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physical sciences and the practical application of mechanics.

Much of modern engineering mechanics is based on Isaac Newton's

laws of motion while the modern practice of their application can be

traced back toStephen Timoshenko, who is said to be the father of

modern engineering mechanics.

parts Statics and Dynamics.

Statics- It is a branch of mechanics which studies the effects and

distribution of forces of rigid bodies which are and remain at rest. In

this area of mechanics, the body in which forces are acting is

assumed to be rigid.

The deformation of the body is treated in Mechanics in the name of

Force :

rest of a body to which it is applied.

Newton's laws of motion are three physical laws that form the basis

for classical mechanics.

Newton's First law

A body persists in a state of rest or of uniform motion unless acted

upon by an external force. Newton's first law is often referred to as

thelaw of inertia.

Newton's second law

Newton's second law states that the force applied to a body

produces a proportional acceleration; the relationship between the

two is

where F is the force applied, m is the mass of the body, and a is the

body's acceleration.

Newton's third law: Or law of reciprocal actions

the forces of two bodies on each other are always equal and are

directed in opposite directions.

Coplanar Forces :

When a number of Forces lie in the plane they are said to be

Coplanar Forces.

Concurrent Forces:

said to be Concurrent Forces.

Forces acting at some angle from the the coordinate axes can be

resolved into mutually perpendicular forces called components. The

component of a force parallel to the x-axis is called the xcomponent, parallel to y-axis the y-component, and so on.

Fx=Fcos x=Fsin y

Fy=Fsin x=Fcos y

F=

Fx2+Fy2

tan x=FxFy

Problem:1

Determine the x and y components of the forces shown below

Solution :

Fx1=58cos30 =50.23 kN

Fy1=58sin30 =29 kN

Fx2=50cos45 =35.36 kN

Fy2=50sin45 =35 36 kN

Fx3=45 ( 5/13) =17 31 kN

Fy3=45 (12/ 13)=41 54 kN

Fx4=40 kN

Fy4=0

Problem 2:

The body on the 30 incline in Fig. is acted upon by a force P

inclined at 20 with the horizontal. If P is resolved into components

parallel and perpendicular to incline and the value of the parallel

component is 1800 kg, compute the value of the perpendicular

component and that of P.

Solution :

=20 +30

=50

Perpendicular component

Pn=1800tan

Pn=1800 tan50

Pn=2145.16 kg

answer

TheValue of P

P=cos 1800

P=1800cos50

P=2800.3 kg

answer

Resultant is a force or a couple that will have the same effect to the body,

both in translation and rotation, if all the forces are removed and replaced by

the resultant.

The equation involving the resultant of force system are the

following :

1.

Rx= Fx=Fx1+Fx2+Fx3+

The x-component of the resultant is equal to the summation of forces in the

x-direction.

2.

Ry= Fy=Fx1+Fx2+Fx3+

The y-component of the resultant is equal to the summation of forces in the

y-direction.

3.

Rz= Fz=Fx1+Fx2+Fx3+

The z-component of the resultant is equal to the summation of forces in the

z-direction.

Note that according to the type of force system, one or two or three of the

equations above will be used in finding the resultant.

Resultant of Coplanar Concurrent Force System

The line of action of each forces in coplanar concurrent force system are on

the same plane. All of these forces meet at a common point, thus concurrent.

In x-y plane, the resultant can be found by the following formulas:

Rx= Fx

Ry= Fy

R=

Rx2+Ry2

tan x = RxRy

Parallelogram Law :

If two coplanar forces, acting at a point be represented in

magnitude and direction by the adjacent sides of a

parallelogram, then their resultant is represented in

passing through that point.

P and Q are two forces, the resultant of these forces R as shown in

fig.

Let OA and OB represent the

forces P and Q acting at a

point O and inclined to each

other at an angle a then the

resultant R and direction q

(shown in figure) will be given

by

R = P2+Q2+2PQcos

and

tan (/2) => = /2

Case (ii): If the forces act at

right angles, so that

= 90, we have R = P2+Q2

and

tan = Q/P

Triangle law of forces:

the sides of a triangle ,their resultant is represented by the closing

side of the triangle taken from first point to the last point.

Polygon of law of forces:

If a number of concurrent forces acting simultaneously on a body

are represented in magnitude and direction by the sides of a

polygon, taken in a order, then the resultant is represented in

magnitude and direction by the closing side of the polygon, taken

from first point to last point.

Law of Equilibrium:

Two forces can be in equilibrium only if they are equal in magnitude,

opposite in direction and collinear in action.

Ex: If a resultant force acts on an object then that object can be

brought into equilibrium by applying an additional force that exactly

balances this resultant.

Such a force is called the equilibrant and is equal in magnitude but

opposite in direction to the original resultant force acting on the

object.

Law of Superposition:

The action of a given system of forces on a rigid body will in no way

be changed if we add to or subtract from them another system of

forces in equilibrium.

Law of Transmissibility of Force:

The point of application of a force may be transmitted along its line

of action

Problem :1

The magnitude of vertical force F shown in Fig. is 8000 N. Resolve F

into components parallel to the bars AB and AC.

Solution :1

By Sine Law:

FABsin20

FAB=4256.71 N

FACsin120

FAC=10778.37 N

= 8000sin40

answer

= 8000sin40

answer

Problem : 2

If the force F shown in Fig. is resolved into components parallel to

the bars AB and BC, the magnitude of the component parallel to bar

BC is 4 kN. What are the magnitudes of F and its component parallel

to AB?

Solution: 2

tan =1.01.5

= 56.31

tan =4.01.5

=20.56

=90 =90 56.31

=33.69

=90 =90 20.56

=69.44

=180

=76.87

By Sine law

Fsin

= FBCsin

F=sin FBCsin

F=sin33.69 4sin76.87

F=7.02 kN

FABsin

answer

=FBCsin

FAB=sin FBCsin

FAB=sin33.69 4sin69.44

FAB=6.75 kN

answer

June-2010

Click on Fig to Get Large Image.

June-2010

June-2010

Click on Fig to Get Large Image.

December -2010

Decenber -2010

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Friday, 6 May 2011

Dynamics -Key concepts 4

A collision is an isolated event in which two or more moving bodies

(colliding bodies) exert forces on each other for a relatively short

time. A high force applied over a short time period when two or

more bodies collide is called as Impact.

Types of Impact

1.Elastic Impact

2.Plastic Impact or Inelastic Impact

If the two objects adhere and remain connected after the impact,

the impact is said to be perfectly plastic.

Coefficient of Restitution

During the impact, each object can lose energy This loss in energy

can be expressed as the difference in velocity after the collision

divided by the difference in velocity before the collision, or

The prime velocities, vB' and vA' are velocities after the collision. The

coefficient of restitution is a measure of the energy that is lost

during a collision.

For a perfectly elastic collision (e = 1), no energy is lost. The

Coefficient of Restitution for small rubber balls is very close to one,

which makes them very bouncy and fun to play with.

In a perfectly inelastic collision,The coefficient of restitution (e =

0) the colliding particles stick together. and move with same

velocity V

It is necessary to consider conservation of momentum:

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Tuesday, 3 May 2011

Dynamics - Key Concepts 3

Relation Between Torque and Angular Acceleration

Consider a mass m moving in a circle of radius r , acted on by

a tangential force Ft as shown in Fig.

Using Newton's second law (F=ma),to relate Ft to the

tangential acceleration at = r ,

where is the angular acceleration:

Ft = mat = mr

and the fact that the torque about the center of rotation due

to Ft is:

mt = Ft r = mr

Xr

Thus, mt = mr 2 .

For a rotating rigid body made up of a collection of

masses m1,m2.... the total torque about the axis of rotation

is:

Mt

=

mt

=

(miri2)

The angular acceleration of all points in a rigid body is the

same, so that it can be taken outside the summation. The

mass moment of inertia, I , of a rigid body gives a measure of

rotational motion, Mathematically,

I=

miri2.

There fore,

Mt=I

Impulse and

Momentum

the integral of a force with respect to time. When a force is

applied to a rigid body it changes the momentum of that

body. A small force applied for a long time can produce the

same momentum change as a large force applied briefly,

because it is the product of the force and the time for which

it is applied that is important.

The impulse is equal to the change of momentum.

quantity t, a new equation results.

Momentum can be defined as "mass in motion." In terms

of an equation, the momentum of an object is equal to

the mass of the object times the velocity of the object.

Momentum = mass x velocity

=mxv

where m is the mass and v is the velocity.

And the quantity mXv is called the momentum,If initial

velocity of the particle is V1 and final velocity is V2 ,then

the quantity mXv must be the change in momentum.

momentum

m( v2-v1) = mv2 - mv1

The equation really says that the

=

mv2 - mv1

momentum of the system remains constant or conserved.

mv2 - mv1 = 0

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Saturday, 30 April 2011

Dynamics - Key Concepts 2

DAlemberts principle

law of motion, stated by the 18th-century French

polymath Jean le Rond dAlembert.

In effect, the principle reduces a problem in dynamics to

a problem in statics.

a body is equal to the product of the mass m and

acceleration a of the body, or

F = ma

is

F - ma = 0

In other words, the body is in equilibrium under the

action of the real force 'F' and

the fictitious force ( -ma).

The fictitious force is also called an 'inertial force' and a

reversed effective force.

Acceleration in rectangular components

The expressions for acceleration are very similar to those

for velocity.

Horizontal component of acceleration:

Magnitude of acceleration:

Direction of acceleration:

tangential directions (t - n axis)

The tangential acceleration, tangent to trajectory and

parallel to velocity is,

trajectory and directed to its center is,

The Radius of curvature of the curve is defined as the

radius of the approximating circle. This radius changes as

we move along the curve.

The formula for the radius of curvature at any point x for

the curve

y = f(x) is given by:

Centripetal Force:

Any motion in a curved path represents accelerated

motion, and requires a force directed towards the center

of curvature of the path. This force is called

thecentripetal force which means "center seeking" force.

Centrifugal force:

Centrifugal force is

a fictitious or inertial force and it

represents the effects of inertia that arise in connection

with rotation and which are experienced as an outward

force away from the center of rotation and equal to

centripetal force.

It is defined as the force that tends to make rotating

bodies move away from the center of rotation.

time , angular velocity, and angular acceleration . Angular

velocity is the rate of change of angular displacement

and angular acceleration is the rate of change of angular

velocity.

The averages of velocity and acceleration are defined by

the relationships:

For an object rotating about an axis, every point on the object has

the same angular velocity. The tangential velocity of any point is

proportional to its distance from the axis of rotation. Angular

velocity has the units rad/s.

can be described by the relationship

Equations for constant angular acceleration

acceleration. The relation between angular velocity and

radius of path with tangential acceleration at is,

the centripetal acceleration:

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Wednesday, 27 April 2011

Dynamics - Key Concepts

motion and changes in motion is called as Dynamics.

For convenience, dynamics is divided into two

branches, Kinematics and Kinetics.

Kinematics :It is the branch of classical mechanics that

describes the motion of bodies (objects) and systems

(groups of objects) without consideration of the forces

that cause the motion.

Kinetics:It is the branch of classical mechanics that

describes the motion of bodies (objects) and systems

(groups of objects) by consideration of the forces that

cause the motion.

Types of Motion:

There are three types of motion,

Translatory motion

Rotatory motion

Vibratory motion

Translatory motion:

In translatory motion the particle moves from one point

in space to another. This motion may be along a straight

line or along a curved path.

called Rectilinear motion and

Motion along a curved path is called Curvilinear motion.

Curvilinear motion:

A car moving on a curved road.

Rectilinear motion :

A car moving in a straight road

Rotatory motion:

In rotatory motion the particles of the body describe

concentric circles about the axis of motion.

Vibratory motion:

In vibratory motion the particles move to and fro about a

fixed point.

Distance and Displacement:

Distance and displacement are two quantities that may

seem to mean the same thing yet have distinctly different

definitions and meanings.

Displacement is a vector quantity, that refers to the

object's overall change in position.Displacement is a

measurement of change in position of the particle in

motion. Its magnitude and direction are measured by the

length and direction of the straight line joining initial and

straight line between the positions is the shortest

distance between the points.

ground an object has covered" during its motion.

Speed and Velocity:

and Velocity is the rate of change of displacement with

time.Speed is the first derivative of distance with respect

to time,and Velocity is the first derivative

of displacement with respect to time.

The average speed during the course of a motion is often

computed using the following formula:

this formula

Acceleration:

It is the rate of change of velocity with respect to time.

The term acceleration is used in general for an increase

the magnitude of velocity wiht respect to time. a

decrease in velocity is called deceleration.

Velocity is measured in meters per second, m/s, so acceleration

is measured in (m/s)/s, or m/s2, which can be both positive and

negative.

Uniform acceleration

Uniform or constant acceleration is a type of motion in

which the velocity of an object changes by an equal

amount in every equal time period.

simple formulae that relate the following

quantities: displacement, initial velocity, final velocity,

acceleration, and time:

where

= displacement

= initial velocity

= final velocity

= uniform acceleration

t = time.

Motion with Variable acceleration

The equations derived for uniformly accelerated motion are

not applicable to the motion with variable acceleration.

The relation between,

displacement, initial velocity, final velocity, acceleration,

and time are,

Instantaneous velocity

Instantaneous acceleration

a = v. dv/dx

Relation between acceleration and velocity

specified, the other can be obtained by process of

differentiation or integration, using the above

relationships.

In problems requiring integration, the constants of

integrations can be determined from specified

conditions of motion.

EXAMPLE

:

If the position of a particle along x axis varies in

time as :

x=2t23t+1

Then :

1. What is the velocity at t = 0 ?

2. When does velocity become zero?

3. What is the velocity at the origin ?

Solution :

We first need to find out an expression for velocity

by differentiating the given function of position with

respect to time as :

v=t(2t23t+1)=4t3

v=4x03=3m/s

(ii) When velocity becomes zero :

For v = 0,

4t3=0t=34=0.75 s.

(iii) The velocity at the origin :

At origin, x = 0,

x=2t23t+1=02t22tt+1=02t(t1)

(t1)=0t=0.5 s, 1 s.

This means that particle is twice at the origin at t =

0.5 s and t = 1 s. Now,

v(t=0.5 s)=4t-3=4x0.53=-1 m/s.

Negative sign indicates that velocity is directed in

the negative x direction.

v(t=1 s)=4t-3=4x13=1 m/s.

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