You are on page 1of 17

Fax and Modem over IP

(Including fax and modem relay and pass-through, and the T.38 fax standard)

Table of Contents
Overview............................................................................................................................. 3
Relay............................................................................................................................... 3
Pass-through.................................................................................................................... 3
T.38 Fax (Relay)............................................................................................................... 3
64K Clear Channel........................................................................................................... 4
Call Progress.................................................................................................................... 4
Supported Release Summary.............................................................................................. 5
Hardware............................................................................................................................ 5
Configuration...................................................................................................................... 6
Administration..................................................................................................................... 7
Mode Usage/Negotiation..................................................................................................... 8
Bandwidth......................................................................................................................... 10
DSP Utilization................................................................................................................... 10
Encryption......................................................................................................................... 12
Media Processor Capability................................................................................................ 12
Maintenance and IP Event/Error Information..................................................................... 13
Denied IP Events............................................................................................................ 13
Commands: Administration and Maintenance...................................................................15
Fax/Modem over IP (Relay and Pass-through).................................................................15
64K Clear Channel......................................................................................................... 15
Troubleshooting................................................................................................................. 15
List Trace Command...................................................................................................... 15
Known Issues.................................................................................................................... 15
T.38................................................................................................................................ 15
References........................................................................................................................ 16

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

Overview
Avaya communication Manager supports Teletypewriter device (TTY) tone relay over the
Internet, Faxes over corporate IP intranet using Avaya media servers, T.38 Fax over the Internet
to Avaya and non-Avaya systems*, and Modem tones over a corporate IP intranet using Avaya
communication servers. All transmissions except T.38 Fax can be encrypted using AEA (Avaya
Encryption Algorithm) and AES (Advanced Encryption Standard) encryption. [1]
Relay (Fax, Modem, and TTY), Pass-through (Fax, Modem, and TTY), and T.38 (fax) are the 3
supported modes of transmission over an IP corporate intranet or Internet. [1]
*To support an AT&T business relationship, T.38 interoperates with Cisco Gateways, as well as
Alcatel and Clarent Gatekeepers.[2:2] Work is being done to interoperate with IP Office. [4:25]

Relay
Cruiser or VoIP Firmware detects tones (fax and modem) and uses an appropriate modulation
protocol (v.XX) to reduce utilized/required network bandwidth and originate or receive a fax or
modem communication over IP. Relay mode allows for speeds up to 9600 bps. [1:5-7]
[For TTY, TTY characters are detected, and only a representation is transported to the receiving
end, then regenerated for appropriate delivery to the receiving endpoint]

Pass-through
Signals are transported between Cruiser and/or VoIP resources using G.711-like encoding. The
utilized bandwidth and required DSP resources are equivalent to a G.711 IP Voice call and
transport speeds are up to the equivalent of a circuit-switched call. Thus, more bandwidth is
required than when communicating using Relay mode, and less DSP resources are consumed
(see DSP Utilization section). Super G3 fax and v.34bis modem speeds are supported (33.6
kbps). [1:5-7]
Actual modem speeds depend on endpoint negotiation. V.90 and 92 modem speeds may be
supported when directly connected to an Internet Service Provider.

T.38 Fax (Relay)


Using the T.38 standard over IP trunks and utilizing H.323 signaling, fax communications occur
between Avaya and non-Avaya systems using the UDP protocol. Sending and receiving
systems announce support of the T.38 standard during the H.245 capabilities exchange (Avaya
systems, based on ip-codec-set form settings).
Fax communications between Avaya systems will take place using T.38 if the systems connect
using IP trunks and IP Codec settings specify the standard. If calls are between endpoints on
PNs registered to the same media server, calls will revert to Avaya (Proprietary) Fax Relay
mode. The transmission rate is also 9600 bps. [1:5-7]

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

64K Clear Channel


A continuation of development efforts to support government requirements for use of secure
telephones over converged networks has produced Communication Managers 3.0s support of
64kbps Clear Channel data calls over IP. While CM 2.2s Modem Relay, low bit-rate,
enhancement, allowed support of the government STU (Secure Telephone Unit), the latest
Clear Channel enhancement will allow use of Government Services STE (Secure Telephone
Equipment) BRI telephones for intra and inter-port networks communications between Avaya
servers controlled by Communication Manager 3.0 and later. Data calls that are traditionally
transmitted over analog emulated connections (audio bearer)are not supported by this feature,
specifically fax, modem, TTY, and DTMF transmission over IP, however, digital data calls to and
from DCP or BRI data modules are supported over H.323 IP facilities. When in clear channel
mode, conferencing, silence suppression, and echo cancellation are not supported.
STE devices need this feature in order to operate in a secure mode, during which they are able
to request a restricted or unrestricted data bearer service, which has not been supported over
CM IP interfaces whether IP trunks, h.248 gateways, or Port Network IP connections, up to this
point.
Does not support typically analog transmission functionality (fax, modem, TTY, or DTMF), nor
echo cancellation, silence supression, or conferencing.
2 or 4 digital signal processor cores per DSP, TN2302 and TN2602AP respectively, and one core
must handle a specific call.

Call Progress
All Fax, Modem, and TTY calls begin as audio calls. Communication Manager communicates
codec capabilities to the Cruiser or VoIP when routing an audio call over IP. Once a call is in
progress and tones indicate a Fax, Modem, or TTY call, the call encoding is changed to the
appropriate mode. Relay calls (specifically for TTY) will revert to normal IP audio transparently,
while Pass-through calls remain in that mode for the duration of the call.

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

Supported Release Summary


Feature
T.38 Fax Relay
Avaya Fax Relay
Avaya Fax Pass-through
Avaya Modem Pass-through

Communication Manager
Release
2.1.1 and later
1.3 and later
2.1.1 and later
2.1.1 and later

Avaya
Avaya
Avaya
Avaya

2.2 and later


2.0 and later
2.1.1 and later
2.1.1 and later

Modem Relay
TTY Relay US
TTY Relay UK
TTY Pass-through

Avaya 64K Clear Channel


[3: 2, 6] [2: 17]

3.0 and later

Rate
9.6 kbps
9.6 kbps
v.34bis (33.6 kbps)
v.34bis (33.6 kbps)
v.90 and v.92 (56 kbps)*
v.32 (9.6 kbps)
45.5 Baudot/bps
50 Baudot/bps
US 45.5 Baudot/bps
UK 50 Baudot/bps
64Kbps

*Limited configurations, which would have only one analog-to-digital conversion. [1:3]

Hardware
The following hardware will support Fax, Modem, and TTY Relay and/or Pass-through with
installed firmware corresponding to the appropriate release of Communication Manager.
Hardware

CM Release 3.0

CM Release 2.2

CM Release
2.1.1

TN2602AP
The TN2302AP

FW 3 or later
HW Vintage 11 or
later
FW 106 or later

N/A
HW Vintage 11
or later
FW Vintage 102

N/A
HW Vintage 11 or
later Firmware
Vintage 92

DAF1 (G700
Motherboard)
DAF1 VoIP
Engine
MM760

MGP Firmware
Vintage 24.17.0
FW 56

MGP Firmware
Vintage 23.17
FW Vintage 52

FW 56

FW Vintage 52

MGP Firmware
Vintage 22.16
Firmware Vintage
42
Firmware Vintage
42
MGP Firmware
Vintage 22.16

G350
MGP Firmware
motherboard
Vintage 24.17.0
[2:7] [5:10] [8: 80]

MGP Firmware
Vintage 23.17

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

CM 1.3
minimum
FW
Vinatage
N/A
HW3 FW34
(possibly
HW10 FW60;
2.0 may be
hw10, FW 72)
20.13
Firmware
Vintage 11
Firmware
Vintage 11
N/A

Configuration
The sending and receiving ends of both sides of a call should be the same. [1:8]
The sending and receiving ends of a call must be controlled by an Avaya server, except for T.38
fax calls.
Occasionally a call would succeed if the sending and receiving ends were using the G.711
codec. If the call originates from an Avaya system and terminates to a non-Avaya system, the
call may succeed with ideal network conditions and the G.711 codec was set on the
sending/originating Avaya server. With different options set at the sending and receiving ends
(for example, the sending side set to relay, and the receiving end set to pass-through or off),
the call may succeed if the G.711 codec was used. The same is true if a call is placed to
hardware or firmware vintages prior to what would support 2.1.1 features functionality, in
which calls may succeed if using the G.711 codec.
[2:10]
It is recommended that the receiving fax machine be set to answer after at least 2 rings so the
originating and receiving Cruiser(s) or VoIP(s) will detect the necessary tones (receiving: CED,
V.21: originating: CNG) and negotiate Fax transmission.
Calls must not undergo more than one companding (conversion from TDM-to-IP, and IP-to-TDM)
because of the additional latency and jitter introduced with multiple conversions. [2:15]
Hairpinning and Shuffling must be enabled for all IP Codecs used for intra and inter-networkregion IP call routing (Intra-region IP-IP Direct Audio, Inter-region IP-IP Direct Audio, and IP
Audio Hairpinning fields on the IP Network Region form). [2:16]
For Link Bounce/LSP/Connection Preservation for H.248 Gateways, Fax, Modem, and TTY Relay
or Pass-through calls are subject to the same conditions and treatment as voice IP calls.[2:25]
The IP-Codec assigned to network regions using Super G3 fax machines should not have Fax
Relay/Pass-through/T.38 and Modem Pass-through enabled on page 2 of the ip-codec-set form.
The fax machine would incorrectly attempt to use modem transmission instead of fax. [1:11]
Though not absolutely required for pass-through functionality to be successful, performance
and reliability is enhanced if the TDM buses of the originating and destination PNs/gateways
are synchronized to the same clock source (i.e. T1/ISDN trunks terminating to the same PSTN
vendor from each PN/gateway; point to point tie line(s) connecting the 2 PNs/gateways, etc.).

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

Administration
As of Communication Manager, Release 2.0, the IP-Codec-Set form has a second page (page
2) that allows the administrator to specify the method of transmitting Fax, Modem, and TTY
over IP.
The default settings for the various options are:
Option
Fax
Modem
TDD/TTY
Clear-channel

Mode
relay
off
US
n

Redundancy
0
0
3
0

As of Communication Manager, Release 1.3, Fax Relay was supported, though no additional
administration was required. TTY Relay, US, was supported as of Release 2.0, which also did
not require additional specific CM administration.

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

Mode Usage/Negotiation
The way data is transmitted, if at all, is dependent on the Mode specification of the IP-Codec
form administration at the near and far ends of a call. Usage of the Relay modes, Avaya
Proprietary and T.38, will vary based on near and far end administration, while Pass-through
must be used on both ends if a call is to complete successfully. [2:21]
Near End
IP-Codec Administration
T.38
T.38
Relay
Off
Off
Pass-through

Far End
IP-Codec Administration
Relay
T.38
T.38 or Relay
T.38, Relay, Pass-through
Off
Pass-through

Transmission Method Used

Relay (Proprietary)
T.38 Standard
Relay (Proprietary)
Call Fails
May fail*
Success (if bandwidth
available)
Clear Channel
Clear Channel
Success (if bandwidth
available)
* A call may succeed if the near and far end IP-Codec forms are administered to utilize the
G.711 codec.

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

Bandwidth
Packe
t Size
(in
Ms)

Bandwidth (in kbps)

g.711
TTY

Redundancy = 0
g.729
g.723
Relay:
TTY
TTY
Fax
Mode
m
T.38

10
110
20
87
30
79
40
76
50
73
60
72
*TTY bandwidth only
[1:8] [2:23] [8: 78]

54
31
23
20
17
16

22

22.9

14

16.3

1
Clear
Chann
el;
Passthroug
h:
Fax
Mode
m
TTY
110
87
79*
76*
73*
72*

Relay:
Fax
Mode
m
T.38

50

Clear
Chann
el;
Passthroug
h:
Fax
Mode
m
TTY
221
174
159*
151*
147*
143*

2
Relay:
Fax
Mode
m
T.38

3
Relay:
Fax
Mode
m
T.38

75

100

DSP Utilization
A DSP (Digital Signal Processor) has 2 Cores. Each Core has 16 capacity points, with each
capacity point able to handle 1 call using the g.711 codec. The TN2302AP V11 or later, DAF1
(G700 Motherboard), and MM760 have 2 DSPs (4 Cores, 64 Capacity points), with the G350
motherboard having 1 DSP (2 Cores, 32 Capacity Points), [2:7] and the TN2602AP having 4
DSPs (each having 4 Cores, or 16 total Cores) and up to 80 Capacity Points (channels) per DSP
(20 per core).
Each call must be handled by the same DSP Core. [2:7]
Encryption of an audio signal utilizes 33% more DSP capacity. [2:7]
Codec/Call Type
G.711
Pass-Through
Clear Channel

Capacity Points per


Call
1

G.729
G.723
Voice over IP
G.729A/AB
(280/80)*

G.726A* (200/80)

1 (low-density)
.625 (highdensity)#

Fax Relay^
Modem Relay
T.38

1 (low-density)
.875 (highdensity)#

Calls/DSP Core w/o


Encryption
16/DSP Core
(TN2302)
5/DSP Core (lowdensity TN2602AP)
20/DSP Core (highdensity TN2602AP)
8/DSP Core

Calls/DSP Core w/
AES encryption
12/DSP Core
(TN2302)
5/DSP Core (lowdensity TN2602AP)
20/DSP Core (highdensity TN2602AP)
6/DSP Core

5/DSP Core (lowdensity TN2602AP)


17.5/DSP Core
(high-density
TN2602AP)#
5/DSP Core (lowdensity TN2602AP)
12.5/DSP Core
(high-density
TN2602AP)#
4/DSP Core
5/DSP Core (lowdensity
TN2602AP)^
20/DSP Core (highdensity
TN2602AP)^

5/DSP Core (lowdensity TN2602AP)


18/DSP Core (highdensity
TN2602AP)#
5/DSP Core (lowdensity TN2602AP)
12.5/DSP Core
(high-density
TN2602AP)#
NA

[2:7]
*TN2602AP only
#estimate, not true calculated usage.
^only fax relay is supprted by the TN2602AP in 3.0

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

11

Encryption
Call Type
Clear Channel
Modem Pass-through
Modem Relay
Fax Pass-through
Fax Relay
TTY Pass-through
TTY Relay
T.38 Standard

AEA
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
Y
N

AES
Y
Y
N
Y
N
Y
Y
N

Transport
Clear 64kbps over RTP
RFC2198 over RTP
Proprietary
RFC2198 over RTP
Proprietary
RFC2198 over RTP
RFC2198 over RTP
T.38 UDPTL Redundancy

[1:18] [see 2:8 for additional details]


If an audio channel is encrypted, then all packets sent within that channel will be encrypted
(based on the limitations stated above).
Fax and Modem Relay calls using AEA encryption will continue using the same key information
sent at call setup when returning to audio mode. The encryption algorithm (AEA/AES) used at
call setup will be used for the entire duration of a Fax/Modem/TTY Pass-through and TTY Relay
call.

Media Processor Capability


Capability

with AEA
encryption or
no
encryption/or
AES encryption
Fax Relay
(Proprietary)
t.38 Fax/Modem
Relay
Fax/Modem Passthrough

TN2302AP
(HW3 and
lower)
channels
AEA/AES

TN2302AP
(HW11 and
later)
channels
AEA/AES

TN2602AP
(low-density)

TN2602AP
(high-density)

channels
AEA/AES

channels
AEA/AES

16/12

16/12

80/80

320/320

16/12

16/12

N/A

64 G.711
32 G.729

80/80
(future
release)
80

320/320
(future
release)
320

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

12

Maintenance and IP Event/Error Information


[2:23]
A denial event is logged when a call is attempted but is unsuccessful because of lack of
resources on the IP Interface, CAC notice of over-subscription in a region, or CAC denial
because of bandwidth limitations.
CAC and TN2302 Resource events are logged with the Avaya Communication Manager Server
(Gateway Controller), and H.248 Gateway VoIP resource events are logged with the Gateway.

Denied IP Events
[1:15]
The following table lists information that can be shown in a list trace report or when the
display events command is used to view all or denial events.
Event Type
2335

2336

2337

2338

2339

2340

2341

Event
Description
RejReqMode-no
common mode

Explanation

Deny inbound
RequestMode
no
compatible
modes received
in
request.
RejReqMode-no
Deny inbound
common mode
RequestMode
no
common profile.
RejReqMode-no
Deny inbound
modes rcvd
RequestMode
no
data modes
received in
request.
RejReqMode-not
Deny inbound
2
RequestMode
connectd
two
connected
parties needed
on the call.
RejReqMode-no
Deny inbound
common mode
RequestMode on
direct-IP
connection, no
common
profile.
T38Fail-no voip
T38 fail
resources
insufficient
capacity.
T38Fail-far end
T.38 fail
timeout
timeout waiting
for fax
channel to open.
Far-end detected
fax tone.
(Table continued on next

Event Data 1

Event Data 2

Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.

Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.

Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.

Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.

Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.

Far-end
port
identifier.
Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.
Call
identifier.

page)

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

13

Event Type
2342

Event
Description
T38Fail-near end
timeout

2343

ReqMode reject
received

2344

ReqMode reject
received

2345

ReqMode release
received

2346

ReqMode release
received

2347

Rej inc T38OLC


not seq'd

2348

Rej inc T38OLC


no common

2349

Rej inc T38OLC


no common

2350

Rej inc T38OLC


idle state

2351

Failed Xoip
Attempt

2352

Failed Fax Relay


Xoip

2353

Failed Modem
Relay Xoip

Explanation
T.38 fail
timeout waiting
for fax
channel to open.
Near-end
detected
fax tone.
RequestMode
Reject received
TDM/HP
connection.
RequestMode
Reject received
direct IP
connection.
RequestMode
Release received

TDM/HP
connection.
RequestMode
Release received

direct IP
connection.
Inbound T.38
OLC received out
of
sequence
dropping call.
Inbound T.38
OLC has
incompatible
mode dropping
call.
TDM/HP
connection.
Inbound T.38
OLC has
incompatible
mode dropping
call.
Direct IP
connection.
Unexpected T.38
OLC received
dropping call.
Unexpected fax,
modem, or tty
event.
Fax Relay failure.

Modem Relay
failure.

Event Data 1

Event Data 2

Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.

Far-end
port
identifier.

Reason for
rejection.

Far-end
port
identifier.

Reason for
rejection.

Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.

Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.

Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.

Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.

Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.

Far-end
port
identifier.
Far-end
port
identifier.
Far-end
port
identifier.
Far-end
port
identifier.

Call
identifier.

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

Call
identifier.
Call
identifier.
Call
identifier.

14

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

15

Commands: Administration and Maintenance


Fax/Modem over IP (Relay and Pass-through)
change ip-codec-set <number>
list trace {station | tac | data-module} {extension | tac}

64K Clear Channel


status trunk <number>
status data-module <extension>

Troubleshooting
The ability to fax and/or complete a call internal to the customer network should be confirmed
prior to completing calls over the PSTN. If this is not possible, an external calll should be
placed to a destination that is known to not undergo an additional transcoding (tdm-ip-tdm).
(The Highlands Ranch Tier III lab has a line that can connected directly to a fax machine or
modem)
If external/PSTN fax/modem calls are not completing though internal network calls do, or if
calls complete locally, but not to long distance/toll free destinations (or vice versa), attempt to
route the call(s) over alternate trunks (by alterring ARS/Route Pattern administration).

List Trace Command


list trace results should identify that the Media Processor is detecting appropriate tones and/or
transitioning to the appropriate mode to support the desired call (fax/modem).
If attempting a fax call make sure the trace does not indicate a modem tone (ans/ansam) and
shift into a modem mode (modem relay/modem pass-through), but that a fax done is detected
(cng/ced) and a fax mode is utilized by the Media Processor (fax relay/fax pass-through/T.38),
or vice versa.
Fax
[include example]
Modem
[include example]

Known Issues
T.38
T.38 did not function on CM 2.1.1 load 414.1. When the Media Processor would attempt to
change to T.38 mode, Communication Manager would not identify any available DSP resources.
Load 417 contained the fix

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

16

References
[1] Technical Summary
[2] RFS: Compas ID 95405
[3] Overview
[4] Kloberdans White Paper
[5] Hardware Compatibility Matrix
[6] Fax Failure Report (98086)
[7] Basic Fax Relay Troubleshooting Tips (98085)
[8] 2005-01 Launch Tech Transfer, Wednesday PM, slides 71 through 80
[http://info.dr.avaya.com/ces/Jan2005/techxfer.html]
[9] 2005-06 Launch Tech Transfer, Tuesday PM, slides 2 through 11
[http://info.dr.avaya.com/ces/Nov2004/techxfer_before.html]
[http://info.dr.avaya.com/ces/Nov2004/techxfer_after.html]

-Avaya Inc. ProprietaryUse Pursuant to Company Instructions

17