differentiation

IL-17

enhance TH2 differentiation,


suppress allergic rhinitis,
proinflammatory cytokine
induction, neutrophil recruitment

TH17 cells
CD8+ T cells
NK cells
NKT cells
neutrophils

RA, MS, IBD, psoriasis


allergic asthma, a topic
dermatitis contact
hypersensitivity

IL-18

enhance NK cytotoxicity,
inhibits T Reg development

Macrophage, DC

Increased in RA, MS, Type


1 Diabetes, psoriasis,
autoimmune/inflammatory
disorders

IL-23

Stimulates IL-17 production,


T cell proliferation

Macrophages,
DC

Decreased may lead to


increased susceptibility to
extra-cellular pathogens;
At high levels may
exacerbates organ-specific
autoimmune inflammation

IL-33

induce TH2 inflammation by mast


cells/eosinophils

necrotic cells,
endothelial cells

cardiovascular disease,
asthma,
autoimmune disease

IFN-

Weak antiviral,
cytotoxic activity, TH1
differentiation,
MHC I, II; enhance microbial
killing by macrophages

NK, NKT, TH1, CD8+ T


cells

antitumor, antibacterial
properties; increased in
Th1-mediated autoimmune
diseases

5/2/12

Increased in
autoimmune/inflammatory
diseases

IFN /

MHC Class I; key antiviral


defense

mono/macs; fibroblasts

LT(TNF 2)

Cell killing; endothelial activation;


lymph node development

B/T cells

TNF

Local inflammation; cytotoxicity;


endothelial activation; synergize
with IFN-

Macs, NK, T

5/2/12

Anti-viral, anti-parasitic,
anti-proliferative
in some autoimmune
diseases () MS treatment
????
Granuloma control; High
levels septic shock;
Deficiency increase
tumors/leukemias;
in RA, MS