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A Formulation for a 1-D Finite

Element With Anisotropic Wall


Material Properties
Victor Eyo
Mechanical Systems Branch (Code 548)
GSFC, Wallops Flight Facility

Motivation
Old

college assignment

Lack of 1-Dimensional finite element


capable of anisotropic material
property input
Possible

research tool for balloon


structural analyses
Closed form solution eliminates
singularities encountered with
traditional shell elements

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Geometry & Loading

Geometry Considered

Vy

Thin walled cantilevered cylindrical


tubes

My
r

Length, L
Radius r

Vx

Generalized coordinate, (r,) pair

Mx

Loading
Loaded at free end via some kind
of reinforcement system

Shear loads, Vx & Vy


Moments, Mx & My
Torque, T
Axial load, P
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Constitutive Equation

Assumptions

Wall bending stiffness neglected


Shape of cross-section maintained during deformation
Reinforcement system (spar, web,) for proper load
distribution

Resulting Analysis Model

Circumferential strains disappear


Wall considered membrane in plane stress
State of stress at any point on the wall can be expressed as

S11
=
S14

S14

S 44 Z

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Constitutive Equation

In terms of stress resultant


q

N
q

dz

q
N

N: tension flow
q: shear flow

1
=
2

2 N

4 q

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Constitutive Equation
Inverting

N 1
=
q 2

2

4

i(,z): elastic constants, in general will vary


with and z, but assumed constant here

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The n-Ply Symmetric Laminate

Laminate Stress Strain Relationship

N A11 ( )

N = A21 ( )
q A ( )
31

A12 ( )
A22 ( )
A32 ( )

A31 ( )

A32 ( )
A33 ( )

t n
Aij ( ) = Qij ( k )
n k =1

Qij(k) : In-plane global stiffness matrix


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The n-Ply Symmetric Laminate

Expand
Solve
Compare

1
(
A11 A22 A122 )
1 =
A11
1
( A11 A23 A12 A13 )
2 =
A11
1
(
4 =
A11 A33 A132 )
A11

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Wall Displacement
In-plane

Displacements
Rotations
Small displacement theory

v ( , z ) = r ( z ) + X ( z ) cos Y ( z ) sin

w(,z)
Y(z)

(z)

1
w( , z ) = r 2 ( z ) + X ( z ) cos + Y ( z ) sin
2

Out

v(,z)

X(z)

of plane

Displacements & rotations


assumed to be of form

u( , z ) = a0 ( z ) + [a k ( z ) cos k + bk ( z ) sin k ]
k =1

Assume k=1 for this work


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Stress-Displacement
Relationship

Linearized stress-displacement relationship

Ref: Reissner, E., On the Variational Theorem of Finite Elastic Deformations,


Deformations, Journal of
Mathematics and Physics,
Physics, 32;12932;129-135, July 1953
Libove, Charles, On the Stiffness, Stresses and Buckling Analysis of Corrugated Shear
Shear
Webs,
Webs, In WeiWei-Wen Yu (Editor), Second Specialty Conference on Cold Formed Steel
Structures: Current Research and Design Trends,
Trends, pages 259259-302, October 1973

u
zz =
z
= 0
1 1 u
d 1 dX
dY

z =
cos
sin
+r +
2 r
dz 2 dz
dz

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Displacements & Twist

Substitute for u(,z)


Extract differential equations & natural
boundary conditions
Derive Total Potential Energy () of beam system
Minimize the TPE
requires its first variation =0

Solve DEQs applying prescribed boundary


conditions

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Displacements & Twist


X ( z) =

Y ( z) =

6r 3 ( 22 1 4 )

4V x z 3 +

2r 3 ( 22 1 4

[) 2r V
2

L 4V x 4 M y ]z 2

+ L 4V y + 4 M x ]z 2

1
[
L 2V y + r1V x + 2 M x ]z
2
2
r ( 2 1 4 )
1

6r ( 1 4 )
3

2
2

4V y z 3

2r ( 1 4
3

2
2

1
[L V r1V y + 2 M y ]z
r 2 ( 22 1 4 ) 2 x

) [2r V
2

My
( z) =

2r 3 ( 22 1 4 )

(r 2 P 1T )z

Vy

Vx
Mx

T
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P12

NASTRAN Model

Wall: QUAD4 Elements

586 nodes; 574 Elements

z axis used for orientation reference

Membrane and bending coupling

Capped Free end:


QUAD4 with high stiffness

RBE3 rigid elements used to


simulate displacements at
section mid-node

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Results

Tube Geometry

r=0.8in
t=0.04in
L=14.0in

Tube

Loading

wall

AL2024-T4

Vx=Vy=10.0lb

Mx=My=60.0in-lb

T=123.0in-lb

P=480.0lb

Isotropic
Homogenous

Layered Composite Laminates


E-Glass/Epoxy [(0/45/90)]s
T300/5208 Gr/E [(+20/-70)2]s

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Results AL2024-T4
AL2024-T4 Cantelever Tube

A22=0.476
A23=0.0
A33=0.160

A11=0.476
A12=0.157
A13=0.0

X(z) for Vx=10lb


0.0012
0.0010

0.0006
0.0004

AL2024-T4 Cantelever Tube


0.0002

Y(z) for Vx=10lb

0.0000
0

0.2

0.4

1.0E-10
0.8

0.6

Z/L
The o ry

5.0E-11
NASTRAN

0.0E+00
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-5.0E-11

1=0.424
2=0.0
4=0.159

Y/L

X/L

0.0008

-1.0E-10
-1.5E-10
-2.0E-10
-2.5E-10
-3.0E-10

Z/L
The o ry

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NASTRAN

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Results AL2024-T4
AL2024-T4 Cantelever Tube
Y(z) for Mx=-60in-lb
0.0000
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-0.0001

A22=0.476
A23=0.0
A33=0.160

A11=0.476
A12=0.157
A13=0.0

-0.0003

AL2024-T4 Cantelever Tube

-0.0004

X(z) for Mx=60in-lb

-0.0005

8.0E-09

-0.0006

6.0E-09

-0.0007

Z/L
The o ry

4.0E-09
NASTRAN

X/L

X/L

-0.0002

1=0.424
2=0.0
4=0.159

2.0E-09
0.0E+00
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-2.0E-09
-4.0E-09
-6.0E-09

Z/L
The o ry

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NASTRAN

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Results AL2024-T4
AL2024-T4 Cantelever Tube

A22=0.476
A23=0.0
A33=0.160

A11=0.476
A12=0.157
A13=0.0

(z) for T=123in-lb


0.004
0.004
0.003

0.002

AL2024-T4 Cantelever Tube


(z) for P=480lb

0.002
0.001
9.0E-08

0.001

8.0E-08

0.000
0

0.2

0.4

7.0E-08
0.8

0.6

6.0E-08

Z/L

5.0E-08
The o ry

1=0.424
2=0.0
4=0.159

NASTRAN

(z)

(z)

0.003

4.0E-08
3.0E-08
2.0E-08
1.0E-08
0.0E+00
-1.0E-08

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Z/L
The o ry

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NASTRAN

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Results E-Glass/Epoxy
E-Glass/Epoxy Cantelever Tube
X(z) for Vx=10lb

A22=0.233
A23=0.0
A33=0.090

A11=0.233
A12=0.054
A13=0.0

0.0020

0.0016

X/L

0.0012

0.0008

E-Glass/Epoxy Cantelever Tube


Y(z) for Vx=10lb

0.0004
7.0E-10

0.0000

6.0E-10
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Z/L

4.0E-10
NASTRAN

3.0E-10

Y/L

The o ry

1=0.221
2=0.0
4=0.090

5.0E-10

2.0E-10
1.0E-10
0.0E+00
-1.0E-10

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

1.2

-2.0E-10
-3.0E-10

Z/L
The o ry

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NASTRAN

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Results E-Glass/Epoxy
E-Glass/Epoxy Cantelever Tube
X(z) for Mx=-60in-lb

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-1.0E-05
-2.0E-05
-3.0E-05

E-Glass/Epoxy Cantelever Tube

-4.0E-05

Y(z) for Mx=-60in-lb


-5.0E-05

0.0000
-6.0E-05

Z/L
The o ry

1=0.221
2=0.0
4=0.090

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-0.0002
-0.0004

NASTRAN

X/L

X/L

A22=0.233
A23=0.0
A33=0.090

A11=0.233
A12=0.054
A13=0.0

0.0E+00

-0.0006
-0.0008
-0.0010

r=51.5%

-0.0012
-0.0014

Z/L
The o ry

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Results E-Glass/Epoxy
E-Glass/Epoxy Cantelever Tube
(z) for P=480lb

A22=0.233
A23=0.0
A33=0.090

A11=0.233
A12=0.054
A13=0.0

2.5E-08
2.0E-08
1.5E-08
1.0E-08
0.0E+00
-5.0E-09 0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

E-Glass/Epoxy Cantelever Tube

-1.0E-08

(z) for T=123in-lb

-1.5E-08
-2.0E-08

0.009

-2.5E-08

0.008

r=5.7%

-3.0E-08
0.007

Z/L
The o ry

1=0.221
2=0.0
4=0.090

0.006
NASTRAN

(z)

(z)

5.0E-09

0.005
0.004
0.003
0.002
0.001
0.000
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Z/L
The o ry

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Results T300/5208
T300-5208 Cantelever Tube
X(z) for Vx=10lb

A22=0.408
A23=-0.102
A33=0.155

A11=0.408
A12=0.107
A13=0.102

0.0025

0.0020

X/L

0.0015

0.0010

T300-5208 Cantelever Tube


Y(z) for Vx=10lb

0.0005
1.4E-04

0.0000
0

0.2

0.4

1.2E-04
0.8

0.6

Z/L

1=0.380
2=-0.129
4=0.089

1.0E-04
8.0E-05

NASTRAN

Y/L

The o ry

6.0E-05
4.0E-05
2.0E-05
0.0E+00
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-2.0E-05

Z/L
The o ry

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Results T300/5208
T300-5208 Cantelever Tube
X(z) for Mx=60in-lb

A11=0.408
A12=0.107
A13=0.102

0.0003

0.0002

A22=0.408
A23=-0.102
A33=0.155

X/L

0.0002

T300-5208 Cantelever Tube

0.0001

Y(z) for Mx=-60in-lb

0.0001

0.0000
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

-0.0002

0.0000
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8
-0.0004

Z/L

1=0.380
2=-0.129
4=0.089

-0.0006
NASTRAN

X/L

The o ry

-0.0008
-0.0010
-0.0012
-0.0014
-0.0016

Z/L
The o ry

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Results T300/5208
T300-5208 Cantelever Tube
(z) for T=123in-lb
0.014
0.012
0.010
0.008

T300-5208 Cantelever Tube

0.006

(z) for P=480lb

0.004
6.0E-04

0.002

5.0E-04

0.000
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Z/L
The o ry

1=0.380
2=-0.129
4=0.089

4.0E-04
NASTRAN

(z)

(z)

A22=0.408
A23=-0.102
A33=0.155

A11=0.408
A12=0.107
A13=0.102

3.0E-04
2.0E-04
1.0E-04
0.0E+00
0

0.2

0.4

0.6

0.8

Z/L
The o ry

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Conclusion
Work

in progress no
major conclusions
Possible path to developing
a 1-D finite element with
anisotropic material
properties
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