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YEAR 7 CHEMISTRY SCHEMES OF WORK

The two chemistry modules have each nine and eight lessons respectively assigned to them,
giving eighteen lessons in total for the chemistry rotation. Two lessons of Sc. 1 have been
incorporated into the Scheme of work and one lesson has been assigned to the two module
test.
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C3 & C4 Target/Word and summary sheets can be
distributed to help pupils with the course.
7G SOLIDS, LIQUIDS & GASES
LESSON
NUMBER
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

LESSON TOPIC
Introduction to solids, liquids & gases
The three states of matter
Properties and particle arrangements in solids
Properties and particle arrangement in liquids
Properties and particle arrangement in gases
Changes in states
Experiment to investigate boiling water (Sc. 1)
Experiment to investigate cooling wax (Sc. 1)
Diffusion and gas pressure

Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C2 Target/Word and summary sheets can be distributed


to help pupils with the course.
7H SOLUTIONS
LESSON
NUMBER
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8
9

LESSON TOPIC
Investigating soluble and insoluble substances
Dissolving and saturated solutions
What affects solubility of substances?
Getting salt from rock salt
Separating methods
Distillation
An investigation into separating dyes used in coloured inks
Using Chromatography
Module tests

UNIT 7G: SOLID, LIQUID & GASES


LESSON 1 Introduction to solids, liquids & gases
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
that materials exist as one of the three states of matter
to classify materials as either solids, liquids or gases
using previous knowledge to identify materials as solids, liquids and gases
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1b
KS 2 links/Prior learning:
Pupils should have learnt:
the three states of matter are solids, liquids and gases
the changes in states melting, boiling, freezing
Suggested Teaching Activities
Introduce the 2 Chemistry modules being taught as solids, liquids & gases and solutions.
Starter Activity
Brainstorm with pupils about their previous knowledge on solids, liquids, & gases and
write on the board. Pupils are to use this information to write a title page in their exercise
books.
Core Activities
Pupils are to classify some materials (an assortment of wood, metal blocks, water in
beakers, air in a sealed container, syringe etc), as solids, liquids, or gases and explain
why they think this.
Pupils are to draw a table in their books and give their explanations in classifying the
materials.
Teacher to go through each material and write the correct explanation on the board.
Pupils are to do questions from Exploring Science book 1.
Pupils can do worksheet associated with the work.
Plenary
Pupils are to give examples of other materials that can be classified as solid, liquid or a
gas and explain why.
Safety/Risk Assessment
Any glass broken must be cleared up using a dustpan and brush and disposed of in the broken
glass bin. Goggles should be worn.
Resources
Class practical: Assortment of materials: wood, metal, water, fruit juice, glass rod, syringe full of
air, gas jar containing oxygen, flour, sand, toothpaste, shampoo, paper etc.
Exploring Science book 1: P92 C4a Caf Chemistry
SEN Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C4a Caf Chemistry
Homework
Hodder A: chapter 2 Homework: 2.1 Carnival people
2

Additional Notes/Differentiation
SEN worksheet see resources
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

* (observation, Analysis)

UNIT 7G: SOLID, LIQUID & GASES


LESSON 2 The three states of matter
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
to classify materials as either solids, liquids or gases
to physical properties of solids, liquids and gases
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1a, 1b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
the three states of matter are solids, liquids and gases
to identify materials as solids, liquids and gases
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Pupils will give ideas on how they could classify a material as a solid, liquid, or a gas.
Pupils are to write their ideas down in their exercise book. Teacher to ask pupils for their
ideas and write down on board/OHP.
Core Activity
Class practical: Pupils are to have on each bench a balance, metal block (solid), sand,
water & air in three separate closed syringes and 2 beakers of water.
Give out worksheet (ESC C3e/1 or C4a/ 2) on properties of solids, liquids, and gases and
instruct pupils to fill/cut and stick in the worksheet based on their observations.
Teacher is go through worksheet and give explanations.
Pupils are to answer questions in Exploring Science book 1 P88.
Plenary
Show an object (any state of matter) and instruct pupils to explain what properties the
material has.
Safety/Risk Assessment
Any glass broken must be cleared up using a dustpan and brush and disposed of in the broken
glass bin. Goggles should be worn.
Resources
Class practical: balance, a metal block (solid), sand, water, & air in three separate closed
syringes and 2 beakers of water for each bench
Exploring Science book 1: P 88 C3e Summing up
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C3e/1 or C4a/ 2, C3a/6 Solid or liquid? or C4a/4 Inbetween
SEN worksheet: C3e Summing up
OHP/transparency
Hodder A activity A2S1/2 matter and particles/solids, liquids and gases
Hodder Extension A Activity A2E1 solid, liquid and gas
Homework
Pupils are to research worksheet on solids, liquids, and gases.
4

Additional Notes/Differentiation
New words such as density and its units, compressed must be explained to the pupils and
meanings written down. The glossary at the back of the Exploring Science book maybe useful.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

* (Observation, Analysis)

UNIT 7G: SOLID, LIQUID & GASES


LESSON 3 Properties and particle arrangements in solids
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
to know the physical properties of a solid
to know particles are tiny and make up all matter
to know the particle arrangement in a solid
to know how the arrangement of particles gives the physical properties associated in a
solid
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1a, 1b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
the three states of matter are solids, liquids and gases
using previous knowledge to identify materials as solids, liquids and gases
the physical properties of solids, liquids and gases
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Show pupils a solid object and ask them to write on the board the physical properties
associated with solids.
Alternatively, an OHP transparency/board can be used to show several properties
associated with solids, liquids, and gases and instruct pupils to select properties of a solid
only.
Core Activity
Instruct a group of pupils to show how particles are arranged in a solid (drama). Pupils
should stand very close together.
Explain how this close arrangement of particles gives properties of a solid.
Pupils are to do read and answer questions from the Exploring science book 1 P82/83.
Pupils can also do ESC C3b/4 on the properties of solids.
Pupils can carry out task to design a three dimensional solid ESC C3b/3.
Plenary
Pupils will select from diagrams from the board/OHP the correct arrangement of
particles in a solid and explain its properties.
Safety/Risk Assessment
If designing a three-dimensional solid, pupils will need to careful of compass point.
Resources
Design a three dimensional solid ESC C3b/3 (see worksheet)
OHP/transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P82/83 C3b Solid as a rock
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: ESC C3b/4 Properties of a solid -summary
SEN worksheet: C3b Solid as a rock
6

Homework
Complete worksheet on properties of solid or find out the particle arrangement in a liquid.
Additional Notes/Differentiation
Pupils need to know that particles are so tiny you would need a powerful microscope to see
them. Particles make up all matter in the universe this is the particle theory.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

UNIT 7G: SOLID, LIQUID & GASES


LESSON 4 Properties and particle arrangement in liquids
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
to know the physical properties of a liquid
to know particles are tiny and make up all matter
to know the particle arrangement in a liquid
to know how the arrangement of particles gives the physical properties associated in a
liquid
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1a, 1b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
to identify materials as solids, liquids and gases
the three states of matter and their properties
the particle arrangement in a solid
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Show pupils a liquid in a container and ask them to write on the board the physical
properties associated with a liquid.
Alternatively, an OHP transparency/board can be used to show several properties
associated with solids, liquids, and gases and instruct pupils to select properties of a
liquid only.
Core Activity
Instruct a group of pupils to show how particles are arranged in a liquid (drama). Pupils
should stand very close together.
Explain how this arrangement of particles gives properties of a liquid.
Pupils are to do read and answer questions from the Exploring science book 1 P84/85.
Pupils can also do ESC C3c/4 on the properties of liquids.
Plenary
Pupils will select from diagrams from the board/OHP the correct arrangement of
particles in a liquid and explain its properties.
Pupils in their groups show the particle arrangement in a solid and then a liquid (drama)
or draw on the board.
Safety/Risk Assessment
No risk.
Resources
OHP/transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P84/85 C3c liquid assets
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C3c/4 on the properties of a liquid -summary
SEN worksheet: C3c Liquid assets
8

Homework
Pupils are to do worksheets on solids, liquids, and gases. Spotlight science 7-9e Which state of
matter. Pupils could also research the particle arrangement in a gas.
Additional Notes/Differentiation
Pupils need to know that particles are so tiny you would need a powerful microscope to see
them. Particles make up all matter in the universe.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

UNIT 7G: SOLID, LIQUID & GASES


LESSON 5 Properties and particle arrangement in gases
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
the physical properties of a gas
that particles are tiny and make up all matter
the particle arrangement in a gas
how the arrangement of particles gives the physical properties associated in a gas
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1a, 1b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
to identify materials as solids, liquids and gases
the three states of matter are solids, liquids and gases and their properties
the particle arrangement in a solid and liquid
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Show pupils a gas in a container and ask them to write on the board the physical
properties associated with a liquid.
Alternatively, an OHP transparency/board can be used to show several properties
associated with solids, liquids, and gases and instruct pupils to select properties of a gas
only.
Core Activity
Instruct a group of pupils to show how particles are arranged in a gas (drama). Pupils
should stand very close together.
Pupils could carry out short experiment from ESC C3d/1 Observing gases.
Explain how this arrangement of particles gives properties of a gas.
Pupils are to do read and answer questions from the Exploring science book 1 P86/87.
Pupils can also do ESC C3d/2 on the properties of gases.
Plenary
Pupils will select from diagrams from the board/OHP the correct arrangement of
particles in a gas and explain its properties.
Pupils in their groups show the particle arrangement in a solid, a liquid, and a gas
(drama) or draw on the board.
Safety/Risk Assessment
Any glass broken must be cleared up using a dustpan and brush and disposed of in the broken
glass bin. Goggles must be worn if experiment carried out.
Resources
OHP/transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P86/87 C3d Free to go

10

Exploring Science 1 worksheets: ESC C3d/2 on the properties of gases summary, C3d/3
Research on a gas, C3d/1 Observing gases (perfume bottle, bag of air, funnel with water
running into a flask, balloon filled with air in water, syringe full of air)
SEN worksheet: C3d Free to go
Homework
Complete worksheet on research on a gas ESC C3d/3.
Additional Notes/Differentiation
Pupils need to know that particles are so tiny you would need a powerful microscope to see
them. Particles make up all matter in the universe.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

11

UNIT 7G: SOLID, LIQUID & GASES


LESSON 6 Changes in states
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
about the changes in state of water
the terms melting, boiling/evaporating, condensing and freezing
about particle arrangement before, after and during changes in state
distance between particles during expansion and contraction in solids and liquids
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1a, 1b, 2c
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
the properties and particle arrangement in solids, liquids and gases
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Pupils to carry out activity from Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 61/61a/61b
Is it solid, liquid or gas? on OHP transparency (cards can also be used).
Core Activity
Teacher demonstration on ice melting and water boiling (kettle can be used) as well as
steam from hot water in a beaker condensing onto a cold watchglass placed over it.
Pupils are to explain what is happening to particles at each change in state and give
names to the change in state of water i.e. melting, boiling etc.
Teacher demonstration expansion and contraction using the metal ball and ring
experiment. Explain about distance between particles during heating and cooling and
hence the expansion and contraction in solids and liquids.
Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science book 1 P80/81, P89 and ESC
C3e/3 Expansion & contraction.
Pupils are to complete worksheet Hodder A Chapter 2 Activity Sheet AS24 Changing
States.
Pupils are to answer questions from Exploring Science 1 worksheet C4b/5 Melting
moments, C4e/7 revision puzzle
Plenary
Pupils will carry out Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 63 Changing states on
OHP transparency
Safety/Risk Assessment
Resources
Ice cubes, petri dish, kettle, water, metal ball and ring, Bunsen burner, safety mat, goggles,
beaker, cold watch glass
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P80/81
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C4e/7 revision puzzle, C4b/5 Melting moments C3e/3
Expansion & contraction, C3e/4 Using expansion & contraction.
12

Hodder A Chapter 2 Activity Sheet AS24 Changing States.


Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 63 Changing states
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 61/61a/61b Is it solid, liquid or gas?
SEN: C1a Melting away
Homework
Pupils are to complete Hodder A Activity Sheet A2S5 Water cycle or C3e/3 Expansion &
contraction, C3e/4 Using expansion & contraction.
Additional Notes/Differentiation
More able pupils could do the ESC worksheet C4c/3 Using ideas about particles (glue and
scissors required).
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

* (Observing, Analysing)

13

UNIT 7G: SOLID, LIQUID & GASES


LESSON 7 Experiment to investigate boiling water (Sc. 1)
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
How to conduct an experiment using water (Sc. 1)
Practical skills for example taking the temperature of water using a thermometer
Draw a graph of the results and write a conclusion
To recognise the changes in state of water from liquid to gas and relate it to temperature
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1a, 1b, 2c
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
the properties and particle arrangement of solids, liquids and gases
the changes in states melting, boiling, freezing, condensing
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Pupils will carry out activity from Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 5a & 5b
Can you choose suitable apparatus? on OHP transparency.
Core Activity
Teacher to demonstrate how to set up apparatus and go through points on the worksheet
ESC C4c/1.
Pupils are to carry out experiment to obtain results needed for graph.
Teacher to go through results and enable pupils to complete conclusion.
Pupils to answer question from Exploring Science Book 1 P98/99.
Plenary
Pupils are to draw diagrams and explain what happens to water when it boils.
Safety/Risk Assessment
Any glass broken must be cleared up using a dustpan and brush and disposed of in the broken
glass bin. Goggles must be worn and long hair tied back. Boiling water must be handled with
care and apparatus must be cool when put away.
Resources
Water, Beaker, thermometer, tripod, safety mat, stopclock, Bunsen Burner, matches, splint,
measuring cylinder, gauze, and goggles.
Exploring Science book 1: P98/99
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C4c/1 Boiling water 1
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 5a & 5bCan you choose suitable apparatus? on
OHP transparency
SEN Worksheet: C4c Brewing up
OHP and pen
Homework
Pupils are to complete worksheet ESC C4a/3 Making a cup of tea
14

Additional Notes/Differentiation
Pupils will need guidance with safety, setting up apparatus, temperature reading from the
thermometer and drawing their graph.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

* (Planning, observation, Analysis)

15

UNIT 7G: SOLID, LIQUID & GASES


LESSON 8 Experiment to investigate cooling wax (Sc. 1)
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
How to conduct an experiment using wax (Sc. 1)
Practical skills for example taking the temperature of cooling wax using a thermometer
Draw a graph of the results and write a conclusion
To recognise the changes in state of wax from liquid to solid and relate it to temperature
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1a, 1b, 2c
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
the properties and particle arrangement of solids, liquids and gases
the changes in states melting, boiling, freezing, condensing
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Instruct pupils to complete changes in state diagram from the board.
Core Activity
Teacher to demonstrate how to set up apparatus and go through points on the worksheet
ESC C4b/1 cooling wax 1.
Pupils are to carry out experiment to obtain results needed for graph.
Teacher to go through results and enable pupils to complete conclusion.
Pupils to answer question from Exploring Science Book 1 P94/95 or 96/97
Plenary
Pupils will carry out activity from Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 8 on OHP
transparency and on sheets handed out to pupils.
Safety/Risk Assessment
Hot wax needs to be handled with care pupils can use test holder or cloth to carry boiling tube
to the rack. Goggles must be worn and any broken glass disposed of in the broken glass bin.
Resources
Beaker of hot water/water bath, test tube rack, boiling tube, thermometer, stopclock, goggles, hot
wax
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P94/95 or 96/97
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: ESC C4b/1 cooling wax 1
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 8 on OHP transparency and on sheets handed out to
pupils
Homework
Pupils can complete worksheets or alternatively pupils can complete worksheet ESC C4c/4
Different boiling points

16

Additional Notes/Differentiation
Pupils will need guidance with safety, setting up apparatus, temperature reading from the
thermometer and drawing their graph.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

*
* (Planning, Observing, Analysis)

17

UNIT 7G: SOLID, LIQUID & GASES


LESSON 9 Diffusion and gas pressure
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
The particle arrangement in a gases and liquids
Diffusion takes place in liquids and gases
About gas pressure and the effects of temperature on gases
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1a, 1b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
About how particle arrangement in gases and liquids
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Pupils will carry out activity from Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 64
Diffusion on OHP transparency.
Core Activity
Teacher demonstration of diffusion in liquids using purple crystals (potassium
permanganate) in cold and hot water. Instruct pupils to explain their observations in the
experiment i.e. Did the purple dye move fastest? and explain why?
Instruct pupils to see if they can smell perfume from another side of the room when
sprayed. Explain diffusion as movement of particles in liquids and gases. Explain to
pupils about the scientist who discovered diffusion Robert Brown and his theory
Brownian motion.
Show pupils balloon and explain to pupils about air pressure.
Pupils could answer questions from Exploring Science book 1 P90/91and P102/103.
Pupils could do Exploring Science 1 worksheets C3e/5 more hot air
Plenary
Pupils will carry out Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 65 Air pressure on
OHP transparency
Safety/Risk Assessment
Potassium permanganate is an irritant do not get on skin and hot water may scold. Goggles
need to be worn and any broken glass must be disposed of in the broken glass bin.
Resources
Potassium permanganate (purple dye), boiling tubes and rack, hot and cold water, balloon full of
air, spatula, tweezers, perfume
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P90/91C3e Gas Pressure, C3e Heating gases, C4e Aroma Roamer
P102/103
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C3e/5 more hot air, C4d/4 &5 Robert Brown
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 65 Air pressure on OHP transparency
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 64 Diffusion on OHP transparency
SEN worksheet: C4e Aroma Roamer
18

Homework
Pupils are to do Exploring Science 1 worksheet C4d/4 &5 Robert Brown
Additional Notes/Differentiation
Hodder A Activity sheet A2E2 Brownian motion can be given to more able pupils.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

*(observation, Analysis)

19

20

UNIT 7H: SOLUTIONS


LESSON 1 Investigating soluble and insoluble substances
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
The meanings of the words soluble, insoluble, solute, solvent, solution
To know whether a substance is soluble or insoluble
Conduct an experiment to test which substances are soluble and insoluble
Factors such as temperature, stirring, smaller pieces of solute will make substances
dissolves more quickly
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1b, 1g, 2a, 2b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
Some substances dissolve to form a solution
About some separating methods such as filtering
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Pupils are to find the meanings of the following words: soluble, insoluble, solvent,
solute, solution using either previous knowledge or the glossary in Exploring Science
book 1.
Teacher needs to write answer on the board and relate it to class experiment.
Core Activity
Class experiment to test whether several substances are soluble or insoluble in a test tube
of water (see Exploring Science 1 worksheet: C1a/1 How do we know when something
has dissolved?).
Pupils must record their observations in a table and prediction can be made before the
experiment is conducted. Pupils are to then to write a conclusion on which substances are
insoluble and soluble.
Ask pupils what factors could make the solute dissolve much faster i.e. smaller pieces of
solute, temperature, stirring etc. If time, then conduct teacher demonstration of sugar
cubes and granulated sugar dissolving in a beaker of water, sugar dissolving in a beaker
of hot water and cold water and stirring sugar to dissolve it faster.
Pupils could answer questions from Exploring Science book 1 P56 and P60/61.
Pupils could answer questions from Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C1a/7 How do
you know when something has dissolved?
Plenary
Teacher to draw to diagram of a test tube on board/OHP transparency labelled as copper
sulphate dissolved in water. Pupils are to identify the solvent, solute, and solution from
the diagram.
Safety/Risk Assessment
Goggles must be worn and any broken glass must be disposed of in the broken glass bin. Copper
sulphate and Nickel Carbonate are irritants and skin contact must be avoided.
21

Resources
Water, test tubes & rack, spatulas, several substances such as salt, sugar, calcium
carbonate/chalk, flour, nickel carbonate, copper sulphate, sand, etc
Exploring Science book 1: P56, P60/61
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C1a/7 How do you know when something has dissolved?,
C2a/2 Key words about dissolving, C1a/1 How do we know when something has dissolved?
OHP and transparency, blue pen
SEN worksheet: C1a The clear solution
Homework
Pupils are to do Exploring Science 1 worksheet C2a/2 Key words about dissolving
Additional Notes/Differentiation
Emphasis to pupils that a solution is always transparent even if it has colour and therefore the
substance is soluble. An insoluble substance will eventually settle at the bottom of a test tube
even when shaken or stirred.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

*(Planning, observation, Analysis)

22

UNIT 7H: SOLUTIONS


LESSON 2 Dissolving and saturated solutions
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
That when a solute dissolves, mass is conserved
That when a solute dissolves, the solute and solvent particles intermingle
A saturated solution is one in which no more solute will dissolve in the solvent
That different masses of different solids dissolve in the same volume of a particular
solvent
That solids can dissolve in liquids other than water
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1b, 1g, 2a, 2b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
certain substances dissolve and others do not
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Instruct pupils to explain the meanings of following words, solute, solution, solvent and
give examples.
Core Activity
Demonstrate and explain that mass is conserved when a solid is dissolved in a liquid. The
total mass of the solution is the mass of the solute and solvent added together.
Pupils understanding can be tested again by asking what mass of salt they would get if
the water was evaporated.
Ask pupils what happens when a solid dissolves in a liquid (ICT simulation or mixing
rice and peas). Instruct pupils to use their own words to explain what happens and to
draw diagrams to help them explain dissolving.
Demonstrate a saturated solution by add salt to some water and introduce the term
saturated solution. Ask pupils to explain why this happens.
Explain to pupils that different masses of different solids dissolve in the same volume of
a particular solvent and that solids can dissolve in liquids other than water such as
alcohol.
Pupils could do Exploring Science book 1 P57, P58/59 and P60/61.
Pupils could do Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C1a/3 Using ideas about dissolving,
C1b/4 or 5, How much will dissolve 1 or 2? C4d/7, Solute calculations, C1c 1 & 2
Cleaning up the mess.
Plenary
Pupils will carry out activity from Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 68 Is mass
conserved when substances dissolve? on OHP transparency
Safety/Risk Assessment
Goggles need to be worn and any broken glass must be disposed of in the broken glass bin.

23

Resources
Balance, beakers, glass rod, salt, granulated and cubes of sugar, hot and cold water, stopclock,
spatulas
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P57, P58/59, P60/61
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C1a/3 Using ideas about dissolving, C1b/4 or 5, How much
will dissolve 1 or 2?, C4d/7, Solute calculations, C1c 1 & 2 Cleaning up the mess, C1c/6
Polly styrenes problem page.
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 68 Is mass conserved when substances dissolve? on
OHP transparency
SEN worksheet: C2c Salt of the Earth or: C1a A soluble problem
Homework
Pupils are to do Exploring Science 1 worksheet: C2c/6 Hard and soft water or C1c/6 Polly
styrenes problem page.
Additional Notes/Differentiation
Students that are more able can complete A5E4 How much can dissolve: saturated solutions.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

*
*(observation, Analysis)

24

UNIT 7H: SOLUTIONS


LESSON 3 What affects solubility of substances?
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
The amount of solute that dissolves depends on the volume of solvent and its
temperature
That many solutes are more soluble at higher temperatures
Explain solubility as the amount of solid that will dissolve in a 100g of a liquid
To make comparisons, identify patterns and make predictions from graphs
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc3 1b, 1g, 1h, 2a, 2b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
That certain substances dissolve and others do not
That when a solute dissolves, mass is conserved
That when a solute dissolves, the solute and solvent particles intermingle
A saturated solution is one in which no more solute will dissolve in the solvent
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Ask pupils to draw diagrams and explain what happens to particles when a solid
dissolves in a liquid and explain the terms saturated solution.
Core Activity
Teacher demonstration of 2g of sugar, dissolving in 10g of water at two different
temperatures. Ask pupils to predict which on would dissolve faster and to explain why.
Pupils could do Exploring Science book 1 P58/59 and P60/61.
Pupils could do Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C1b/4 or 5, How much will dissolve 1
or 2?, C4d/7, Solute calculations, C1b/6 Calculating the solubility.
Plenary
Pupils will carry out activity from Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 71a & 71b
Does temperature affect solubility? on OHP transparency and on worksheets
Safety/Risk Assessment
Goggles need to be worn and any broken glass must be disposed of in the broken glass bin.
Resources
Graph paper, ruler, pencils
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P58/59, P60/61
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C1b/4 or 5, How much will dissolve 1 or 2? C4d/7, Solute
calculations, C1b/6 Calculating the solubility.
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 71a & 71b Does temperature affect solubility? on
OHP transparency
SEN: Hodder Support A A5S4 A familiar friend, ESC C1b Things are hotting up
25

Homework
Pupils are to do Exploring Science 1 worksheet: C14d/6 Whats in your orange squash?
Additional Notes/Differentiation
Pupils could do Hodder A5E3 Latest solutions.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

*
*(observation, Analysis)

26

UNIT 7H: SOLUTIONS


LESSON 4 Getting salt from rock salt
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
about separating mixtures to obtain a sample of salt from rock salt.
How to conduct a practical to separate a mixture using filtration and evaporation
To evaluate methods used in terms of mass of the salt obtained
That salt comes from a variety of sources and has many uses
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1g, 1h, 2a, 2b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
How to separate solids and liquids by sieving and evaporating.
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Pupils will carry out activity from Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 66 A
solution or not on OHP transparency.
Core Activity
Teacher demonstration of practical using Exploring Science 1 worksheet C2c/4 Making
salt from rock salt 1. Details of safety and how to set up apparatus must be given to
pupils. Pupils need to fill in worksheet.
Instruct pupils to conduct experiment to obtain salt from rock salt using Exploring
Science 1 worksheet.
Pupils need to evaluate their salt deposits in evaporating basins.
Pupils could do Exploring Science book 1 P72/73 C2c Salt of the Earth, P70/71 C2b
Fit to drink
Pupils could do Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C2b/4 Filtering
Plenary
Pupils will read out filled in passages from worksheet and evaluate their salt extracted
from the rock salt.
Safety/Risk Assessment
Goggles must be worn during experiment and any broken glass must be disposed of in the
broken glass bin. Pupils must be aware that during and after the experiment, the apparatus may
still be hot and time needs be given to allow them to cool. Pupils also need to be aware of the
fact that salt may spit from the solution during the evaporating process and the Bunsen burner
needs to be moved away/turned off.
Resources
Mortar and pestle, rock salt, water, beaker, glass rod, filter paper and funnel, conical flask,
evaporating basin, gauze, tripod, Bunsen burner, safety mat, paper towels, matches, splints,
goggles, spatulas, and container for excess rock salt.
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P72/73 C2c Salt of the Earth, P70/71 C2b Fit to drink
27

Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C2b/4 Filtering, C2c/4 Making salt from rock salt 1
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 66 A solution or not on OHP transparency
SEN worksheet: C2c Salt of the Earth
Homework
Pupils can research where salt comes from and it many uses.
Additional Notes/Differentiation
More able student can complete Exploring Science 1 worksheet C2c/7 Gandhi and the salt act.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

*(observation, Analysis)

28

UNIT 7H: SOLUTIONS


LESSON 5 Separating methods
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
about separating mixtures to obtain a sample of salt from rock salt.
How to conduct a practical to separate a mixture using filtration and evaporation
To evaluate methods used in terms of mass of the salt obtained
That salt comes from a variety of sources and has many uses
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc3 1g, 1h, 2a, 2b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
How to separate solids and liquids by sieving and evaporating.
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Pupils will carry out activity from Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 67
Separating sand and salt on OHP transparency.
Core Activity
Teacher demonstration to remind pupils of separating methods using apparatus the
filtration and evaporation. Pupils are to explain how filtering and evaporation works to
separate out insoluble/soluble substances in a liquid.
Pupils could do Exploring Science 1 worksheets:C2e/2 Separating mixtures 1 (P263
only), C2b/4 Filtering
Pupils could do Exploring Science book 1 P72/73 C2c Salt of the Earth, P70/71 C2b
Fit to drink
Plenary
Pupils explain what separating methods could be used to separate the following: copper
sulphate from its solution, chalk, and sugar in water, sand and water.
Safety/Risk Assessment
Any broken glass must be disposed of in the broken glass bin.
Resources
Mortar and pestle, rock salt, water, beaker, glass rod, filter paper and funnel, conical flask,
evaporating basin, gauze, tripod, Bunsen burner, safety mat, spatulas, and container for excess
rock salt for demonstration purposes only.
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P72/73 C2c Salt of the Earth, P70/71 C2b Fit to drink
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C2e/2 Separating mixtures 1 (P263 only), C2b/4 Filtering
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 67 Separating sand and salt on OHP transparency
SEN worksheet: C2c Salt of the Earth
Homework
Pupils are to do Exploring Science 1 worksheet: C2c/5 Making salt from rock salt 2.
29

Additional Notes/Differentiation
More able pupils can answer questions from Exploring science book 1 P70/71 C2b Fit to drink
on purification of drinking water.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

30

UNIT 7H: SOLUTIONS


LESSON 6 Distillation
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
That distillation can be used to separate a liquid from the solids, which are dissolved in
it.
That distillate is a process in which evaporation of a liquid is followed by condensation
The distillation apparatus with Liebig Condenser and laboratory version of distillation
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1g, 1h, 2a, 2b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
How to separate solids and liquids by sieving and evaporating.
Condensation
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Pupils are give examples of separating methods and the type of substance these methods
would separate or examples (i.e. filtering separates an insoluble solid such as sand from a
liquid such as water).
Core Activity
Teacher demonstration of distillation using the Liebig condenser and explain to pupils
how the method is used to separate a liquid from its solute (i.e. in purifying water). Ink
or copper sulphate solution can be used in the distillation process.
Demonstrate to pupils how distillation can be done in the laboratory to separate salt/ink
from its solution. The following apparatus will be needed: boiling tube, test tube,
delivery tube and bung, cold water in a beaker, Bunsen burner, tripod and gauze, safety
mat, clamp and stand. This can be done as a class practical.
Ask pupils to help with take temperature of water (100 oC) when the solution is boiling in
the round bottom flask and point out where the solute and solvent end up at the end of
the process.
Pupils could do Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C2d/1 or 2 Distillation apparatus 1 or
2, C2d /5What is in the barrel of oil?
Pupils could explain in their own words how distillation works or pupils could be given a
series of statements jumbled up.
Pupils could do Exploring Science book 1 P74/75 C2d Still water
Plenary
Pupils will carry out Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 69 Distillation on OHP
transparency
Safety/Risk Assessment
Goggles must be worn and any broken glass must be disposed of in the broken glass bin. Antibumping granules must added to the solution in the flask to prevent vigorous boiling.

31

Resources
Distillation apparatus including Liebig condenser, Bunsen Burner, clamps and stands, beaker,
round bottom flask, anti-bumping granules, matches, splint, goggles, thermometer, ink/copper
sulphate solution
Class practical on lab distillation
Boiling tube, test tube, delivery tube and bung, cold water in a beaker, Bunsen burner, tripod and
gauze, safety mat, clamp and stand
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P74/75 C2d Still water
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C2d/1 or 2 Distillation apparatus 1 or 2, C2d /5What is in
the barrel of oil?
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 69 Distillation on OHP transparency
SEN worksheet: C2d Still water or C2b Fit to drink
Homework
Exploring Science 1 worksheet: C2d/3 Not a drop to drink.
Additional Notes/Differentiation
More able pupils can answer questions from Exploring science 1 worksheet: C2d/4 The history
of distillation, C2b/1-5 about purifying water to make it fit to drink. At this stage, it is not
necessary to distinguish between distillation and fractional distillation
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

*(observation, Analysis)

32

UNIT 7H: SOLUTIONS


LESSON 7 An investigation into separating dyes used in coloured inks
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
That a mixture of two or more solutes which are soluble in a particular solvent can be
separated by chromatography
To conduct an experiment to separate dyes used in colour inks by chromatography
To separate and identify materials using chromatography
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1g, 1h, 2a, 2b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
how to separate solids and liquids by sieving and evaporating.
Condensation and distillation.
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Pupils are asked which colours can used to make green, purple using pencil
crayons/paints. Introduce chromatography as a method that can be used to separate out
the dyes used to make inks/paints/feltips.
Core Activity
Teacher demonstration of chromatography of inks/feltips/food colourings (water soluble)
on strips and circular chromatography paper using water as the solvent.
Discuss about with pupils the solvent particles are carrying the solute particles up the
paper. Smaller solute particles will travel further up the paper.
Instruct pupils to carry out chromatography experiment using inks/feltips provided and
using water as the solvent in smaller beakers.
Pupils are to draw a table in their exercise books with results of dyes used in the inks and
conclusion written.
Teacher to write results on the board from the experiment by asking pupils for their
results and conclusion.
Pupils could answer questions Exploring Science book 1 P78/79 C2e Dyeing for juice.
Pupils could do Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C2e/1 Chromatography of ink
Plenary
Draw a chromatograph on board and instruct pupils to find out which dyes were used in
the ink.
Safety/Risk Assessment
Goggles need to be worn and any broken glass must be disposed of in the broken glass bin.
Resources
Several inks/feltips/food colourings, strips and circular chromatography paper, droppers, small
beakers, water, pencils, ruler, splints, paper clips, flat dish, scissors
OHP and transparency
33

Exploring Science book 1: P78/79 C2e Dyeing for juice


Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C2e/1 Chromatography of ink
SEN worksheet: C2e Dyeing for juice
Homework
Pupils are to do Exploring Science 1 worksheet C2e/6 Forensic evidence
Additional Notes/Differentiation
A pencil line must be drawn on the chromatogram (origin) and the colour of the ink written in
pencil so as not to contaminate experiment. The solvent level must be below the origin as it will
wash away the inks being tested. Other solvents (i.e. alcohol) can be used to separate out some
dyes.
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

*(observation, Analysis)

34

UNIT 7H: SOLUTIONS


LESSON 8 Using chromatography
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
That a mixture of two or more solutes which are soluble in a particular solvent can be
separated by chromatography
To conduct an experiment to separate dyes used in colour inks by chromatography
To separate and identify materials using chromatography
KS 3 NC Ref: Sc3 1g, 1h, 2a, 2b
KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt:
how to separate solids and liquids by sieving and evaporating.
Condensation and distillation.
Suggested Teaching Activities
Starter Activity
Pupils will carry out activity from Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 70
Chromatography on OHP transparency.
Core Activity
Discuss with pupils how chromatographs are interpreted and in what context they are
used i.e. Forensics/crime solving, genetics etc
Pupils could answer questions Exploring Science book 1 P78/79 C2e Dyeing for juice,
P62 C1c Cleaning up.
Pupils could do Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C2e/1 Chromatography of ink, C2e/4
Who scraped the gatepost?, C2e/5 More Chromatography, C2e/2 Separating
mixtures 2
Plenary
Pupils will complete the Exploring Science 1 worksheet: C2 Quick quiz
Safety/Risk Assessment
No risk
Resources
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P78/79 C2e Dyeing for juice, P62 C1c Cleaning up
Exploring Science 1 worksheets: C2e/1 Chromatography of ink, C2e/4 Who scraped the
gatepost?, C2e/5 More Chromatography , C2e/2 Separating mixtures 2
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 70 Chromatography on OHP transparency
SEN worksheet: C2e Dyeing for juice
Homework
Pupils are to do revise for end of unit test. Revision could be done by completing the Exploring
Science 1 worksheet C2: End of unit test.
35

Additional Notes/Differentiation
Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

*(observation, Analysis)

36

UNIT 7H: SOLUTIONS


LESSON 8 Revision
Learning objectives
Pupils are to understand and learn:
The

KS 3 NC Ref: Sc1 2k, 2m, 2n & Sc3 1b


KS 2 links/Prior learning
Pupils should have learnt that:

Suggested Teaching Activities


Starter Activity
Pupils will carry out activity from Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 64
Diffusion on OHP transparency.
Core Activity
Teacher.
Instruct pupils to see if

Pupils could do Exploring Science book 1 P.


Pupils could do Exploring Science 1 worksheets
Plenary
Pupils will carry out Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 65 Air pressure on
OHP transparency
Safety/Risk Assessment
Goggles need to be worn and any broken glass must be disposed of in the broken glass bin.
Resources
OHP and transparency
Exploring Science book 1: P
Exploring Science 1 worksheets:
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 65 Air pressure on OHP transparency
Year 7 Badger Key Stage 3 Science Starter 64 Diffusion on OHP transparency
SEN worksheet:
Homework
Pupils are to do Exploring Science 1 worksheet
Additional Notes/Differentiation

37

Associated Skills
Communication
*
Information Technology
Citizenship *
Literacy
*
Application of Numbers
Scientific Investigation

*(observation, Analysis)

38