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Sharp edeged slots

Coefficients of a rectangular sharp edeged slot


Coefficient of velocity "Cv"
Coefficient of contraction "Cc"
Coefficient of discharge "CD"
Flow rate "Q"
Average velocity at the vena contracta "vvc"
Pressure drop in slots
Singular pressure loss coefficent "kslot"
Flow rate equations
Application to a Sharp edged rectangular slot

Rev. Cjc. 05.06.2015

Coefficients of a rectangular sharp edeged slot


Coefficients of velocty C v and of

Coefficien t of discharge

contraction Cc
In Figure 1. it is shown that the flow

The flow crossing the vena

becomes parallel downstream of the

contracta area is

vena contracta.
The velocity profile of the vena contracta

Q A vc v vc

section shows that the average velocity " v"

where

has a value sligthy smaller than the value

A vc Cc A geom

corresponding to the ideal velocity " v ideal ".


This ideal velocity or Torricelli velocity is

and

v ideal 2 g h

v vc C v videal

(Eq. a)

The ratio between the average velocity at the


vena contracta v vc v ave vena contracta and
the ideal velocity is called velocity coefficien t
v
Cv vc
videal

(Eq. b)

(Eq. f)

thus
Q Cc A geom C v v ideal
Q Cc C v A geom v ideal

The coefficien t of velocity is usually quite


high, and has a value between 0.95 and 0.99.
The ratio between the area of the vena contracta
"A vc" and the geometric area " A geom" is called
contraction coefficien t " C c "
Cc

A vc
A geom

(Eq. c)

0.611
2
and for sharp edged slots
C c 0.61 0.62

is defined as
C D Cc C v

(Eq. d)
(Eq. e)

Pressure drop in slots

Pressure drop in a slot


For a sharp - edged rectangula r slot
orifice where full contraction occurs,
the contraction coefficien t is
C D 0.61

(Eq. g)

therefore
Q C D A geom v ideal

For a sharp - edged circular orifice,


Cc

The discha rge coeffi cient C D

and with
p h
p
h

(Eq. h)

Pressure drop in a slot


For a sharp - edged rectangula r slot
orifice where full contraction occurs,
the contraction coefficien t is
C D 0.61
(from [6], chapter 2.8, Eq. 2.16)
and
Q C D Ao 2 g h
where the term 2 g h is
the ideal velocity
vi 2 g h
and A o the geometric area
Q
2 g h
C D Ao
Q

2 g h
C

A
D o
h

1 Q

2 g C D Ao

p h
h

p
1 Q


2 g C D Ao

1 Q
p


2 g C D Ao

g 1 Q
p


2 g C D Ao

1 Q
p

2 C D Ao

and with

1 Q

p 2
C D 2 Ao

h : pressure height m

m3

Q : volume flow rate

Ao : slot surface area m 2

Application to a Sharp edged rectangular slot


Data
Cc =

Vena contracta area section


Avc =

0.62

Cv =

0.98

Cc =

CD =

0.61

A=
Avc =

A=

0.02

h=

40

Flow rate
Q=

Ideal velocity
vid =
(2 * g * h)^0.5
h=
40
m
vid =
28.0
m/s

Avc =
v=
Q=
Case of a:

Flow rate
Q=
CD =
A=
vid =
Q=

Sharp edged slot wit a contraction coeffici

CD * A * vid

Cc =

0.61
0.02

28.0
0.34

m/s
m/s

Average velocity at vena contracta


Cv * vid
v=
Cv =

0.98

vid =
v=

28.0
27.45

m/s
m/s

a geometrical area
A=

and a given flow rate


Q=
The average velocity at the vena contr
vvc

1
Q

Cc A geom

v=
Cc =
Q=
Ageom =
v=

(Eq. k)

arge

Flow rate

Fluid level
level

Average velocity " v vc" at


the vena contracta

Q C D A geom v ideal

e vena

(Eq. h)
(Eq. i)

From (Eq. h)
Q C D A geom v ideal

(Eq. j)

v ideal

and with

(Eq. f) v ideal 2 g h
Q C D A geom 2 g h
m3
Q : Flowrate
s
C D:discharge coeffici ent

g: gravitational ace leration

ideal

h:pressure height

Ao = Ageom

Q
C D A geom

vvc Cv v ideal
vvc Cv

Ageom:geometric al area m 2

ideal

Do

m
s2

vvc

Q
C D A geom

Cv
Q

C D A geom

and with
C D Cc C v
1
C
v
Cc
CD

cient C D

thus, the velocity at the vena

(Eq. g)

contracta is
1
Q
vvc

Cc A geom

(Eq. h)

vvc

1
Q

Cc A geom

(Eq. k)
(Eq. k)

and with the singular pressure drop

The pressure loss in a slot is

coefficien t of a slot k s

Q
p slot k slot
2 Ageom

k slot

1
C 2D

(Eq. m)

with

Pa

(Eq. n)

and with the singular pressure drop

The pressure loss in a slot is

coefficien t of a slot k s

Q
p slot k slot
2 Ageom

k slot

1
C 2D

(Eq. m)

p slot k slot
2 Ao
with
1
k slot 2
CD
and
C D 0.61
k slot 2.69

(Eq. n)

(Eq. n)

1
2.69
C 2D

Pa

Pa

with
k slot

the pressure loss in a slot is

Naming the term


v slot

Q
as slot velocity
Ageom

Q
Ageom

p slot k slot

2
v slot
2

From (Eq.h)
Q C D A geom v ideal

Pa
(Eq. h)

Q
C D v ideal
Ageom
Thus, the slot velocity is
v slot C D v ideal
(Eq. p)
and the flow rate can be writen as
Q A geom (C D v ideal )
Q A geom v slot

a contracta area section


Cc * A

(Eq. q)

Pressure loss

0.62

0.02

0.0124

p slot k slot
2


A
o

Pa

(Eq. n)

Where the geometrical area is also designated


as Ao or Aslot.
Avc * v

Ao = Ageom = Aslot

0.0124
27.4
0.34

m
m/s
m/s

p edged slot wit a contraction coefficient

0.62

0.02

ometrical area

a given flow rate


0.34
m/s
average velocity at the vena contracta is
vvc

1
Q

Cc A geom

(Eq. k)

(1 / Cc) * (Q / Ageom)
0.62
0.34

m/s

0.02
27.45

m
m/s

with (Q / Ao) = vslot

Rev. Cjc. 05.06.2015


Page 1

Fluid level
level

vvc = vave: average velocity of the velocity


profile
vave = vvc

h
A = Avc

vi

Ao = Ageom

vi

Vena
contracta
: ideal velocity, calculated according

Torricelli
Figure 1

For a discharge coefficient


of a rectangular sharp
edeged slot [2], page 2-6
CD =
0.61

and for velocity coefficient of


Cv =
0.98

(from [3]. page 23 of 49),


the contraction coefficient is
Cc =
CD / Cv

Cc =

0.62

1/ Cc =

1.613

and
Thus, the average velocity at
the vena contracta is
vvc =
1.613 * Q / Ageom

(m / s)

Page 2

Flow rate equations

slot is
2

Pa

(Eq. n)

Q A geom vslot

(Eq. q)

with
v

C v

(Eq. p)

Flow rate equations

slot is
2

Pa

(Eq. n)

Q A geom vslot

(Eq. q)

with
v slot C D v ideal

(Eq. p)

Q A geom C D v ideal
as slot velocity

Q A vc v vc

(Eq. f)

with
A vc Cc A geom

Pa

and
Cv

(Eq. h)

(Eq. f1)

v vc
v ideal

(Eq. b)

v vc C v v ideal
thus

Q Cc A geom C v v ideal

s
(Eq. p)

e writen as
(Eq. q)

Q Cc C v A geom v ideal
and with
Cc C v C D
Q C D A geom v ideal

(Eq. r)

Page 3

vslot =

Q /A

from sheet 5, column of Eq. 1.

(Eq. n)

so designated

0.248

m/s

Aslot=

0.0183

vslot =

13.5

m/s

Q=
from sheet 3

hv_slot =

/ 2 ) * vslot^2

from sheet 5, column Eq. 2


=
vslot =

0.84

kg/m

13.5

m/s

hv_slot =

76.8

Pa

Kslot =

(1 / CD )^2

CD =

0.61

Kslot =

2.69

P =
Kslot =

Kslot * hv_slot
2.69

hv_slot =

76.8

Pa

P =

206

Pa

g=

9.81

m/s

CHAPTER 9 - SUBMERGED ORIFICES

[1]

5. Discharge Through a Submerged Rectangular Orifice


The equation for computing the discharge of the standard submerged rectangular orifice is:
(9-1b)
where:
Q = discharge (ft3/s)
Cc = coefficient of contraction
Cvf = coefficient of velocity caused by friction loss
Cva = coefficient to account for exclusion of approach velocity head from the equation
A = the area of the orifice (ft2)
g = acceleration caused by gravity (ft/s2)
h1 = upstream head (ft)
h2 = downstream head (ft)
(9-1b)

where:
h = h1 - h2, differential head
Cd = 0.61, as determined experimentally.

The discharge, when velocity of approach is negligible, may be computed using equation 9-1b. T
1

The prefix "A" denotes tables that are located in the appendix.

CHAPTER 9 - SUBMERGED ORIFICES


5. Discharge Through a Submerged Rectangular Orifice

The equation for computing the discharge of the standard submerged rectangular orifice is:
(9-1b)
where:
Q = discharge (ft3/s)
Cc = coefficient of contraction
Cvf = coefficient of velocity caused by friction loss
Cva = coefficient to account for exclusion of approach velocity head from the equation
A = the area of the orifice (ft2)
g = acceleration caused by gravity (ft/s2)
h1 = upstream head (ft)
h2 = downstream head (ft)

The coefficient of contraction, Cc, accounts for the flow area reduction of the jet caused by the flo
Cvf accounts for the velocity distribution and friction loss. The product, CcCvf, is sometimes called
for using the water head only and does not fully account for the velocity head of approach. This c
met. The effective discharge coefficient, Cd, is the product CcCvfCva, which has been determined
coefficient of contraction has the most influence on the effective coefficient discharge. Because
will increase rapidly after reaching some low velocity. Thus, the equation should not be used for
devices. The difference between upstream and downstream heads or water surface elevations is
can be rewritten as:

(9-1b)
where:
h = h1 - h2, differential head
Cd = 0.61, as determined experimentally.

The discharge, when velocity of approach is negligible, may be computed using equation 9-1b. T
1

The prefix "A" denotes tables that are located in the appendix.

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merged rectangular orifice is:

y head from the equation

The coefficient of contraction, Cc, accounts for the flow area reduction of the j
by the flow curving and springing from the orifice edges.
The coefficient Cvf accounts for the velocity distribution and friction loss.
The coefficient Cva accounts for using the water head only and does not fully
the velocity head of approach. This coefficient is near unity if all the requireme
section 4 are met.

The product, CcCvf, is sometimes called the coefficient of discharge, Cd.


The effective discharge coefficient, Cd, is the product CcCvfCva, which has b
determined experimentally to be 0.61 for rectangular irrigation weirs.
Experimental value of the discharge coefficient of a slot
CD =
0.61

The coefficient of contraction has the most influence on the effective coefficie

Because Cc must approach unity as velocity approaches zero, its value will in
rapidly after reaching some low velocity.
Thus, the equation should not be used for heads less than 0.2 ft even with ve
head measuring devices.
The difference between upstream and downstream heads or water surface el
is sometimes called the differential head, and equation 9-1a can be rewritten
http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/wmm/chap09_05.html
http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/wmm/

e computed using equation 9-1b. Table A9-21 was prepared for orifice areas from 0.25 to 2.0 ft2.

merged rectangular orifice is:

y head from the equation

duction of the jet caused by the flow curving and springing from the orifice edges. The coefficient
roduct, CcCvf, is sometimes called the coefficient of discharge, Cd. The coefficient Cva accounts
e velocity head of approach. This coefficient is near unity if all the requirements of section 4 are
C , which has been determined experimentally to be 0.61 for rectangular irrigation weirs. The
vf va
e coefficient discharge. Because Cc must approach unity as velocity approaches zero, its value
e equation should not be used for heads less than 0.2 ft even with very precise head measuring
eads or water surface elevations is sometimes called the differential head, and equation 9-1a

e computed using equation 9-1b. Table A9-21 was prepared for orifice areas from 0.25 to 2.0 ft2.

ormation | FAQ | Notices


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he flow area reduction of the jet caused

ribution and friction loss.


r head only and does not fully account for
near unity if all the requirements of

efficient of discharge, Cd.


oduct CcCvfCva, which has been

gular irrigation weirs.

ence on the effective coefficient discharge.

proaches zero, its value will increase

s less than 0.2 ft even with very precise

am heads or water surface elevations


quation 9-1a can be rewritten as:

mm/chap09_05.html

[2]
http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/manuals/WMM_3rd_2001.pdf

Here, the discharge coefficient has been named as contraction coefficient. Since the giv
is the total coefficient, it means that it corresponds to the discharge coefficient.

3rd_2001.pdf

n coefficient. Since the given value


arge coefficient.

[3]

Water measurement manual, U.S. Bureau of Reclamation, Denver, Colorado

nver, Colorado

Note
For a rectangular orifice
CD =

0.61

Sharp edged rectangular slot


Cc =
0.62
Cv =
0.98
CD =
0.61

The Roman engineer Frontinus, who was in charge of the water supply under Augustus, used
This was purely empirical, since the effects of pressure, or "head," and orifice size were not kn
was given by Vi = 2gh.
We still calculate the velocity from Bernoulli's principle, that h + p/g + V2/2, is a constant alon

We'll consider here the case of zero initial velocity, as at the surface of a liquid in a container w
We assume that a streamline starts at the surface, a distance h above the orifice, and neglect
The streamline then leads somehow to the orifice, and out into the jet that issues from it. We c
and find that the velocity there is Vi = 2gh, as given by Torricelli's theorem.

A jet surrounded only by air (or another fluid of small density) is called a
If the fluid is the same as that of the jet, then buoyancy eliminates the effect of gravity on it. A
We shall consider here only free jets of water, and neglect the viscosity of water, which is sma

A cross section of a circular orifice of diameter D o is shown. The thickness of the wall is assum
of the streamlines approaching the orifice, the cross section of the jet decreases slightly until
This point of minimum area is called the vena contracta. Beyond the vena contracta, friction w
This divergence is usually quite small, and the jet is nearly cylindrical with a constant velocity.

The area A of the vena contracta is smaller than the area Ao of the orifice because the velocity
For a sharp-edged, or "ideal" circular orifice, A/Ao = Cc = /( + 2) = 0.611. Cc is called the co
For a sharp - edged, or circular orifice,
A
Cc
Ao
where Cc is called contractio n coefficien t

Cc
0.611
2

For a sharp orifice, is usually estimated to be 0.62, a figure that can be used if the exact value
For an orifice that resembles a short tube, Cc = 1, but then there are turbulence losses that af

The average velocity V is defined so that it gives the correct rate of discharge when it is assum
Then, we can write V = CvVi, where Cv is the coefficient of velocity.
The coefficient of velocity is usually quite high, between 0.95 and 0.99.
Combining the results of this paragraph and the preceding one, the discharge Q = VA = CvViC

Experiments

[4]

Our apparatus consists of a tomato juice can with the top removed, and a hole near the bottom

The first experiment, to measure Cd, is performed by measuring the time required for the cont

The corrugations in the can make convenient reference points for the liquid level. For my expe

The second experiment measures Cv. Water was allowed to run from the tap into the reservoi

Other experiments and demonstrations suggest themselves. The discharge coefficient could a

The Roman engineer Frontinus, who was in charge of the water supply under Augustus, used
This was purely empirical, since the effects of pressure, or "head," and orifice size were not kn
was given by Vi = 2gh.
We still calculate the velocity from Bernoulli's principle, that h + p/g + V2/2, is a constant alon

We'll consider here the case of zero initial velocity, as at the surface of a liquid in a container w
We assume that a streamline starts at the surface, a distance h above the orifice, and neglect
The streamline then leads somehow to the orifice, and out into the jet that issues from it. We c
and find that the velocity there is Vi = 2gh, as given by Torricelli's theorem.

A jet surrounded only by air (or another fluid of small density) is called a
If the fluid is the same as that of the jet, then buoyancy eliminates the effect of gravity on it. A
We shall consider here only free jets of water, and neglect the viscosity of water, which is sma

A cross section of a circular orifice of diameter D o is shown. The thickness of the wall is assum
of the streamlines approaching the orifice, the cross section of the jet decreases slightly until
This point of minimum area is called the vena contracta. Beyond the vena contracta, friction w
This divergence is usually quite small, and the jet is nearly cylindrical with a constant velocity.

The area A of the vena contracta is smaller than the area Ao of the orifice because the velocity
For a sharp-edged, or "ideal" circular orifice, A/Ao = Cc = /( + 2) = 0.611. Cc is called the co
For a sharp - edged, or circular orifice,
A
Cc
Ao
where Cc is called contractio n coefficien t

Cc
0.611
2

For a sharp orifice, is usually estimated to be 0.62, a figure that can be used if the exact value
For an orifice that resembles a short tube, Cc = 1, but then there are turbulence losses that af

The average velocity V is defined so that it gives the correct rate of discharge when it is assum
Then, we can write V = CvVi, where Cv is the coefficient of velocity.
The coefficient of velocity is usually quite high, between 0.95 and 0.99.
Combining the results of this paragraph and the preceding one, the discharge Q = VA = CvViC

er supply under Augustus, used short pipes of graduated sizes to meter water delivered to different users.
ad," and orifice size were not known quantitatively until Torricelli, in 1643, showed that the velocity of efflux

+ p/g + V2/2, is a constant along a streamline in irrotational flow, which is equivalent to the conservation of energ

rface of a liquid in a container with an orifice in the side.


h above the orifice, and neglect the pressure on the surface of the liquid, since it would cancel out anyway.
the jet that issues from it. We choose the point at which the streamlines are parallel a short distance from the orif
lli's theorem.

s called a free jet, and is acted upon by gravity. A jet surrounded by fluid is called a submerged jet
ates the effect of gravity on it. A submerged jet is also subject to much greater friction at its boundary.
viscosity of water, which is small, but finite.

e thickness of the wall is assumed small compared to the diameter of the orifice. Because of the convergence
the jet decreases slightly until the pressure is equalized over the cross-section, and the velocity profile is nearly r
nd the vena contracta, friction with the fluid outside the jet (air) slows it down, and the cross section increases perf
ndrical with a constant velocity. The jet is held together by surface tension, of course, which has a stronger effect t

the orifice because the velocity is higher there (converging streamlines).


+ 2) = 0.611. Cc is called the coefficient of contraction.

t can be used if the exact value is not known.


re are turbulence losses that affect the discharge.

te of discharge when it is assumed constant over the vena contracta, or Q = VA.

e, the discharge Q = VA = CvViCcAo = CdAoVi. Cd, the coefficient of discharge, allows us to use the ideal velocity

oved, and a hole near the bottom. With this can, a scale, and a timing device, we can measure the coefficients of d

g the time required for the container to empty between levels h 1 and h2 through the orifice. To find the rate at whic

for the liquid level. For my experiment, Ao = 0.09932 cm2, Ac = 84.95 cm2, h1 = 10.5 cm, and h2 = 1.5 cm. Using th

n from the tap into the reservoir, keeping h constant at 16 cm. The height of the orifice was y = 10.0 cm, and the h

he discharge coefficient could also be found by keeping the head constant and measuring the water discharged i

er supply under Augustus, used short pipes of graduated sizes to meter water delivered to different users.
ad," and orifice size were not known quantitatively until Torricelli, in 1643, showed that the velocity of efflux

+ p/g + V2/2, is a constant along a streamline in irrotational flow, which is equivalent to the conservation of energ

rface of a liquid in a container with an orifice in the side.


h above the orifice, and neglect the pressure on the surface of the liquid, since it would cancel out anyway.
the jet that issues from it. We choose the point at which the streamlines are parallel a short distance from the orif
lli's theorem.

s called a free jet, and is acted upon by gravity. A jet surrounded by fluid is called a submerged jet
ates the effect of gravity on it. A submerged jet is also subject to much greater friction at its boundary.
viscosity of water, which is small, but finite.

e thickness of the wall is assumed small compared to the diameter of the orifice. Because of the convergence
the jet decreases slightly until the pressure is equalized over the cross-section, and the velocity profile is nearly r
nd the vena contracta, friction with the fluid outside the jet (air) slows it down, and the cross section increases perf
ndrical with a constant velocity. The jet is held together by surface tension, of course, which has a stronger effect t

the orifice because the velocity is higher there (converging streamlines).


+ 2) = 0.611. Cc is called the coefficient of contraction.

t can be used if the exact value is not known.


re are turbulence losses that affect the discharge.

te of discharge when it is assumed constant over the vena contracta, or Q = VA.

e, the discharge Q = VA = CvViCcAo = CdAoVi. Cd, the coefficient of discharge, allows us to use the ideal velocity

to different users.
he velocity of efflux

[4]

Page 1

the conservation of energy.

cancel out anyway.


short distance from the orifice,

merged jet.
its boundary.

use of the convergence


e velocity profile is nearly rectangular.
oss section increases perforce.
hich has a stronger effect the smaller the diameter of the jet.

Contents
i. Theory of Discharge from an Orifice
ii. Experiments
iii. References

us to use the ideal velocity and the orifice area in calculating the discharge.

Page 2

easure the coefficients of discharge and velocity,

ce. To find the rate at which the level h decreases,


and h2 = 1.5 cm. Using these numbers, K =

was y = 10.0 cm, and the horizontal distance was

ing the water discharged in a known time interval.

to different users.
he velocity of efflux

[4]

Page 3

the conservation of energy.

cancel out anyway.


short distance from the orifice,

merged jet.
its boundary.

use of the convergence


e velocity profile is nearly rectangular.
oss section increases perforce.
hich has a stronger effect the smaller the diameter of the jet.

Contents
i. Theory of Discharge from an Orifice
ii. Experiments
iii. References

us to use the ideal velocity and the orifice area in calculating the discharge.

[1]

CHAPTER 9 - SUBMERGED ORIFICES


http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/wmm/

[2]

[3]

http://www.usbr.gov/pmts/hydraulics_lab/pubs/manuals/WMM_3rd_2001.pdf

http://www.ferc.gov/CalendarFiles/20110928144931-Day1-part-2.pdf

https://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/tech/fluids/orifice.htm

[4]

https://mysite.du.edu/~jcalvert/tech/fluids/orifice.htm#Intr

Carlos J. Cruz
cjcruz@vtr.net

3rd_2001.pdf