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Lucky Galvez

Institute of Mathematics

University of the Philippines

Diliman

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Recall

f (x, y) = hfx (x, y), fy (x, y)i

and the directional derivative of f at (x0 , y0 ) in the direction

of the unit vector u = ha, bi is

f (x0 + ha, yo + hb) f (x0 , y0 )

h0

h

= fx (x0 , y0 )a + fy (x0 , y0 )b

Du f (x0 , y0 ) =

lim

= f (x0 , y0 ) u

Math 55

Tangent Planes

R

R

R

some constant k, is called a level surface of the given

function.

The equation of a plane with normal vector N = ha, b, ci,

containing the point P (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is (Point-Normal Form):

a(x x0 ) + b(y y0 ) + c(z z0 ) = 0

A set of equations for the line parallel to the vector

V = ha, b, ci, passing through P (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is

x x0

y y0

z z0

=

=

Symmetric:

a

b

c

Parametric: x = x0 + at, y = y0 + bt,

Math 55

Tangent Planes

z = z0 + ct

Theorem

Let S be a level surface of F (x, y, z) containing the point

P (x0 , y0 , z0 ). The gradient vector F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal

to S at P .

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Theorem

Let S be a level surface of F (x, y, z) containing the point

P (x0 , y0 , z0 ). The gradient vector F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal

to S at P .

Proof. Suppose S has the equation F (x, y, z) = k and C is a curve

on S passing through P .

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Theorem

Let S be a level surface of F (x, y, z) containing the point

P (x0 , y0 , z0 ). The gradient vector F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal

to S at P .

Proof. Suppose S has the equation F (x, y, z) = k and C is a curve

on S passing through P . Let C be given by the vector function

R(t) = hx(t), y(t), z(t)i, such that R(t0 ) = hx(t0 ), y(t0 ), z(t0 )i.

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Theorem

Let S be a level surface of F (x, y, z) containing the point

P (x0 , y0 , z0 ). The gradient vector F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal

to S at P .

Proof. Suppose S has the equation F (x, y, z) = k and C is a curve

on S passing through P . Let C be given by the vector function

R(t) = hx(t), y(t), z(t)i, such that R(t0 ) = hx(t0 ), y(t0 ), z(t0 )i. Then

F (x(t), y(t), z(t)) = k.

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Theorem

Let S be a level surface of F (x, y, z) containing the point

P (x0 , y0 , z0 ). The gradient vector F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal

to S at P .

Proof. Suppose S has the equation F (x, y, z) = k and C is a curve

on S passing through P . Let C be given by the vector function

R(t) = hx(t), y(t), z(t)i, such that R(t0 ) = hx(t0 ), y(t0 ), z(t0 )i. Then

F (x(t), y(t), z(t)) = k. By Chain Rule,

F dx F dy F dz

+

+

x dt

y dt

z dt

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Theorem

Let S be a level surface of F (x, y, z) containing the point

P (x0 , y0 , z0 ). The gradient vector F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal

to S at P .

Proof. Suppose S has the equation F (x, y, z) = k and C is a curve

on S passing through P . Let C be given by the vector function

R(t) = hx(t), y(t), z(t)i, such that R(t0 ) = hx(t0 ), y(t0 ), z(t0 )i. Then

F (x(t), y(t), z(t)) = k. By Chain Rule,

F dx F dy F dz

+

+

= 0

x dt

y dt

z dt

hFx , Fy , Fz i hx0 (t), y 0 (t), z 0 (t)i = 0

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Theorem

Let S be a level surface of F (x, y, z) containing the point

P (x0 , y0 , z0 ). The gradient vector F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal

to S at P .

Proof. Suppose S has the equation F (x, y, z) = k and C is a curve

on S passing through P . Let C be given by the vector function

R(t) = hx(t), y(t), z(t)i, such that R(t0 ) = hx(t0 ), y(t0 ), z(t0 )i. Then

F (x(t), y(t), z(t)) = k. By Chain Rule,

F dx F dy F dz

+

+

= 0

x dt

y dt

z dt

hFx , Fy , Fz i hx0 (t), y 0 (t), z 0 (t)i = 0

F (x, y, z)

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Theorem

Let S be a level surface of F (x, y, z) containing the point

P (x0 , y0 , z0 ). The gradient vector F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal

to S at P .

Proof. Suppose S has the equation F (x, y, z) = k and C is a curve

on S passing through P . Let C be given by the vector function

R(t) = hx(t), y(t), z(t)i, such that R(t0 ) = hx(t0 ), y(t0 ), z(t0 )i. Then

F (x(t), y(t), z(t)) = k. By Chain Rule,

F dx F dy F dz

+

+

= 0

x dt

y dt

z dt

hFx , Fy , Fz i hx0 (t), y 0 (t), z 0 (t)i = 0

F (x, y, z) R0 (t) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Theorem

Let S be a level surface of F (x, y, z) containing the point

P (x0 , y0 , z0 ). The gradient vector F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal

to S at P .

Proof. Suppose S has the equation F (x, y, z) = k and C is a curve

on S passing through P . Let C be given by the vector function

R(t) = hx(t), y(t), z(t)i, such that R(t0 ) = hx(t0 ), y(t0 ), z(t0 )i. Then

F (x(t), y(t), z(t)) = k. By Chain Rule,

F dx F dy F dz

+

+

= 0

x dt

y dt

z dt

hFx , Fy , Fz i hx0 (t), y 0 (t), z 0 (t)i = 0

F (x, y, z) R0 (t) =

0

F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) R (t0 ) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

0

0

Theorem

Let S be a level surface of F (x, y, z) containing the point

P (x0 , y0 , z0 ). The gradient vector F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal

to S at P .

Proof. Suppose S has the equation F (x, y, z) = k and C is a curve

on S passing through P . Let C be given by the vector function

R(t) = hx(t), y(t), z(t)i, such that R(t0 ) = hx(t0 ), y(t0 ), z(t0 )i. Then

F (x(t), y(t), z(t)) = k. By Chain Rule,

F dx F dy F dz

+

+

= 0

x dt

y dt

z dt

hFx , Fy , Fz i hx0 (t), y 0 (t), z 0 (t)i = 0

F (x, y, z) R0 (t) =

0

F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) R (t0 ) =

0

0

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Theorem

Let S be a level surface of F (x, y, z) containing the point

P (x0 , y0 , z0 ). The gradient vector F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal

to S at P .

Proof. Suppose S has the equation F (x, y, z) = k and C is a curve

on S passing through P . Let C be given by the vector function

R(t) = hx(t), y(t), z(t)i, such that R(t0 ) = hx(t0 ), y(t0 ), z(t0 )i. Then

F (x(t), y(t), z(t)) = k. By Chain Rule,

F dx F dy F dz

+

+

= 0

x dt

y dt

z dt

hFx , Fy , Fz i hx0 (t), y 0 (t), z 0 (t)i = 0

F (x, y, z) R0 (t) =

0

F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) R (t0 ) =

0

0

Because C is arbitrary, F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal to S at P .

Math 55

Tangent Planes

If F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) 6= 0, then it is

orthogonal to the tangent

plane to S at P ,

Math 55

Tangent Planes

If F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) 6= 0, then it is

orthogonal to the tangent

plane to S at P ,

is the normal vector to the tangent plane to F (x, y, z) = k at

the point P (x0 , y0 , z0 ).

Math 55

Tangent Planes

If F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) 6= 0, then it is

orthogonal to the tangent

plane to S at P ,

is the normal vector to the tangent plane to F (x, y, z) = k at

the point P (x0 , y0 , z0 ).

By the Point-Normal Form, the equation of the tangent plane

to the surface F (x, y, z) = k at P (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is

Fx (x0 , y0 , z0 )(x x0 ) + Fy (x0 , y0 , z0 )(y y0 ) + Fz (x0 , y0 , z0 )(z z0 ) = 0

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6)

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (1, 1, 1) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (1, 1, 1) = 2

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (1, 1, 1) = 2

Fy (x, y, z) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (1, 1, 1) = 2

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (1, 1, 1) = 2

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (1, 1, 1) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (1, 1, 1) = 2

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (1, 1, 1) = 4

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (1, 1, 1) = 2

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (1, 1, 1) = 4

Fz (x, y, z) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (1, 1, 1) = 2

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (1, 1, 1) = 4

Fz (x, y, z) = 6z

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (1, 1, 1) = 2

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (1, 1, 1) = 4

Fz (x, y, z) = 6z Fz (1, 1, 1) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (1, 1, 1) = 2

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (1, 1, 1) = 4

Fz (x, y, z) = 6z Fz (1, 1, 1) = 6

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (1, 1, 1) = 2

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (1, 1, 1) = 4

Fz (x, y, z) = 6z Fz (1, 1, 1) = 6

So the equation of the tangent plane is

2(x 1) 4(y + 1) + 6(z 1) = 0

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Example

Find the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 = 6

at the point (1, 1, 1).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 + 3z 2 (k = 6) and

therefore we have

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (1, 1, 1) = 2

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (1, 1, 1) = 4

Fz (x, y, z) = 6z Fz (1, 1, 1) = 6

So the equation of the tangent plane is

2(x 1) 4(y + 1) + 6(z 1) = 0

2x 4y + 6z 12 = 0

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Tangent Planes

If the equation of the surface can be written in the form

z = f (x, y), then f (x, y) z = 0.

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Tangent Planes

If the equation of the surface can be written in the form

z = f (x, y), then f (x, y) z = 0.

Let F (x, y, z) = f (x, y) z.

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Tangent Planes

If the equation of the surface can be written in the form

z = f (x, y), then f (x, y) z = 0.

Let F (x, y, z) = f (x, y) z. Therefore,

Fx (x, y, z) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Tangent Planes

If the equation of the surface can be written in the form

z = f (x, y), then f (x, y) z = 0.

Let F (x, y, z) = f (x, y) z. Therefore,

Fx (x, y, z) = fx (x, y),

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Tangent Planes

If the equation of the surface can be written in the form

z = f (x, y), then f (x, y) z = 0.

Let F (x, y, z) = f (x, y) z. Therefore,

Fx (x, y, z) = fx (x, y),

Fy (x, y, z) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Tangent Planes

If the equation of the surface can be written in the form

z = f (x, y), then f (x, y) z = 0.

Let F (x, y, z) = f (x, y) z. Therefore,

Fx (x, y, z) = fx (x, y),

Math 55

Tangent Planes

If the equation of the surface can be written in the form

z = f (x, y), then f (x, y) z = 0.

Let F (x, y, z) = f (x, y) z. Therefore,

Fx (x, y, z) = fx (x, y),

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Fz (x, y, z) =

If the equation of the surface can be written in the form

z = f (x, y), then f (x, y) z = 0.

Let F (x, y, z) = f (x, y) z. Therefore,

Fx (x, y, z) = fx (x, y),

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Fz (x, y, z) = 1

If the equation of the surface can be written in the form

z = f (x, y), then f (x, y) z = 0.

Let F (x, y, z) = f (x, y) z. Therefore,

Fx (x, y, z) = fx (x, y),

Fz (x, y, z) = 1

fx (x0 , y0 )(x x0 ) + fy (x0 , y0 )(y y0 ) (z z0 ) = 0

Math 55

Tangent Planes

If the equation of the surface can be written in the form

z = f (x, y), then f (x, y) z = 0.

Let F (x, y, z) = f (x, y) z. Therefore,

Fx (x, y, z) = fx (x, y),

Fz (x, y, z) = 1

fx (x0 , y0 )(x x0 ) + fy (x0 , y0 )(y y0 ) (z z0 ) = 0

fx (x0 , y0 )(x x0 ) + fy (x0 , y0 )(y y0 ) + z0 = z

Math 55

Tangent Planes

If the equation of the surface can be written in the form

z = f (x, y), then f (x, y) z = 0.

Let F (x, y, z) = f (x, y) z. Therefore,

Fx (x, y, z) = fx (x, y),

Fz (x, y, z) = 1

fx (x0 , y0 )(x x0 ) + fy (x0 , y0 )(y y0 ) (z z0 ) = 0

fx (x0 , y0 )(x x0 ) + fy (x0 , y0 )(y y0 ) + z0 = z

fx (x0 , y0 )(x x0 ) + fy (x0 , y0 )(y y0 ) + f (x0 , y0 ) = z

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Definition

The normal line to a surface S at a point P is the line passing

through P perpendicular to the tangent plane to S at P .

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Definition

The normal line to a surface S at a point P is the line passing

through P perpendicular to the tangent plane to S at P .

The direction of the normal line is therefore given by a normal

vector of the tangent plane

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Definition

The normal line to a surface S at a point P is the line passing

through P perpendicular to the tangent plane to S at P .

The direction of the normal line is therefore given by a normal

vector of the tangent plane i.e., the gradient vector

F (x0 , y0 , z0 ).

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Definition

The normal line to a surface S at a point P is the line passing

through P perpendicular to the tangent plane to S at P .

The direction of the normal line is therefore given by a normal

vector of the tangent plane i.e., the gradient vector

F (x0 , y0 , z0 ).

So a set of symmetric equations for the normal line is

x x0

y y0

z z0

=

=

Fx (x0 , y0 , z0 )

Fy (x0 , y0 , z0 )

Fz (x0 , y0 , z0 )

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Fx (x, y, z) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (2, 1, 6) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (2, 1, 6) = 4

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (2, 1, 6) = 4

Fy (x, y, z) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (2, 1, 6) = 4

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (2, 1, 6) = 4

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (2, 1, 6) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (2, 1, 6) = 4

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (2, 1, 6) = 4

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (2, 1, 6) = 4

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (2, 1, 6) = 4

Fz (x, y, z) =

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (2, 1, 6) = 4

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (2, 1, 6) = 4

Fz (x, y, z) = 1

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (2, 1, 6) = 4

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (2, 1, 6) = 4

Fz (x, y, z) = 1 Fz (2, 1, 6) = 1

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Normal Lines

Example

Find symmetric equations for the normal line to the surface

z = x2 + 2y 2

at the point (2, 1, 6).

Solution. Let F (x, y, z) = x2 + 2y 2 z (k = 0).

Fx (x, y, z) = 2x Fx (2, 1, 6) = 4

Fy (x, y, z) = 4y Fy (2, 1, 6) = 4

Fz (x, y, z) = 1 Fz (2, 1, 6) = 1

Hence the symmeteric equations for the normal line is

x+2

y1

z6

=

=

4

4

1

Math 55

Tangent Planes

F gives the direction of the fastest increase of F

Math 55

Tangent Planes

R

R

F gives the direction of the fastest increase of F

F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal to a level surface of F through

P (x0 , y0 , z0 )

Math 55

Tangent Planes

R

R

F gives the direction of the fastest increase of F

F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal to a level surface of F through

P (x0 , y0 , z0 )

direction, we get the maximum change in F .

Math 55

Tangent Planes

R

R

F gives the direction of the fastest increase of F

F (x0 , y0 , z0 ) is orthogonal to a level surface of F through

P (x0 , y0 , z0 )

direction, we get the maximum change in F .

If f is a function of x and y and P (x0 , y0 ) is in the domain of f ,

it can be shown that f (x0 , y0 ) is perpendicular to the level

curve f (x, y) = k containing P .

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Exercises

1

at the given point.

a. f (x, y) = ln(x 2y); (3, 1)

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Exercises

1

at the given point.

a. f (x, y) = ln(x 2y); (3, 1)

b. x2 2y 2 + z = 2xy; (1, 2, 3)

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Exercises

1

at the given point.

a. f (x, y) = ln(x 2y); (3, 1)

b. x2 2y 2 + z = 2xy; (1, 2, 3)

c. z + 1 = xey cos z; (1, 0, 0)

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Exercises

1

at the given point.

a. f (x, y) = ln(x 2y); (3, 1)

b. x2 2y 2 + z = 2xy; (1, 2, 3)

c. z + 1 = xey cos z; (1, 0, 0)

Find symmetric and parametric equations for the normal line to

the following surfaces at the given point.

a. z + 1 = xey cos z; (1, 0, 0)

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Exercises

1

at the given point.

a. f (x, y) = ln(x 2y); (3, 1)

b. x2 2y 2 + z = 2xy; (1, 2, 3)

c. z + 1 = xey cos z; (1, 0, 0)

Find symmetric and parametric equations for the normal line to

the following surfaces at the given point.

a. z + 1 = xey cos z; (1, 0, 0)

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Exercises

1

at the given point.

a. f (x, y) = ln(x 2y); (3, 1)

b. x2 2y 2 + z = 2xy; (1, 2, 3)

c. z + 1 = xey cos z; (1, 0, 0)

Find symmetric and parametric equations for the normal line to

the following surfaces at the given point.

a. z + 1 = xey cos z; (1, 0, 0)

parallel to x + 2y + 3z = 1?

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Exercises

1

at the given point.

a. f (x, y) = ln(x 2y); (3, 1)

b. x2 2y 2 + z = 2xy; (1, 2, 3)

c. z + 1 = xey cos z; (1, 0, 0)

Find symmetric and parametric equations for the normal line to

the following surfaces at the given point.

a. z + 1 = xey cos z; (1, 0, 0)

parallel to x + 2y + 3z = 1?

Find parametric equations for the tangent line to the curve of

intersection of the paraboloid z = x2 + y 2 and the ellipsoid

4x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9 at (1, 1, 2)

Math 55

Tangent Planes

Exercises

1

at the given point.

a. f (x, y) = ln(x 2y); (3, 1)

b. x2 2y 2 + z = 2xy; (1, 2, 3)

c. z + 1 = xey cos z; (1, 0, 0)

Find symmetric and parametric equations for the normal line to

the following surfaces at the given point.

a. z + 1 = xey cos z; (1, 0, 0)

parallel to x + 2y + 3z = 1?

Find parametric equations for the tangent line to the curve of

intersection of the paraboloid z = x2 + y 2 and the ellipsoid

4x2 + y 2 + z 2 = 9 at (1, 1, 2)

Show that the equation of the tangent plane to the ellipsoid

x2

y2

z2

+

+

= 1 at (x0 , y0 , z0 ) can be written as

a2

b2

c2

yy0

zz0

xx0

+ 2 + 2 = 1.

a2

b

c

Math 55

Tangent Planes

References

Brooks/Cole, 2008

http://tutorial.math.lamar.edu/

Math 55

Tangent Planes

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