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A Research Project

Presented to the Faculty of the

Industrial Technology Department
Technological University of the Philippines Cavite Campus
Carlos Q. Trinidad Ave. Salawag, Dasmarias City, Cavite


Liezel C. Cabatingan
Mary Grace D. Comandante
Oliver L. Castillo
Louie James F. Madrona
Michael Ryan T. Molano
Raymart L. Ofalla
Judy Ann G. Ruadil
Florence Mae R. Valencia
Lmark D. Verdad

In Partial Fulfillment of the Course Requirements for

Civil Engineering Technology

June 2016
Concrete is the most widely used construction material in the world with an
estimated consumption of 33 billion tonnes (36.4 billion short tons) per year. The basic
design of concrete has remained the same since its inception: water, aggregates, and
cement. While the basic ingredients remain the same, the materials that have comprised
both cement and aggregates have been numerous.
Coastal communities in Philippines and those nearby could greatly reduce the
distance they have to transport aggregate materials, reducing costs and their
environmental impact. In New Delhi, India, for example, the price of a bag of sand is
high due to a expanding population in Philippines that is seeing a burst in economic
development and public/private construction projects.
Seashells are currently taking up a large volume in landfills. Using the shells in
concrete provides a cheaper alternative to increase the strength of concrete by providing a
substance for the cement paste to bond to and provide an environmentally sustainable
method to dispose of the waste.
Moreover, a lot of oyster shells are dumped as a by-product of marine aquaculture
industry. A large amount of oyster shells is a general waste fishermen should take care
of, but it seems difficult to handle it effectively due to the problems of securing of landfill
sites and collection/transportation of oyster shells. The waste shells are thrown away,
which causes environmental problems including pollution of coastal fisheries,

management problem of public water surface, damage of natural landscape,

health/sanitation problem, etc.
Hence, an attempt on the utilization of oyster shell waste as partial replacement
for fine aggregate is done and its mechanical behavior is investigated.


General Objectives:

The study aims to examine the use of waste Native Oyster Seashell into a concrete
mix as a partial replacement for fine aggregates, and seek for a development on oyster
shell concrete mixture as a viable and sustainable building material. The intent of this
research is to create a simple and eco-friendly experiment where the benefits of oyster
shell will be maximized, especially, in the field of Engineering studies.

Specific Objectives:

To design the specimen and proportion the concrete elements.

To determine whether the concrete produced from different percentages of shells will
fall under lightweight concrete or normal weight concrete.
To determine the compressive strength of concrete from different percentages of shells
in 7, 14 and 28 days of curing.
To compare the engineering properties of oyster shell in concrete from that of a plain
concrete mix.
To ascertain whether concrete from different percentages of shells will meet the
minimum required compressive strength.


The scope of this study basically involves concrete with recycled materials. This
study aims to create concrete that uses oyster shell waste as a partial replacement for
sand. This is a project that will design and produce a concrete mix in which, 5%, 10%,
15% and 20% of ratio of sand will be replaced with crushed oyster shell waste.
The study will not cover the utilization of seashells to fully replace the fine
aggregates in concrete and will focus more on testing the different percentages of
seashells as fine aggregate replacement in concrete.
This research is prepared to be presented to the Faculty of the Industrial
Technology Department of the Technological University of the Philippines in partial
fulfillment of the course requirements. It also investigates how replacing sand with
oyster shell in concrete affect its strength and durability, fire and thermal properties.


Oyster shells are one of the most common shell fishes in the Philippines.
Disposal of the non-edible shells abounds the coastal cities of Philippines. They pollute
the land and water when discarded indiscriminately.

Utilizing them as partial

replacement for fine aggregate in concrete could solve the problem of disposal. Thus,
reduces the storage of shell waste.
The purpose of this project is to use oyster shell wastes in concrete and determine
how the concrete would perform compared to a standard mix.