ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering

Lecture 05: Materials Selection

Shawn Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. Assistant Professor Faculty of Engineering and Applied Science Memorial University of Newfoundland spkenny@engr.mun.ca

Course Project Update
Project Overview
Due February 1st

• Discussions through to February 8th
Project scope final on February 15th

• Latitude under special circumstances
on case-by-case basis

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Lecture 05 Objective
To provide an overview of material selection for pipeline systems

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Materials Selection – Philosophy
Materials Selection Function
• System compatibility • Functional and technical requirements Life-Cycle Assessment
Design, procurement, fabrication, construction & operations Performance criteria and reliability targets Risk threshold (failure frequency & consequences) Cost evaluation (≈20-30% CAPEX) Feasibility and suitability assessment

Integrity Management
Process operations Condition monitoring and inspection tools Interval frequency Maintenance, repair and intervention
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Materials Selection – Project Context
Materials Selection Report
Key materials document Design Basis Specifications Codes, standards and recommended practice

Management Issues
Procurement • Long lead items Contracting strategy QA/QC
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Materials Technology Drivers
Prior to 1950’s
Problem gas was flared Relatively low flow rate and pressure requirements Small diameter pipelines Seamless linepipe production

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Materials Technology Drivers (cont.)
1960’s Expanded Role of Hydrocarbons
Longer transmission pipelines ⇑ Throughput

• Flow rate • Operating pressure • Diameter • Wall thickness • Diameter • Wall thickness

Fabrication requirements

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Materials Technology Drivers (cont.)
Present Day
Demanding operational requirements

• HPHT (operating and shut-in conditions) • Corrosive fluids • Produced water (historically well shut-in)
Linepipe fabrication

• Advanced techniques • Material chemistry • Thermo-mechanical processes
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Materials Selection Considerations
System Compatibility Operational Parameters Environmental Conditions Corrosion Resistance Linepipe Fabrication Constructability

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

System Compatibility
Interface and Scope Break
Process equipment Riser and landfall tie-in

Linepipe
Material constituents Welding procedures Corrosion control systems Coatings

Components
Bends, fittings, wye’s, tees Expansion loops Flanges, valves Anchor flanges, supports Pig traps Insulating joints

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Operational Parameters
Fluid Composition
Product constituents Time variation

Temperature
Steady state • Weld over- &
under-match

Depressurization • Low temperature
fracture control
Ref: DNV (2007)

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Environmental Conditions
Ambient Temperature
Installation Riser tie-in

Soil Conditions

Ref: Lanan et al. (2001)

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Corrosion Resistance
Internal Corrosion – Factors
Fluid Composition

• Sweet (CO2) • Sour (H2S) • Water (H2O, O2 and Cl) • Bacteria

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Corrosion Resistance (cont.)
Internal Corrosion – Mechanisms
Wall thickness reduction

• Uniform • Pits • Grooves

Stress corrosion cracking

• Pressure and loads

Internal Corrosion – Significance
Leak Rupture
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Corrosion Resistance (cont.)
Internal Corrosion – Mitigation Strategies
Process operations Materials selection Corrosion allowance Internal coatings Chemical treatment and inhibition

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Corrosion Resistance (cont.)
External Corrosion
Coatings Field Joints Cathodic Protection System Splash Zone Shore Approach

• Impressed current • Telluric currents

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Linepipe Fabrication – Material Options
Conventional
Carbon-Manganese (C-Mn)

Corrosion Resistant Alloys (CRA)
Stainless

Clad or lined pipe
C-Mn and CRA Clad ⇒ metallurgical bond Lined ⇒ mechanical bond

Composite
Multiple components Carbon graphite
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Linepipe Fabrication – Process Options Forming
Rigid

• Seamless, UOE, Spiral • Pultrusion, Winding

Flexible

Configurations
Single wall Pipe-in-pipe Open or closed bundles
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Linepipe Fabrication – Specification
Dimensions
Variation, Fit-up, Structural integrity

Strength
Elastic modulus, Yield strength, Variation

Ductility
Ultimate to yield strength ratio, Elongation

Index Parameters
Hardness, Fracture toughness

Constructability
Coatings, Welding, Installation demand
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Joining Techniques
Flanged Welded

Ref: Melesi (2005)

Ref: McDermott (2005)

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

Reading List
1.

Section 6 – DNV (2007). Submarine Pipeline Systems. Offshore Standard, DNV OS-F101, October 2007, 240p.

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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng.

ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

References
DNV (2007). Submarine Pipeline Systems. Offshore Standard, DNV OS-F101, October 2007, 240p. Lanan, G., Ennis, J.O., Egger, P.S. and Yockey, K.E. (2001). Northstar Offshore Arctic Pipeline Design and Construction. Proc. OTC, OTC 13133, 8p. McDermott (2005). http://www.jraymcdermott.com Melesi (2005). http://www.melesi.it
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© 2008 S. Kenny, Ph.D., P.Eng. ENGI 8673 Subsea Pipeline Engineering – Lecture 05

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