ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 04: Pipeline Flow and Thermal Analysis

Shawn Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. Assistant Professor Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland spkenny@engr.mun.ca

Lecture 04 Objective
To provide an overview heat transfer mechanisms and simple engineering tool to assess thermal performance in context of pipeline hydraulics

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Heat Transfer Mechanisms
Conduction
Direct contact • Relatively inefficient

Convection
Flow or circulation • Natural or forced
(advection)

Radiation
Electromagnetic energy Emissivity • Ability to absorb and
radiate energy

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Thermal Effects
Flow Assurance
Viscosity effects on pressure drop Process facilities Wax, asphaltene, hydrate formation

Material behaviour
Reduced strength Corrosion rates Creep

Mechanical design
Thermal expansion Upheaval, lateral buckling

Shut-in & start-up operations
Flow assurance Axial walking, ratcheting
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Liquid Hydrocarbon Viscosity

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Heat Transfer – Conduction
Fourier Law
Q ≡ heat loss per unit length (W/m) t ≡ time (s) k ≡ material thermal conductivity (W/m/K) S ≡ surface area (m2) T ≡ temperature (K) U ≡ heat transfer coefficient (W/m2-K)
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

∂Q = − k ∫ ∇T dS ∂t S
ΔQ ΔT = − kA Δt Δx

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Heat Transfer – Conduction (cont.)
Steady State Conditions
Integrate per unit length
r dr, ΔT

• Annular layer • Temperature gradient
∂Q ∂T = − kA ∂t ∂x
k 2π ΔT Q = ⎛r ⎞ ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ r1 ⎠
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

QT

⇒ Q = U A ΔT
⇒ U= 1 r k ⎛r ⎞ ln ⎜ 2 ⎟ ⎝ r1 ⎠ A = 2π r

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Heat Transfer – Conduction (cont.)
Multiple Layer System
Heat transfer coefficient
Q = U A ΔT
UT = 1 1 = ∑R 1 + 1 + 1 U1 U 2 U3

A ΔT QT = Δr1 Δr2 Δr2 + + +… k1 k2 k2

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Heat Transfer – Conduction (cont.)
Buried Pipeline
ri ≡ inside pipe radius ro ≡ outside pipe radius in contact with the soil
U buried ⎡ ⎤ ⎢ ⎥ ksoil ksoil 1 ⎥= 1 = ⎢ ⎥ ri 2 ri ⎢ ⎛ ⎞ −1 ⎛ H ⎞ ⎛H ⎞ H ⎢ cosh ⎜ ⎟ ⎥ ln ⎜ + ⎜ ⎟ − 1 ⎟ ro ⎠ ⎥ ⎢ ⎝ ⎣ ⎦ ⎜ ro ⎟ ⎝ ro ⎠ ⎝ ⎠
ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

Thermal Conductivity Parameters
Common Materials (W/m/K)
Steel Concrete Soil Neoprene PP syntactic PU syntactic PU light foam
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

45 1.2 1.0–2.0 0.26 0.15–0.20 0.10–0.15 0.02–0.03
ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Heat Transfer Coefficient, U (W/m2-K) Non-insulated Single Wall
25 W/m2K Burial decrease U by ~1/3

Pipeline Bundle
≈ 1.5–2.5

Insulated Pipe-in-Pipe
≈ 3.0.–6.0

Insulated Pipe-in-Pipe
≈ 0.5–1.0
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Ref: McKechnie and Hayes (2003) Ref: Geertsenand Ofredi (2000) © 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Steady State Thermal Profile
Parameters
T2 = (T1 - T0 ) e

- U π D dx m Cp

+ T0

m – mass flow rate (kg/s) [ m = Q ρ ] U – heat transfer coefficient (W/m2-K) Cp – specific heat capacity (J/kg-K)

• Oil ≡ 1800 and Gas ≡ 2500

T0 – ambient temperature (°C) T1 – pipeline temperature at section 1 (°C) T2 – pipeline temperature at section 2 (°C)
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Design Considerations

Ref: Maksoud (2004)

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Design Considerations (cont.)

Ref: Maksoud (2004)

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Example 4-01
Calculate the heat loss coefficient (U) for an in-air, single wall, steel linepipe with no external or internal coatings.
Do = 508mm t = 12.7mm k = 45 W/m/K
⎛ ⎞ W 45 ⎜ ⎟ 1 k 1 mK ⎜ ⎟ = 3636 W = U= r ⎛ r2 ⎞ 0.2413 m ⎜ ⎛ 0.254 m ⎞ ⎟ m2 K ln ⎜ ⎟ ⎜ ln ⎜ ⎟ 0.2413 m ⎟ ⎠ ⎠ ⎝ ⎝ ⎝ r1 ⎠
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Example 4-02
Compare heat transfer coefficients
Non-insulated pipeline versus pipeline with a 50mm concrete coating

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Example 4-03
Calculate the heat loss coefficient (U) for the following pipe-in-pipe system
Inner Pipe • Do = 406.4mm • t = 17.5mm • k = 45 W/m/K Polypropylene Foam • t = 45mm • k = 0.22 W/m/K Casing • t =12.7mm • k = 45 W/m/K
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Example 4-03 (cont.)
Example 4-03
Determine U-value for multiple layer system DEFINED UNITS BBL := 42gal INPUT PARAMETERS Pipeline System Nominal Outside Diameter - Inner Pipe Nominal Wall Thickness - Inner Pipe Conductivity - Inner Pipe Nominal Wall Thickness - PP Foam Conductivity - PP Foam Nominal Wall Thickness - Outer Pipe Conductivity - Outer Pipe Do := 406.4mm t 1 := 17.5mm t 2 := 45mm t 3 := 12.7mm k1 := 45 ⋅ W ⋅ m k2 := 0.22W ⋅ m k3 := 45W ⋅ m
−1

⋅K ⋅K

−1

−1

−1

−1

⋅K

−1

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Example 4-03 (cont.)

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

Reading List
1.

Bell, J. and Geertsen, C. (2002). The McPIPETM Extended Cooldown System. Presentation, Deepwater Offshore Techology, 14-16 November, 20p. [2002_Bell_McPipe_Extended_Cooldown_System.pdf] Geertsen, C. and Offredi, M. (2000). Highly Thermally Insulated and Traced Pipelines for Deepwater. 12th Deep Offshore Technology Conference, New Orleans, USA, 13p. [2000_Geertsen_Insulated_Traced_Deepwater_PL.pdf] Loch, K.J. (2000). Deepwater Soil Thermally Insulates Buried Flowlines. Deepwater Technology, www.pipeline.com, August 2000. [2000_Loch_Deepwater_Soil_Insulation.pdf] Maksoud, J. (2004). Petro-Canada Investigates Flow Assurance Challenges. Offshore, pp.112-113. [2004_Maksoud_ FA_Challenges_Petro_Canada.pdf]

2.

3.

4.

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

References
Geertsen, C. and Offredi, M. (2000). Highly Thermally Insulated and Traced Pipelines for Deepwater. 12th Deep Offshore Technology Conference, New Orleans, USA, 13p. Loch, K.J. (2000). Deepwater Soil Thermally Insulates Buried Flowlines. Deepwater Technology, www.pipeline.com, August 2000. Maksoud, J. (2004). Petro-Canada Investigates Flow Assurance Challenges. Offshore, pp.112-113. McKechnie, J.G. and D.T. Hayes (2003). Pipeline Insulation Performance for Long Distance Subsea Tiebacks. 14p.
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 04

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