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Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292

Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Sustainable Cities and Societya thriving port for internat ional trade. Correspo n d i n g a u t h o r . T e l . : + 6 1 3 5 2 2 7 8 3 9 1 / + 6 1 4 9 8 6 53874. E-mail addresses: ejamei@deakin.edu.au (E. Jamei), yashar.jamei@ut.ac.ir (Y. Jamei), priya.rajagopalan@deakin.edu.au (P. Rajagopalan), b-dilshan@utm.my (D.R. Ossen). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2014.10.001 2210-6707/© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Early settlements were located along riverine and coastal routes. The landscape of the city was changed in the mid-15th century with the construction of forts by Portuguese and Dutch colonial- ists. Since then, the city continued to undergo a series of cityscape alterations, and the magnitude of this alteration reached its maxi- mum in 2008 when the city was listed as a UNESCO world heritage site. To date, two prominent urban areas can be identified in the city. The first is a traditional heritage site, which is well known as a pioneer in introducing shop houses to the world; some of these shop houses originated in the Dutch period and seemed to have lasted since the Portuguese rule ( Worden, 2001 ). A shop house is a typical two-storey building in which the ground floor is used for business purposes and the first floor is dedicated to housing. The second is the contemporary urban area where ongoing rapid urban d evelopment projects are currently taking place. Shop houses pro- lifera ted and the population density in the historic city increased because of the influx of immigrants into Malacca in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. New developments emerged, including high-rise buildings and car parks, to meet the growth requirement. Urban planning strategies dictate the city form, land use zon- ing, solid and void, building heights, and building footprints, and " id="pdf-obj-0-5" src="pdf-obj-0-5.jpg">

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Sustainable Cities and Society

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Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Sustainable Cities and Societya thriving port for internat ional trade. Correspo n d i n g a u t h o r . T e l . : + 6 1 3 5 2 2 7 8 3 9 1 / + 6 1 4 9 8 6 53874. E-mail addresses: ejamei@deakin.edu.au (E. Jamei), yashar.jamei@ut.ac.ir (Y. Jamei), priya.rajagopalan@deakin.edu.au (P. Rajagopalan), b-dilshan@utm.my (D.R. Ossen). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2014.10.001 2210-6707/© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Early settlements were located along riverine and coastal routes. The landscape of the city was changed in the mid-15th century with the construction of forts by Portuguese and Dutch colonial- ists. Since then, the city continued to undergo a series of cityscape alterations, and the magnitude of this alteration reached its maxi- mum in 2008 when the city was listed as a UNESCO world heritage site. To date, two prominent urban areas can be identified in the city. The first is a traditional heritage site, which is well known as a pioneer in introducing shop houses to the world; some of these shop houses originated in the Dutch period and seemed to have lasted since the Portuguese rule ( Worden, 2001 ). A shop house is a typical two-storey building in which the ground floor is used for business purposes and the first floor is dedicated to housing. The second is the contemporary urban area where ongoing rapid urban d evelopment projects are currently taking place. Shop houses pro- lifera ted and the population density in the historic city increased because of the influx of immigrants into Malacca in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. New developments emerged, including high-rise buildings and car parks, to meet the growth requirement. Urban planning strategies dictate the city form, land use zon- ing, solid and void, building heights, and building footprints, and " id="pdf-obj-0-17" src="pdf-obj-0-17.jpg">

Effect of built-up ratio on the variation of air temperature in a heritage city

Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 Contents lists available at ScienceDirect Sustainable Cities and Societya thriving port for internat ional trade. Correspo n d i n g a u t h o r . T e l . : + 6 1 3 5 2 2 7 8 3 9 1 / + 6 1 4 9 8 6 53874. E-mail addresses: ejamei@deakin.edu.au (E. Jamei), yashar.jamei@ut.ac.ir (Y. Jamei), priya.rajagopalan@deakin.edu.au (P. Rajagopalan), b-dilshan@utm.my (D.R. Ossen). http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2014.10.001 2210-6707/© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. Early settlements were located along riverine and coastal routes. The landscape of the city was changed in the mid-15th century with the construction of forts by Portuguese and Dutch colonial- ists. Since then, the city continued to undergo a series of cityscape alterations, and the magnitude of this alteration reached its maxi- mum in 2008 when the city was listed as a UNESCO world heritage site. To date, two prominent urban areas can be identified in the city. The first is a traditional heritage site, which is well known as a pioneer in introducing shop houses to the world; some of these shop houses originated in the Dutch period and seemed to have lasted since the Portuguese rule ( Worden, 2001 ). A shop house is a typical two-storey building in which the ground floor is used for business purposes and the first floor is dedicated to housing. The second is the contemporary urban area where ongoing rapid urban d evelopment projects are currently taking place. Shop houses pro- lifera ted and the population density in the historic city increased because of the influx of immigrants into Malacca in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. New developments emerged, including high-rise buildings and car parks, to meet the growth requirement. Urban planning strategies dictate the city form, land use zon- ing, solid and void, building heights, and building footprints, and " id="pdf-obj-0-22" src="pdf-obj-0-22.jpg">

Elmira Jamei a, , Yashar Jamei b , Priyadarsini Rajagopalan a , Dilshan Remaz Ossen c , Sasan Roushenas d

a School of Architecture and Built Environment, Deakin University, 1 Gheringhap Street, Geelong 3220, Australia b School of Regional Urban Planning, College of Fine Arts, University of Tehran, Tehran 13145-1384, Iran c School of Architecture, Faculty of Built Environment, University Technology Malaysia, 81310, Skudai, Johor Bahru, Malaysia d Faculty of Social Science, Department of Social Planning, Allameh Tabatabai University, Tehran 15113–15449, Iran

a r t i c

l e

i n f o

Article history:

Received 4 June 2014 Received in revised form 7 September 2014 Accepted 2 October 2014 Available online 22 October 2014

Keywords:

Air temperature variation Heat island effect

Built-up ratio

a b s t r a c t

Urbanization in tropics has altered the microclimate of cities over the past decades. Malacca is a historical city in Malaysia that has been under immense urban growth since 2008 when the city was listed as a world heritage site by UNESCO. This study aimed to examine the effects of urbanization on the microclimate of Malacca by quantifying the ratio of built-up areas in two prominent areas of the city, namely, old (heritage site) and new city quarter (contemporary urban environment). This study focused on the variation of air

temperature. The intensity of heat island effect in the two selected areas was calculated by conducting a comparative analysis. Mobile traverses, fixed-station measurements, GIS, and satelite images were used to monitor the variation of air temperature. Results indicated that the heritage site, which exhibited higher ratios of built-up area, was cooler than the contemporary urban area during the day. However, the heritage site had warmer air temperatures at night than the contemporary urban area. The built-up ratio alone could not predict the possible consequences of planning decisions on air temperature. The findings of this study are expected to help urban planners to integrate local climate knowledge into urban planning and design practices.

© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

1. Introduction

Malaysia is experiencing unprecedented urban growth as the percentage of people living in urban areas has increased from 27% in 1970 to 62% in 2000 (Department of Statistics Malaysia, 2000). The first urban heat island (UHI) study in Malaysia was conducted by Sham in 1972 (Sani, 1972). He found that the core of the city centers has higher air and suface temperatures than the rural surrounding areas. This finding is also supported by numerous researchers in Malaysia (Ahmed et al., 2014; Jamaluddin & Sham, 1987; Kubota & Ossen, 2009). Malacca is one of the fastest growing cities in Malaysia and is the capital of Malacca state. Evidence of town planning in the Malay Peninsula started in Malacca in the 15th century. During this century, Malacca was a thriving port for international trade.

Corresponding author. Tel.: +61 3 52278391/+61 498653874. E-mail addresses: ejamei@deakin.edu.au (E. Jamei), yashar.jamei@ut.ac.ir (Y. Jamei), priya.rajagopalan@deakin.edu.au (P. Rajagopalan), b-dilshan@utm.my (D.R. Ossen).

http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scs.2014.10.001

2210-6707/© 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Early settlements were located along riverine and coastal routes. The landscape of the city was changed in the mid-15th century with the construction of forts by Portuguese and Dutch colonial- ists. Since then, the city continued to undergo a series of cityscape alterations, and the magnitude of this alteration reached its maxi- mum in 2008 when the city was listed as a UNESCO world heritage site. To date, two prominent urban areas can be identified in the city. The first is a traditional heritage site, which is well known as a pioneer in introducing shop houses to the world; some of these shop houses originated in the Dutch period and seemed to have lasted since the Portuguese rule (Worden, 2001). A shop house is a typical two-storey building in which the ground floor is used for business purposes and the first floor is dedicated to housing. The second is the contemporary urban area where ongoing rapid urban development projects are currently taking place. Shop houses pro- liferated and the population density in the historic city increased because of the influx of immigrants into Malacca in the late 18th and early 19th centuries. New developments emerged, including high-rise buildings and car parks, to meet the growth requirement. Urban planning strategies dictate the city form, land use zon- ing, solid and void, building heights, and building footprints, and

E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292

281

thus have a fundamental role on the microclimate of the city. The State Authority in Malaysia is responsible for the general policy with regard to the planning, development, and use of the land and buildings within the area of every local authority in the state (Ismail, 2012). Under the Enactment on Preservation and Conser- vation (Act 168, 1976), strict guidelines have been imposed for the building heights in the heritage site, but the development of new urban centers in Malacca remain unabated. Such adhoc urban development and heat island effect threaten the survival of shop houses as a UNESCO world heritage site and affect human ther- mal comfort and tourism industry because many tourist activities depend on weather synoptic conditions. Few investigations have been conducted on the urban climate of tropical cities compared with temperate climates. Most UHI studies in Malaysia have been confined to Kuala Lumpur, the capital city of Malaysia, and UHI studies in heritage cities, such as Malacca, are scarce. Considering the possible physical, cultural, and economic effects of heat island effect on the heritage site and the significant role of heritage as an irreplaceable source of culture, conducting a UHI study in Malacca is necessary. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of uncontrolled and adhoc urban growth by quantifying the built-up ratio as an indicator for urban development on air temperature vari- ation and heat island intensity. The distribution of air temperature and heat island intensity was examined in relation to the built- up ratio in two dominant urban environments in Malacca, namely, the heritage and contemporary urban areas. This study focused on air temperature variations between day and night. Built-up ratio is defined as the percentage of the constructed buildings to the entire area or the area of the building footprint to the total plot area.

  • 2. Literature review

Rapid urbanization has significantly altered the local microcli- mate of cities worlwide over the past few decades. The magnitude of this alteration is highly influenced by urban design and future urban development strategies (Taha, 1997). Therefore, creating cities that are responsive to local climate and contribute to a sus- tainable environment is a challenging task for urban planners. The significant effect of urban design strategies on microclimate has been extensively investigated in different geographical areas of the planet (Ahmed et al., 2014; Ahmed, 2003; Bourbia & Awbi, 2004; Katzschner, 2010). The preliminary findings of these stud- ies highlight the fundamental role of urban planning guidelines and urban design implications on increased urban air tempera- ture in cities. Numerous studies have been conducted to examine the adverse effects of dense urban development on urban venti- lation (Rajagopalan, Lim, & Jamei, 2014), daylighting (Cheung & Chung, 2005), acoustics (Kang & Zhang, 2010), and thermal comfort (Givoni, 2009) because of migration from rural areas to cities. A major consequence of high-density urban development on microclimate is the so-called “heat island” phenomenon, which contributes to higher air and surface temperatures in cities than in surrounding rural areas and has roots in the positive urban thermal balance (Santamouris, 2007). Numerous studies have been con- ducted to understand the characteristics, significance, causes, and effects of UHI and to document the intensity of the phenomenon worldwide (Arnfield, 2003; Mirzaei & Haghighat, 2012; Oke, 1982). In many cities, the intensity of heat island effect exceeds 10 K, depending on the urban properties and the local climatic condi- tions (Oke, 1973), and its temporal and regional variabilities are observed worldwide (Giannopoulou et al., 2011). The behavior of diurnal and nocturnal heat island effects differs through one spe- cific hour of the day as it is influenced by all contributing heat fluxes, including radiation, sensible, latent, anthropogenic, advection, and storage (Mirzaei et al., 2012). Increased urban air temperature has

serious effects on the energy consumption of a building for cooling purposes (Mirzaei & Haghighat, 2010), intensifying the pollutant concentrations and reducing the thermal comfort of city inhabi- tants (Akbari, 2009). Factors generating UHI are speculated to be the mutual response of more than 11 man-made and natural fac- tors (Memon, Leung, & Liu, 2010). Che-Ani et al. (2009) summarized the factors generating and defining the intensity of heat island into two broad categories. The first category is the meteorological fac- tors, such as air temperature, wind speed and direction, level of humidity, and cloud cover. The second category is the urban design parameters, such as density of urban areas, percentage of built-up ratios, aspect ratio of urban canyons, sky view factor (SVF), building construction materials, and urban form. Despite the significant effects of urban design on urban climate, several authors have indicated the lack of climatic considerations during the planning process (Eliasson, 2000; Oke, 1984). The failure to incorporate the results of climatic research into the urban design literature is attributed to the lack of interdisciplinary work and constraints to transfer this knowledge into urban planning prac- tices (Kleerekoper, van Esch, & Salcedo, 2012). Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of rapid development on air temper- ature variation and to address the significant effect of design and planning parameters on the microclimate of the cities. Many factors determine the intra-urban air temperature differ- ence in relevant literature. Aspect ratio is a determining factor of canyon geometry. It is defined as the ratio of H/W, where H is the average height of the canyon walls and W is the canyon width. Nighttime air temperature is directly related to the aspect ratio; high H/W indicates high nighttime air temperature (Oke, Johnson, Steyn, & Watson, 1991). The temperature pattern is reversed during daytime. Several experimental studies support this fact. In hot- humid summer days of Dhaka, Bangladesh, Ahmed, 2003) found that maximum temperature decreases with increasing H/W ratio. In a similar study on hot-humid climate of Colombo, Sri Lanka, (Emmanuel & Johansson, 2006) found 7 K temperature difference between the sites with different aspect ratios. Less radiative losses and less penetration of the undisturbed wind usually occur in deep canyons (Nichol & Wong, 2005; Nunez, 1974), causing a high night- time air temperature. Sky view factor (SVF is the other important parameter to charac- terize the geometry, density, and thermal balance of urban areas. It is also a significant element in generating and controlling the heat island effect (Oke et al., 1991; Unger, 1996). This parameter is a dimensionless number between zero and unity. SVF at any point in urban areas is less than unity because of the obstacles in the urban sky vault. Studies carried out on the effect of SVF on the thermal condition of urban canyons have shown that cooler daytime air temperature (cool island) (Erell & Williamson, 2007; Hart & Sailor, 2009) and higher nighttime air temperature (heat island) (Johnson, 1985; Svensson, 2004; Unger, 2004) are usually correlated with lower SVFs because less incoming solar radiation would penetrate into urban canyons with low SVF during daytime. During the night, low SVFs limit the long-wave radiation loss and turbulent heat transfer and thus lead to high nighttime air temper- ature. Outgoing long-wave radiation is trapped in urban canyons and decelerates the cooling rate of urban surface because of the low SVF values (Givoni, 1998). A study in Beijing, China shows that a direct relationship exists between daytime air temperature and SVF in urban areas; this relationship indicates that daytime air temperature increases by increasing SVF, whereas the night- time temperature regime is reversed (Yan et al., 2014). The authors concluded that the effect of SVF on thermal condition is context dependent. Built-up ratio also influences the intra-urban air temperature difference. The built-up characteristics of the city play a signifi- cant role in UHI development (Chang & Goh, 1999; Eliasson, 1996;

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Park, 1986; Vez, Rodríguez, & Jiménez, 2000). Rapid alteration in air temperature generated by the urban landscape (built/unbuilt) influences the comfort and health of city inhabitants and affects energy consumption and air quality. Thus, understanding the causes of air temperature variation in different areas with different built-up ratios both during extreme condition and normal average day is essential for urban planning. In UHI investigation, infor- mation on the spatial distribution of the built-up areas is vital; it determines the spatial development of air temperature across the different parts of the city (Bottyan & Unger, 2003; Unger, Bottyan, Sümeghy, & Gulyas, 2000). In some studies, built-up ratio has been explained as the amount of artificial surface cover. These studies applied SPOT XS TM imagery to investigate the land-use parameter in all cells in the study area (Mucsi, 1996; Unger, Sümeghy, Gulyás, Bottyán, & Mucsi, 2001). Other studies used LANDSAT TM imagery and developed a geographical information system database based on vector. Several observational and simulation techniques are used in investigating UHI effect. Modeling all the physical factors to develop UHI is difficult because of the complexity of urban details, variety of building construction materials, considerable level of artificial heat production via anthropogenic heat, theoretical weak- ness, and high cost of computation. Despite these difficulties, several models were developed to study small-scale climatic varia- tions within the urban areas. These models are based on energy balance (Myrup, McGinn, & Flocchini, 1993; Oke et al., 1991; Ruffieux, 1995; Tapper, Tyson, Owens, & Hastie, 1981), radiation (Voogt & Oke, 1991), heat storage (Grimmond, Cleugh, & Oke, 1991), water balance (Grimmond & Oke, 1991), and surface sen- sible heat flux (Voogt & Grimmond, 2000) approaches. Statistical models also provide extensive quantitative information on spatial features of UHI intensity by using different urban surface parame- ters (Matzarakis, Beckröge, & Mayer, 1998; Outcalt, 1972). (Mirzaei & Haghighat, 2010)) categorized the simulation approaches into energy balance model, computational fluid dynamics, and meso- and micro-scale models. They concluded that modeling approach has certain limitations in providing high resolution, continuous, and real-time boundary conditions. Some investigations used field measurement data to validate their mathematical models or boundary condition settings in sim- ulation schemes (Tominaga et al., 2008). Oke and Nunez measured radiation fluxes, wind speed, and temperature, which were then used in the urban canopy model. Field measurement approach, which is based on the comparison of the near-surface tempera- ture pattern between urban and rural areas (Arnfield, 2003), was first studied by Howard in 1818 in London. Since then, measure- ment devices were developed, and the possibility of investigating on different parameters on the formation and development of UHI was provided. Despite the wide application of field measurement in UHI studies, this method has several shortcomings. For instance, installation of measurement devices around the city is neither economical nor temporally viable. Moreover, a limited number of stationary or mobile traverses can be used, which in turn will lead to a reduced number of simultaneous measured parameters. Addi- tionaly, including all the 3D spatial distributions of the elements in urban canyons is not possible by using a field measurement approach; therefore, approximations are usually used to esti- mate these elements for inaccessible points (Mirzaei & Haghighat,

2010).

3. Methodology

Malacca city is the capital of Malacca state and is located in the south-west part of Peninsula Malaysia (2.29 C N 102.30 E). The city lies approximately 147 km from Kuala Lumpur, facing the Straits of

Malacca on the west. Fig. 1 illustrates the location of Malacca state in Peninsular Malaysia. Malacca is the third smallest state in Peninsular Malaysia but has the second highest population density. In 1975, only one quarter of the state population (457, 300) lived in urban areas, but more than 821,110 people live in urban areas nowadays (El-Shakhs, 1972). The central city, which consists of two different urban environments (heritage and contemporary urban areas), is the center of all major activities within the region. Malacca has hot and humid climate. It has a uniform air tem- perature during the year with an average maximum of 27.5 C, average minimum of 25 C, and average humidity of 62.6%. Sunrise in Malacca starts at about 7:00 am and sunset at 7:00 pm, receiv- ing approximately 12 h of sunshine throughout the year. Cloud cover blocks a substantial amount of sunshine and thus solar radi- ation because of intermediate sky conditions. On average, Malacca receives approximately 6 h of sunshine and 4.39 kW h/m 2 of solar radiations per day. Winds are generally light and variable with speeds averaging around 0 m/s to 7.5 m/s. Malaysia has two domi- nant seasons. The first season is the southwest monsoon, which is usually established in the later half of May or early June and ends in September. The prevailing wind flow is generally southwest with 3 m/s to 7 m/s speed. The second season is the northeast monsoon, which usually commences in early November and ends in March. During this season, northeasterly winds with 7 m/s to 10 m/s speed prevail. Given that thermal discomfort and heat waves accentu- ate with low wind speeds, this study was conducted in July 2011 to consider the lowest values of wind speeds, which result in the worst case thermal scenario in the tropics. The heritage site and contemporary urban area were selected as the study areas to understand the effect of built-up ratio on air temperature distribution and heat island intensity in Malacca town. Morphological studies in the heritage site indicate that old shop houses are integral parts of the built environment in Malacca’s urban design. Shop houses are usually 6 m to 7 m wide and 30 m deep. Plans of the old shop houses are basically divided into sev- eral segments including a courtyard. The number of courtyards is related to the length of the shop houses, whereby as the length is longer, more courtyards are available. The area chosen for this case study is partly located in the heritage site and partly in the contemporary urban area. Fig. 2 illus- trates the boundary of the conservation area, which has been listed as a UNESCO world heritage site and defined by the Historic Malacca City Council as the “core zone.” This area includes part of the settle- ment quarters, commercial area, and civic zone. The heritage core zone is compact in form. The height of shop houses is less than two to three storeys, and street spaces are partially shaded during the day. Clay tile and laterite are mainly the construction materi- als used in the shop houses for the roofs and walls, respectively. Pavements are mainly built using asphalt, concrete, and tile. Only few spaces are dedicated to natural landscapes and greenery. Fig. 3 shows a typical urban environment in the heritage site. The other part of the study area is located in contemporary urban environment, which is the new developed urban area. The development of Malacca has been toward the southern part, where buildings, streets, and squares have been built according to the planning regulations of Portugal. Fig. 4 shows that the newly con- structed urban area is somehow different from the townscape of traditional shop houses in the heritage site. This part of the city, which is dispersed in form, is located in the southern part of the heritage core zone. In contrast to the homogeneous shop houses in the heritage core zone, the contemporary urban environment is composed of buildings with various heights and constructed with diverse materials. Air temperature and relative humidity were monitored through fixed station and mobile traverse measurements on 10 July 2011.

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E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 283 Fig. 1. Location

Fig. 1. Location of Malacca state in Malaysia.

TR-72U HOBBO data loggers were used to record air temperature and relative humidity at 2 m above the ground in 10 different loca- tions. One station was installed in a rural reference point, four stations were located in the heritage site, and five stations were fixed in the contemporary urban area. Fig. 5 shows the location of the rural area with regard to the central city (heritage site and con- temporary urban area). The rural reference fixed station is located within 20 km from the heritage site. The data logger in the rural reference point was placed on the exterior of a museum (Fig. 6). The fixed stations in the city area were located in 10 sites 600 m apart from each other, starting in the heritage site and ending in

the contemporary urban area. The fixed stations were located at the center of the distance that the vehicle moves in 1 min during the mobile traverse. Fig. 7 depicts the route for mobile traverse, loca- tions of fixed stations, and the spatial distribution of land use in the study area. Mobile traverses were conducted three times during the day and three times during the night. Table 1 lists the starting time and duration of each traverse during day and night. A vehicle equipped with cylindrical observation tubes was used to conduct the mobile survey. The observation tube was 30 cm in length and 7.5 cm in diameter. The data logger used for the mobile traverse was protected against the sun and precipitation with a cylindrical PVC

E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 283 Fig. 1. Location

Fig. 2. Core and buffer zones in the historic city of Malacca.

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284 E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 Fig. 3. Typical

Fig. 3. Typical urban environment in the heritage site.

284 E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 Fig. 3. Typical

Fig. 4. Typical urban environment in the contemporary urban area.

tube. Data logger was installed on the upper section of PVC tube and there was a slight gap between the tube and the vehicle, to avoid the thermal effect of the vehicle on the recorded air temperature by the data logger. Additionally, inside the PVC tube was covered with an insulator material which means that, the surface temperature of the car, did not have any effect on the recorded air temperature and

the device was only measurd the air temperature. Fig. 8 depicts the data logger installed on the roof of a vehicle. The Hobo data logger, which automatically records ambient temperature and humidity, was fixed at the center of the tube and measured the air tempera- ture and humidity at 1 min interval. The openings of the tube were not facing the moving direction to avoid the strong wind that may

284 E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 Fig. 3. Typical

Fig. 5. Locations of rural, with regard to the central city (heritage site and contemporary urban area).

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285

E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 285 Fig. 6. Hobo

Fig. 6. Hobo data logger installed on the exterior of a museum in the rural area.

Fig. 7. Land use map Fixed station Mobile traverse route.
Fig. 7. Land use map
Fixed station
Mobile traverse route.
E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 285 Fig. 6. Hobo

Fig. 8. Hobo data logger in a cylindrical insulated PVC tube on the roof of a vehicle.

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Table 1

Duration of day time and nighttime mobile traverse on 10 July 2011.

Time

Traverse no

Duration of traverse

Day time traverses

Traverse 1

8:00 am–8:10 am

Traverse 2

11:30 am–11:40 am

Traverse 3

15:00 pm–15:10 pm

Nighttime traverses

Traverse 4

20:20 pm–20.30 pm

Traverse 5

00:20 am–00.30 am

Traverse 6

3:00 am–3:10 am

interfere with the readings during the traverse period. The vehicle was driven along the heritage site and contemporary urban area at a speed of approximately 40 km/h. The path for the mobile traverse were divided into nine sections to understand the relationship between built-up ratio and air tem-

perature variation. The nine sections were (a), (b), (c), and (d), which were situated in the heritage site, and (e), (f), (j), (h), and (i), which were located in the contemporary urban area. Table 2 shows differ- ent sections in the path for mobile traverse. The table aslo indicates the location of fixed stations on the route and lists the detailed char- acteristics of the surrounding area of each fixed station, as well as H/W ratio at each fixed station. Aspect ratio was calculated at each fixed station for heritage and contemporary urban areas. The H/W ratio in the heritage area varied from 1 to 1.5, whereas the H/W ratio in the contemporary urban area varied from 0.7 to 0.9. In this study, built-up ratio refers to the percentage of the con- structed building to the entire area or the area of the building

footprint to the total plot area. The route of mobile traverse was divided into 25 m × 25 m cells, and the percentage of built-up area was calculated for each cell. The preferred size for the grids was 25 m because this size was the closest value to the maximum build- ing within the entire study area. Few studies used this method to understand the relationship between the built-up areas and spa- tial development of the mean maximum UHI effect and diurnal air temperature (Bottyán, Kircsi, Szegedi, & Unger, 2005; Svensson & Eliasson, 2002). GIS software, Google Earth images, and digital maps were used to calculate the built-up ratio. After calculating the percentage of the buildings in each cell, the cells were categorized into 0–25%, 25–50%, 50–75%, and 75–100%. Fig. 9 illustrates four different cell types in (a) reference rural area, (b) different sections in heritage site, and (c) different sections in contemporary urban area. the percentage of built-up ratio in different sections are presented in Table 2. The overall given percentage was from 100, and the remaining percentage in each section referred to the vacant land with soil, as well as vegetation. Each cell type was counted for each section to identify the percentage of built-up area in each section.

  • 4. Results and discussions

The first part of this section presents the findings on the effect of built-up ratio on daytime and nighttime temperature variations. The second part investigates the intensity of heat island effect in relation to the built-up ratio in each section of the heritage and

286 E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 Table 1 Duration

Fig. 9. Study area was divided into 25 m × 25 m grid networks in (a) rural, (b) heritage, and (c) contemporary urban areas (scale: 1/10 mm).

E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292

Table 2

Characteristics of different sections in mobile traverse and details of fixed stations.

287

E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 Table 2 Characteristics of
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288 E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 Fig. 10. Daytime

Fig. 10. Daytime air temperature distribution in the heritage site and contemporary urban center.

contemporary urban areas. The intensity of heat island effect was calculated by comparing the air temperature difference between the urban area (heritage and new city center) and a selected rural reference point located at the museum, which is situated within 20 km away from the city center.

  • 4.1. Daytime and nighttime air temperature distribution in

relation to the built-up ratio

Fig. 10 depicts the spatial distribution of daytime air tem- perature that has been monitored from the mobile and fixed measurements at the rural reference point, heritage site, and con- temporary urban area. The distribution of air temperature is shown with regard to the percentage of built-up area in each section of the study area. The spatial distribution of built-up ratio in the study areas and the percentage of built-up ratio in each section indicated that the heritage site had a higher percentage of built-up areas. Therefore, the heritage site was considered a denser urban environment than the contemporary urban environment. Table 3 shows that the num- ber of black (75–100% built) and blue (50–75% built) color cells was higher in the heritage site than in the contemporary urban area. This result indicates that the vehicle passed through the most dense section during the first minute of the mobile traverse as almost 52 cells in section (a) were in black color, showing that 96% of the total area was occupied by buildings. However, the minimum value of

Table 3

Number of black, pink, green, and blue cells in each section in the route.

the built-up ratio was observed in section (f), which was located in the contemporary urban area, as 63 cells were in green color, show- ing that only 20% of this section has been built. Table 3 also shows the lowest percentages of built-up area in the sections situated in the contemporary urban areas [(e), (f), (j), (h), and (i)] with more cells in green (0–25% built) and less cells in black (75–100% built) and blue (50–75% built). Field measurements in the study areas also revealed that the recorded aspect ratio (H/W) in the heritage site was higher than that in the contemporary urban area. The daytime and nighttime air temperatures were monitored across different sections of the mobile traverse to understand the relationship between air temperature variation in relation to the built-up percentage in each section. Monitoring started in the her- itage site and ended in the contemporary urban area. Figs. 10 and 11 show the variation of air temperature measured both by fixed and mobile traverses during daytime and nighttime, respectively. Figs. 10 and 11 demonstrate the temperature regime in the city area. The city area had lower cooling rate than the surrounding rural area (heritage and contemporary urban areas), but slightly different than that in the suburb rural area. During daytime, the rural reference point showed higher values of air temperature, with a maximum of 38.9 C at 3:00 pm traverse, whereas urban areas were warmer than the rural reference point at nighttime. Daytime air temperature was high in the rural area because of the vast open area around the fixed station. By contrast, the shade from the build- ings in the heritage and contemporary urban areas resulted in low

Study area

Section

0–25%

25–50%

50–75%

75–100%

Overall

 
Percentage of built up area (%)
Percentage of built up area (%)
Percentage of built up area (%)
Percentage of built up area (%)

Percentage of built up area (%)

Heritage site

(a)

0

2

19

52

96

(b)

20

18

18

7

45

(c)

7

10

23

29

75

(d)

46

21

11

6

43

Contemporary urban area

(e)

53

15

18

12

41

(f)

63

9

0

1

20

(g)

46

19

11

8

41

(h)

22

14

20

4

39

(i)

28

23

13

1

38

Rural area

60

0

0

0

15

E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292

289

E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 289 Fig. 11. Nighttime

Fig. 11. Nighttime air temperature distribution in heritage site and contemporary urban center.

daytime air temperature. The findings of these graphs on urban–rural temperature difference supported the results of pre-

vious studies (Giannopoulou et al., 2011). For instance, in a similar climatic condition of a newly planned city in Putrajaya, Malaysia, the daytime air temperature was lower than that in the rural area because of the shade from the buildings, while rural area was com- pletely exposed to the sun. At nighttime, the absorbed heat in urban surfaces will be gradually released to the atmosphere and causes a heat island effect. In addition to the effect of H/W ratio in providing shade in urban areas, the effect of high built-up ratio in cities was another param- eter to explain the warm nights in cities. Low built-up ratios in the rural areas were associated with high daytime and low nighttime air temperatures. Table 3 shows that only 15% of the selected rural area had buildings. By contrast, more than 30% of the total sections in the city (heritage and contemporary urban areas) were occupied by buildings. The percentage of built-up areas in the heritage (96, 45, 75, 43) and contemporary urban areas (41, 20, 41, 39, 38) was significantly higher than that in the rural area (Table 3). In regards to the cooling rate, Fig. 11 shows that after mid- night, the cooling rates in the rural locations were slightly lower than those in the city. The lowest air temperature in the rural area was recorded at 3:00 am traverse at 24.7 C. The graphs indicate that rural areas cooled rapidly around sunset, and the cooling rate decreased the rest of the night. This finding supports those of sev- eral studies conducted on the difference in cooling rate between urban and rural areas (Chow & Roth, 2006; Erell & Williamson,

2007).

The minimum values of daytime air temperature were recorded at 8 am traverse, whereas traverses conducted at 12:00 noon and 3:00 pm significantly monitored higher air temperatures compared with the morning traverse. Regarding the relationship between built-up ratio and air temperature variation, section (a) with the highest percentage of built-up area (96%) showed the highest air temperature (37.4 C) at 3:00 pm traverse, whereas the lowest day- time air temperature (28.4 C) in the same section was monitored at 8:00 am. During 8:00 am and 12:00 noon traverses, air temper- ature increased from 28.4 C to 29.7 C and from 36.3 C to 37.4 C, respectively, by moving from higher built-up ratios to lower built- up ratios. However, at 3:00 pm traverse, which is close to sunset, the air temperature decreased from 37.5 C to 35.9 C from high built- up ratio to low built-up ratio. According to Fig. 10 and Table 3, the heritage site had high percentage of built-up ratio, and contempo- rary urban environment indicated low percentage of the built-up

area. The first 4 min of the traverses occured in the heritage site and the rest occurred in contemporary urban area. In regards to the air temperature, the heritage site was cooler than the contempo- rary urban area during most hours of the day because of the shade from the buildings caused by high aspect ratios in the heritage site. Table 2 shows that the aspect ratios in sections (a), (b), (c), and (d) were 1, 1.2, 1.5, and 1.3, respectively, which were less than the aspect ratios found in sections (e), (f), (g), (h), and (i) with aspect ratios of 0.7, 0.9, 0.8, 0.7, and 0.9. High built-up ratios in the heritage site were associated with warmer nights. Figs. 10 and 11 show a clear relationship between the built- up ratio in each section and the related daytime air temperature. By increasing the percentage of built-up area in each section, the daytime air temperature tended to decrease. The only exception occurred in the afternoon traverse, when the maximum air tem- perature in the heritage site was 1.6 C warmer than the minimum air temperature in the contemporary urban area. This result is attributed to the trapped heat in the deep canyons of the her- itage site during the day, resulting in more shades. For nighttime traverses, a direct relationship existed between the percentage of built-up areas and air temperature, implying that dense built-up areas indicated warmer air temperature. Fig. 10 shows section (a) with 96% built-up ratio, indicating the highest nighttime air tem- peratures were recorded at 20:00 pm (30.5 C), midnight (28.9 C), and 3:00 am traverses (26.9 C). Section (c) with 75% built-up area was the second warmest section during nighttime. The lowest nighttime air temperature was recorded in section (f) with 20% built-up area in the contemporary urban area. Therefore, the her- itage site (sections with higher built-up ratios) had warmer nights than the contemporary urban area (sections with lower built-up ratios). Figs. 10 and 11 also show that the highest values of night- time air temperatures were recorded at 7:00 pm traverse with an average temperature of 30 C. Midnight traverse with an average temperature of 28.4 C and 3:00 am traverse with an average tem- perature of 26.2 C indicated low values of air temperatures.

  • 4.2. Intensity of daytime and nighttime heat island effect in

relation to built-up ratio

The intensity of UHI is explained as the difference in the air tem- perature between the urban and rural areas and commonly used to evaluate the effect of city growth on the local microclimate (Oke, 1981). As discussed in the methodology, a rural reference point was located in the suburb of Malacca to quantify the air temperature

  • 290 E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292

290 E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 Fig. 12. Daytime

Fig. 12. Daytime UHI of heritage and contemporary urban areas with regard to built-up ratio.

290 E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 Fig. 12. Daytime

Fig. 13. Nighttime UHI of heritage and contemporary urban areas with regard to built-up ratio.

difference between the rural/heritage site and rural/contemporary urban area. The intensity of daytime and nighttime heat island effect was calculated and illustrated in Figs. 12 and 13. The existence of UHI in Malacca town was confirmed after con- ducting an extensive analysis on the recorded air temperature obtained from fixed stations and mobile traverses. Figs. 12 and 13 reveal that the values of UHI for daytime and nighttime mea- surements were negative and positive, respectively. This result indicates that the rural area was warmer during the day than the urban environment (both in heritage and contemporary urban areas). For daytime traverses, a maximum air temperature differ- ence of 1.4 C was detected in section (a) in the heritage site with 96% built-up area. The minimum air temperature difference was found in section (h) in the contemporary urban area with 39% built- up area. Daytime UHI regime in the study area showed that areas with high percentage of built-up area tended to have low air tem- perature values. In heritage site, this was found to bethe result of high built-up ratios, as well as other urban design characteristics, such as H/W ratio, local climatic condition of the study area, and effects of the site characteristics. Figs. 12 and 13 show that the heat island effect was more intense during nighttime in both study areas. The maximum nighttime heat island effect intensity was recorded in section (a) in the heritage site, by 2.6 C with 96% built-up area C. The lowest nighttime UHI was monitored in section (f) with the lowest percentage of built- up area. The graph also demonstrated that the recorded values of air temperature were lowest at 3:00 am traverse with an average

UHI of 1.5 C. The intensity of heat island effect reached its maxi- mum at 20:00 pm traverse with an average temperature of 2.1 C. A direct relationship between the built-up ratio in each section and the nighttime heat island effect intensity was also found. Fig. 13 illustrates that the high values of built-up ratios were associated with high nighttime heat island effect intensity.

5. Conclusion

This paper reports the results of an empirical study on air tem- perature variation and heat island intensity pattern in two different urban environments in Malacca, namely, heritage and contempo- rary urban areas. Measurements of day time and nighttime air temperatures were obtained by fixed station and mobile traverses in July 2011. The relationship between temperature variation and built-up areas was investigated. The heritage site with high percentage of built-up ratio showed low daytime temperature, whereas the contemporary urban area with low percentage of built-up area has cool nights. Lower daytime and higher nighttime air temperatures recorded in the heritage site compared with contemporary urban area exhibited a clear rela- tionship with the percentage of built-up area and aspect ratios. The deep canyon in the heritage site helped cool down the day- time air temperature by providing more shades. This study was limited to the effect of built-up ratio as a representative of urban development on air temperature variation throughout the city. The intra-urban air temperature difference may not be the sole effect

E. Jamei et al. / Sustainable Cities and Society 14 (2015) 280–292 291

of built-up ratio alone because other parameters influence air tem- perature variation in urban canyons, such as vegetation coverage and albedo of the surfaces. In addition, the air temperature at any given point was strongly affected by the local climatic conditions and its immediate surrounding environment. This study confirmed the existence of heat island effect inten- sity in Malacca by quantifying the temperature difference between a rural reference and urban areas. Therefore, this paper highlighted the necessity of appropriate level of environmental consideration in future urban planning strategies and city developments, which in turn will greatly influence the physical and cultural values of the UNESCO world heritage site. Warmer air temperature will adversely affect the social life of different communities who live or work in traditional urban sites by changing the way people live, work, worship, and socialize. Finally, the relationship between heat island effect intensity and built-up ratio in selected areas enhances the need to further apply urban climate knowledge in planning and design practices. This finding is more important in the context of heritage sites, in which increased urban air temperature may result in uncomfortable ther- mal condition, less number of visitors, and irreplacable negative effecs on the economic circumstances of the city.

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