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BS 437:1978

BRITISH STANDARD

Incorporating
Amendment No. 1

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Specification for

Cast iron spigot and


socket drain pipes and
fittings

UDC 696.133:621.643.22:669.13

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BS 437:1978

Cooperating organizations
The Hardware and Ironmongery Standards Committee, under whose direction
this British Standard was prepared, consists of representatives from the
following Government department and scientific and industrial organizations:
Aluminium Federation
Association of Builders Hardware Manufacturers
Aluminium Window Association
British Hardware Federation
British Ironfounders Association*
British Lock Manufacturers Association
British Plastics Federation
Copper Development Association
Department of the Environment (Building Research Establishment)
Department of the Environment (Housing and Construction)
Greater London Council*
Guild of Architectural Ironmongers
Metropolitan Police
Royal Institute of British Architects
Royal Institution of Chartered Surveyors
Steel Window Association
Zinc Development Association
The organizations marked with an asterisk in the above list, together with the
following, were directly represented on the committee entrusted with the
preparation of this British Standard:

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This British Standard, having


been prepared under the
direction of the Hardware and
Ironmongery Standards
Committee, was published
under the authority of the
Executive Board on
31 October 1978

British Cast Iron Research Association


Department of the Environment (PSA)
Ductile Iron Pipe Association
Environmental Health Officers Association
Institute of Plumbing
Institution of Municipal Engineers
Institution of Public Health Engineers
National Association of Plumbing, Heating and Mechanical Services
Contractors
National Federation of Builders and Plumbers Merchants

BSI 10-1999
First published February 1932
First revision June 1933
Second revision (as BS 437-1)
November 1970
Third revision (as BS 437)
October 1978
The following BSI references
relate to the work on this
standard:
Committee reference HIB/3
Draft for comment 77/12204

Amendments issued since publication


Amd. No.

Date of issue

Comments

5877

June 1988

Indicated by a sideline in the margin

ISBN 0 580 10294 7

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BS 437:1978

Contents

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Page
Cooperating organizations
Inside front cover
Foreword
iii
1
Scope
1
2
References
1
3
Quality of material
1
4
Freedom from defects
1
5
Permissible deviations on dimensions and masses
1
6
Depth of seal
1
7
Hydrostatic requirement
1
8
Crushing requirement
1
9
Coating
2
10
Inspection
2
11
Marking
2
Appendix A Crushing test
50
Figure 1 Drain pipe, socket and spigot, and fittings
3
Figure 2 Drain bend
5
Figure 3 Drain bend with access door on side
6
Figure 4 Drain bend with rectangular access door on heel
7
Figure 5 Drain branch
8
Figure 6 Drain branch with rectangular access door on side
9
Figure 7 Drain branch with rectangular access door at back
10
Figure 8 Straight access piece
11
Figure 9 Drain branch and straight access piece with rectangular door
12
Figure 10 Diminishing piece
13
Figure 11 Long tail drain bend
13
Figure 12 Long tail drain branch
13
Figure 13 Long drain bend
14
Figure 14 Large radius long tail drain bend
14
Figure 15 Large radius drain bend
15
Figure 16 Long trapping bend
15
Figure 17 Drain bend with socket for WC outlet
16
Figure 18 Drain connector with socket for WC outlet
17
Figure 19 Drain bend with large socket for clayware
17
Figure 20 Drain connector with large socket for clayware
18
Figure 21 Cast iron socket ferrule with brass screwed cap
18
Figure 22 Disconnecting trap for clayware channel and clearing arm
with or without plate, bridle and brass setscrew
19
Figure 23 Disconnecting trap and clearing arm with or without plate,
bridle and brass setscrew
20
Figure 24 Disconnecting trap with reverse clearing arm fitted with plate,
bridle and brass setscrew and 100 mm vent socket
20
Figure 25 Gully trap
21
Figure 26 Disconnecting trap and clearing arm
21
Figure 27 Plain raising piece
22
Figure 28 Raising piece: single inlet branch
22
Figure 29 Raising piece: inlet branches at 180
22
Figure 30 Raising piece: inlet branches at 90
22
Figure 31 Plain tapered gully inlet
23
Figure 32 Tapered gully inlet: single branch
23
i

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BS 437:1978

Page
Figure 33 Tapered gully inlet: two branches at 180
23
Figure 34 Tapered gully inlet: two branches at 90
23
Figure 35 Gully grating
24
Figure 36 Grease seal cover and frame
24
Figure 37 Recessed cover and frame
24
Figure 38 Gully trap
25
Figure 39 Diminisher for use with gully branch
25
Figure 40 Diminisher with 90 bend
26
Figure 41 Trapless gully
26
Figure 42 Trapless gully
27
Figure 43 Gully trap
28
Figure 44 Gully trap
29
Figure 45 Garage gully and raising piece
30
Figure 46 Garage gully and raising piece
31
Figure 47 High invert gully trap
32
Figure 48 Low invert gully trap
33
Figure 49 Gully trap with surface access fitted with brass
screws and washer
34
Figure 50 Bellmouth gully inlet
34
Figure 50a Loose grating
35
Figure 50b Loose grating with notch for downpipe
35
Figure 50c Hinged and locking grating and frame
35
Figure 50d Solid plate
35
Figure 51 Bellmouth gully inlets with single branch
36
Figure 52 Bellmouth gully inlets with two branches at 180
36
Figure 53 Bellmouth gully inlets with two branches at 90
36
Figure 54 Bellmouth gully inlets with vertical branch
37
Figure 55 Gully inlet and grating
38
Figure 56 Rainwater shoe with horizontal inlet
38
Figure 56a Rainwater shoe loose grating
39
Figure 56b Solid cover screwed to shoe with brass setscrews and washer
and closed keyway
39
Figure 57 Socket reducer
39
Figure 58 Loose collar
40
Figure 59 Double socket connector
40
Figure 60 Spigot cap for spigot end of drainpipe
41
Figure 61 Socket plug for socket end of drainpipe
41
Figure 62 Airtight inspection eye cover fitted with two brass setscrews
having closed keyway in cover
42
Figure 63 WC connector having 50 mm parallel branch tapped 2 in
B.S.P.T.
43
Figure 64 Flat grating to fit 100 mm and 150 mm drain sockets
43
Figure 65 Inspection chambers
44
Figure 66 Detail of inspection chamber and cover
49
Figure 67 Crushing test apparatus
50
Publications referred to
Inside back cover

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BS 437:1978
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Foreword
This revision of this British Standard has been prepared under the direction of
the Hardware and Ironmongery Standards Committee. In addition to pipes, it
includes a range of bends, branches and other fittings, which were previously
covered in BS 1130 Schedule of cast iron drain fittings. BS 437-1 and BS 1130
will be withdrawn on the publication of this revision. The socket and pipe
dimensions given in Figure 1 render the pipes and fittings specified in this
standard suitable for jointing with caulked joints to pipes complying with the
requirements of BS 4622 (100 mm and 150 mm) and BS 1211.
The spigot and socket shown in Figure 1 are given as a guide. Leading dimensions
are specified but details of the socket outside profile and the provision of a bead
to the spigot are left to the individual manufacturer.
Double socket lengths of pipes have been included and these should comply with
the requirements and tests laid down for the corresponding spigot and socket
pipes.
The angles of bends and branches have been redesignated using the method
agreed in the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), i.e. the angle
quoted is the angle through which the flow is diverted. Angles previously
designated 92", 112", 135, 157" and 170 are therefore now
designated 87", 67", 45, 22" and 10.
The pipes and fittings covered by this standard are for use buried in the ground
or suspended, and are also suitable for drainage above ground when their use is
considered necessary. Cast iron pipes and fittings complying with the
requirements of BS 416 are generally used for drainage above ground.
A British Standard does not purport to include all the necessary provisions of a
contract. Users of British Standards are responsible for their correct application.
Compliance with a British Standard does not of itself confer immunity
from legal obligations.

Summary of pages
This document comprises a front cover, an inside front cover, pages i to iv,
pages 1 to 50, an inside back cover and a back cover.
This standard has been updated (see copyright date) and may have had
amendments incorporated. This will be indicated in the amendment table on the
inside front cover.
iii

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iv

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BS 437:1978

1 Scope
This British Standard specifies requirements for single and double socket cast iron pipes and fittings,
manufactured by the sand cast or centrifugally cast (spun) processes, for drainage purposes, where the
installations will not be subjected to pressures greater than those specified in clause 7.
Where pipes or fittings are ordered and supplied with some form of flexible joint, the requirements of this
standard apply only to the body.

2 References
The titles of the publications referred to in this standard are listed on the inside back cover.

3 Quality of material
The metal used for the manufacture of pipes and fittings shall be suitable for the method of manufacture
and shall be of a quality not less than that specified in BS 1452, grade 150.
Washers for access doors shall be at least 6.4 mm thick in a material complying with the requirements of
BS 2494, type 2.

4 Freedom from defects


Castings shall be sound and free from defects that render them unsuitable for their purpose. Every casting
shall ring clearly when tested for soundness by being struck with a light hammer.

5 Permissible deviations on dimensions and masses


Pipes and fittings, unless otherwise specified, shall conform to the appropriate dimensions shown in
Figure 1 to Figure 66, and shall be subject to the following permissible deviations:
mass:
10 %
thickness: the wall thickness of the barrel of the pipe or body of the fitting shall at no point be less
than 87" % of the thickness given in Figure 1
length:
12.5 mm

6 Depth of seal
The depth of seal in all fittings incorporating a water seal shall be 50 mm minimum unless otherwise
shown in the relevant figure.

7 Hydrostatic requirement
Pipes and fittings, after coating, shall be capable of withstanding the following hydrostatic pressures:
pipes
345 kPaa
fittings
170 kPa
a1

kPa = 1 kN/m2 = 10 mbar . 100 mm water.

Pipes and fittings, when subjected to these test pressures, shall show no signs of leakage. The test pressure
shall be applied internally and shall be maintained for not less than 15 s, or as much longer as may be
required for proper proof and inspection, up to a maximum of 1 min.

8 Crushing requirement
Pipes and, where applicable, fittings, when tested in accordance with Appendix A, shall be capable of
withstanding a test load of 150 kN per metre run.

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BS 437:1978

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9 Coating
Unless otherwise specified by the purchaser, castings shall be thoroughly cleaned and dried and then
coated by either:
a) cold applied coatings complying with the requirements of BS 3416; or
b) hot applied coatings complying with the requirements of BS 4147 or BS 4164, at the manufacturers
option.
The coatings by either method shall be smooth and tenacious, sufficiently hard not to flow when exposed
to a temperature of 63 C and not so brittle at a temperature of 0 C as to chip off when scribed lightly with
the point of a penknife.
Any casting that, by either method, is imperfectly coated, or the coating of which does not set or conform
to the quality specified, shall be recoated.

10 Inspection
The representative appointed by the purchaser shall have access to the works of the manufacturer at all
reasonable times; he shall be at liberty to inspect the manufacture at any stage and to reject any material
or finished casting that does not comply with the requirements of this standard.
The manufacturer shall, at his own cost, supply labour and appliances for such inspection as may be carried
out on his premises.
Should the metal used in the manufacture of the castings not comply with the requirements specified, or
should any of the products not conform to the dimensions or other requirements, the product or products
so failing shall be deemed not to comply with the requirements of this British Standard, and any marking
indicating compliance shall be obliterated.

11 Marking
11.1 Every casting shall, where practicable, have cast upon it in a legible manner a figure indicating the
nominal size, together with the manufacturers name or trade mark and the number of this British
Standard, e.g.
100
manufacturers name or trade mark
BS 437
11.2 Every centrifugally cast pipe shall be marked as required in 11.1, except that the letter S shall be
added to the marking.
Pipes manufactured by this process shall be deemed to comply with the marking requirements if the
particulars required in this clause are legibly marked on each pipe instead of being cast on.

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BS 437:1978

Nominal bore
50

75

100

150

225

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

Minimum bore
A
48
74
99
150
External diameter (max.)
B
65
92
119
173
Thickness (nominal)
C
6
7
8
9
Pipe
Projection of spigot bead
D
5
5
5
5
Spigot bead diameter (max.)
D1
75
102
129
183
Width of spigot bead (nominal)
E
15
15
15
20
Minimum bore
F
81
108
136
190
External diameter (nominal)
G
115
150
185
240
Thickness (min.)
H
16
19
22
22
Socket
Thickness (min.)
H1
9
13
14
14
Internal depth (min.)
J
75
75
75
90
Diameter at bottom
K
65
92
119
173
Caulking clearance (min.)
8
8
9
9
Nominal mass of pipe:
kg
kg
kg
kg
per 1.83 m length (single socket)
17.7
28.6
40.8
71.2
per 1.83 m length (double socket)

33.1
46.7
80.3
per 2.74 m length (single socket)

40.8
58.5
102.1
per 3.66 m length (single socket)

52.6
76.2
132.9
Figure 1 Drain pipe, socket and spigot, and fittings (continued)

225
256
13
5
265
20
276
335
27
17
115
256
10
kg

143.8
162.8
206.4
268.5

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BS 437:1978

Nominal bore
100

150

mm

mm

mm

Minimum bore
A
74
99
150
Pipe
External diameter (max.)
B
97
119
171
Thickness (nominal)
C
7.4
7.5
8.3
Minimum bore
F
113
135
187
External diameter (nominal)
G
160
185
240
Socket Thickness (min.)
H
19
22
22
Thickness (min.)
H1
10
10.5
12
Internal depth (min.)
J
76
76
89
Caulking clearance (min.)
8
8
8
Nominal mass of pipe:
kg
kg
kg
per 3.60 m length (single socket)
60
75
122
per 5.50 m length (single socket)
86
109
177
Figure 1 Drain pipe, socket and spigot, and fittings (concluded)

mm

225
261
9.4
277
340
27
16
102
8
kg

214
310

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75

BS 437:1978

Dimensions

Nominal bore
50

mm

= 87"

= 67"

= 45

= 22"

= 10

75

100

150

225

mm

mm

mm

mm

210

290

310

350

405

130

230

240

265

315

110

100

110

120

135

180

255

280

290

355

100

165

180

205

230

110

120

140

135

170

150

240

265

280

345

75

115

140

140

180

110

165

180

185

230

150

170

215

75

90

100

110

120

135

130

140

160

50

65

65

110

120

135

For the 50 mm size bend, the throat radius shall be 75 mm.

Figure 2 Drain bends


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BS 437:1978

Nominal bore
150

mm

mm

225
mm

A
B
C

100
150
205

150
150
260

230
230
340

D
E
F

30
40
55

30
40
60

40
40
60

G
H
J

25
15
10

25
15
15

25
15
15

K
L
M

5
90
10

5
110
10

5
160
15

N
P
Q

3
15
45

3
15
50

3
15
50

R1
R2
S

15
35
2

15
35
2

15
35
2

For other dimensions of bends see Figure 2.

Figure 3 Drain bend with access door on side (87", 67" and 45 only)

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100

BS 437:1978

Nominal bore
100
mm

150
mm

225
mm

A
B
C

100
150
205

150
150
260

230
230
340

D
E
F

215
155
125

215
210
125

305
290
190

G
H
J

45
25
15

45
25
15

55
25
15

K
L
M

10
5
50

15
5
75

15
5
115

N
P
Q

10
3
15

10
3
15

15
3
15

R1
R2
S

15
35
45

15
35
50

15
35
50

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For other dimensions of bends see Figure 2.

Figure 4 Drain bend with rectangular access door on heel (87", 67" and 45 only)

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BS 437:1978

mm

Nominal bore
= 67"

Nominal bore

= 45

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

75
75

100
100

150
100

150
150

225
100

225
150

225
225

B
C
D
R
A
A1
B
C
D
R
A
A1

305
110
80
50
75
75
305
100
100
50
75
75

355
125
100
50
100
100
355
120
125
50
100
100

355
180
95
115
150
100
355
150
135
50
150
100

430
190
125
135
150
150
430
170
185
50
150
150

405
230
100
115
225
100
405
215
170
50
225
100

455
230
125
135
225
150
455
215
195
50
225
150

585
255
165
185
225
225
585
240
240
50
225
225

B
C
D
R

305
150
155
50

355
185
190
50

355
220
220
50

430
260
255
50

405
280
265
50

455
310
310
50

585
370
375
50

A
Nominal bore
A1

= 87"

mm

Figure 5 Drain branch

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BS 437:1978

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mm

Nominal bore

= 45

mm

mm

mm

150
100

150
150

225
100

225
150

225
225

B
C
D
E
R
A
A1

395
125
100
135
50
100
100

430
180
95
135
110
150
100

430
190
125
135
135
150
150

535
230
100
185
115
225
100

535
230
125
185
135
225
100

585
255
165
185
185
225
225

B
C
D
E
R
A
A1

395
110
125
135
50
100
100

430
150
135
135
50
150
100

430
170
185
135
50
150
150

535
215
170
185
50
225
100

535
215
195
185
50
225
150

585
240
240
185
50
225
225

B
C
D
E
R

395
185
190
135
50

430
220
220
135
50

430
260
255
135
50

520
280
265
185
50

520
310
310
185
50

585
370
375
155
50

= 67"

Nominal bore

mm

100
100

= 87"

Nominal bore

mm

A
A1

Figure 6 Drain branch with rectangular access door on side

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BS 437:1978

mm

Nominal bore

150
100

150
150

B
C
D
E
R
A
A1

395
125
100
135
50
100
100

430
180
95
135
115
150
100

430
190
125
135
135
150
150

B
C
D
E
R
A
A1

395
120
120
135
50
100
100

430
150
135
135
50
150
100

430
170
185
135
50
150
150

B
C
D
E
R

395
185
190
135
50

430
220
220
135
50

430
260
255
135
50

= 67"

Nominal bore
= 45

mm

100
100

= 87"

Nominal bore

mm

A
A1

Figure 7 Drain branch with rectangular access door at back

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BS 437:1978

Nominal bore
75

100

150

225

mm

mm

mm

mm

355

405

430

535

110

140

140

185

Figure 8 Straight access piece

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

11

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Nominal bore
75
mm

100

150

mm

225

mm

mm

A
B
C

75
115
180

100
150
205

150
150
260

230
230
340

D
E
F

165
130
75

215
155
130

215
210
125

305
290
190

G
H
J

45
25
10

45
25
15

45
25
15

55
25
15

K
L
M

10
5
75

10
5
90

15
5
115

15
5
160

M1
N
P

50
8
3

65
9
3

80
9
3

130
13
3

R1
R2
S

15
35
15

15
35
15

15
35
15

15
35
15

T
U

45
2

45
2

50
2

50
2

Figure 9 Drain branch and straight access piece with rectangular door

BSI 10-1999

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--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BS 437:1978

BS 437:1978

Nominal bore

A
A1
B
C
NOTE

75
50

100
50

100
75

150
100

225
100

225
150

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

85
230

85
230

95
255

110
305

110
305

85
230

B dimension is minimum and may be increased.

Figure 10 Diminishing piece

Figure 11 Long tail drain bend (suitable for use with ranges of WCs)
--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Nominal bore A

A1
B
C
D
R

100

150

mm

mm

100
915
180
100
75

100
915
205
100
75

Figure 12 Long tail drain branch (suitable for use with ranges of WCs)

13

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BS 437:1978

Figure 13 Long drain bend

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 14 Large radius long tail drain bend

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--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BS 437:1978

Nominal bore
100
mm

A
B

875
875

150
mm

875
875

Figure 15 Large radius drain bend

Nominal bore
100
mm

A
B

760
380

150
mm

760
380

225
mm

760
380

Figure 16 Long trapping bend

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BS 437:1978

Nominal bore 100

87"

65"

45

mm

mm

mm

A
60
55
55
B
240
180
140
C
110
140
180
D
310
280
265
R
150
150
150
Figure 17 Drain bend with socket for WC outlet

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BSI 10-1999

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BS 437:1978

Nominal bore
100
mm

A
B

50
305
455
610

Figure 18 Drain connector with socket for WC outlet

= 87"

= 67"

= 45

A
B
C
D
E
R
A
B
C
D
E
R
A
B
C
D
E
R

150

mm

mm

60
240
110
310
170
150
55
180
140
280
160
150
60
140
180
265
160
150

65
265
120
350
215
150
60
205
135
290
215
150
65
140
185
280
215
150

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Nominal bore
100

Figure 19 Drain bend with large socket for clayware

17

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--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BS 437:1978

Nominal bore
100

150

225

mm

mm

mm

A
55
65
65
B
160
215
305
C
305
305
305
Figure 20 Drain connector with large socket for clayware

Nominal bore

A
B
C

75

100

150

mm

mm

mm

125
85
20

125
110
20

140
160
20

Figure 21 Cast iron socket ferrule with brass screwed cap

BSI 10-1999

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BS 437:1978

Nominal bore
Trap

Arm

mm

mm

mm

100
100
230
530
220
150
100
320
640
300
Figure 22 Disconnecting trap for clayware channel and clearing arm with or
without plate, bridle and brass setscrew
--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

19

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Nominal bore
Trap

Arm

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BS 437:1978

mm

mm

mm

100
100
230
530
220
150
100
300
660
290
Figure 23 Disconnecting trap and clearing arm with or without plate,
bridle and brass setscrew

Nominal bore
Trap

Arm

mm

mm

mm

100
100
290
580
220
150
100
320
660
300
Figure 24 Disconnecting trap with reverse clearing arm fitted with plate,
bridle and brass setscrew and 100 mm vent socket
BSI 10-1999

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BS 437:1978

Nominal
bore

mm

mm

mm

100
240
430
210
150
330
470
300
Figure 25 Gully trap (100 mm and 150 mm outlet 87")
--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Nominal bore
Trap

Arm

Seal

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

100
100
240
530
230
240
50
150
100
320
630
300
255
62.5
225
150
440
840
420
375
100
Figure 26 Disconnecting trap and clearing arm (can be supplied with or
without fresh air inlet on either side)
21

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BS 437:1978

Figure 27 Plain raising piecea


(A = 115 mm, 150 mm, 225 mm or 300 mm)

Figure 28 Raising piece: single inlet


brancha

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 29 Raising piece: inlet


branches at 180a

Figure 30 Raising piece: inlet


branches at 90a

The above raising pieces, 225 mm, have top to suit 267 mm diameter grating or sealed cover; socket, 40 mm deep minimum;
branches horizontal, 100 mm diameter.

BSI 10-1999

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BS 437:1978

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 31 Plain tapered gully inleta

Figure 32 Tapered gully inlet: single


brancha

Figure 33 Tapered gully inlet: two


branches at 180a

Figure 34 Tapered gully inlet: two


branches at 90a

The above tapered gully inlets have 100 mm/150 mm outlets. Top to suit 270 mm diameter grating or sealed cover;
socket, 40 mm deep minimum.

23

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BS 437:1978

Diameter Thickness
270 mm
40 mm
350 mm
55 mm
420 mm
70 mm
Figure 35 Gully grating

Figure 36 Grease seal cover and frame (270 mm diameter)

Figure 37 Recessed cover and frame (270 mm diameter; fitted with two brass screws)

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BSI 10-1999

24British Standards Institution


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BS 437:1978

Nominal
bore

A
mm

100
150

130
180

B
mm

450
530

B1

C
mm

220
290

C1

mm

450
550

mm

90
170

Figure 38 Gully trap (225 mm inlet, 100 mm and 150 mm outlets 87" or 45. Socket to
suit raising piece to Figure 27, Figure 28, Figure 29 and
Figure 30. Socket, 40 mm deep minimum)

Nominal
bore

A
mm

100/50
100/75

110
110

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 39 Diminisher for use with gully branch

25

BSI 10-1999

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BS 437:1978

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Nominal
bore

A
mm

100/50
100/75

150
150

B
mm

110
110

Figure 40 Diminisher with 90 bend (for use with gully branch)

Nominal
bore

A
mm

100

225

B
mm

280

C
mm

130

Figure 41 Trapless gully (225 mm diameter inside. Socket to suit a 270 mm diameter
grating to Figure 35. Socket, 40 mm deep minimum)

BSI 10-1999

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--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BS 437:1978

Nominal
bore

100

mm

mm

mm

560

300

230

Figure 42 Trapless gully (225 mm diameter inside 610 mm deep overall to suit a 270 mm
diameter grating to Figure 35. Inlet socket can be cast on in positions a, b, c)

27

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BS 437:1978

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Nominal
bore

A
mm

100

560

mm

340

mm

150

Figure 43 Gully trap (225 mm diameter inside 610 mm deep overall to suit a 270 mm
diameter grating to Figure 35)

BSI 10-1999

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BS 437:1978

Nominal
bore

100

mm

mm

mm

380

440

125

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 44 Gully trap (225 mm diameter inside 430 mm deep overall to suit raising pieces to
Figure 27, Figure 28, Figure 29 and Figure 30 or a 270 mm diameter grating to Figure 35)

29

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BS 437:1978

(a) 300 mm diameter inside. 100 mm outlet. Grating 350 mm diameter 55 mm thick. Galvanized mild steel sediment pan.
Internal access fitted with screwed brass cap. 100 mm inlet can be cast on in positions a, b or c.
Depth

mm

mm

mm

mm

610
760

560
710

430
430

190
190

(b)
300 mm diameter inside. Socket depth = 55 mm .A = 75 mm, 115 mm, 150 mm, 225 mm, 300 mm

Figure 45 Garage gully and raising piece


--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BSI 10-1999

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BS 437:1978

Depth

mm

mm

mm

mm

760

560

(b)
380 mm diameter inside. Socket depth = 70 mm.
A = 75 mm, 115 mm, 150 mm, 275 mm, and 300 mm.

Figure 46 Garage gully and raising piece

31

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200

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

(a)
380 mm diameter inside.
150 mm outlet.
Grating 425 mm diameter 70 mm thick.
Galvanized mild steel sediment pan.
Internal access fitted with screwed brass cap.
100 mm or 150 mm inlets can be cast on in positions a, b or c.

710

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BS 437:1978

Nominal
bore

A
mm

75
100
150

115
125
180

B
mm

330
380
495

B1
mm

360
410
500

B2
mm

270
300
410

C
mm

180
240
310

C1

C2

mm

70
115
165

mm

20
10
10

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 47 High invert gully trap (87", 45 or vertical outlet)

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Nominal
bore

A
mm

75
100
150

150
180
240

B
mm

300
380
440

B1
mm

300
380
485

B2
mm

230
290
410

C
mm

160
200
290

C1
mm

60
80
155

C2

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BS 437:1978

mm

25
25
10

Figure 48 Low invert gully trap (87", 45 or vertical outlet)

33

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BS 437:1978

Nominal
bore

100

B2

C1

C2

Seal

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

125

455

300

205

230

60

75

Figure 49 Gully trap with surface access fitted with brass screws and washer

Nominal
bore

A dia
mm

75
100

205
205

B
mm

300
300

Figure 50 Bellmouth gully inlet

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BSI 10-1999

BS 437:1978

Figure 50a Loose grating (nominal 200 mm diameter 12 mm deep)

Figure 50b Loose grating with notch for downpipe (nominal 200 mm diameter 12 mm deep)

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Figure 50c Hinged and locking grating and frame (nominal 200 mm diameter 12 mm deep)

Figure 50d Solid plate (nominal 200 mm diameter 12 mm deep screwed to bellmouth gully
inlet with brass screws and a washer)

35

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BS 437:1978

Figure 51 Bellmouth gully inlet with single branch

Figure 52 Bellmouth gully inlet with two branches at 180

Figure 53 Bellmouth gully inlet with two branches at 90

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BSI 10-1999

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--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BS 437:1978

Figure 54 Bellmouth gully inlet with vertical branch


Dimensions for Figure 51, Figure 52, Figure 53 and Figure 54
Nominal bore
Outlet

Branch

dia

mm

D1

D2

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

75

50

205

300

80

75a

75

205

300

90

100

50

205

300

90

150

100

75

205

300

120

180

100

100

205

300

120

190

a Not

available with vertical branch (Figure 54)

37

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--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BS 437:1978

Figure 55 Gully inlet and grating (100 mm outlet 280 mm 280 mm over top
grating 240 mm 240 mm 40 mm thick)

Nominal
bore

100

mm

mm

125

530

Figure 56 Rainwater shoe with horizontal inlet

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mm

mm

mm

240

140

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BS 437:1978

20

Figure 56a Rainwater shoe loose grating

A
mm

240

B
mm

140

C
mm

20

Figure 56b Solid cover screwed to shoe with brass setscrews and washer
and closed keyway

Figure 57 Socket reducer (75 mm 50 mm, 100 mm 50 mm, 100 mm 75 mm, 150 mm 100 mm)

39

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BS 437:1978

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Size

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

50

75

100

150

225

165

180

180

200

250

Figure 58 Loose collar

Size

mm

mm

mm

mm

mm

50

75

100

150

225

190

190

190

230

250

Figure 59 Double socket connector

BSI 10-1999

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BS 437:1978

Figure 60 Spigot cap for spigot end of drain pipe (50 mm, 75 mm, 100 mm, 150 mm, 225 mm)

Figure 61 Socket plug for socket end of drainpipe


(50 mm, 75 mm, 100 mm, 150 mm, 225 mm bores)

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

41

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BS 437:1978

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

Nominal
bore

100

270

mm

mm

190

Figure 62 Airtight inspection eye cover fitted with two brass setscrews having
closed keyway in cover

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Nominal
bore

100

Socket size

mm

mm

mm

300

120

140 mm dia 50 mm deep

Figure 63 WC connector having 50 mm parallel branch tapped 2 in B.S.P.T

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BS 437:1978

Figure 64 Flat grating to fit 100 mm and 150 mm drain sockets

43

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BS 437:1978

--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

The minimum throat radius at branch entry shall be 50 mm


mm
Main bore
Branch bore

A
B
C
D
E
F
G (max)

100
100
45
540
240
300
270
220
220
395

mm

150
100
45
560
260
300
270
250
260
395

mm

150
150
45
580
290
290
310
280
260
405

mm

225
100
45
690
330
360
330
310
355
520

mm

225
150
45
740
360
380
380
330
355
520

mm

225
225
45
810
420
390
460
380
355
595

(a) For 010, 011, 110, 111

Figure 65 Inspection chambers

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BS 437:1978

The minimum throat radius at branch entry shall be 50 mm.


Main bore
Branch bore

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

mm

mm

mm

mm

100
100
45
770
240
250
280
520
220
220
595

150
100
45
790
260
250
280
520
250
260
595

150
150
45
940
290
360
290
660
280
260
760

225
225
100
150
45
45
950 1 110
330
360
250
360
370
390
580
740
300
330
355
355
795
800

mm

(b) For 012, 212, 210

Figure 65 Inspection chambers (continued)

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BS 437:1978

mm
Main bore
Branch bore

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

mm

mm

mm

mm

100
150
150
225 225
100
100
150
100 150
45
45
45
45
45
1 020 1 040 1 300 1 200 1 470
240
260
290
330 360
250
250
360
250 360
280
280
290
370 390
780
780 1 030
840 1 090
220
250
280
310 330
220
260
260
355 355
850
885 1 120 1 150 1 145

(c) For 013, 310

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The minimum throat radius at branch entry shall be 50 mm.

Figure 65 Inspection chambers (continued)

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--`,,```,,``,`,,,,,`,`````,``,-`-`,,`,,`,`,,`---

BS 437:1978

The minimum throat radius at branch entry shall be 50 mm.


Main bore
Branch bore

A
B
C
D
E
F
G
H

mm

mm

mm

100
100
45
1 020
240
250
280
780
220
220
850

150
100
45
1 040
260
250
280
780
250
260
885

225
100
45
1 200
330
250
370
840
310
355
1 150

(d) For 313

Figure 65 Inspection chambers (continued)

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mm

mm

mm

Main bore

100

150

225

Branch bore

100

100

100

45

45

45

1 270

1 290

1 450

240

260

330

250

250

250

280

280

370

1 030

1 030

1 030

220

250

310

220

260

355

1 120

1 120

1 195

(e) For 414, 014, 410

The minimum throat radius at branch entry shall be 50 mm.

Figure 65 Inspection chambers (concluded)

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BS 437:1978

BS 437:1978

mm

Nominal
bore

N
Diameter of bolt S
Length of bolt T
Rubber washer
Minimum thickness W

mm

mm

100
90
13
44

150
115
13
51

225
160
16
51

Figure 66 Detail of inspection chamber and cover

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BS 437:1978

Appendix A Crushing test


A.1 Apparatus (see Figure 67)
A.1.1 A testing machine shall be used of an accuracy
at least equal to that required by BS 1610, grade B.
A.1.2 The machine shall apply the load by way of
bearing beams to upper and lower press blocks. The
arrangement shall be such that the Load is applied
in a vertical plane through the longitudinal centre
lines of bearings and pipe.
The bearing beams shall be of rigid materials, such
as RSJs, at least 150 mm wide.
The upper press block shall be flat metal or hard
wood 25 mm wide.
The lower press block shall be a metal or hard wood
V-shaped support having an included angle of 150
and a minimum total width of 150 mm.

Bearing beams and press blocks shall be at


least 305 mm long.
The press blocks shall be faced with rubber 15 mm
thick having a hardness between 50 IRHD
and 60 IRHD as defined in BS 903-A26.
A.2 Size of test pieces
Cut a straight section 300 5 mm long from the
pipe to be tested. The ends of the piece shall be
without bead or socket and shall be at right angles
to the axis of the piece.
A.3 Method
Apply the proof crushing load specified in clause 8
evenly and continuously at such a rate that the
proof load is reached in between 30 s and 1 min.
Sustain the proof load for 30 s.

Figure 67 Crushing test apparatus

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BS 437:1978

Publications referred to
BS 416, Cast iron spigot and socket soil, waste and ventilating pipes (sand cast and spun) and fittings1).
BS 903, Methods of testing vulcanized rubber.
BS 903-A26, Determination of hardness.
BS 1211, Centrifugally cast (spun) iron pressure pipes for water, gas and sewage1).
BS 1452, Grey iron castings.
BS 1610, Methods for the load verification of testing machines.
BS 2494, Materials for elastomeric joint rings for pipework and pipelines.
BS 3416, Black bitumen coating solutions for cold application.
BS 4147, Hot applied bitumen based coating for ferrous products. Metric units.
BS 4164, Coal tar based hot applied coating materials for protecting iron and steel, including suitable
primers where required.
BS 4622, Grey iron pipes and fittings1).

1) Referred

to in the foreword only.

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BS 437:1978

BSI British Standards Institution


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