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7/4/2016

Lecture15

LECTURE15
MembersSubjectedtoAxisymmetricLoads
Pressurizedthinwalledcylinder:
Preamble:Pressurevesselsareexceedinglyimportantinindustry.Normallytwotypesofpressurevesselareusedincommon
practicesuchascylindricalpressurevesselandsphericalpressurevessel.
Intheanalysisofthiswalledcylinderssubjectedtointernalpressuresitisassumedthattheradialplansremainsradialandthe
wall thickness dose not change due to internal pressure. Although the internal pressure acting on the wall causes a local
compressivestresses(equaltopressure)butitsvalueisnegliblysmallascomparedtootherstresses&hencethesateofstress
ofanelementofathinwalledpressureisconsideredabiaxialone.
Furtherintheanalysisofthemwalledcylinders,theweightofthefluidisconsideredneglible.
LetusconsideralongcylinderofcircularcrosssectionwithaninternalradiusofR2 andaconstantwallthicknesst'asshowing
fig.

Thiscylinderissubjectedtoadifferenceofhydrostaticpressureofp'betweenitsinnerandoutersurfaces.Inmanycases,p'
betweengagepressurewithinthecylinder,takingoutsidepressuretobeambient.
Bythinwalledcylinderwemeanthatthethicknesst'isverymuchsmallerthantheradiusRiandwemayquantifythisbystating
thantheratiot/Riofthicknessofradiusshouldbelessthan0.1.
Anappropriatecoordinatesystemtobeusedtodescribesuchasystemisthecylindricalpolaroner,,zshown,wherezaxis
liesalongtheaxisofthecylinder,risradialtoitandistheangularcoordinateabouttheaxis.
Thesmallpieceofthecylinderwallisshowninisolation,andstressesinrespectivedirectionhavealsobeenshown.
Typeoffailure:
Suchacomponentfailsinsincewhensubjectedtoanexcessivelyhighinternalpressure.Whileitmightfailbyburstingalonga
pathfollowingthecircumferenceofthecylinder.Undernormalcircumstanceitfailsbycircumstancesitfailsbyburstingalonga
pathparalleltotheaxis.Thissuggeststhatthehoopstressissignificantlyhigherthantheaxialstress.
Inordertoderivetheexpressionsforvariousstresseswemakefollowing
Applications:
Liquid storage tanks and containers, water pipes, boilers, submarine hulls, and certain air plane components are common
examplesofthinwalledcylindersandspheres,roofdomes.
ANALYSIS:Inordertoanalysethethinwalledcylinders,letusmakethefollowingassumptions:
Therearenoshearstressesactinginthewall.
Thelongitudinalandhoopstressesdonotvarythroughthewall.
Radialstressesrwhichactsnormaltothecurvedplaneoftheisolatedelementarenegliblysmallascompared
toothertwostressesespeciallywhen

The state of tress for an element of a thin walled pressure vessel is considered to be biaxial, although the internal pressure
actingnormaltothewallcausesalocalcompressivestressequaltotheinternalpressure,Actuallyastateoftriaxialstressexists
ontheinsideofthevessel.However,forthenwalledpressurevesselthethirdstressismuchsmallerthantheothertwostresses
andforthisreasonincanbeneglected.
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7/4/2016

Lecture15

ThinCylindersSubjectedtoInternalPressure:
Whenathinwalledcylinderissubjectedtointernalpressure,threemutuallyperpendicularprincipalstresseswillbesetupin
thecylindermaterials,namely
Circumferentialorhoopstress
Theradialstress
Longitudinalstress
nowletusdefinethesestressesanddeterminetheexpressionsforthem
Hooporcircumferentialstress:
Thisisthestresswhichissetupinresistingtheburstingeffectoftheappliedpressureandcanbemostconvenientlytreatedby
consideringtheequilibriumofthecylinder.

Inthefigurewehaveshownaonehalfofthecylinder.Thiscylinderissubjectedtoaninternalpressurep.
i.e.p=internalpressure
d=insidediametre
L=Lengthofthecylinder
t=thicknessofthewall
Totalforceononehalfofthecylinderowingtotheinternalpressure'p'
=pxProjectedArea
=pxdxL
=p.d.L(1)
ThetotalresistingforceowingtohoopstressesHsetupinthecylinderwalls
=2.H.L.t(2)
BecauseH.L.t.istheforceintheonewallofthehalfcylinder.
theequations(1)&(2)weget
2.H.L.t=p.d.L
H=(p.d)/2t
CircumferentialorhoopStress(H)=(p.d)/2t
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Lecture15

LongitudinalStress:
Considernowagainthesamefigureandthevesselcouldbeconsideredtohaveclosedendsandcontainsafluidunderagage
pressurep.Thenthewallsofthecylinderwillhavealongitudinalstressaswellasaciccumferentialstress.

Totalforceontheendofthecylinderowingtointernalpressure
=pressurexarea
=pxd2 /4
Areaofmetalresistingthisforce=d.t.(approximately)
becausedisthecircumferenceandthisismultipliedbythewallthickness

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