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Contraction, Velocity and Discharge Coefficients of a Rectangular Sharp Edeged Slot

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Coefficient of velocity "Cv"

Coefficient of contraction "Cc"

Coefficient of discharge "CD"

Flow rate "Q"

Average velocity at the vena contracta "vvc"

Pressure drop in slots

Singular pressure loss coefficent "kslot"

Flow rate equations

Application to a Sharp edged rectangular slot

Coefficients of velocty C v and of

Coefficien t of discharge

contraction Cc

In Figure 1. it is shown that the flow

contracta area is

vena contracta.

The velocity profile of the vena contracta

Q A vc v vc

where

A vc Cc A geom

This ideal velocity or Torricelli velocity is

and

v ideal 2 g h

v vc C v videal

(Eq. a)

vena contracta v vc v ave vena contracta and

the ideal velocity is called velocity coefficien t

v

Cv vc

videal

(Eq. b)

(Eq. f)

thus

Q Cc A geom C v v ideal

Q Cc C v A geom v ideal

high, and has a value between 0.95 and 0.99.

The ratio between the area of the vena contracta

"A vc" and the geometric area " A geom" is called

contraction coefficien t " C c "

Cc

A vc

A geom

(Eq. c)

0.611

2

and for sharp edged slots

C c 0.61 0.62

is defined as

C D Cc C v

(Eq. d)

(Eq. e)

For a sharp - edged rectangula r slot

orifice where full contraction occurs,

the contraction coefficien t is

C D 0.61

(Eq. g)

therefore

Q C D A geom v ideal

Cc

and with

p h

p

h

(Eq. h)

For a sharp - edged rectangula r slot

orifice where full contraction occurs,

the contraction coefficien t is

C D 0.61

(from [6], chapter 2.8, Eq. 2.16)

and

Q C D Ao 2 g h

where the term 2 g h is

the ideal velocity

vi 2 g h

and A o the geometric area

Q

2 g h

C D Ao

Q

2 g h

C

A

D o

h

1 Q

2 g C D Ao

p h

h

p

1 Q

2 g C D Ao

1 Q

p

2 g C D Ao

g 1 Q

p

2 g C D Ao

1 Q

p

2 C D Ao

and with

1 Q

p 2

C D 2 Ao

h : pressure height m

m3

Data

Cc =

Avc =

0.62

Cv =

0.98

Cc =

CD =

0.61

A=

Avc =

A=

0.02

h=

40

Flow rate

Q=

Ideal velocity

vid =

(2 * g * h)^0.5

h=

40

m

vid =

28.0

m/s

Avc =

v=

Q=

Case of a:

Flow rate

Q=

CD =

A=

vid =

Q=

CD * A * vid

Cc =

0.61

0.02

28.0

0.34

m/s

m/s

Cv * vid

v=

Cv =

0.98

vid =

v=

28.0

27.45

m/s

m/s

a geometrical area

A=

Q=

The average velocity at the vena contr

vvc

1

Q

Cc A geom

v=

Cc =

Q=

Ageom =

v=

(Eq. k)

arge

Flow rate

Fluid level

level

the vena contracta

Q C D A geom v ideal

e vena

(Eq. h)

(Eq. i)

From (Eq. h)

Q C D A geom v ideal

(Eq. j)

v ideal

and with

(Eq. f) v ideal 2 g h

Q C D A geom 2 g h

m3

Q : Flowrate

s

C D:discharge coeffici ent

ideal

h:pressure height

Ao = Ageom

Q

C D A geom

vvc Cv v ideal

vvc Cv

Ageom:geometric al area m 2

ideal

Do

m

s2

vvc

Q

C D A geom

Cv

Q

C D A geom

and with

C D Cc C v

1

C

v

Cc

CD

cient C D

(Eq. g)

contracta is

1

Q

vvc

Cc A geom

(Eq. h)

vvc

1

Q

Cc A geom

(Eq. k)

(Eq. k)

coefficien t of a slot k s

Q

p slot k slot

2 Ageom

k slot

1

C 2D

(Eq. m)

with

Pa

(Eq. n)

coefficien t of a slot k s

Q

p slot k slot

2 Ageom

k slot

1

C 2D

(Eq. m)

p slot k slot

2 Ao

with

1

k slot 2

CD

and

C D 0.61

k slot 2.69

(Eq. n)

(Eq. n)

1

2.69

C 2D

Pa

Pa

with

k slot

v slot

Q

as slot velocity

Ageom

Q

Ageom

p slot k slot

2

v slot

2

From (Eq.h)

Q C D A geom v ideal

Pa

(Eq. h)

Q

C D v ideal

Ageom

Thus, the slot velocity is

v slot C D v ideal

(Eq. p)

and the flow rate can be writen as

Q A geom (C D v ideal )

Q A geom v slot

Cc * A

(Eq. q)

Pressure loss

0.62

0.02

0.0124

p slot k slot

2

A

o

Pa

(Eq. n)

as Ao or Aslot.

Avc * v

Ao = Ageom = Aslot

0.0124

27.4

0.34

m

m/s

m/s

0.62

0.02

ometrical area

0.34

m/s

average velocity at the vena contracta is

vvc

1

Q

Cc A geom

(Eq. k)

(1 / Cc) * (Q / Ageom)

0.62

0.34

m/s

0.02

27.45

m

m/s

Page 1

Fluid level

level

profile

vave = vvc

h

A = Avc

vi

Ao = Ageom

vi

Vena

contracta

: ideal velocity, calculated according

Torricelli

Figure 1

of a rectangular sharp

edeged slot [2], page 2-6

CD =

0.61

Cv =

0.98

the contraction coefficient is

Cc =

CD / Cv

Cc =

0.62

1/ Cc =

1.613

and

Thus, the average velocity at

the vena contracta is

vvc =

1.613 * Q / Ageom

(m / s)

Page 2

slot is

2

Pa

(Eq. n)

Q A geom vslot

(Eq. q)

with

v

C v

(Eq. p)

slot is

2

Pa

(Eq. n)

Q A geom vslot

(Eq. q)

with

v slot C D v ideal

(Eq. p)

Q A geom C D v ideal

as slot velocity

Q A vc v vc

(Eq. f)

with

A vc Cc A geom

Pa

and

Cv

(Eq. h)

(Eq. f1)

v vc

v ideal

(Eq. b)

v vc C v v ideal

thus

Q Cc A geom C v v ideal

s

(Eq. p)

e writen as

(Eq. q)

Q Cc C v A geom v ideal

and with

Cc C v C D

Q C D A geom v ideal

(Eq. r)

Page 3

vslot =

Q /A

(Eq. n)

so designated

0.248

m/s

Aslot=

0.0183

vslot =

13.5

m/s

Q=

from sheet 3

hv_slot =

/ 2 ) * vslot^2

=

vslot =

0.84

kg/m

13.5

m/s

hv_slot =

76.8

Pa

Kslot =

(1 / CD )^2

CD =

0.61

Kslot =

2.69

P =

Kslot =

Kslot * hv_slot

2.69

hv_slot =

76.8

Pa

P =

206

Pa

g=

9.81

m/s

[1]

The equation for computing the discharge of the standard submerged rectangular orifice is:

(9-1b)

where:

Q = discharge (ft3/s)

Cc = coefficient of contraction

Cvf = coefficient of velocity caused by friction loss

Cva = coefficient to account for exclusion of approach velocity head from the equation

A = the area of the orifice (ft2)

g = acceleration caused by gravity (ft/s2)

h1 = upstream head (ft)

h2 = downstream head (ft)

(9-1b)

where:

h = h1 - h2, differential head

Cd = 0.61, as determined experimentally.

The discharge, when velocity of approach is negligible, may be computed using equation 9-1b. T

1

The prefix "A" denotes tables that are located in the appendix.

5. Discharge Through a Submerged Rectangular Orifice

The equation for computing the discharge of the standard submerged rectangular orifice is:

(9-1b)

where:

Q = discharge (ft3/s)

Cc = coefficient of contraction

Cvf = coefficient of velocity caused by friction loss

Cva = coefficient to account for exclusion of approach velocity head from the equation

A = the area of the orifice (ft2)

g = acceleration caused by gravity (ft/s2)

h1 = upstream head (ft)

h2 = downstream head (ft)

The coefficient of contraction, Cc, accounts for the flow area reduction of the jet caused by the flo

Cvf accounts for the velocity distribution and friction loss. The product, CcCvf, is sometimes called

for using the water head only and does not fully account for the velocity head of approach. This c

met. The effective discharge coefficient, Cd, is the product CcCvfCva, which has been determined

coefficient of contraction has the most influence on the effective coefficient discharge. Because

will increase rapidly after reaching some low velocity. Thus, the equation should not be used for

devices. The difference between upstream and downstream heads or water surface elevations is

can be rewritten as:

(9-1b)

where:

h = h1 - h2, differential head

Cd = 0.61, as determined experimentally.

The discharge, when velocity of approach is negligible, may be computed using equation 9-1b. T

1

The prefix "A" denotes tables that are located in the appendix.

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The coefficient of contraction, Cc, accounts for the flow area reduction of the j

by the flow curving and springing from the orifice edges.

The coefficient Cvf accounts for the velocity distribution and friction loss.

The coefficient Cva accounts for using the water head only and does not fully

the velocity head of approach. This coefficient is near unity if all the requireme

section 4 are met.

The effective discharge coefficient, Cd, is the product CcCvfCva, which has b

determined experimentally to be 0.61 for rectangular irrigation weirs.

Experimental value of the discharge coefficient of a slot

CD =

0.61

The coefficient of contraction has the most influence on the effective coefficie

Because Cc must approach unity as velocity approaches zero, its value will in

rapidly after reaching some low velocity.

Thus, the equation should not be used for heads less than 0.2 ft even with ve

head measuring devices.

The difference between upstream and downstream heads or water surface el

is sometimes called the differential head, and equation 9-1a can be rewritten

http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/wmm/chap09_05.html

http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/wmm/

e computed using equation 9-1b. Table A9-21 was prepared for orifice areas from 0.25 to 2.0 ft2.

duction of the jet caused by the flow curving and springing from the orifice edges. The coefficient

roduct, CcCvf, is sometimes called the coefficient of discharge, Cd. The coefficient Cva accounts

e velocity head of approach. This coefficient is near unity if all the requirements of section 4 are

C , which has been determined experimentally to be 0.61 for rectangular irrigation weirs. The

vf va

e coefficient discharge. Because Cc must approach unity as velocity approaches zero, its value

e equation should not be used for heads less than 0.2 ft even with very precise head measuring

eads or water surface elevations is sometimes called the differential head, and equation 9-1a

e computed using equation 9-1b. Table A9-21 was prepared for orifice areas from 0.25 to 2.0 ft2.

Flickr | Tumblr | Pinterest | Instagram | RSS | Multi

r head only and does not fully account for

near unity if all the requirements of

oduct CcCvfCva, which has been

quation 9-1a can be rewritten as:

mm/chap09_05.html

[2]

http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/manuals/WMM_3rd_2001.pdf

Here, the discharge coefficient has been named as contraction coefficient. Since the giv

is the total coefficient, it means that it corresponds to the discharge coefficient.

3rd_2001.pdf

arge coefficient.

[3]

nver, Colorado

Note

For a rectangular orifice

CD =

0.61

Cc =

0.62

Cv =

0.98

CD =

0.61

The Roman engineer Frontinus, who was in charge of the water supply under Augustus, used

This was purely empirical, since the effects of pressure, or "head," and orifice size were not kn

was given by Vi = 2gh.

We still calculate the velocity from Bernoulli's principle, that h + p/g + V2/2, is a constant alon

We'll consider here the case of zero initial velocity, as at the surface of a liquid in a container w

We assume that a streamline starts at the surface, a distance h above the orifice, and neglect

The streamline then leads somehow to the orifice, and out into the jet that issues from it. We c

and find that the velocity there is Vi = 2gh, as given by Torricelli's theorem.

A jet surrounded only by air (or another fluid of small density) is called a

If the fluid is the same as that of the jet, then buoyancy eliminates the effect of gravity on it. A

We shall consider here only free jets of water, and neglect the viscosity of water, which is sma

A cross section of a circular orifice of diameter D o is shown. The thickness of the wall is assum

of the streamlines approaching the orifice, the cross section of the jet decreases slightly until

This point of minimum area is called the vena contracta. Beyond the vena contracta, friction w

This divergence is usually quite small, and the jet is nearly cylindrical with a constant velocity.

The area A of the vena contracta is smaller than the area Ao of the orifice because the velocity

For a sharp-edged, or "ideal" circular orifice, A/Ao = Cc = /( + 2) = 0.611. Cc is called the co

For a sharp - edged, or circular orifice,

A

Cc

Ao

where Cc is called contractio n coefficien t

Cc

0.611

2

For a sharp orifice, is usually estimated to be 0.62, a figure that can be used if the exact value

For an orifice that resembles a short tube, Cc = 1, but then there are turbulence losses that af

The average velocity V is defined so that it gives the correct rate of discharge when it is assum

Then, we can write V = CvVi, where Cv is the coefficient of velocity.

The coefficient of velocity is usually quite high, between 0.95 and 0.99.

Combining the results of this paragraph and the preceding one, the discharge Q = VA = CvViC

Experiments

[4]

Our apparatus consists of a tomato juice can with the top removed, and a hole near the bottom

The first experiment, to measure Cd, is performed by measuring the time required for the cont

The corrugations in the can make convenient reference points for the liquid level. For my expe

The second experiment measures Cv. Water was allowed to run from the tap into the reservoi

Other experiments and demonstrations suggest themselves. The discharge coefficient could a

The Roman engineer Frontinus, who was in charge of the water supply under Augustus, used

This was purely empirical, since the effects of pressure, or "head," and orifice size were not kn

was given by Vi = 2gh.

We still calculate the velocity from Bernoulli's principle, that h + p/g + V2/2, is a constant alon

We'll consider here the case of zero initial velocity, as at the surface of a liquid in a container w

We assume that a streamline starts at the surface, a distance h above the orifice, and neglect

The streamline then leads somehow to the orifice, and out into the jet that issues from it. We c

and find that the velocity there is Vi = 2gh, as given by Torricelli's theorem.

A jet surrounded only by air (or another fluid of small density) is called a

If the fluid is the same as that of the jet, then buoyancy eliminates the effect of gravity on it. A

We shall consider here only free jets of water, and neglect the viscosity of water, which is sma

A cross section of a circular orifice of diameter D o is shown. The thickness of the wall is assum

of the streamlines approaching the orifice, the cross section of the jet decreases slightly until

This point of minimum area is called the vena contracta. Beyond the vena contracta, friction w

This divergence is usually quite small, and the jet is nearly cylindrical with a constant velocity.

The area A of the vena contracta is smaller than the area Ao of the orifice because the velocity

For a sharp-edged, or "ideal" circular orifice, A/Ao = Cc = /( + 2) = 0.611. Cc is called the co

For a sharp - edged, or circular orifice,

A

Cc

Ao

where Cc is called contractio n coefficien t

Cc

0.611

2

For a sharp orifice, is usually estimated to be 0.62, a figure that can be used if the exact value

For an orifice that resembles a short tube, Cc = 1, but then there are turbulence losses that af

The average velocity V is defined so that it gives the correct rate of discharge when it is assum

Then, we can write V = CvVi, where Cv is the coefficient of velocity.

The coefficient of velocity is usually quite high, between 0.95 and 0.99.

Combining the results of this paragraph and the preceding one, the discharge Q = VA = CvViC

er supply under Augustus, used short pipes of graduated sizes to meter water delivered to different users.

ad," and orifice size were not known quantitatively until Torricelli, in 1643, showed that the velocity of efflux

+ p/g + V2/2, is a constant along a streamline in irrotational flow, which is equivalent to the conservation of energ

h above the orifice, and neglect the pressure on the surface of the liquid, since it would cancel out anyway.

the jet that issues from it. We choose the point at which the streamlines are parallel a short distance from the orif

lli's theorem.

s called a free jet, and is acted upon by gravity. A jet surrounded by fluid is called a submerged jet

ates the effect of gravity on it. A submerged jet is also subject to much greater friction at its boundary.

viscosity of water, which is small, but finite.

e thickness of the wall is assumed small compared to the diameter of the orifice. Because of the convergence

the jet decreases slightly until the pressure is equalized over the cross-section, and the velocity profile is nearly r

nd the vena contracta, friction with the fluid outside the jet (air) slows it down, and the cross section increases perf

ndrical with a constant velocity. The jet is held together by surface tension, of course, which has a stronger effect t

+ 2) = 0.611. Cc is called the coefficient of contraction.

re are turbulence losses that affect the discharge.

e, the discharge Q = VA = CvViCcAo = CdAoVi. Cd, the coefficient of discharge, allows us to use the ideal velocity

oved, and a hole near the bottom. With this can, a scale, and a timing device, we can measure the coefficients of d

g the time required for the container to empty between levels h 1 and h2 through the orifice. To find the rate at whic

for the liquid level. For my experiment, Ao = 0.09932 cm2, Ac = 84.95 cm2, h1 = 10.5 cm, and h2 = 1.5 cm. Using th

n from the tap into the reservoir, keeping h constant at 16 cm. The height of the orifice was y = 10.0 cm, and the h

he discharge coefficient could also be found by keeping the head constant and measuring the water discharged i

er supply under Augustus, used short pipes of graduated sizes to meter water delivered to different users.

ad," and orifice size were not known quantitatively until Torricelli, in 1643, showed that the velocity of efflux

+ p/g + V2/2, is a constant along a streamline in irrotational flow, which is equivalent to the conservation of energ

h above the orifice, and neglect the pressure on the surface of the liquid, since it would cancel out anyway.

the jet that issues from it. We choose the point at which the streamlines are parallel a short distance from the orif

lli's theorem.

s called a free jet, and is acted upon by gravity. A jet surrounded by fluid is called a submerged jet

ates the effect of gravity on it. A submerged jet is also subject to much greater friction at its boundary.

viscosity of water, which is small, but finite.

e thickness of the wall is assumed small compared to the diameter of the orifice. Because of the convergence

the jet decreases slightly until the pressure is equalized over the cross-section, and the velocity profile is nearly r

nd the vena contracta, friction with the fluid outside the jet (air) slows it down, and the cross section increases perf

ndrical with a constant velocity. The jet is held together by surface tension, of course, which has a stronger effect t

+ 2) = 0.611. Cc is called the coefficient of contraction.

re are turbulence losses that affect the discharge.

e, the discharge Q = VA = CvViCcAo = CdAoVi. Cd, the coefficient of discharge, allows us to use the ideal velocity

to different users.

he velocity of efflux

[4]

Page 1

short distance from the orifice,

merged jet.

its boundary.

e velocity profile is nearly rectangular.

oss section increases perforce.

hich has a stronger effect the smaller the diameter of the jet.

Contents

i. Theory of Discharge from an Orifice

ii. Experiments

iii. References

us to use the ideal velocity and the orifice area in calculating the discharge.

Page 2

and h2 = 1.5 cm. Using these numbers, K =

to different users.

he velocity of efflux

[4]

Page 3

short distance from the orifice,

merged jet.

its boundary.

e velocity profile is nearly rectangular.

oss section increases perforce.

hich has a stronger effect the smaller the diameter of the jet.

Contents

i. Theory of Discharge from an Orifice

ii. Experiments

iii. References

us to use the ideal velocity and the orifice area in calculating the discharge.

[1]

http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/wmm/

[2]

[3]

http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/manuals/WMM_3rd_2001.pdf

http://www.ferc.gov/CalendarFiles/20110928144931-Day1-part-2.pdf

https://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/tech/fluids/orifice.htm

[4]

https://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/tech/fluids/orifice.htm#Intr

Carlos J. Cruz

cjcruz@vtr.net

3rd_2001.pdf

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