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# A Formulation for a 1-D Finite

## Element With Anisotropic Wall

Material Properties
Victor Eyo
Mechanical Systems Branch (Code 548)
GSFC, Wallops Flight Facility

Motivation
Old

college assignment

## Lack of 1-Dimensional finite element

capable of anisotropic material
property input
Possible

## research tool for balloon

structural analyses
Closed form solution eliminates
singularities encountered with

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Geometry Considered

Vy

tubes

My
r

Length, L

Vx

## Generalized coordinate, (r,) pair

Mx

Loaded at free end via some kind
of reinforcement system

## Shear loads, Vx & Vy

Moments, Mx & My
Torque, T
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Constitutive Equation

Assumptions

## Wall bending stiffness neglected

Shape of cross-section maintained during deformation
Reinforcement system (spar, web,) for proper load
distribution

## Circumferential strains disappear

Wall considered membrane in plane stress
State of stress at any point on the wall can be expressed as

S11
=
S14

S14

S 44 Z

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Constitutive Equation

q

N
q

dz

q
N

N: tension flow
q: shear flow

1
=
2

2 N

4 q

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Constitutive Equation
Inverting

N 1
=
q 2

2

4

## i(,z): elastic constants, in general will vary

with and z, but assumed constant here

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## Laminate Stress Strain Relationship

N A11 ( )

N = A21 ( )
q A ( )
31

A12 ( )
A22 ( )
A32 ( )

A31 ( )

A32 ( )
A33 ( )

t n
Aij ( ) = Qij ( k )
n k =1

## Qij(k) : In-plane global stiffness matrix

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## The n-Ply Symmetric Laminate

Expand
Solve
Compare

1
(
A11 A22 A122 )
1 =
A11
1
( A11 A23 A12 A13 )
2 =
A11
1
(
4 =
A11 A33 A132 )
A11

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Wall Displacement
In-plane

Displacements
Rotations
Small displacement theory

v ( , z ) = r ( z ) + X ( z ) cos Y ( z ) sin

w(,z)
Y(z)

(z)

1
w( , z ) = r 2 ( z ) + X ( z ) cos + Y ( z ) sin
2

Out

v(,z)

X(z)

of plane

## Displacements & rotations

assumed to be of form

u( , z ) = a0 ( z ) + [a k ( z ) cos k + bk ( z ) sin k ]
k =1

## Assume k=1 for this work

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Stress-Displacement
Relationship

## Ref: Reissner, E., On the Variational Theorem of Finite Elastic Deformations,

Deformations, Journal of
Mathematics and Physics,
Physics, 32;12932;129-135, July 1953
Libove, Charles, On the Stiffness, Stresses and Buckling Analysis of Corrugated Shear
Shear
Webs,
Webs, In WeiWei-Wen Yu (Editor), Second Specialty Conference on Cold Formed Steel
Structures: Current Research and Design Trends,
Trends, pages 259259-302, October 1973

u
zz =
z
= 0
1 1 u
d 1 dX
dY

z =
cos
sin
+r +
2 r
dz 2 dz
dz

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## Substitute for u(,z)

Extract differential equations & natural
boundary conditions
Derive Total Potential Energy () of beam system
Minimize the TPE
requires its first variation =0

conditions

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## Displacements & Twist

X ( z) =

Y ( z) =

6r 3 ( 22 1 4 )

4V x z 3 +

2r 3 ( 22 1 4

[) 2r V
2

L 4V x 4 M y ]z 2

+ L 4V y + 4 M x ]z 2

1
[
L 2V y + r1V x + 2 M x ]z
2
2
r ( 2 1 4 )
1

6r ( 1 4 )
3

2
2

4V y z 3

2r ( 1 4
3

2
2

1
[L V r1V y + 2 M y ]z
r 2 ( 22 1 4 ) 2 x

) [2r V
2

My
( z) =

2r 3 ( 22 1 4 )

(r 2 P 1T )z

Vy

Vx
Mx

T
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P12

NASTRAN Model

## RBE3 rigid elements used to

simulate displacements at
section mid-node

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Results

Tube Geometry

r=0.8in
t=0.04in
L=14.0in

Tube

wall

AL2024-T4

Vx=Vy=10.0lb

Mx=My=60.0in-lb

T=123.0in-lb

P=480.0lb

Isotropic
Homogenous

## Layered Composite Laminates

E-Glass/Epoxy [(0/45/90)]s
T300/5208 Gr/E [(+20/-70)2]s

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Results AL2024-T4
AL2024-T4 Cantelever Tube

A22=0.476
A23=0.0
A33=0.160

A11=0.476
A12=0.157
A13=0.0

0.0012
0.0010

0.0006
0.0004

0.0002

0.0000
0

0.2

0.4

1.0E-10
0.8

0.6

Z/L
The o ry

5.0E-11
NASTRAN

0.0E+00
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-5.0E-11

1=0.424
2=0.0
4=0.159

Y/L

X/L

0.0008

-1.0E-10
-1.5E-10
-2.0E-10
-2.5E-10
-3.0E-10

Z/L
The o ry

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Results AL2024-T4
AL2024-T4 Cantelever Tube
Y(z) for Mx=-60in-lb
0.0000
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-0.0001

A22=0.476
A23=0.0
A33=0.160

A11=0.476
A12=0.157
A13=0.0

-0.0003

-0.0004

-0.0005

8.0E-09

-0.0006

6.0E-09

-0.0007

Z/L
The o ry

4.0E-09
NASTRAN

X/L

X/L

-0.0002

1=0.424
2=0.0
4=0.159

2.0E-09
0.0E+00
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-2.0E-09
-4.0E-09
-6.0E-09

Z/L
The o ry

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NASTRAN

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Results AL2024-T4
AL2024-T4 Cantelever Tube

A22=0.476
A23=0.0
A33=0.160

A11=0.476
A12=0.157
A13=0.0

0.004
0.004
0.003

0.002

(z) for P=480lb

0.002
0.001
9.0E-08

0.001

8.0E-08

0.000
0

0.2

0.4

7.0E-08
0.8

0.6

6.0E-08

Z/L

5.0E-08
The o ry

1=0.424
2=0.0
4=0.159

NASTRAN

(z)

(z)

0.003

4.0E-08
3.0E-08
2.0E-08
1.0E-08
0.0E+00
-1.0E-08

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Z/L
The o ry

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Results E-Glass/Epoxy
E-Glass/Epoxy Cantelever Tube
X(z) for Vx=10lb

A22=0.233
A23=0.0
A33=0.090

A11=0.233
A12=0.054
A13=0.0

0.0020

0.0016

X/L

0.0012

0.0008

Y(z) for Vx=10lb

0.0004
7.0E-10

0.0000

6.0E-10
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Z/L

4.0E-10
NASTRAN

3.0E-10

Y/L

The o ry

1=0.221
2=0.0
4=0.090

5.0E-10

2.0E-10
1.0E-10
0.0E+00
-1.0E-10

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

-2.0E-10
-3.0E-10

Z/L
The o ry

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NASTRAN

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Results E-Glass/Epoxy
E-Glass/Epoxy Cantelever Tube
X(z) for Mx=-60in-lb

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-1.0E-05
-2.0E-05
-3.0E-05

-4.0E-05

-5.0E-05

0.0000
-6.0E-05

Z/L
The o ry

1=0.221
2=0.0
4=0.090

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-0.0002
-0.0004

NASTRAN

X/L

X/L

A22=0.233
A23=0.0
A33=0.090

A11=0.233
A12=0.054
A13=0.0

0.0E+00

-0.0006
-0.0008
-0.0010

r=51.5%

-0.0012
-0.0014

Z/L
The o ry

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NASTRAN

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Results E-Glass/Epoxy
E-Glass/Epoxy Cantelever Tube
(z) for P=480lb

A22=0.233
A23=0.0
A33=0.090

A11=0.233
A12=0.054
A13=0.0

2.5E-08
2.0E-08
1.5E-08
1.0E-08
0.0E+00
-5.0E-09 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-1.0E-08

-1.5E-08
-2.0E-08

0.009

-2.5E-08

0.008

r=5.7%

-3.0E-08
0.007

Z/L
The o ry

1=0.221
2=0.0
4=0.090

0.006
NASTRAN

(z)

(z)

5.0E-09

0.005
0.004
0.003
0.002
0.001
0.000
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Z/L
The o ry

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Results T300/5208
T300-5208 Cantelever Tube
X(z) for Vx=10lb

A22=0.408
A23=-0.102
A33=0.155

A11=0.408
A12=0.107
A13=0.102

0.0025

0.0020

X/L

0.0015

0.0010

Y(z) for Vx=10lb

0.0005
1.4E-04

0.0000
0

0.2

0.4

1.2E-04
0.8

0.6

Z/L

1=0.380
2=-0.129
4=0.089

1.0E-04
8.0E-05

NASTRAN

Y/L

The o ry

6.0E-05
4.0E-05
2.0E-05
0.0E+00
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-2.0E-05

Z/L
The o ry

## FEMCI 2006 Oct 25 & 26FEMCI

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Results T300/5208
T300-5208 Cantelever Tube
X(z) for Mx=60in-lb

A11=0.408
A12=0.107
A13=0.102

0.0003

0.0002

A22=0.408
A23=-0.102
A33=0.155

X/L

0.0002

0.0001

0.0001

0.0000
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-0.0002

0.0000
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
-0.0004

Z/L

1=0.380
2=-0.129
4=0.089

-0.0006
NASTRAN

X/L

The o ry

-0.0008
-0.0010
-0.0012
-0.0014
-0.0016

Z/L
The o ry

## FEMCI 2006 Oct 25 & 26FEMCI

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Results T300/5208
T300-5208 Cantelever Tube
(z) for T=123in-lb
0.014
0.012
0.010
0.008

0.006

0.004
6.0E-04

0.002

5.0E-04

0.000
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Z/L
The o ry

1=0.380
2=-0.129
4=0.089

4.0E-04
NASTRAN

(z)

(z)

A22=0.408
A23=-0.102
A33=0.155

A11=0.408
A12=0.107
A13=0.102

3.0E-04
2.0E-04
1.0E-04
0.0E+00
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Z/L
The o ry

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Conclusion
Work

in progress no
major conclusions
Possible path to developing
a 1-D finite element with
anisotropic material
properties
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