Content management system

A content management system (CMS) is a computer software system used to assist its users in the process of content management. A CMS facilitates the organization, control, and publication of a large body of documents and other content, such as images and multimedia resources. A CMS often facilitates the collaborative creation of documents. A web content management system is a content management system with additional features to ease the tasks required to publish web content to Web sites. Web Content management systems are often used for storing, controlling, versioning, and publishing industry-specific documentation such as news articles, operators' manuals, technical manuals, sales guides, and marketing brochures. A content management system may support the following features:
• • • • • •

Import and creation of documents and multimedia material Identification of all key users and their content management roles The ability to assign roles and responsibilities to different content categories or types. Definition of the content workflow tasks, often coupled with event messaging so that content managers are alerted to changes in content. The ability to track and manage multiple versions of a single instance of content. The ability to publish the content to a repository to support access to the content. Increasingly, the repository is an inherent part of the system, and incorporates enterprise search and retrieval. Some content management systems allow the textual aspect of content to be separated to some extent from formatting. For example the CMS may automatically set default colour, fonts, or layout.

Contents
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1 Web Content Management Systems 2 History 3 Operation 4 Terminology Meaning 5 Types of CMS 6 References 7 See also

8 External links

Web Content Management Systems
Main article: Web Content Management System

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A web content management system is a computer system used to manage and control a large, dynamic collection of web material (HTML documents and their associated images). A CMS facilitates document control, auditing, editing, and timeline management. A Web CMS provides the following key features:

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Automated Templating: Create standard visual templates that can be automatically applied to new and existing content, creating one central place to change that look across all content on a site. Easily Editable Content: Once your content is separate from the visual presentation of your site, it usually becomes much easier and quicker to edit and manipulate. Most CMS software include WYSIWYG editing tools allowing nontechnical individuals to create and edit content. Scalable Feature Sets: Most CMS have plug-ins or modules that can be easily installed to extend an existing site's functionality. Web Standards Upgrades: Active CMS solutions usually receive regular updates that include new feature sets and keep the system up to current web standards. Workflow management: Workflow is the process of creating cycles of sequential and parallel tasks that must be accomplished in the CMS. For example, a content creator submits a story but it's not published on the website until the copy editor cleans it up, and the editor-in-chief approves it. Document Management: CMS solutions always provide a means of managing the life cycle of a document from initial creation time, through revisions, publication, archive, and document destruction.

History
The term Content Management System was originally used for website publishing and management systems. Early content management systems were developed internally at organizations which were doing a lot of web publishing, such as on-line magazines, newspapers, and corporate newsletters. In 1995, CNET spun out its internal web document management and publication system into a separate company called Vignette, which opened up the market for commercial content management systems. As markets evolved, the scope of products promoted as content management systems greatly broadened, fragmenting the meaning of the term. Wiki systems and web-based groupware are often described as content management systems, in contrast to the original website publishing management system definition.

Operation
A web site content management system often runs on the website's server. Most systems provide controlled access for various ranks of users such as administrators, copy editors, senior editors, and content creators. Access is usually via a web browser program, possibly combined with some use of FTP for uploading content.

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Content creators submit their documents to the system. Copy Editors comment on, accept, or reject documents. Layout editors layout the site. The editor in chief is then responsible for publishing the work to the live site. The content management system controls and helps manage each step of this workflow, including the technical task of publishing the documents to one or more live web servers. The content and all other information related to the site is usually stored in a server-based relational database system. The content management system typically keeps a record of previous website editions and in-progress editions. The pages controlled and published through the content management system can then be seen by the visitors to the website. In larger organizations these server based documents need to communicate with desktop applications and Open Document Management APIs perform the necessary "translations". They have made substantial cost and time savings to document management overall, and assist in smooth flow of documents through enterprises, applications and processes.[1]

Terminology Meaning
The following terms are often used in relation to web content management systems but they may be neither standard nor universal:

Block - A block is a link to a section of the web site. Blocks can usually be specified to appear on all pages of the site (for example in a lefthand navigation panel) or only on the home page. Module - A content module is a section of the web site, for example a collection of news articles, an FAQ section, etc. Some content management systems may also have other special types of modules, for example administration and system modules. Theme - A theme specifies the cosmetic appearance of every page of the web site, controlling properties such as the colours and the fonts.

Types of CMS

Module-based CMS. Most tasks in a document's life-cycle are served by CMS modules. Common modules are document creation/editing, transforming and publishing. Document transformation language-based CMS. Another approach to CMS building with use of open standards. XSLT-based CMS compile ready documents from XML data and XSLT-template. XML Sapiens-based CMS compile a

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document from the stream of ‘pure’ data, design template and functionality templates.

Web-based CMS. Another approach to CMS building uses databases such as postgresql, mysql or mssql and scripting languages or tools such as coldfusion, php, jsp or asp to interact with the data to parse them into visual content. Data stored in a database is queried and compiled into html pages or other documents and transformed using cascading style sheets. These systems can include a number of other functions, such as discussion boards, bloggs, or email newsletters.

References
1. ^ ODMA advantages

See also
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Comparison of content management systems Digital asset management

External links
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Open Source CMS Report Open Source Content Management Systems: An Argumentative Approach. What Is CMS Content management at the Open Directory Project

Directories of available systems
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Open Source CMS Demo showcase for many content management systems. CMS Matrix Overview of (web) content management systems. CMS Watch Annotated lists of major enterprise and web content management systems. Contentmanager Detailed list of content management systems (attention, paying entries are featured, they're not featured because they are better!) Open Source Scripts Open Source Content Management Systems. PHPXref CMS page Library of cross referenced Open Source Content Management Systems written in PHP.

Open Document Management Application Program Interface
Definition: The Open Document Management Application Program Interface (ODMA) is an industry standard interface for document management that standardises

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communications between desktop applications and server-based document management systems. In modern day business there are very few processes that do not involve the transfer of data from one point to another, whether it is vital information such as a customer order or something as simple as a memo. If this data cannot be reach its destination the process cannot be successful. The problem, however, lies in the fact that even the smallest enterprises make use of several different applications, none of which speak quite the same language. Imagine an office staffed by exclusively English, French, Urdu and Japanese speaking staff and you’ll have some idea of the document management problems you can find within a typical enterprise. To ensure that vital business information can pass between applications, it is vital that there be some sort of common interface – a translation device that can allow applications to understand each other’s data formats and successfully access their documents. The Open Document Management API is such an interface. History of ODMA Before ODMA was accepted as an industry standard there were enormous difficulties associated with the integration of applications and document management systems. Without a standard API, DMS vendors were required to write separate integration code for each of the client applications they supported. Conversely, applications that were not supported by DMS systems had to write their own integration code for each DMS. This mass of integration codes each came with their own bugs and reliability issues, limiting the flow of information within enterprises and causing a massive headache for software developers. To solve these problems, a group of vendors formed the ODMA Consortium in an effort to create a high-level industry wide standard that provided vendor-independent integration between the majority of desktop applications and DMS systems. The objectives of the ODMA were as follows: To integrate DMS systems and desktop applications seamlessly so that DMS services appeared to users as if they were part of the application.

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To reduce the burden on application vendors to provide support for multiple DMS systems. To reduce the burden on DMS vendors to provide support for applications. To the reduce the complexity and effort required to install and manage DMS systems. Applications of ODMA Use of ODMA in DMS systems and desktop applications has led to an ease of use in document management the never before existed. * Application Integration The largest benefit of ODMA is the increased flexibility of enterprise document management. Before a common standard existed, applications were required to be hardcoded into the DMS system, making system set-up a time consuming and costly process. The ODMA standard allowed enterprises to quickly connect many different applications into a DMS system with little hassle. This offered both the flexibility to rapidly upgrade and modify IT infrastructure and the ability to quickly transfer data between disparate applications. * Platform Independent Display In addition to this, the ODMA standard allows integration within the documents themselves. ODMA enables DMS systems and applications can easily manage a document written in Microsoft Word that contains an Excel spreadsheet and a number of images within a single document. Before ODMA this capability would have required hard coding for MS Word, Excel and an image display application, which would have made the management of the document far too complex to be worthwhile. * Platform Independent Editing Even more impressive is the fact that ODMA-enabled applications can not only access documents created in third party applications, but they can also modify them. For example, Microsoft Word can access and modify documents saved in MS-DOS text, Rich Text, Unicode, WordPerfect and HTML, among others. Once the editing is complete it is possible to save the document in either its original format or in any other supported format. In a Nutshell The ODMA standard interface offers benefits on two fronts. Initially, the interface allows enterprises to create and manage document management systems and the IT infrastructure

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in general at lower costs and using fewer man-hours. Additionally, the interface continues to save time and money by smoothing the flow of documents throughout the enterprise, allowing users to access data without the need to switch between applications. ODMA was among the first attempts to integrate applications, and it paved the way for a number of other open standards that have further revolutionised document management, such as WebDAV.

List of content management systems
This is a list of notable content management systems that are used to organize and facilitate collaborative content creation. Many of them are built on top of separate content management frameworks.

Contents
• • • • •

1 Free and open source software 2 Commercial Low Cost (< $5,000) 3 Commercial Medium ($5,000 - $15,000) 4 Commercial Expensive (> $15,000) 5 See also

6 External links

Free and open source software
Name Aegir Alfresco Apache Lenya Ariadne b2evolution BBlog Blockstar BLOG:CMS blosxom Caravel CMS Chlorine Boards Platform Midgard add-on Java Java, XML, Apache Cocoon PHP PHP + Smarty Java PHP Perl PHP PHP Latest Supported databases stable release 1.0.3 MySQL, Oracle, SQL Server, PostgreSQL 1.4 1.2.4 Oracle, PostgreSQL MySQL MySQL MySQL 2.0 OpenLDAP and PostgreSQL MySQL/MSSQL/Postgresql/DB2/Microsoft 0.6.5 7 1.8.2 0.7.6

CivicSpace CMScout CMSimple CMS Made Simple Community Server Daisy Dokuwiki DotNetNuke Dragonfly CMS Drupal e107 eGroupWare Epiware Etomite CMS ExpressionEngine eZ publish Fedora FlexCMS Geeklog Hello! CMS Jahia jAPS - java Agile Portal System Joomla! KnowledgeTree Document Management System Krang CMS Lyceum Magnolia Mambo MediaWiki Midgard CMS MKPortal

PHP PHP PHP PHP ASP.NET Java, XML, Apache Cocoon PHP VB.NET PHP PHP PHP PHP PHP PHP PHP PHP Java ASP.NET PHP PHP Java Java, XML on Windows or Linux PHP PHP Perl on mod_perl PHP Java PHP PHP PHP (Midgard framework) PHP

Access MySQL MySQL MySQL/Postgresql SQL Server MySQL Flat-file database Microsoft SQL Server MySQL MySQL/PostgreSQL MySQL ADOdb MySQL MySQL MySQL MySQL/Postgresql/Oracle MySQL or Oracle SQL Server MySQL Flat-file database HyperSonic SQL/MySQL/PostgreSQL/Oracle/SQL Server HyperSonic SQL, PostgreSQL MySQL MySQL MySQL MySQL Content repository API for Java (JSR-170) MySQL MySQL MySQL MySQL

0.8.3 1.23 1.0.3 2.1 SP1 1.5 2006-1106 4.4.0 9.6.1 5.0 0.7.7 4.5 0.6.1.3 1.5.2 3.8.0 1.0 1.4.0 0.0.7 5.0

1.0.12 3.3.1 2.008 3.0 4.6.1 1.8.2

1.1

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MMBase MODx NitroTech Nucleus CMS Nuke-Evolution Nuxeo CPS OpenACS OpenCms OpenPHPNuke phpCMS PHP-Fusion phpns PHP-Nuke PHPSlash phpWCMS phpWebSite PhpWiki Pivot Plone PmWiki PostNuke PuzzleApps Scoop Slash SpotlightPHP Textpattern TikiWiki TWiki Typo TYPO3

Java PHP PHP PHP PHP Zope TCL AOLserver Java PHP PHP PHP PHP PHP PHP PHP PHP PHP PHP Zope, Python PHP PHP PHP, XML, XSLT Perl on mod_perl Perl on mod_perl PHP PHP PHP Perl Ruby on Rails PHP

MySQL MySQL MySQL MySQL ZODB PostgreSQL/Oracle MySQL, Oracle MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite Flat-file database MySQL MySQL

0.9.5 0.0.1 3.23 2.0.2 3.4.3 5.1.5 6.2.1 2.4.3 1.2.1pl2 6.01.3 1.0 Beta 8.0

MySQL MySQL MySQL MySQL or PostgreSQL Flat-file database/MySQL/PostgreSQL etc. Flat-file database ZODB, MySQL & PostgreSQL via Zope Flat-file database MySQL MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite, MSSQL MySQL MySQL Flat-file database MySQL ADOdb Perl DBI compatible MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle MySQL, DB2, PostgreSQL, MSSQL, UNITED-NUKE PHP SQLite WebGUI Perl on mod_perl MySQL WordPress PHP MySQL MySQL, PostgreSQL, SQLite using PHP with Xaraya ADOdb and Microsoft SQL Server with XHTML/XML/XSLT Creole XOOPS PHP MySQL Zentri PHP MySQL, PostgreSQL, Oracle, MSSQL

1.30 2.5.1 .764 2.2 1.1.8 1.0 4.0.3 4.0.4 4.0.4 4.2.07ms2 2.0.6 1.1.2 2.2 2.1.0

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Commercial Low Cost (< $5,000)
Name Accrisoft Freedom Changer PHP Perl / AJAX Platform Supported databases MySQL MySQL MS SQL2000 MS SQL Latest stable release 5.7 4.0 1.7 3.9 1.43 1.7 4.4 3.0.129 Price in USD $50 / month $45 / month $4,500 $199 $1,000 $1,600 $500 Online Demo Yes Yes Yes Download Yes No Yes Yes

Conquest ASP.NET (CMS) eDIY ASP.NET Software Ekklesia 360 PHP eRedaktør ASP.NET

MySQL MS SQL2000 MySQL or MS Lisk CMS PHP SQL server or Oracle XML, XML Sapiens, MySQL, Oracle, Site Sapiens PHP/AOP, SOA/SOAP, MS-SQL, RIA/AJAX FireBird

Commercial Medium ($5,000 - $15,000)
Name Colony Platform Supported databases Latest stable release 3.0 1.5 5.6 content repository API for Java (JSR-170), DB2, Oracle, MySQL, 3.0 BerkleyDB, Derby, MSSQL, PostgreSQL etc. PHP MySQL MySQL 10k USD/yr and server (includes unlimited operating support and Yes updates) 50% academic discount available. Price in USD Online Demo

G3 cms Jalios JCMS Starter Java Edition

XML, SQL2K XSLT, ASP Coldfusion SQL2K

Magnolia

Java

Monk CMS ocPortal Quantum Art Simplicis Subdreamer

ASP PHP ASP, ASP.NET, C# JSP Any SQL-92 PHP MySQL

Yes 3.0.2 v2.4 $5,999/year $49.95/$99.95 Yes Yes 10

MacOS and 4th Dimension Windows MySQL, WORKSsitebuilder PHP PostgreSQL, Oracle, MSSQL WebImpetus

3.2.2

Commercial Expensive (> $15,000)
Name Activesite CoreMedia CMS Java Oracle, IBM DB2, Microsoft SQL Server Oracle, Microsoft SQL Server, IBM DB2, Sybase, MySQL Oracle, MS-SQL SQL CoreMedia CMS 2006 Content Server 6.3 ICS4 2.0x 5.6 price per named Yes users price per CPU or Yes per named users Yes No No Platform Supported databases Latest stable release Price in Online USD Demo

FatWire

Java

I-ON Content Server4 Java/J2EE Jadu PHP Jalios JCMS Java/J2EE Livelink ECM J2EE

Oracle Database or MS SQL 9.7 Server

Obtree WCM RedDot CMS Rhythmyx

JavaScript, Oracle Database Solaris, Linux or MS SQL 9.7 or Windows Server Windows XML, J2EE Oracle database or MS SQL Server SQL Server 7.1 6.0

Microsoft Sharepoint .NET Portal Server Socialtext Java, Stellent IDocScript, XML Traction TeamPage Vignette Content Management VYRE Java Java J2EE

Oracle, SQL Server, other Built-in

7.5 3.7 $5,000 and up

Oracle Database or MS SQL 7.3.1 Server All supported by 4.2.1

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WORKSsitebuilder

.NET

Hibernate Oracle, SQL Server, other

1.5.6

See also
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List of web application frameworks Wikis and content management systems OSCOM, the central organization for open source content management, provides many resources on open source CMSes Internet forum

External links
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CMS Matrix - Detailed CMS feature information and customizable head-to-head CMS comparisons CMS Watch Vendor Analysis - Detailed critiques of individual content management products Elliot Smith, "A review of open source content management systems," OpenAdvantage, May 2005. Barry Parr, "Top 10 Free and Cheap Content Management Systems," MediaSavvy, May 29, 2004. OpenSourceCMS.com — Website that hosts demo versions of open source content management systems programmed in PHP and using MySQL as database.

Digital asset management
Digital Asset Management (DAM) is a form of enterprise content management that consists of management tasks and decisions directed as successfully meeting opportunities and threats in the dynamic business environments by effectively ingesting, annotating, cataloguing, storing, retrieving as well as the distribution of the company’s digital assets in such a way that the overall objectives of the company, its clients and society will be achieved (van Niekerk, A.J. 2006. Allied Academies, New Orleans Congress). The term "digital asset management" (DAM) also refers to the protocol for downloading, renaming, backing up, rating, grouping, archiving, optimizing, maintaining, thinning, and exporting files. "There are two primary types of DAM software: browsers and cataloging software. A browser reads information from a file but does not store it separately. Cataloging software stores information in its own separate file, however, the software and the catalog document it makes are distinct from the photos themselves."

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Contents
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1 Uses 2 Types of Digital Asset Management systems 3 DAM Market 4 Challenges of Implementation 5 The Spectrum of Digital Asset Management (DAM) Applications 6 Media Catalogs v. Asset Repositories 7 Off-the-shelf or Custom? 8 Planning For Electronic Archiving 9 Digitizing Traditional Image and Fabrics 10 Budget Considerations 11 Digital photo management 12 External links

13 Notes

Uses
Many businesses and organizations are adopting Digital Asset Management as a business strategy because managing image, video and other media assets present unique challenges and require solutions designed specifically to streamline the acquisition, storage and retrieval of digital media. So we need a system that can reduce the time and cost of content production, maximize the return on investment (ROI) from media assets, bring new products and services to market faster and streamline compliance. This system should be designed in such a way that enables to cost-effectively optimize media asset management across the companies.

Types of Digital Asset Management systems
The following broad categories of digital asset management systems may be distinguished: • Brand asset management systems, with a focus on facilitation of content re-use within large organizations. • Library asset management systems, with a focus on storage and retrieval of large amounts of infrequently changing media assets, for example in video or photo archiving. • Production asset management systems, with a focus on storage, organization and revision control of frequently changing digital assets, for example in digital media production.

DAM Market
As the industry evolves into technology driven businesses, an increasing number of companies are reaching a critical threshold in needing to control and manage their vast amounts of digital media assets. Technically speaking, a digital asset is any form of media that has been turned into a binary source. Digital assets, which for textile mills include everything from image, logos and photos to PowerPoint presentations, text

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documents and even e-mail, are proving to be valuable assets in terms of both productivity and company valuation. However, an asset is only an asset when you can find it, or you know that you have it in the first place. The statistics tell a convincing story. According to GISTICS research, an average of $8,200 per person per year is spent on file management activities which include searching, verification, organization, backup and security[1]. Creative professionals spend an average of 1 out of every 10 hours of their time on file management. Searches alone account for a full third of that time! According to Canto Software, developers of asset management software with more than 120,000 licensed seats worldwide, the average media user manages over 7,000 files distributed over a variety of storage mediums. The average creative person looks for a media file 83 times a week and fails to find it 35% of the time. Their research shows that digital asset management solutions will drop that figure to 5%. Digital asset management (DAM) saves not just time, but money. Research indicates that the ROI on DAM is between 8:1 to 14:1. Where do the savings come from? Labor reduction is a primary contribution, allowing employees to spend less time locating assets and more time working on current projects. Re-purposing is another key benefit. The ability to find and research existing work facilitates the reuse of valuable creative assets from previous projects. A by-product of this benefit is faster development. The ability to take advantage of work performed on prior projects will reduce turnaround time. And last, but not least, workflow efficiency — DAM enforces a consistent workflow. There are additional benefits which, though difficult to quantify, contribute substantially to the value of DAM. The process insures that only approved brand elements are used and are used in the proper context. The process automates the workflow, with the ability to keep track of version or routing the asset to its next destination. DAM helps to build relationships by supporting the ability to share assets over an extranet with clients and suppliers. In addition, with the ability to allow clients or other departments to observe creative works in progress, DAM fosters communication and collaboration. While the term DAM implies its use for strictly computer generated image, a growing number of textile mills and product manufacturers are finding DAM applications an ideal tool for cataloging the years and years of hand drawn image they have purchased as a part of each new development season. These companies have begun scanning or photographing these assets and building a database that not only makes it easy to find and use purchased assets, but provides a valuable tool for insurance valuation.

Challenges of Implementation
Digital Asset Management (DAM), the management of digital content so that it can be cataloged, searched and re-purposed, is extremely challenging for organizations that rely on image handling and expect to gain business value from these assets. Metadata plays a crucial role in this management

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The Spectrum of Digital Asset Management (DAM) Applications
A Digital Asset Management application is simply a tool for organizing digital media assets for storage and retrieval. When searching for a digital asset management system, the first thing to identify is the objective. What solutions should it provide to what problems? Do you simply want to find media content on demand? Create collaborative creative environments? Systematize efficient workflow? Manage rights and permissions complete with automated tracking and accounting? Implement full-blown electronic commerce? The priority of one or more of these goals are the guiding principle in sorting through the facts and marketing hype. The marketplace offers a broad range of solutions, ranging from individual workstations to enterprise-wide solutions. Desktop solutions represent the simplest type of DAM. They serve the needs of individual users using relatively small collections of content. This model can be to a handful of stations in a low-security file-sharing network and sometimes even to larger studios, if one person is managing one type of media asset, such as design files. While desktop solutions allow for descriptions and keyword searches, they typically only catalog thumbnails and references to the actual files, as opposed to the files themselves. A collaborative solution is the likely choice if your objective is sharing work-in-progress and finished media among a tightly knit group of co-workers. The content itself can be stored on a central server or across individual workstations -- including offline storage, such as CD-ROMs and tape cartridges. The more sophisticated offerings include annotation capabilities and strong communications support for efficiently transferring files between remote users. Process-oriented solutions focus on workflow, orbiting around a centralized database of project management information that allows a producer to assign, prioritize, and track a project's progress across the entire production team. These systems track the history of what has happened to a file, including edits, conversions, and sign-offs. Given that workflow varies greatly across different types of enterprises, process-centric solutions are often tailored to the needs of specific vertical markets. Industry-centric solutions extend the sharing of an enterprise's media assets to suppliers, contractors, and other partners. Such systems include high-level security that allows the primary enterprise to work with multiple parties without commingling proprietary assets. Merchant-centric solutions for e-commerce enable an enterprise to serve a high volume of online customers who will browse and purchase media assets. Merchant-centric systems routinely process secure financial transactions, drive order fulfillment processes, interface with inventory systems, and report to accounting systems that can manage things like royalty payments to represented parties. Some businesses find that one vendor can handle all of their needs, while others implement multiple systems according to the disparate needs of various departments. In the latter case, the use of open system architecture can allow these multiple systems to act on one central repository of data.

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Media Catalogs v. Asset Repositories
DAM applications are characterized by architectural differences. The playing field can be subdivided into two basic categories, media catalogs and asset repositories. The primary characteristic of media catalogs is the utilization of proxies, such as thumbnails, in an indexed database that can be quickly searched by keyword. The actual source files are left untouched and under control of the operating system. The benefits of media catalogs include low cost, ease of installation and administration, and scalability across multiple divisions of an enterprise. Since media catalogs do not actually manage the content itself, anyone with system access can typically view, change, move, or delete any content element. This usually precludes such features as check-in/check-out of content, rights management, and automatic versioning (the latest version of a print, for example). Media catalogs can also become sluggish with very large catalogs, especially if distributed across multiple servers or geographic locations. In asset repositories the content itself is physically stored inside a secure database. This results in a host of benefits, including security levels, replication, referential integrity, and centralized data management. Also included is the comfort of full hierarchical storage management and disaster recovery. Solutions based on the asset repository model are ideal when systematizing studios with industrial workflow, managing rights and permissions (such as the intellectual property of either your company or a third party), and structuring global access by employees, contractors, suppliers, partners, and customers. This centralization of all assets into a single or distributed storehouse for safekeeping requires significantly higher performance hardware such as high-end UNIX servers, formidable online storage, and very high-speed networks. According to a report in New Media Magazine, it also demands a capital investment 10 to 50 times that associated with media catalogs, as well as a commensurately higher level of system administration.

Off-the-shelf or Custom?
Another important question to be answered is how much technical expertise is required in the installation and maintenance of a DAM solution. Much like CAD systems, the selection ranges from totally integrated off-the-shelf packages to custom solutions. Since the best-integrated application suites are built around process knowledge, they are ideal for business models centered on methodologies well established within a given industry. Such solutions are often easy enough to install that they can be set up by end users. The middle ground is populated by higher-level prebuilt components, enabling a business to utilize their more unique business knowledge in configuring a partially customized application. While the orchestration of prebuilt components will require modest knowledge of systems integration, this genre represents an excellent vehicle for creating a uniquely branded service. On the high end of the spectrum are universal server databases and search engines that enable systems integrators to assemble the best of breed for their unique needs. Each consists of a self-contained module automating one business function or the activities of a single employee. This toolkit approach definitely requires expertise in complex system integration.

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Planning For Electronic Archiving
One of the most important decision points in implementing DAM is also one of the most frequently overlooked: Who are your users and how do they work? Their technical level, their comfort with existing platforms and networks, as well as their current workflow will all be major factors in the success, or failure, of a new system. Champions and evangelists within the various departments of an enterprise are often critical to the success of this kind of new technology. Once the personnel and technical issues are addressed, workflow will define the process. In most cases, applications dictating workflow should be avoided. Instead, efficiencies should come from the automation of proven workflow tasks. Of course, emulating poor workflow will only let your staff be inefficient more quickly. Having already identified the goals of your DAM system, step number two in the planning stage is to draw a flowchart of your current imaging and storage processes. Identify what you like or don't like about your current workflow, and map out the recommended changes. This step should include participation from any and all employees involved in the process, as they will all be affected by any changes that are made. The next step is to create the attributes and keywords that will be supported by the database (See Sample Descriptive Label exhibit below — courtesy of Dee Dee Davis, Springs Industries). Attributes include categories such as business unit, type of asset, design family, ground effect, geometry, design elements, scale, layout, technique or style, etc. Within each of these categories, your users can identify keywords they might use when looking for a particular type of image, such as floral, plaid, stripe, directional, impressionist, etc. Dee Dee Davis, former CAD archivist and digital imaging specialist for Culp and now a CAD designer for Springs Industries, advises that all departments needing to use the archived files be included in this developmental stage, as classifications used by the design department are often different from classifications and descriptions needed by other departments in the company. Now you are ready for your system design plan, which will identify how equipment pieces will need to be connected to one another. How will non-digital image be digitized, what equipment does it require and who will do it? Who will administer the archiving and who will have access to it? What file formats need to be saved in order to support various departments? If you need a variety of formats for the re-purposing of the files, will this be done at the time of archiving or at a later date as needed? A map of the new workflow should identify who does what, when they do it and how they do it. The final step in the planning process is to identify and develop the system standards that will identify workflow issues such as file names, versions, folders, directories and servers. Failure to do so will simply undermine the system and make it difficult to locate the "correct" version of a file.

Digitizing Traditional Image and Fabrics
While archiving digitally generated image is a fairly straightforward process, archiving the vast libraries of fabric samples and traditional hand drawn image that has been

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collected for many years (if not decades) provides for some unique challenges and opportunities. Not only will digitizing image make it easier to find, use and re-purpose, but archiving your image can also prove to be very valuable for an insurance claim in the event of fire or theft. As with the implementation of any DAM system, you must determine your objectives before digitizing any image. There are four quality standards that need to be considered for the use of your digital files: 1) Product development and pre-publishing reference, 2) Intra-company report enhancement, 3) Business to business for sales and marketing and 4) Direct to consumer e-commerce. Your goals will establish the quality standards, resolution and file formats for the digital files. While there are several capture devices to consider for use in digitizing image, including digital cameras, flat-bed scanners and drum scanners, most experts agree that a high-end digital camera is the best solution for the broad range of texture, repeat size and color challenges that textiles present. While it is possible to capture image on a conventional camera and have the slides or negatives converted to digital data, this method is not recommended, as there are too many variables in the conversion process that can cause degradation of the image in both quality and color. In addition, digital photography is both less expensive and faster than conventional photography, which requires a series of time consuming and costly steps to get to the digital file format. Another important advantage to using photography over scanning is the ability to control the lighting with the use of a camera. Scanners use only one light source that "scan" the entire image, often missing nuances of special textures, yarns, finishes, and colors. The use of a camera will allow you to use multiple lighting sources that can be modified to highlight the features of a variety of fabrics. In controlling the light source, you can also minimize the effect of the fabric construction while trying to capture just the print. While there are software applications such as Pointcarré from Monarch that will allow you to remove the fabric construction from a print, this is a step that can be avoided by obtaining a proper capture to start. Digital cameras range in price from $500 to $25,000. The less expensive cameras are not as color accurate, capture less data and are prone to "digital noise" that will create unacceptable artifacts and mottled solid colors. The best-of breed for low end digital cameras according to Richard Lerner , president of RSL Digital in NYC who has over 25 years of photography experience, is the new Nikon Coolpix (list price $995, street price of $850-$950). This camera includes many attributes of the high-end cameras, including a flash sync for setting off studio strobes, excellent color contrast and balance controls, and it works well in a number of automatic modes. While you may be able to obtain a desired image quality from a low end digital camera, you should review your workflow and processing time when evaluating cameras. "Using a low end camera is like trying to pass a lot of data on a floppy disk," states Randy Parker, President of Digital Images in Research Triangle Park, NC, a firm that specializes in the photography and archiving of textiles. "You are constantly performing ‘sneaker net’ and are required to run back and forth between the camera, which has limited storage capacity, and the computer’s hard drive. High-end digital cameras have a direct SCSI connection to the computer that will eliminate the need for repetitive data transfers. If you are capturing a lot of images, this capability alone will more than offset the cost of the more expensive camera. The digital

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files will range in size from 2 MB to 25MB or more depending on the physical size and intended use of the image. Resolution requirements range from 72 dots per inch (dpi) for images to be viewed only on a computer screen, 150-300 dpi for printing to fabrics (contingent on the type of fabric and amount of color coverage) and 300 dpi for printing to press for sales and marketing materials. The rule of thumb is to capture a minimum of the same number of dots per inch as the line screen of the output device, up to a maximum of twice the line screen. Again, it is very important to know your intended output or goals before beginning the archiving process. Digital Asset Management is not just about having the proper equipment, software and workflow, but about having qualified talent to produce and manage the archiving process. Digital photography is an art in the same way that computer aided design is an art. Buying the requisite tools does not compensate for the skill set needed to produce quality archives. Experts advise that professional photographers be used to create the digital files.

Budget Considerations
Budget will play an important role in your decision regarding appropriate hardware, storage, backup, and communications infrastructure. DAM software solutions come in many different packages, from a "per seat" basis for client licenses, to server solutions that allow unlimited access via Web browsers. If paying per seat, it's important to understand the user mix. Licenses that dedicate one installation per seat can be more costly compared to those allowing a given number of clients to be online at once. More critical than the price tag alone is a projection of cost savings, ROI and growth catalyst. While archiving, many companies have discovered they were archiving duplicate images purchased by different divisions of the company, a practice which could be avoided through proper asset management. The time saving, as outlined in part one, is an obvious ROI. In many businesses, especially media-intensive ones, an investment in the optimal digital asset management solution can even kick profitability into high gear and be critical to sustaining a competitive advantage. Remember, besides your employees, your library of product samples and references are one of your company’s most valuable assets.

Digital photo management
Digital photo management (DPM) is an emerging subfield where anything from a few thousand digital photos to millions of digital photos are managed. As digital cameras become more commonplace, the number of digital photos increases at a rapid rate. Initially, for most individuals and organizations, the first practice is to burn the pictures onto CDs or DVDs. As time goes by the number of CDs or DVDs starts to get out of control. There is also the problem of CD rot, where a large percentage of the CDs or DVDs become unreadable within a few years. The next stage in this evolution is to put all the digital photos onto the hard disk or on a central server. This too, in time, gets out of control as the number of pictures rises. Eventually it becomes necessary to use systems with database software such as an SQL

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database, with a friendly client software or browser software interface on top to help manage these photos. In recent years several systems have emerged, such as VeriPic. This system keeps the photos inside an SQL database so that they are searchable yet secure from intrusion. The decision to employ this type of system depends directly on the number of digital photos being managed. As long as the total number of pictures is still easy to manage in a folder hierarchy, this type of system is not needed. Once the number of photos gets too large and finding specific photos becomes a burden, a DPM system becomes necessary.

External links
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Article "Intro to Digital Asset Management: Just what is a DAM?" by Magan Arthur Article "Rich Media and Business Agility" by Bill Trippe, The Gilbane Report The DAM User Community & Home to the DAM Symposium Article "Protect your Digital Assets: Selecting a DAM" Article "DAM: Agile and Effective" Article "Use-Cases for Digital Media Asset Managemenet"

Notes
1. ^ Gistics.com provides paid research services, and while this statistic is quoted in many online articles it's original source could not be located. Open Source Content Management Systems: An Argumentative Approach Abstract Businesses currently face the daily challenge of managing content efficiently. These businesses are being flooded with information from web Content Management Systems (CMS) that present an all-too-simple picture. Instead, content management systems should solve the problem of turning content into information and information into knowledge. Content Management Systems are not just a product or a technology. CMS is defined as a generic term which refers to a wide range of processes that underpin the ``next-generation'' of medium to large-scale websites. Content management is a process which deals with the creation, storage, modification, retrieval and display of data or content. This report evaluates seven open source CMS products. The comparison is based on eight categories as seen from a business perspective. These categories are; applications, data repository, deployment, integration, revision control, user interface, 20

user management and workflow. Each category is scored from 0 to 10 points and the overall score is determined based on the average of all categories. The comparison clearly shows how most CMS products require further development prior to being used within a commercial environment. The few CMS products which are ready for commercial deployment contain an inherent design flaw. This flaw refers to the inefficient management of large-scale user databases. Businesses are currently seeking alternative methods to improve their services and Open Source Software (OSS) is one such method. This will require OSS authors to consider the implications of running their software within commercial environments and accommodate business requirements. A CMS product which follows these rules will be commercially sustainable.

WHAT IS CMS
Do you need to create a new website, re-brand an old website, or launch an online marketing campaign? If you do, you'll need a reliable and “future-proof” Content Management System (CMS) to base your efforts on. These days, having a successful website means having a content management system. The best web content management systems offer enterprise functionality with intuitive usability. Scalability is also essential. If you take a quick look around the web – you’ll quickly see how many websites are created and then left to languish in the lower echelons of Google’s ranking because they haven’t had consistent content upgrades. There are literally thousands of sites floating around, featuring out-of-date messages or news items, text mistakes, invalid product pricing and the like. More importantly, thousands of online consumers see those sites, notice the negligence and move on as a result. That isn’t always the fault of the site’s owners, sometimes it’s the result of having a poor content management system or having no CMS at all. You don‘t have to fall into this trap. An enterprise-class CMS provides an efficient base for developing and maintaining your website. Using A CMS. You’ll Be Free To:
• • •

Manage and continually update the structure and content of your website; Create configurable access restrictions so content managers can be assigned roles and permissions for editing and making changes on a website; Publish multiple formats on a website such as HTML or PDFs;

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• • • • • • • • •

Publish news feeds, streaming video/audio, press releases and site update information; Manage the way advertising shows up on your website; Create forums and blogs; Track and store a variety of visitor statistics; Take full control of your online advertising campaigns and web-based marketing efforts; Open an online/eCommerce store to sell goods and services; Accept check, debit, and credit card payments online; Generate mailing lists and automatically send out messages and or newsletters to site subscribers; Publish documents, which can be found by search engines using metadata creation - appropriate metadata is captured on all web pages, making the site search engine friendly; Workflow management - the CMS provides a range of work flow capabilities for all content elements on a website. This maintains strict control and coordination over the quality, accuracy, and consistency of information published onto a website; Much more!

Is A CMS the Right Solution for You? It minimizes the cost of maintaining your website by offering you a better way to manage information online. Best of all, you don't need to be web designer or programmer to service, maintain, and manage the day to day content flow on your website. By using a CMS, you gain the freedom to take control of your site from any computer ANY where in the world regardless whether or not you have programming skills.

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