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Procedure:

1. The procedure for selection of mix proportions given in this section is applicable to normal

weight concrete. Although the same basic data and procedures can be used in proportioning

heavyweight concrete additional information may be needed.

2. Estimating the required batch weight for the concrete involves a sequence of logical,

straightforward steps which, in effect, fit the characteristics available materials into a

mixture suitable for the work. The question of suitability is frequently not left to the

individual selecting the proportions. The job specifications may dictate some or all of the

following :

a.

b.

c.

d.

e.

f.

g.

Minimum cement content

Air content

Slump

Maximum size of aggregate

Strength

Other requirements relating to such things as strength overdesign, admixtures, and

special types of cement aggregate.

3. Regardless of whether the concrete characteristics are prescribed by the specifications or are

left to the individual selecting the proportions, establishment of batch weights per cubic

meter of concrete can best be accomplished in the following sequence :

Step 1. Choice of Slump

If slump is not specified, a value appropriate for the work can be selected

from table 1. The slump ranges shown should be used when vibration is used to

consolidate concrete mixes of the stiffest consistency that can be placed efficiently.

Step 2. Choice of Maximum Size of Aggregate

Larger sizes of well graded aggregates have less voids than smaller sizes.

Hence, concrete with the larger-size aggregates requires less mortar per unit volume of

concrete. Generally, the maximum size of the aggregate should be the largest that is

economically available and consistent with dimensions of the structure. In no event should

the maximum size exceed one fifth of the narrowest dimension between sides of the forms,

one third the depth of slabs, nor three fourths of the minimum clear spacing between

individual reinforcing bars, bundles of bars, or pre-tensioning strands. These limitations

are sometimes waived if work ability and methods of consolidation are such that the

concrete can be placed without honeycomb or void. When high strength concrete is desired,

best results may be obtained with reduced maximum size of aggregate since these produce

higher strengths of a given water-cement ratio.

The quantity of water per unit volume of concrete required to produce a given slump

is dependent on the maximum size, particle shape and grading of the aggregates and on the

amount of entrained air. It is not greatly affected by amount of entrained air. It is not

greatly affected by the quantity of cement. Table 2 provides estimates of required mixing

water for concretes made with various maximum sizes of aggregates, with or without air

entrainment. Dependent on aggregate texture and shape, mixing water requirements may

be somewhat above or below the tabulated values, but they are sufficiently accurate for the

first estimate. Such differences in water demand are not necessarily reflected strength since

other compensating factors may be involved. For example, a rounded and an angular coarse

aggregate, both well and similarly graded and of good quality can be expected to produce

concrete of about the same comprehensive strength for the same cement factor in spite of

different mixing water requirements. Particle shape per se is not an indicator that an

aggregate will be either above or below average in its strength-producing capacity.

Table 2 indicates the approximate amount of entrapped air to be expected in non airentrained concrete in the upper part of the table shows the recommended average air content

for air-entrained concrete in the lower part of the table. (if air entrainment is needed or

desired).

When trial batches are used to establish strength relationships or verify strengthproducing capacity of a mixture, the least favorable combination of mixing water and air

content should be used. That is the air content should be the maximum permitted or likely

to occur, and the concrete should be gated to the highest permissible slump. This will avoid

developing an over-optimistic estimate of strength on the assumption that average rather

than extreme conditions will prevail in the field.

The required water-cement ratio is determined not only by strength requirements but

also by the factors such as durability and finishing properties. Since different aggregates

and cements generally produce different strengths at the same water cement-ratio, it is

highly desirable to have or develop the relationship between strength and water-cement ratio

for the materials actually to be used. In the absence of such data, approximate and

relatively conservative values for concrete containing type 1 Portland Cement can be taken

from table 3. With typical materials, the tabulated water-cement ratios should produce the

strength shown, based on 28-day test of specimens cured under standard laboratory

conditions. The average strength selected must, of course, exceed the specified strength

tests within specified limits.

For Severe conditions of exposure, the water-cement ratio should be kept low even

though strength requirements may be met with a higher value. Table 4 gives limiting values.

The amount of cement per unit volume of concrete is fixed by the determination

made in steps 3 and 4. The required cement is equal to the estimated mixing water content.

(Step 3) divided by the water-cement ratio (Step 4). If, however, the specification includes

a separate minimum limit on cement in addition to the requirements for strength and

durability, the mixture must be based on whichever criteria leads to the large amount of

cement. The use of pozzolanic or chemical admixtures will affect properties of both the

fresh and hardened concrete.

Aggregates of essentially the same maximum size and grading will produce concrete

of satisfactory workability when a given volume of coarse aggregate, on a dry-rodded basis,

is used per unit volume of concrete. Appropriate values for this aggregate volume are given

in Table 5. It can be seen that, for equal workability the volume of coarse aggregate in a

unit volume of concrete is dependent only on a maximum size and fineness modulus of the

fine aggregate. Differences in the amount of mortar required for workability with different

aggregates, due to differences in particle shape and grading, are compensated for

automatically by differences in dry-rodded void content.

The volume of aggregate, in cubic meter, on a dry-rodded basis, is equal to the

value from table 5 multiplied by 1. This volume is converted to dry weight of coarse

aggregate required in a cubic meter of concrete by multiplying it by the dry-rodded weight

per cubic meter of the coarse aggregate.

*** For more workable concrete, which is sometimes required when concrete must

be work around congested reinforcing steel or when placement is by pump, it may be

desirable to reduce the estimated coarse aggregate content determined using table 5 by up to

10 percent. However, caution must be exercised to assure that the resulting slump, watercement ratio,

and strength properties of the concrete are consistent with the

recommendations in Step 4 and Step 1 and meet applicable project specification

requirements.

At completion of step 6, all ingredients of the concrete have been estimated except

the fine aggregate. Its quantity is determined by the difference. The absolute volume

method may be used.

*** The procedure for calculating the required amount of fine aggregates involves

the use of volumes displaced by the ingredients. In this case, the total volume displaced by

the known ingredients - water, air, cement, and coarse aggregate - is subtracted from

the unit volume of concrete to obtain the required volume of fine aggregate. The volume

occupied in concrete by any ingredient is equal to its weight divided by the density of that

material ( the latter being the product of the unit weight of water and the specific gravity of

the material.)

The aggregate quantities actually to be weighted out for the concrete must allow for

moisture in the aggregates. Generally, the aggregates will be moist and their dry weights

should be increased by the percentage of water they contain., both absorbed and surface.

The mixing water added to batch must be reduced by an amount equal to the free moisture

contributed by the aggregate - i.e., total moisture minus absorption.

The calculated mixture proportions should be checked by means of trial batches

prepared and tested in accordance with ASTM 192 Making and curing concrete

compression and flexure test specimens in the laboratory or full-sized field batches. Only

sufficient water should be used to produce the required slump regardless of the amount

assumed in selecting the trial proportions. The concrete should be checked for unit weight

and yield (ASTM) and the air content (ASTM C 138, V 173 or 231). It should also be

carefully observed for proper workability, freedom from segregate, and

finishing

properties. Appropriate adjustments should be made in the proportions for subsequent

batches in accordance with the following procedure.

1.

Re-estimate the required mixing water per cubic meter by dividing the weight

mixing water content by the yield of the trial batch in cubic meter. If the slump

of the trial batch was not correct, increase or decrease the re-estimated water

content by 2 kg/m3 of concrete for each increase or decrease of 10mm in slump

desired.

2. To adjust for the effect of incorrect air content in a trial batch of air-entrained

concrete on slump, reduce or increase the mixing water content of No. 1 by 3

kg/m3 of concrete for each percent by which the air content is to be increased or

decreased from that of the trial batch.

Table 1 :

Recommended slumps for various types of construction

Types of construction

75

25

75

25

100

25

Building columns

100

25

75

25

Mass concrete

75

25

Table 2

NON-AIR-ENTRAINED CONCRETE

Approximate mixing water (kg/m3) for indicated nominal maximum sizes of aggregate

150

Slump (mm)

9.5 mm 12.5 mm 19 mm 25 mm 37.5 mm 50 mm 75 mm

mm

25 to 50

207

199

190

179

166

154

130

113

75 to 100

228

216

205

193

181

169

145

124

150 to 175

243

228

216

202

190

178

160

More than 175

Approximate amount of entrapped air in non-air-entrained concrete (%)

150

Slump (mm)

9.5 mm 12.5 mm 19 mm 25 mm 37.5 mm 50 mm 75 mm

mm

All

3.0

2.5

2.0

1.5

1.0

0.5

0.3

0.2

Table 3

Relationship between water-cement or water-cementitious materials ratio and compressive

strength of concrete

Compressive strength at 28 days

Water-cement ratio by weight

(MPa)

(Non-air-entrained concrete)

40

0.42

35

0.47

30

0.54

25

0.61

20

0.69

15

0.79

Important! Check the maximum permissible water-cement ratio from the Table below and

revise the water-cement ratio entered in the box above accordingly.

Table 4

Maximum permissible water-cement or water-cementitious materials ratios for concrete in

severe exposure

Structure wet continuously

Structure exposed

Type of Structure

and exposed to frequent

to sea water or

freezing and thawing

sulfates

Thin section (railings, curbs, sills, ledges,

0.45

0.40

ornamental work) and sections with less

than 25 mm cover over steel

0.50

0.45

All other structures

Are pozzolanic materials [such as Fly Ash, Silica Fumes, Ground Granulated Blast-Furnace

Slag (GGBFS)] used in the mix?

* NO, proceed with regular mix design.

* YES, select desired calculation method, and make input in one of the Tables below:

Weight Equivalency Method

If pozzolanic materials percentage by weight of

cementitious material is known, click here

and Enter this percentage

of cementitious material is known, click here

, and Enter this percentage

cementitious material is known, click here

of cementitious material is known, click here

, and Enter this percentage

Table 5

Volume of oven-dry-rodded coarse aggregate per unit volume of concrete for different

fineness moduli of fine aggregate

Nominal

maximum size of

2.40

2.60

2.80

3.00

aggregate (mm)

0.50

0.48

0.46

0.44

9.5

0.59

0.57

0.55

0.53

12.5

0.66

0.64

0.62

0.60

19

0.71

0.69

0.67

0.65

25

0.75

0.73

0.71

0.69

37.5

0.78

0.76

0.74

0.72

50

0.82

0.80

0.78

0.76

75

0.87

0.85

0.83

0.81

150

Nominal maximum size of aggregate (mm)

Non-air-entrained concrete

2280

9.5

2310

12.5

2345

19

2380

25

2410

37.5

2445

50

2490

75

2530

150

Is water reducer (chemical admixture) used in the mix?

* NO, proceed with regular mix design.

* YES, select appropriate input from Table below:

Enter this

percentage

%

(cement plus pozzolanic materials) weight, click here

Enter this

percentage

%

Ingredients of Concrete Mixture

Water kg/m

Ingredients of

Water kg

Cement

kg/m3

Coarse

Aggregate

kg/m3

Fine

Aggregate

kg/m3

Pozzolanic

Materials

kg/m3

Water

Reducer

kg/m3

Fine

Aggregate kg

Pozzolanic

Materials kg

Water

Reducer kg

% Concrete Batch

Cement kg

Coarse

Aggregate kg

Example Problem :

Concrete is required for a portion of a structure which will be below ground level in a

location where it will not be exposed to severe weathering or sulfate attack.

Structural considerations require it to have an average 28-day compressive strength of 250

kgf/cm2 (25 MPa).

On the basis of information in Table 1, as well as previous experience, it is determined that

under the conditions of placement to be employed, a slump of 75 to 100 mm should be used.

Coarse aggregates with maximum size of 37.5 mm with a dry-rodded weight of 1600

kg/m3 is suitable.

cement type I with specific gravity of 3.15,

coarse aggregate - bulk specific gravity 2.68

absorption 0.5 percent;

fine aggregate bulk specific 2.64

absorption 0.7 percent

fineness modulus 2.80.

SOLUTION :

Step 1. Choice of Slump

A slump of 75 to 100 mm should be used.

Step 2. Choice of Maximum Size of Aggregate

Coarse aggregates with maximum size of 37.5 mm

Step 3. Estimation of mixing water and air content

Table 2

NON-AIR-ENTRAINED CONCRETE

Approximate mixing water (kg/m3) for indicated nominal maximum sizes of aggregate

150

Slump (mm)

9.5 mm 12.5 mm 19 mm 25 mm 37.5 mm 50 mm 75 mm

mm

25 to 50

207

199

190

179

166

154

130

113

75 to 100

228

216

205

193

169

145

124

181

150 to 175

243

228

216

202

190

178

160

More than 175

Approximate amount of entrapped air in non-air-entrained concrete (%)

Slump (mm)

All

9.5 mm 12.5 mm 19 mm

3.0

2.5

2.0

25 mm 37.5 mm 50 mm

1.5

1.0

0.5

75 mm

0.3

150

mm

0.2

The concrete will be non air-entrained since the structure is not to be exposed to

severe weathering. From table 2, the estimated mixing water for a slump of 75 to

100 mm. aggregate is found to be 181 kg/m3.

Table 3

Relationship between water-cement or water-cementitious materials ratio and compressive

strength of concrete

Compressive strength at 28 days

Water-cement ratio by weight

2

kgf/cm (MPa)

(Non-air-entrained concrete)

400 (40)

0.42

350 (35)

0.47

300 (30)

0.54

250 (25)

200 (20)

150 (15)

0.61

0.69

0.79

The water-cement ratio for non air entrained concrete with a strength of 250 kgf/cm2

(25 MPa) is found from table 3 to be 0.61.

From the information developed in Steps 3 and 4, the required cement content is

found to be

Cement Content = 181 kg/m3 = 297 MPa

0.61

Step 6. Estimation of Coarse Aggregate Content

Table 5

Volume of oven-dry-rodded coarse aggregate per unit volume of concrete for different

fineness moduli of fine aggregate

Nominal

maximum size of

2.40

2.60

2.80

3.00

aggregate (mm)

0.50

0.48

0.46

0.44

9.5

0.59

0.57

0.55

0.53

12.5

0.66

0.64

0.62

0.60

19

0.71

0.69

0.67

0.65

25

0.75

0.73

0.69

37.5

0.71

50

75

150

0.78

0.82

0.87

0.76

0.80

0.85

0.74

0.78

0.83

0.72

0.76

0.81

cement type I with specific gravity of 3.15,

coarse aggregate - bulk specific gravity 2.68

absorption 0.5 percent;

fine aggregate bulk specific 2.64

absorption 0.7 percent

fineness modulus 2.80.

The quantity of coarse aggregate is estimated from table 5. For a fine aggregate

having a fineness modulus of 2.8 and 37.5 mm maximum size of coarse aggregates, the

table indicates that 0.71 m3 of coarse aggregate, on a dry-rodded basis, maybe used in each

cubic meter of concrete.

The required dry weight is

= 1600 kg x 0.71 m3 = 1136 kg

m3

With the quantities of water, cement, and coarse aggregate established, the

remaining material compressing the cubic meter of concrete must consist of sand and

whatever air will be entrapped. The required sand maybe determined on the basis of

absolute volume below:

Density of Water = 1000 kg/m3

Volume of Water = 181 kg/m3 x 1 m3 of concrete = 0.181 m3

1000 kg/m3

D = W ; V = W

; D = Gs x Dw

V

D

Solid volume of = 297 kg/m3 x 1 m3 of concrete = 0.094 m3

Cement

3.15 x 1000 kg/m3

coarse aggregate - bulk specific gravity 2.68 ,

Solid volume of = 1136 kg/m3

Coarse Aggregate

x 1 m3 of concrete = 0.424 m3

2.68 x 1000 kg/m3

= 0.010 m3

= 0.709 m3

= 0.291 m3

absorption 0.7 percent

fineness modulus 2.80.

Required weight of sand = 1000 kg x 0.291 m3 x 2.64 = 768 kg

m3

Water (net mixing)

Cement

Coarse Aggregate (dry)

Fine Aggregate (dry)

= 181 kg

= 297 kg

= 1136 kg

= 768 kg

If tests indicate total moisture of 2 percent in the coarse aggregate and 6

percent in fine aggregate, the trial balance proportions based on assumed concrete

weights used should be adjusted.

Coarse Aggregate (wet)

Fine Aggregate (wet)

= 1136 kg x 1.02

= 768 kg x 1.06

= 1159 kg

= 814 kg

Absorbed water does not become part of the mixing water and must be

excluded from the adjustment in added water.

Thus surface water contributed by the

coarse aggregate amounts to 2 0.5 = 1.5 percent

fine aggregate amounts to 6 0.7

= 5.3 percent

The estimated requirements for added water therefore become

181 kg - 1136 (0.015) - 768 (0.053) = 124 kg

Water (to be added)

Cement

Coarse Aggregate

Fine Aggregate

= 124 kg

= 297 kg

= 1159 kg

= 814 kg

For the laboratory trial batch, it is found convenient to scale the weights down to

produce 0.02 m3 concrete. Although the calculated quantity of water to be added was 2.32

kg, the amount actually used in an effort to obtain the desired 75 to 100 mm slump is 2.70

kg. The batches mixed therefore, consist of

Water (added)

Cement

: 297 x 0.02

Coarse Aggregate : 1159 x 0.02

Fine Aggregate : 814 x 0.02

= 2.70 kg

= 5.94 kg

= 23.18 kg

= 16.28 kg

___________

= 48.10 kg

unit weight 2390 kg/m3

Measure slump 50 mm ;

2390

; workability is OKEY

2.70 kg x 23.18 x 0.015 + 16.86 x 0.053

1.02

1.06

________________________________________

= 192 kg

0.0202

Mixing water required for slump of 75 to 100 mm: If the desired slump is say 90

mm, the re-estimated water in the trial batch should be increased by 2 kg/m3 of concrete

for each increase of 10 mm slump desired.

192 + 90 50

10

x 2 = 200 kg

200

0.62

= 322 kg

23.18

0.0202

1147

1.02

= 1147 kg (wet)

or

= 1124 kg (dry)

The volume of ingredients other than air in the original trial batch was

1 x 1000

0.0039 m3

Cement :

0.0018 m3

22.72

=

2.68 x 1000

0.0085 m3

5.64

3.15 x 1000

Coarse Aggregate :

Fine Aggregate :

=

0.0050 m3

__________________

15.90

2.64 x 1000

Total

0.0202 m3

Since the yield was also 0.0202 m3, there was no air in the concrete detectable within the precision

of the unit weight test and significant figures of the calculations. With the proportions of all

components except fine aggregate established, the determination of adjusted cubic meter batch

quantities can be completed as follows :

Volume of Water :

Volume of cement :

0.200 m3

0.102 m3

0.000 m3

1124

=

2.68 x 1000

0.419 m3

200

1 x 1000

322

3.15 x 1000

0.721 m3

1.0 00 - 0.721

0.279 m3

0.279 x 2.64 x 1000

736 kg

The adjusted basic batch weights per cubic meter of concrete, then are :

Water (net mixing)

200 kg

Cement

322 kg

1124 kg

736 kg

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