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Book_-

V4

NOTES

ELE MENTS
(ANALYTICAL)

Solid Geometry,

BY

CHAS.

S.

VENABLE.

LL.D.,

Professor of Mathematics, University of Virginia.

NEW YORK:
UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY.
1879.

.^3

a^l"
\j;

In preparing these Notes I have used the treatises of Gregory,


Hymers, Salmon, Frost and Wostenhohiie, Bourdon, Sonnet et
Frontera, Joachimsthal-Hesse, and Fort

und Schlomilch.
C. S. V.

^.J:"^

339

In

Exchange

Univ, of

r^.

Copyright, by

University Publishing Company,


1879-

Notes on Solid Geometry.


CHAPTER
We

1.

have seen

how

the position of a point in a plane with ref-

erence to a given origin

is

determined by means of

^"'M two axes Ox, Oy meeting in O.

we must add

its

distances

In space, as there are three

So that each pair of axes


Ox
and Oy determining the plane xOy
Oz the plane xOz Oy and Oz the plane yOz. And the posiot the point P with reference to the origin O is determined by
its distance^ ^M, PN, PR from the zOy, zOx, xOy respectively, these
distances being measured on lines parallel to the axes Ox, Oy and
ensions,

a third axis Oz.

Ox

rmines a plane,

Oz

respectively.

This system of coordinates in space

is

System of Triplahar Coordinates, and the transition to


System

of Rectilinear

Plane Coordinates

is

called
it

We

very easy.

The

from the
can best

P by conceiving O as the
corner of a parallelopipedon of which OA, OB, OC are the edges,
and the point P is the opposite corner, so that OP is one diagonal of

conceive of these three coordinates of

the parallelopipedon.
2.

If

PM = OA
P

of the point

are

PN = OB rr b, PR
y :=z b, z ^=^ c, and

=L a,

:=i

a,

maybe found

z=

OC =

the equations

c,

the point given by these

Measure on/
P^AK/A'
through
draw
and
A
the
plane
a,
parallel to the plane yOz.
Measure on Oy the distance OB = b, /
and draw the plane pMbR parallel to xOz, and finally lay off 0(y
= c and draw the plane PMCN parallel to xOy. The intersection
equations

OX

the distance

of these three planes


3.

The

by the following construction

is

P required.
Oz are called the axes of
planes xOy, xOz and yOz are

the point

three axes Ox, Oy,

respectively

OA

the three

x,

and

called the

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

The

planes xy, xz and yz respectively.

r= a,
4.

The

h,

r= ^

is

b, c).

coordinate planes produced indefinitely form eight solid

As

angles about the point O.

and

point whose equations are

called the point (a,

in plane coordinates the

axes

Ox

plane considered into four compartments, so in

O;^ divide the

space coordinates the planes xy, xz and yz divide the space considered

into

0-xyz,

0-xy'z,

on the

down

four

above the plane xy, viz.


and four below it, viz. 0'Xyz\
By an easy extension of the rule of

O-x'yz, 0-x[yz

O-x^z',

O'Xy^z^ O-xy'z',
signs laid

compartments

eight

Plane Coordinate Geometry, we regard

in

and on the left of j's:


and those behind it as

right of the plane^-s as

in front of the plane .V0 as -f

as

all

all

jv's

all

y's

above

We can then write the


xy as + and those behind it as
points whose distances from the coordinate planes are a, h and c in
the plane

the eiorht different an^Qries thus

In the

first

Octant, 0-xyz P,

In the second Octant, Pg


In the third Octant, P3

fifth

Octant, P5

In the sixth Octant,

is

(''>

P^; is

In the eighth Octant, Pg

The

signs thus

and the lengths of

(,

and

c give

is

-a,

(-

b.

c)

^?,

h.

c)

c)

c)

c)

b.

--h,

(-a.

is

b.

compartment

us in which

tell

a,

{-a,
(-

is

In the seventh Octant, P7

c)

{a,

is

In the fourth Octant, V\

In the

{a, h. c)

is

is

us

its

c)

point

the

falls,

position in these compart-

ments.

1.

Construct the points

2.

Construct the points

i,
i,

2,

3, 4

o,

i, 2

2,

3, o

o,
3, o,

o,

4, o, 3
2, o, o.

and R are called the projections of P on the


and when the axes are rectangular they are
its orthogonal projections.
We will treat mainly of orthogonal projections.
For shortness' sake when we speak simply of projections,
we are to be understood to mean orthogonal projections, unless we
5.

The

points

M,

three coordinate planes,

state the contrary.

We
which

will give
will

now some

be of use to

us.

other properties of orthogonal projections

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

Definitions.

6.

projection of a line on a plane

The

projections of

When

the line containing the

is

points on the plane.

its

one line or several lines connected together enclose a plane


by the projection of the lines is called the

area, the area enclosed

projection of the

The

first

area.

may be

idea of projection

extended:

in the case of the straight line thus

from the extremities of any limited straight line we draw

if

perpendiculars to a second line, the portion of the

between the

feet

of the perpendiculars

is

latter intercepted

called the projection of the

limited line on the second line.

From

we

this

see that

are the projections of


nates

of a point are

OB and
on the three

OA,

OP

the projections

OC

(coordinates rectangular)

axes, or the rectangular coordidistance from the origin on the

of its

coordinate axes.

7.

Fundamental Theorems.

I.

The length of

equal

to the line

of a

the projection

multiplied by the cosine

the plane.

of

the angle which

is

makes with

it

PQ

Let
jection

be the given finite straight line, xOy the plane of prodraw PM, QN perpendicular to it then
is the projec-

MN

PQ

on the plane. Now the angle made by PQ with the plane


made by PQ with MN. Through Q draw QR parallel
meeting QN in R, then QR = MN, and the angle PQR

tion of
is

right line on any plane

finite

the angle

MN
= the angle

to

made by

PQ

with

MN.

MN QR

Now

PQ

cos

PQR.
II.

The

projection on

any plane of any bounded plane area

that area multiplied by the cosine


1.

We

shall

The

area of the projection

= AD

planes.
2.

cos

A'B'C

ADM.

Hence A'B'C

ABC

the plane of projection.

ABC = BC

- B'C x A'l/

Moreover

= ABC

Next take a triangle

rallel to

area of

ADM =

is

equal

to

the planes,

begin with a triangle of which one side

to the plane of projection.

A'y

of the angle between

BC

is

parallel

x AD, and the

But B'C

BC and

the angle between the

x cos angle between the planes.


of which no one of the sides

is

pa-

/i?

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

Through

corner

the

CD

of the triangle draw

AB

plane of projection meeting

Now

D.

in

we

if

parallel to the

6 the angle

call

between the planes, then from i"^ A'B D'


ABD cos 6 and B'C'D'
B'C'D'^: (ABD-BCD) cos d or A^'B'C
=iBCD cos e. .-. A'B'D

=:ABC

cos

e,

may be divided up into a number of


which the proposition is true it is true also of

Since every polygon

3.

triangles of each of

the polygon,

i,

e.,

sum

of the

Also by the theory of

of the triangles.

pol}^gonal areas, the proposition

The

8.

equal
'

projection

is

also true of them.

upon another right

right line

finiie

imiltiplied by the

of

cosine

the

line is

between the

afigle

^li7ies\

PQ

Let

be the given line and

means of

PQ

meeting

with O.v, and

mtt.^Af^,

If there

?M

MN

PM

the perpendiculars

parallel to ININ

of a

the first line

to

being the limits of

limits, curvilinear areas

its

projection on the line O.v, by

and QN.

Through

Then PQR
PQ cos PQR.

in R.

MN =r QR =

be three points P,

P" joined by the right

P',

draw

the angle

is

QR

made by

lines PP',

PP" and P'P", the projections of PP" on any line will be equal to
the sum of the projections of PP' and P'P" on that line.
Let D, D',
be the projections of the points P.

D''

Then D'

will either lie

In the one case

D'.

between

and

P',

D"

DD" = DD'+ D'D"

P" on the
or

and

D"

line

between

in the other

AB.
and

DD"

DD' D"D' = in both cases the algebraic sum of DD' and D'D''.
The projection is + or according as the cosine of the angle above
is

or

^-

In general

if

there be any

jection of PP'" on any line

PP', P'P'',

etc.,

or, the

number

of points P, P', P",

equal to the

is

sum

etc.,

the pro-

of the projections of

projection of any one side of a closed po-

lygonal line on a straight line

is

equal to the

sum

of the projections

of the other sides on that line.


lo.

Useful Particular Case.

The

projectioji

equal the

PN

sum of

of

the

radius vector

the projections

of the point P.

For

the projection of the side


the

sum

line.

OF

of a point P on any

on that line of the coordinates

OPMN
OP

on

is

OM,

OM, MN,

line, and
must be equal to
MN, and PN on that

closed broken

a straight line

of the projections of the sides

line is

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


11.

Two

Distance between

Points.

Let P and Q, whose rectangular coordinates are


y\ 0'), be the two points.

We
is

PQ' := PM'
= 0' 0.

=_>/ J/ QN
Hence PQ' = {x
;

- xj ^ {y-yy+

one of the points P be


and PQ'== .%^'' 4-/^+0''.
If

12.

To

MN^ + QNl

-f

z)

y,

and

^J-

then

^=1

o,

y =^

6, z =^ o,

FIND THE Relations between the Cosines of the Angles


WHICH A Straight Line makes with three Rectangular

Axes.

Take

OP

the line

POy

PO.r =: a,

Then by

(.v',

But

(^

at the origin

{x,

PMNRQ of which PQ
PM ^ x' - x, MN

have from the right parallelopipedon

the diagonal,

through the origin.

PO0

/^,

8,

:=^

cos'

r^

a^

the angle

cos'

}/

a, cos

cos

/?,

y determine

cos'

y) or

(i)

i.

very

im-

the direction of the line in rectan-

gular coordinates, and are hence called the

We

usually call these cosines

tion (i)

is

m and

/,

speak of a line with reference to


the line

(/,

cos

We

(i),

i,

;^

will

of the line.

So the equaand when we wish to

direction cosines,

Only two of the angles

m, n).

pleasure, for the third

13.

its

direction- cosines

n respectively.

^'+ '=

usually written /'+

a,

(3,

we may

call

it

can be assumed at

be given by the equation

= Vi cos'

cos'

can use these direction cosines also

//.

for

determining the

position of any plane area with reference to three rectangular coordi-

For since any two planes make with each other the
is made by two lines perpendicular to them respecthe angles made by a plane with the rectangular coordinate

nate planes.

same angle which


tively,

planes are the angles

made by

coordinate axes respectively.


plane, the angle

with xz
/^,

is

made by

the angle /i

^t<ft^

r cos y.

^=^

portant relation.

Cos

if-

y''+ z\

cos' /?

r,

the coordinates of P.

a y'= r cos ^
(cos' a -f cos' (5 +

r cos

r^~

Hence

.r''+

OP =

Let

and x\ y,

y,

r-=

Art. 11,

But, Art.

a perpendicular to the plane with the

Thus

if

OP

be the perpendicular to a

a plane with the plane

and with yz

is

xy

is

the angle a.

cos y^ are called also the direction cosines of a plane.

the angle

So cos a, cos

That

is,

the

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

of a plane with

direction cosines

of a

the direction cosines

The

14.

line

reference

relation cos^ a-\- cos^

y3+

rectangular coordinates are

to

perpendicular

plane,

to this

cos^

enables us to prove

an important property of the orthogonal projections of plane areas.


For let A be any plane area, and A^, A, A. its projections on the

Then

zx and xy respectively.
A^ = A cos y.
/?
Squaring and adding we have

coordinate planes

cos

A,2+
or a;'

That

is,

+ A/

To

cos

a +

a;-

of any plane area

the square

Art.

7,

II.,

A^

= A- (cos''
+ A/ = A^

A/+

cos' /S

equal

is

-\-

to the

cos' y)

sum of

the squares

three planes at right angles to each other.

of its projections on
15.

yz,

=A

A,,

FIND THE Cosine of the Angles between Two Lines


Terms of their Direction Cosines (cos a, cos /J, cos
AND (cos a\ cos /?', cos }/').

Draw OP, OQ through the origin parallel respectively to the


lines.
They will have the same direction cosines as the given

POQ will be the angle between the given lines.


POQ = OP r, OQ = /', coordinates of P (a\ z),
dinates of Q (.rV'-s').

in
;/)

given
lines,

and the angle


Let

*^^'j6A#/_

^^'^ by ^^^'

Wed- or^i,
^^^/i/>

^A^^^*.
>-^

-yy

{y

- zj ^

(0

/^jP'

T^f

And

from triangle

hence

r'H r'-

z'^

+./+

x^

0^+ x^^y'^

(2a;v'+ 2yy

r'--

r'^-h

2rr' cos 6 =3 x'

2/7''

r+

-\

COS

r'=

Therefore

x'

+ y''+

z'

^
fy

and r''=

z^

rr' cos

cos

or

= au''+

cos 6

which we write

cos

ex

= X x'
H
r
.

Hence

2zz),

6',

x'' -^

y"

-{-

+
But

-V

POQ,
PQ2=:

i^.^^S

V;^V^--/

coor-

^'

- xj^

PQ"^= {x

A,f,'^p

)',

6^,

cos

cos ^

a +
//'

-f-

{2xx'

2zz'),

cos

;/'

(2)

.v"'+,v''-h z'\

rr'+ zz,

.-^
r

cos

2y]>'

z'

fi

+ r .
r

cos ji

mm' + nn,

cos

;/

(2)

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,


Cor.

-{

7171

larity of the

Cor.

perpendicular to each other cos

If the lines are

1.

//'-f- 7)17)1

two

(3).

lines

From

2.

w,

/9

o or

called the condition of perpendicu-

is

(3)

(/,

ti),

(/',

711

7t').

expression for cos 6

we can

convenient one

find a

for sin^ 6.

Thus

sin-

(//'+

7171)'=

/;/;;/'+

+
whence

To

16.

sin^

l'my-\-

{I771

+ ^/^'^-

(/'

7l'^)

l'7if'\-

(Iti

(//'-h

(77171

(/''+

?/')

-\-

771771

Tif.

771

?;/"'

7l7l'y

(4)

express the distance between two points in terms of their

oblique coordinates.

Q [x'y'z)

Let P {xyz) and

The

A,

XOZ =

/i,

YOZ =

axes respectively a,

PQ.

PQ Now

We

project the

PQ

MN

a +

P:M cos

broken

PQ

line

itself.

cos

f^

^-

Hence we

NQ

XOY

with the

PMNQ

Project the broken line

y.

equal to

is

Let the angle

oblique.

is

and the angles made by

y,

and

/?

This projection

be the two points.

MPQN

parallelopipedon

on

will have.

cos y.

{a)

PININQ on the axes xyz

respectively.

obtain thus the three equations

PQ
PQ
PQ
Now

cos

cos

/3

cos

multiply the

and the

by

third

NQ

= PM + MN cos A + NQ cos
= PM cos A + MN + NQcos v
= PM cos + MN cos v + NQ
//

(d)

jii

MN

of equations (5) by PM, the second by


and add them taking (a) into account and we

first

have

PQ2

= PM^+ MN^+ NQ^+ 2PM MN


.

/A

PQ^

or

=.

{x

cos A

x'Y

Cr

^r')^

Cor. If one of the points as

PO^
17.

PQ
call

IS

+2{xx')(z 2')cos

.V-

Di7'Lctio)i

r-

s-

Ratios.

ratios.

2{x -

cos V

.v')

(y

j.i-\-2{yy'){zz') cos

be

at the origin

2,\r cos A

2x2 cos

cos
(c)

-y)

7^

(5)

then
//

-f-

2zr cos v.

(6)

In oblique coordinates the position of a line

determined by the

direction

+ 2MN NQ

- z'y+

(3

+ 2PM NQ

cos A

MN NO

PM
ratios

\Vc

pQ

may name

f3Q-:

these

pTy
/,

w,

and
//

these

we

respectively,

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

lO

taking care to note that we are using oblique coordinates and call
the

PQ, the

line

direction ratios,

line

we

To

m, n).

(/,

divide equation

find a

among these
PQ^ We thus

relation

(c) Art. i6,

by

have

/^+ m^A- n^

2/m cos A

-{-

2/n cos

-f

/a

+ 2mn

cos r,

the

(7)

desired relation.

The

18.

coordinates of the point (xyz) dividing in the ratio

the distances between the two points {x'y'z) x"y"z" are

+ nx

7?ix

The proof

my
,

?n

-{-

of this

(8)

-{- 71

same

precisely the

is

= ^?^'.

-\-ny

as that for the correspond-

ing theorem in Plane Coordinate Geometr}\

Polar Coordinates.

19.

The

position of a point in space

the following polar coordinates

The

OP =

radius vector

makes with

vector

a fixed axis

OC

OZ makes

with the fixed line

We

have

the angle

r,

projection

is

also

sometimes expressed by

VOm=

OZ, and the angle

of the radius vector on a plane

OC

r sin

ft

6 which the radius

OX

Hence

yOx

COX

which the

perpendicular to

in that plane.

the formulae for transforming from

rectangular to these polar coordinates are

r sin

z=i

r sin d sin qj v

r cos 6

and these give

r'

= x^ +

1''

cos

cp

(9)

z"-

tan o) z=.'

(10).

Conceive a sphere described from the centre O, with a radius - a

and

let

this represent the earth.

plane of the

face

first

latitude,

Then,

if

the plane

zOx be

the

meridian and the axis of z the axis of the earth,


qj

longitude of a point on

the

earth's sur-

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


20.

Distance between two points in space in polar coordinates.

Let

Pbe

MN

is

(r',

then

d\ cp) and

this projection,

on

respectively

PR

Project

PQ

on the plane xy,


OP and OQ

the projections of

Through P draw

PR

parallel to

MN,

have

Moreover

r'^

+ RQ'

=:

MN^ + (QN

- RN)^

MON

- 2OM ON cos MON,


sin^ & + r^ sin^ 6 2rr' sin d sin d' cos {(p
QN = r cos and RN 1= PM = cos

MN^
MN^

PR^

==

in triangle

Hence

(r, d, cp).

OM ON

that plane.

PQ^
But

draw

MN.

==

And we

or

II

rr.

PQ^=

OM^ + ON^

r"^ sin^ 6'

r^ sin^

6',

r'

/9

irr sin d sin


-f

cp')*

6'

cos (<^

(r cos d

^')

r cos ffy

or

PQ^=

/''^+ r'^ 27'r

(cos

6*

cos ^' 4-sin d sin ^' cos

(^

<^'))-

(^0

,.^_-

CHAPTER

11.

INTERPRETATION OF EQUATIONS.
TRIPLANAR COORDINATES.
2 1.

Let us take F

taining three variables


relation

.v,

which enables us

that

o,

and

any single equation con-

is

This

z.

may be

considered as a

determine any one of the variables when


So the equation
Let these be v and

to

the other two are given.

may

{x, y, z)

)'.

be written

z^/{xy),
in

which we may allege arbitrary and independent values

And

to every pair of such values there

plane xv

and

to the axis of

if

0,

to .v

and j'.

a determinate point in the

is

through each of these points we draw a line parallel


and take on it lengths equal to the values of ^ given

deterviinaie

way we will get a series of


and not a solid since we take
lengths on each of the lines drawn parallel to z. Hence

=o

by the equation,

clear that in this

is

it

points the locus of which

{x,
22.

it

r,

z)

is

a surface,

represents a surface in triplanar coordinates.

If the equation contains only

two variables as

{x,

y)=

o then

represents a cylindrical surface.

For F

{x,

pendently of

y)
0,

and

satisfied

is

and

.r

in terms of the other

to

are

by certain values of x and


no longer arbitrary but one

inde-

is

given

each pair of values corresponds a point in


of these points is a curve in that plane.

the plane xy, and the locus


If
z,

through each point in

this

curve we draw a coordinate parallel to

every point in that coordinate has the

the point in which


sents a surface

it

meets the plane xy.

which

points of the curve

is

same coordinates

Hence F {x,y)

the locus .of straight lines

^{x,y)

=o

in the plane

xy and

.v

and

>

as

o repre-

drawn through
parallel to the

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


axis of

This locus

0.

with axis parallel to

as the equation

either

is

what

is

called a cylindrical surface

or a plane parallel to the axis of z according

sr

{x^y)

o in the plane xy represents a curve or a

y^

r^= o

straight line.

For example,

x'^ -{

rectangular

in

coordinates

right cylinder with circular base in plane xy (since

and

circle in plane xy)

And dx

by

\-

c ^=:

its axis parallel, to

\^

2i

ing the plane xy in the line


Similarly

F {x,

=o

(y, 0)

to the axis of

An

23.

z)

-\'

by =^

a
a

z.

plane parallel to the axis of

ax

is

r^ is

0,

intersect-

c.

represents either a cylindrical surface with

ioy or a plane

axis parallel

the axis of

x^-^y^

parallel ioy,

represents either a cylindrical surface with axis parallel

or a plane parallel to this axis.

:r

equation containing a single variable represents a plane or

planes parallel to one of the coordinate planes.

Thus X

And

=^ a represents a plane parallel to the plane j/0.

= o when

2i?>/{x)

values of

as

:r,

^= a,

solved will give a determinate

=.

b,

c,

etc.,

so

it

number

of

represents several

planes parallel to the coordinate planej^^.

Thus

F {y)

also

o represents a number of planes parallel to the

plane xz.

And F

{z)

= o,

Thus we

24.

preted

number

of planes parallel io xy,

The apparent

satisfied

exist simultaneously are satisfied.

ay +

(.r

(jF

satisfied

when [x

y ~

b,

Now

is

inter-

exceptions to this are those single equations which

from their nature can only be

must

when a single equation


some kind or other.

see that in all cases

represents a surface of

it

by

-\-

a)^

= o,

{z

when several equations which


As for example

cY o. This equation can only be


{y by = o, {z cY = c, or x = a,

c.

these represent three planes, but being simultaneous they

represent the point

a,

b,

c.

So also {x
by '= o is only satisfied hy x z=z a, y =z b,
aY -\- {y
and hence though x
a Is a plane, and y = b is 3. plane, the two
together must represent a line common to both of these planes, that
is their line of intersection, which must be parallel to z,

25.

In general two simultaneous equations as

/{x,y,

z)

{x,y, z)

=o

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

14

the intersections of the two surfaces

represent a curve or curves,

represented by the two equations.

___.[ taken simultaneously we have seen represent a straight

Thus

line parallel to the axis of

=o

F (x)

axis of

z,

of

the intersection of these two planes.

number

represent a

>

of straight lines parallel to the

the intersections of the several planes parallel respectively to

and

the planes j'0


r^\ !

z,

xz.

represent a

number

of straight lines parallel to the axis

etc.

j^,

F ixy) =. o
T^
F {xz); = o
ders F [x, y)

)
>

26.

the curves of intersection of the two cylin-

represent
^

=o

-^

and F

o,

{y, z)

etc.,

etc.

Three simultaneous equations

F
as

=0

{x, y, z)

y^ z)

=:ol

(p{x,y,z)

= 0)

/{x,

or

F
F

{x,

y)

(x, z)

= o\
= o i etc.,

F(j^, 0) --=0

represent points in space or the intersections of the lines of intersection of the surfaces.

The

simplest case

is,

=^ a

^^ ^ \ representing the point (^,


z := c )

b,

c),.

So also
x^
X

+ y^ = 2z^
y =^ 2z

-{-

xy

4-

represent points which

can be found by

solving the three equations which themselves represent different surfaces.

Interpretation
27.

Hence
r ^=

b,

1.

=a

represents a sphere having the pole for

the equation
r =:

c,

etc.,

pole as centre.

of Polar Equations.

(r)

o which gives values

for

its

centre.

r as r

:=:

a,

represents a series of concentric spheres about the

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


6 =^

2.

represents a cone of revolution about the axis of

vertex at the origin of which the vertical angle

its

Hence

the equation

(^)

o giving values 6

represents a series of cones about the axis of

common

etc.,

zOx

of

6)
it

q),

a,

^,

etc.,

having the origin for

angle

with the axis of

at angles /?,

etc.

/5',

equation involve only r and ^ as

4. If the
{r,

with

o which gives values cp=. ^, qj


F (^)
represents several planes containing the axis of inclined

to the plane

xy makes an

Hence the equation


/?',

2:

equal to 2a,

represents a plane containing the axis of ^ whose line

of intersection with the plane


X.

3:.

is

vertex.

(p =1

3.

15

= o gives
gives the

the

same

same curve

assigning values to

relation

(r,

= o,

6)
for

since

any value

any one of the planes determined by

in

Hence

cp.

between r and 6

represents a surface of revolution

it

traced by this curve revolving about the axis of

z.

Example, r = a cos 6 is the equation of a circle in the plane


xz, or in any plane containing the axis of z. - Hence r z= a cos 6
represents a sphere described by revolving this circle about the axis
of

-sr.

5.

equation be F((^, 6)
o for every value of q) there
values of 6 corresponding to which lines through

If .the

are one or

the pole

more

may be drawn, and


O0 revolves, these

containing

as cp changes or the plane fixed by


lines take

new

positions in each

it

new

position of the plane, and thus generate conical surfaces about Oz.
(A conical surface being any surface generated by a straight line
moving in any manner about a fixed straight line which it intersects.

6.

If the

equation be

one or more values of

r,

F (r,

= o, for every

q?)

value of

the pole in the plane determined by the assigned value of

changes, or the plane through

and the concentric

there are

q?

thus giving several concentric circles about

Oz

circles vary in

q).

As

q?

revolves these values of r change,

magnitude.

The equation

thus

represents a surface generated by circles having their centres at the


pole,

of

2:

which vary

which they

7. If the

general.
=:

in

all

magnitude

equation be

For

if

as their planes revolve

about the axis

contain.

we

(r,

6,

qj)

assign a value to q)

will represent' a curve in the

or the plane revolves about

Oz

plane

this

o, it
3.s

qj

q? =:

represents a surface in

=
j3.

/3,

then

And

(r,

as <p

6, /3)

changes

curve changes, and the equation

will represent the surface containing

all

these curves.

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

28.

Two

simultaneous equations in polar coordinates represent a

line, or lines

the intersections of two

surfaces.

And

three simulta-

neous equations represent a point or points the intersections of three


surfaces.

Thus
r zn a

= a\ taken

simultaneously represent points determined

by the intersection of a sphere, cone and plane.

CHAPTER

III.

EQUATION OF A PLANE.
COORDINATES OBLIQUE OR RECTANGULAR.
To find equation of a plane

29.

and

origin

OD =

Let

and

let it

make

OP

the angles a, /?

MN and NP the coordinates of P.


OM + NM + NP on OD

The

OP

and

of the

equal to the pro-

is

on OD.

projection of

OM + MN + NP

OP

on

OD

on

OD
x

Hence we have
To find

be the radius vector of any point

projection of

jection of

30.

Oy and Oz

with the axes Ox,

Let

OM,

The

the

be the perpendicular from the origin on the plane,

/)

respectively.

plane

of the perpendicular from

in terms

direction cosines.

its

cos

the equation

is

is

cos

OD
a

-i-y cos /3

of a plane

and the projection of

itself,

-^-y cos
-\-

p+

z cos

in terms

z cos y.

of its

= p.

(12)

intercepts

on the

coordinate axes (coordinates oblique or rectangular).

Let the intercepts be


(12)

may be

OA =

X
p
But since
/>

sec

or

a,

OB

b,

OC =

c.

The equation

written

sec

sec

ps^c y

ODA, ODB and ODC are right-angled triangles, we


a,^p sec /S = OB h, p sec y = 0C

= OA =

c.

Therefore the equation becomes

-+! + -=:

the equation of the plane in terms of

its

(13)
intercepts.

have

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

Any

31.

y and

=D

Ax + By + Cz

equation

z is the equation

of a

(14) of the first degree in x,

plane.

For we may write (14)

And

putting

Hence

(14)

-^=:

a,

"C"

-^

<^,

we have

^,

form

the

(13).

the equation of a plane in oblique or rectangular

is

coordinates.

Hence

to find the intercepts of a

we

the coordinate axes,

make^

=r

o and

find intercept

Example.
32.

to the
nates.

We

plane given by
it

x= o and

j' =:

cos

-{-y

on

/3

-{-

and

z cos

=p

+
Ax

2.r

reduce the equation

cos

equation on

o to find intercept on

Find the intercepts of the plane

its

the form (13) or simply

in

=: o to find intercept

ony

It is useful often to

form

put

either

j)/

52

By

-\-

jr

o to

60.

z.

Cz

-{-

=D

in rectangular coordi-

derive a rule for this.

Since both of these equations are to represent the same plane, we

have
cos

_ cos /? _ cos y __P __ Vcos*


B " C ""D"^

a +

A ~

A^

cos^ f6

B^

cos^

O
I

Va' + b^+
Hence

1:T

cos

-=.

a
,

cos

p^,

B
:

Va" +
Hence

if

we

6^

B
+ B^ +

C^

Vam-bm-o

0"

write (14)

A
X +
VA'+B' + C^'

-v/A'

y +

VA' +

B^+a

D
VA''+
it is

in the perpendicular

form (12).

B^

Q^

(15)

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

19

each term of the equation Ax + By


sum of the squares of the coefficients
of X, Y and z, the new coefficients will be the direction cosines of the perpendicular to the plane from the origin^ and the absolute term will be the

Hence

+ Cz=:D,

length

the

ive divide

of

the

of this perpendicular.

Find the direction cosines of the plane 2x

Example.

Rule: If

hy the square root

23

^y

4z

6 and the length of the perpendicular from the origin.

Result.

cos

= -:=,

^4 +

V 29

16

cos

= -=,

V 29

cos

V 29
V 29

33.

To find

angle between two planes

the

(coordinates

rectangu-

lar).

form

If the planes are in the

then since

this

cos

cos a^

angle

is

-^

-\-

cos

/S \- z

cos

/5'

cos

cos

^=^

= p\

equal to the angle of two perpendiculars from

origin on the planes the cosine will be (Art. 15) cos

cos

cos fS

cos

If they are in the

A'jr

cos

cos

=D
+ Cz ^ D\

B^

+ B>

C0

^A^+

A-O

cos

(5

VA2+

B^

C^

cos y-

VA^ +
cos

cos

AA'

V=

rns .r

VA= +

B'

B^

C^

p
cos

A A
And

cos a'

form

A^ +

Then

V=

cos y'

+ BB' + CC
+ CVA" + B"^ +

y-

C"'

'i

+
.,

(i6)

B'^

C'^

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY

20

From
.

^^^

this

(A'+ B'+

,,

Cor.

I.

(AB'- A'B)^+ (AC-- A-C)'+ (BC^-

sin
.

..

B"+ Cn -(AA'+ BB'+


+ a)(A'^+B'^+C')

C) (A^^+

(A''+ B^

(AH

B^

+ e)(A'='+

If the planes are perpendicular to

AA'+ BB'+ CC = o

{\%^

is

CC')'

B'C)'

^''

"

B'^+C'^)

each other, then cos

y=o.

of perpendicularity

the condition

of

the

planes.

Cor.

A'B)5

- A'B =

^-

(AB'

AB'

or

V=

If the planes are parallel sin

2.

Hence

o.

- A'C)^ = (BC - B'C)= = o


AC - A'C = o BC - B'C = o

(AC

ABC.,

or the condition that the two planes shall be parallel,

o/x, Y and
Ex,

B-S^^

ffJ^T^j"

is

that the coefficients

two equations shall be proportional.

Find the angle between the planes

^^^^ ^+
7^""^^
,

Show

2.

I.

z in the

'

^I'

+ S^^

and 3a;-4y-}

2=

lo.

that the planes

^^~

:t:

3jV

5^

20 and 2x

-{

^=^

lo are perpen-

dicular to each other.

Write the equation representing planes parallel to the plane ^x

3.

To find

34.

the expression /or the distance from

a point

(x'y'z') to

plane (coordinates rectangular).


1.

Let the equation of the plane be of the form


:v

cos

o'

j^^

cos /3

Pass a plane through

OD

to

meet

it

Now
Then

^ cos

;K

= / when p =

parallel to the given plane,

and produce

of this plane will be

-i-y cos

ft

-\-

z'

cos

p'

PM be the perpendicular from P


PM = OD' - OD ==/ -/.

let

OD.

in D'.

The equation
x' cos

when OD'

=/.

on the given plane.

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,


Hence

PM

And X

{x' cos

x' cos

=.

cos

y'

-{

p.

cos

z'

-\-

21

cos y) p (20) is the expression


for the perpendicular from the point x'y'z' on the plane x cos
-{-/ cos

/3

z'

a^

cos

y5

cos

y p,

the sign being -f or - according as

side of the plane remote from the origin or next to

Kx

Let the plane be in the form

2.

Then

cos

-f

By

D.

(15) Art. ^2.

etc., etc.

^A^ + B^-hC^
Hence

on the

is

it.

C0

-f-

the expression

{x' cos a

i-y' cos

cos

-^ z'

^ p)

becomes

Ex. Find the length of perpendicular from the point

(3, 2,

i)

on

the plane
3.r

T^i

Result.

9
^

-[-

4.y

V9+

6z

16+

24.

24
^

36

13
_j_
V 61

The equation of the plane in the form .rcos a -\-y cos j3


may be used to demonstrate the following theorem
y

*35.

cos

=p

-{-

in

projec'ions.

The volume of
the triangle

point (x,

the tetrahedron

ABC/^r

y, z) in

the projections

its

base

which has

equal

is

to the three

ABC for their


ABC on the three

the plane

of the area

for

the origin

its

vertex

and

pyramids which have any

common vertex and for

bases

rectangular coordinate planes

respectively.

For

let

ABC

be the area of the triangle

X
the equation of

its

cos

\-

cos

-{

and

z cos

^=

plane.

Multiply this equation by A.

Then
or

But

cos

a x
.

\.

cos

(3 .y

\K

cos

(3

-\-

-^A cos

a X

cos a,

A cos /?, A cos

-\-

y,

+ A

.y

cos

+ ^A

cos

z :=

z =i

and

vertex,

and

-|-A/> is

the

on the

z are the altitudes of

the tetrahedrons which have these projections as bases

common

^A/.

are the projections of

planes j'2r, xz, and xy respectively, and Xy

{x, y, z) as

Kp

volume

and the point


pyramid

of the

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

22

which has the origin

and

for vertex

we may

Calling these projections A^, A^, and A^,

To find

36.

OP =

Let

point

POS

Then

= 3 V.

+ A^

6,

write the equa-

(22)

YQW = cpbe the polar

perpendicular on plane

POD =

and

/3,

KyV

coordinates of a

of the plane.

OD =

Let

-^-p-

angle

DOS =

OP

-^^'^'^'^-^the

POD =

cos

r as radius.

arcs of great circles

cos

Ce9,

or

cos

Now in

go.

Smt

r^^^

SD'T has for


D"SP = D'OF =

^ ^^g

^Og J^n^

OD

order to
as centre

Draw

on the sphere.
SPF, SD"D; MP'D' and D'T.
Prolong

c^c^M.^.,^s^^ The triangle


"^^l^nd angle

D'OM'

a,

go.

express oo in polar coordinates conceive a sphere about

with

Tf%

the theorem

polar equation of a plane.

the

r,

k^x

tion of the plane

Hence

for base.

true.

is

sides

its

to D^'

SD"

-^ cp.
ft

gj) ^^g gp

=:

o',

SP

6,

D"P

go

But

g.^

gj^,r

gjj^

gp

^^g j),,gp^

Or

i*J2..
"^^

cos

Therefore

Gj?

cos

cos

a cos

cos ^

sin

sin

ar

sin

6 cos

{/S

sin 6 cos (/J

cp).

^) (23)

is

the

polar equation of the plane.

The

37.

general equation of the plane

Ax +

B>'

C0

=D

may

be reduced to the form

BV + Cz=

A'x +

And
z

also to the form

m mx

(24) by dividing by the absolute term D.

z=z

m,

4-

^+

{25)

by dividing by

= n and - =

the solution of problems

and

c.

transposing and

putting

These two forms are very useful in

in finding the equations of the plane

under given conditions.

Plane under Given Conditions,


38.

1.

The equation

general form

by

:r

2.

o, j^

of a plane through the origin will be of the

Ax +

= 0.

By
o and

The equation

C2:

o, for the

equation must be satisfied

of a plane which contains the axis of z

is

of the

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

Kx +

form

o a plane containing the axis oi y


By
one containing the axis of x is By -}- Cz =^ o,

to thQ axis of
.4.

of a plane parallel to the axis of z

of one parallel to the axis of j^

xisBy

The equation

parallel to ^2:

By

is

Cz

T)

of a plane parallel to the plane j^0

=D

xy

parallel to

Ax + By

is

one

parallel

is

Cz

in the

==

is

Ax = D

D.

forms

x= a, y=z ^,

of a plane containing a given point (a, b, c)


Ax + By + Cz = D. ( i )
since the required plane is to be parallel to (i) it may be writ-

To find

39.

and parallel
First,

ten

Cz

-\-

J).

These equations we have had already


z

Ax

is

Kx + Cz

is

The equation

3.

=D

23

to

the equation

a given plane

Ax \-By -\-Cz-=^V>'

coordinates

Hence by

(a,

<5,

r)

subtraction

A(^

we

a) +

Ax +

when D'

(2)

must

undetermined.

is

Therefore

satisfy (2).

Secondly, the

A^-hB^ +

Q =D\

eliminate D' and obtain

(jF

+
<^)

(0

^)

By -\-Cz Aa-\-Bh ^-Cc

=o

or

(26)

the required equation.

Example.
point
40.

(i,

2,

Find the equation of the plane passing through the


4) parallel to the plane 2x \- ^y ^z ^=:. 6.

To find

(x", y",

(x', y', z'),

of a plane passing through


z") and (x'", y'". z'").

the equation

Let the equation of the plane be of the form


A,

B and C

Ax

three given points

By

-f

C0

i,

be determined by the given conditions.

to

Since the plane

is

to contain each of the points,

A^ + By' + C^^

we must have

=1

A^'"+By'^+a'"=i.
Hence
X,

I,

x'\

A=

B=
x,y,
X ,y
X ,y
It

tt

Substituting

II

these

x'\

x',y,

z'

I,
I,

z"
z"

C=

X ,y,
n
X ,y
III

values in the

x",
1

'

z
I.

equation

J<:'",/",

Ax +

'Ry

-\-

x\y\

II

III

v'",

x,y,

It

x",y",

z"
z'"

Cz

^- z

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

24

we have
s

I,
I,

y
,n f

ttt

X +

J + X ,y

I,

x,y,

^,J^^,

z'

= x"\

y"'

(27)

But from plane coordinate geometry the coefBcients oi x^y ahd z


Mjk4.
(jt^^Z"*)^"^ these equations are the double areas of triangles in the planes j^^,
jrji^\/^^z and xy respectively. Moreover these triangles are the projections
Hence
^^ ^^ triangle of the three given points, on these planes.
j

-2rx

comparing

this

equation wi h the equation (22)

K,x
II

we

+ Ky

= 6V,

II

see that

4-

Kz = 3V

That

is

6 times the

volume of the

pyramid which has the origin for vertex and the triangle of the three
This equation fully written out is

given points for base.

x {y'z"'-y"z")+x"{y"z'-yz"') +x"'iyz"-y'z')=^6v.

(28)

41. To fi7id the equation


tion

of the planes which contain the line of intersectwo planes Ax + By + Cz = D and Ax' + By'+ Cz' = D'.

of the

ThisequationisAjr + By-f C0

D + K( A'^ + B> + C'0 D')rr:o(29)

plane when K takes a


when A^ + Bj' + C^ D = o and
A'x + ^y + C'z D' =: o are satisfied simultaneously. Hence it
Hence as K is arbiis a plane containing their line of intersection.

when

is

trary

For

arbitrary.

particular value

and

is

it

this represents a

sa'isfied

(24) represents the planes containing the line of intersection

it

of the two given planes.

When

42.

the identity

U = o,

equations

the

intersect

each

KU + KiUi + KgUg = o

U2=o, Us^ o of

other in one

and

planes which

and

the same straight

line.

planes

these

This
of[

is

an

the

first

all

the

contains a single arbitrary constant

expresses by assigning particular values to this con-

it

stant intersect each other in


line

exists between

Also when the equation

easy corollary of Article 41.

degree in x,

(30)

three planes, then

may be

of intersection

one and the same straight


at infinity

line.

This

and then the planes are

all

parallel.

Example
JiLy

i.

The

planes represented by the equation ()x^My-\-2z

z= 3 (fS^ arbitrary) all contain the line of intersection of the

planes

6a:

+ 22^ 3

o 2indy=

o.

two

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


Example

2.

The

by 2x

planes represented

-\-

25

^y

42 =

{n

arbitrary) are parallel.

The

Example.

planes 2>^

-\-

\y

\-

6z

2 \

4X

4y

-{-

6z

2 J

one and the same straight

intersect in

{sx-^4y + 622)
is

an

i) -^

because

^{4^ + 4y + 6z2)

-/

=o

identity.

Wken

43.

{x + 2y+s2

line

Ug

o,

between the equations of four planes in any

o,

U3

KU + K1U1 + K2U2 + K3U3 = o


other in one

intersect each

dinates which satisfy the

U3

satisfy the fourth

form

U = o,

U]

the identity

and
first

(31)

the

exists,

same

three

these four planes


For then any coorUj
o and U2 = o will

then

point.

U=

o,

= o.

Example i. 'Find the equation of the plane passing through


the origin and containing the line of intersection of the two planes
Aa^ + By + C0 = I and h!x + B> + Cz i.
44.

First

we have

Kx +

for all the planes

By

C0

+ K (A'jtr + B>

-^

Cz \)o

containing the line of intersection of the two given

But as the required plane must contain the origin, the


equation must be satisfied by (o, o, o).
Hence we have i K=o.

planes.

.-.

K=The

I.

required equation

(A

or

therefore

- - {Mx + B> + Cz - i) = o
- A')
(B - B')^ + (C - C) := o.

+ By +

A.T

is

C^

:r

-f-

On the three axes of x, y and z take OA = a, OB =: b,


and
construct on these a parallelopipedon having MP as the
c
edge opposite parallel to OC, and AR in the plane xz the edge
opposite and parallel to BN.
Find the equation to the plane containing the three points M, N
and R.
Ex.

2.

OC =

Now NR
z

1.

is

the line of intersection of the two planes

Hence

+V =
-

and

the plane containing this line must be of the form

KOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

26

h-T i+K{
'X'

/ z

To

ij=:o.

determine

condition that this plane shall pass through the point

Hence we have

+ -

K \c^i

i -f-

Therefore the required plane

XV
+VH

Ex.

9C)

3.

Find

in like

o ^ ^^/y^/-/

^^

^^^

45.

If

two given planes be

cos a:4-j^cos/5 +

h^H

2.

in the

normal form
-\-y

p-\-Y^{x cos

as

cos

their line of intersection

cos a-\-y cos fi-\-z cos

figure.

cos ;/=/> and.r cos a!

The plane containing

X
or

oca

-y-+

i.

the equation of the plane containing

same

|,|
Result,

manner

K=:

.-.

{a, b^ o).

jNI

the points P, B, and C, in the

== o.

the

is

-a

we impose

fi'

\-zzo^

y-=zp\

is

\-y cos ^'

+Z

cos y'

-p')

And if K = the equation becomes


X cos a -\-y cos /? + cos y Pl{x cos a + y

=o

cos

/?'

cos y'

-/)=- o
\which represents the two plane bisectors of the supplementary angles

imade by the given planes.


That is to find the equations to the plane
angles made by two given planes, put their
and then add and subtract them.

>

bisectors

of

the supplementary

equations in the

normal form

Find the two planes which bisect the supplementaiy


4.
angles made by the planes 2x-^'^y'\-z
5 and ^x-{-4y2z

Example.

2^ + 3^+5-5

3^ + 4>'-2.-4

^^,
V2I
VI4
z cos y p and
Remark, If we place A = jv cos a-\- y cos ji
/'.
.A' = X cos a'
y cos ^' z cos y'
Then A' A = o is the plane bisector of one of the angles beitween the planes A and A' and A + A' = o is that of the suppleResult,

j^

-\-

-\-

-{-

imentary angle.
46.

The

a common

three planes

line

which

of intersection.

bisect the diedral

Let

A = o, A'=

angles of a triedral have

o and

A"

=o

be three

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,


planes in the normal form, and

let

formed by the three of which P

Then

A'

have a

the origin be within the triedral angle

their point of intersection

the plane bisectors of the angles

A" A

o,

common

= o.

A' A"

=3 o,

vanish simultaneously,

together

27

is

the vertex.

made by these planes is


And as these when added
planes

follows that these three

it

line of intersection.

We can give this theorem

another form by conceiving a sphere to be

described about the vertex of the triangular pyramid as a vertex.


three planes

A= o,

A':=

o,

A"= o

The

cut the surface of the sphere in

which form a spherical triangle and the three


o cut the sphere in
o and A' A''
planes A A'=o, A'' A

arcs of great circles

three arcs of great circles which bisect the angles of this spherical
triangle

the

and

their

common

common

strates the following


bisect ihe

line of intersection pierces the sphere in

intersection of these arcs.

angles of a

Hence

demon-

the above

theorem, namely. The arcs of great

circles

which

spherical triangle cut each other in the same point

(the pole of the inscribed circle of the triangle).


^J.

To find

the

point 0/ intersection

D,

Kx + B> + Cz =

We

have by elimination

D', A'x'

of
B'>

the planes

C'2

Kx +

D,

B,

A,

D,

A,

B,

D',

B',

A',

D',

A',

B',

D"

B",

C"

A" D" C"

B,

(32)

A,

B,

A,

B,

A',

B',

A',

B',

A',

B',

A"

B",

C"

A"

B",

C"

Hence

C^r

D"

y
A,

D
D

A", B",

By

= D".

C
C

A", B", C"

the condition that one of these shall be parallel to the line

of intersection of the other two, or that the planes shall not meet in
a point,

is

ac,

^XA,

B,

A',

B',

A", B",

A(B'C"-B"C')
47.

The condition

A.t.C^4''UA'.BUB".'f'*A

C
=

C"

A'(B"C

'^^

0, that is

- BC") + A'(BC'- B'C) = o.

that four planes

=
+ IB^ + Cs + D
=0
A'jt: + B> + C's + E
=0
A";r + B'> + C"2 +-D"
A"';^^^-B"> + C"'2 + D"' = o
A;r

>'

shall

meet

in a point

is'

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

28

a;

b,

c,

A',

B',

C\

D'

A",

B",

C\ D"

A"', B'",

49,

We

C", D'"

o.

(33)

have seen that the equations of two planes Kx-\-^y

= o and

h!x-{- Bj^

QJz

of them multiplied by any

which contains the

we combine

D'z=

number

^Cz

o added together one or both

give the equation of a plane

line of intersection of the

two given planes.

these two equations so as to eliminate

x we

If

shall obtain

a plane parallel to the axis of x, containing this line of intersection.


If

we eliminate

_)^

we obtain

ing the same line

contain-

we eliminate z we obtain
containing the" same line.

a plane

and

parallel to the axis of

a plane parallel to the axis of

finally if

CHAPTER

IV.

THE STRAIGHT

of any two planes taken simultaneously

T/ie equations

50.

their line

LINE.
represent

0/ intersection,
^,

^,

;;,

(34) represent a straight line the co-

ordinates of every point of which will satisfy the two equations.

we eliminate

If

x and y between

alternately

these equations

we

obtain equations of the form

~
(35)

^wo planes perpendicular respectively

to the

planes xy and yz which represent the same straight line as equations

These non-symmetrical forms (35) are very

(35).

planes
line

= mzi-a, y = nz + d

on the planes of xz

useful.

The

are called the projecting planes of the

2ind yz,

and these equations are

also the:

equations of the projections of the line on those planes respectively,.


If

we eliminate

we

-=i

get

A^

/J

t)

^or

in

71

tion of the projection of the line

yz=z
-^

n x-]-q
VI

p the equa-771

on the coordinate plane xy.

The

equations (35) of the straight line contain four arbitrary constants, VI, n, p, q^ to which we can give proper significance by com--

paring these equations with the equation;^

= 77ix-\-h in

plane coor-

dinate geometry.

The equations

(35)

maybe thrown

in the

^^=.2JZf=f
n

7n

form

(36)
^^ ^

which gives us an easy choice of fixing the


of any two of its projecting planes.
51.

To find

the equations

of a

cosines a7id the coordinates a, b, c

line

straight line in

of a point

07i

by the equations;

te7'vis

of

the li7ie:

29

its

directiom

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

30
Let a,

(3,

on the

{x, y, z)
I

cos

/?

be the angles made by the line with the coordinate axes


Let

respectively.

^=.yb

line
/

be the portion of the line between any point

and the point (^, h^ c). Then / cos a =


y zc and eliminating / we have

cos

xa

yb

COS/i

COS)/'

COS

^^'^

This form (37) of the equation of a straight line

and

therefore very useful.

is

xa

It

is

symmetrical

contains six constants but in reality

only four independent constants, since the relation cos^ ^H-cos^

+ cos^ y

y3

and of the three a, b, c one of them may be


assumed at will, leaving only two independent.
We have seen that the equation (35) may be thrown into the form
So also (37) may be thrown into the form (35) by finding
KZl^'
:=

holds,

from them expressions

To find the

52.

iox

If the equations

in terms oi

z.

lijie

given by

its eqicatiojis.

be in the form

X La = ^ =
y

y and x

direction cosines ofajiy straight

^^

rr

L,

'

and

are proportional

]N

J\I

to the

direction cosines of the line.

So

that

we have

_ cos /? _ cos y _ Vcos' a + cos^ p + cos^ y


L
M
N
~V^ +
VL^ + MHN^

cos

M^ + N2

Hence

VL~-fxM^ +

cosfJ=
N=^

^L^ + M^+^N^'

cosy

~VL ^4-M^-fN^
(38)

Hence to

find the direction cosines of

Ax
K'x

we throw

+ Czz=zJ)
+ B> + C^^ = D'

-\-By

by eliminating y ajid x,
to

squares

line

the equations into theform

xa

equal

any straight

and

y b

zc

then write out the direction cosijtes as above

each denominator divided by the square root

of all

three.

of

the

sum of

the

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


Thus

hne

to find the direction cosines of the

X p ^"^V q

we^yrltelt

==

jj

7iz-^q

z
1

Hence
cos

/-:j-

cos

cos

(39)

Ex.

Find the direction cosines of the

I.

y = 22 + s
y - 301
To find

53.

the cosine

^^^

'

lines

^'^^'

2x-i-sy-\-62 =z 24

3.r 4_y+20 r= 10

of ihe angle

hvo

heiiveen

lines

^
'^*

given by the equa-

tions

xa
We

XT

Hence

rr
If the
^

rvu

Then

V=
cos

^'

cos

.r
v

cos a'

yb'

hnes be in the form

cos

M
V=

I.

/3

cos /?^+ cos

VIZ ]- ^p

nz^-q
,y
X

^^^^

71'

^^^

(40)

=: PI Z

V
\

p'
\-

n z-^q

=1.

(41)

?i'-

and^^'=='
>'

Find the cosine of the angle between the

y= 3^1

cos y',

m m' +
= nnj-i
V + + \^ 1 +?n^ +

x=22 + 6]
2.

cos

-{

LU + MM'4-NN'

Ex^

x a'

have shown (Art. 15)


cos

Ex.

lines

=2-^2

Find the cosine of the angle between the

(2)

lines

x + 2y + sz=5)^,) and -^'--^ + ^"'=='1(2)


xjiz =4)
x+j + z 2)

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

32

These equations may be put


13

X-

-3 (0

-5 + 12 V=

rns

The condition

54.

The
is

and

1'

"5

=4>
~2

(3)

VI26x38

V26.V38
equations in

X-_3

3"_

--^

in the forms

of perpendicularity of two lines given by the

LL' + MM' + NN'^

last article is

(42)

o.

condition that they shall be parallel (see Art. 15)

(LM'-L'M)2 + (LN^-L'N)H(xMN'-M'N7=.o

or -ir-p=

forms

7nz-\-p

z=z

nz-\-q

y=

V
\

mvi' ^-nn'

become

These two conditions when the

=1^:77(43).

iTFT

-\-\

lines are in the

viz-\-p^
/

n z-\-q

o,

and

(44)

vi

m\

7t

7t'

(45) respec-

tively.

To find

55.

the condition

of the

=: nz-\-q

mz -\-p

is

derived by eliminating x,

Subtracting the third from the


/. z

VI

and since the


fore

VI 'z -\-p'
^

and

from the four equations.

/
^

q
,

Similarly
from the second and fourth z
^

=
m VI

two values of

xa

b _ zc
M ~ N

V
v

l>

'

-^

lines are in the

There-

are equal.

^^ + 3

y Z-^l

)
\

x^zz^i\ ^^^j^

2z-\-q

two

q'

(46)

so that the lines

tersect.

If the

=!

^^ n z-\-q

we have o ={ni m^)z-]-pp'.

first

lines intersect these

we have

Ex. Find

p'

-^,
7n

lines

ana

This

of two

intersection

form
.
,

^^^'

'^"~'^'_

""

y^^'

M'

_
~

-^

"~

N'

'^^

.^_

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,


y

the elimination of x,

ing

(i)=Kand
.*.

and

z can be effected

more

33
readily by writ-

=K'.

(2)

xa = LK
Xa L
Similarly

h~V = M'K'MK
c-c'

Therefore eliminating

= N'K'-NK.

and K' we have

L, a a'
M, -M', d-i>'
N, -N', c-c'
L,

or

(a-a')(NM'-MN') + (5-<5')(LN'-L'N) + {c-c'){h'M -LM') =

o.

(47)
T/ze Straight Liite

The equations

56.

of a straight line parallel to one of the coordi-

nate planes as xy are z

The equations
axes as

y,

a")

y = b\

z') is

'

the point

^
-v^

we have seen
or

if

mx-\-p.

r=-

To find the equations ofa straight line passing through a given point.

57.

If (x

are

^=^ c,

of a straight line parallel to one of the coordinate

X
z^

under Given Conditions,

the equation

jV"

'1/

y
Z
~ N~

2,

is

ivf

^^^^

the equations are in

the form

""

then

"

~ )
n\zz

Hence

if

the

equations of a straight line contain only two arbitrary constants,

all

=inz-\-q

\
)

yy'

,;
)

y (40).
)

the lines obtained by assigning values to these arbitraries pass through


a single point.

58.

To find

the equations

points {x,y', z')

[x\

y\

of a

z'z'
v'

-
x^'x
L
N
M
v

=:

straight line passing through tivo given

z') using (48) we' have

^z

this to eliminate
or dividing?
(48)/ by
o \t
/

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

34

M^ and

L,

we have

xx^

If

yv _

__

one of the points as {x\ y,

z')

zz'

be

at the origin

then the equa-

become

tions

-^=y=77^ find

59.

of a straight

equation

the

point {x',y\ z) aiid parallel

to

the

yh

Hence

the required equation

,;
71

{zz

yv'

zz'

Then

71

,/
)

>-

,.

hue be
and the given
^

y', z'

be of the form

~ mz-\-p
y nz-\-q.

-^

= and the line will


^^^r^ = -(^-^')
yy = ?l(z z). (53)
;;/

"n^

(52)

n and

~"

through the point x\


,

Ar

is

m'(zz')
=:

^,

z= r=y.

XX

If the equation passing

xx'
Vy

-j-^

^.
and n-om the second^ condition

line

we must have

condition

first

passing through a given

litie

a given straight

Xa

From

(51)

;;/,

be

To find

60.

point

x\

Xa
I

y', z'
y

The

the equations

and perpendicular

h
7n

of a

'~

and

to

inter secti7ig

a given right

c
71

'

required line by the

xx'
where L, M, and

straight line passing through a given

first

condition wdll be of the form

yv'

zz'

are to be determined

1.1+lslm-V^n

by the conditions

o (Art. 54)

li7ie

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

35

and

+ (^--0')(L;;z--M/)r:zo(Art.55).

(^-jr')(M;^--N;;2)+(3-y)(N/-L;z)

6i. Ex. I. Find the equation of the line joining the points (b, c, a)
and (C^^) ^^d show that it is perpendicular to the line joining the
and that it
origin and the point midway between these two points
;

is

also perpendicular to the lines

2
a =-=-.
b

and

=: v =. z

Ex.

The

2.

straight

which join the middle points of the


all pass through one point.

lines

opposite sides of a tetrahedron

Take

one of the

axes of ^, y,

Let M, M',
N, N',

tively,

M"be

MN,

We
(Mj,

N"

OA =

Let

Then

Hence

Then

N') (M",

2a

is (0,

b,

OB =
c)

2b

the equation of

OC

and

is (^,

MN

Similarly the equation of

the equation of

OA,

to find the equations of the

(2) give

zz rr

"'

y y
,

,,

to

the points

0),

0,

is

M'N'

z
^

is

y-b

-b

M"N"

(2)

is

_y __zb~ -c

and

OC respecOB and AB

and

=r 2c.

'y

(i)

as the

respectively.

iN^')

xa y
-a ~ b~

Anid

OC

M"N".

M'N',

(]\r,

AC

the middle points of the edges

-==
,
apply
^
^^ ^ the equation
xx'

NO

and OA, OB,

the middle points of BC,

opposite to those respectively.


lines

origin

vertices as

z.

-c

y =, z ,

(3)

and these values

Consequently these lines pass through the point

(-,-,\2

satisfy (3)

/ hj^^ -^


36

ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

^'OTES

Straight Line and Plane,

To find the

62.

given by

its

line shall be

perpendicular

x cos a-\-y cos /? +


cos y are the direction

be of the form

If the plane

we know

conditio7is that

a plane

to

equation.

that cos a, cos

/?,

cos

=z p (i)

cosines of the

perpendicular from the origin on the plane.

And

the equation of this perpendicular will be

If

any plane

cos

cos

cos

16

'

Ax + By + C0 = D be parallel

plane

to the

we must

have

B _
~ cosp ~~

A _
cos

and

if

X
cos

~
^

the line

j;

cos

Hence

^= cos

'

AT

~ N

'

C
cos

^^ Parallel to the line

we must have

]\I

cos^

cos/y

cosy

the conditions that the line

'

perpendicular to the plane

Tr.u r
"u
If the hne be

m the rform X = ??IZ-}-p^

.-L

And

the conditions are

7iz-\-q

we write

be

Xp
J' O
-
= -Z

it-

or

= ?iC^Y

-^

VI

==

;/

Ax + By + Cz

=D

(sO
^-^"^^

of a line passing through the point .r',y,

perpendicular to the plane

be

(54)

;;/

The equation

:=i

shall

IN

1\1

= D will

Ax + Bv + Cz

ABC
~M~

=-<-

^^

L,

will

xx'_ yy' _ zz'


"~A~'^'~B~~~"C~*

then be

<&'

and

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

37

or in the unsymmetrical form

Ex. Find the equation of a line passing through the point


3) and perpendicular

To find

6^,

Now

the condiiion

xa

yb

if this

To find

line

Hence

the conditions that

must

line

satisfy

it

be perpendicular to

will

the required condition will be


o.

a straight

(56)

line shall coincide

xa

with a given

yh

M ~ N

the condition

And

also

additional condition A.a-\-Bb-\-Cc'D


2.

to

line of

) above of parallelism above,


(
any point on the line as {a^ 3, c)
the equation of the plane.
Hence we must have the

fulfil

AL + BM + CN =::o.
must

and the

D.

Let the line be of the form

The

=D

zc

parallel to the plane

is

Ax + By + Cz

1.

2,

5.

that a straight line shall he parallel

AL + BM + CN =
plane

(i,

^-=-3^^^^.

the normal to the plane.

64.

40 =

Let the plane be Aj; + Bv4-C0

given plane.

the form

to the plane ^x-{-2y

o.

(57)

Let the equations of the line be of the form

x=mz \-p
y=i7iz-{-q

stituting these values of

x and y

in the equation

\
)

Sub-

of the plane,

we

have

A(m+/)+B(;/0 + ^) + C0
whence

7.^=^

-^

Km^^n-\-C

And

be indeterminate, and therefore

for

= D,

coincidence this value of Z must

A/ + B;7 D = o
Aw + B;^ + Cr=oj

(rg)
are

the

condi-

tions of coincidence.

Note.

This

last

method

is

a general one of determining the con-

and any surface given by its


That is substitute x andjj/ of the line in the equation of
the surface and since the z in the resulting equation must be indeditions coincidence of a straight line

equation.

ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

AZOTES

38
terminate
tity

if

there be coincidence

and make the

we

treat this

coefficients of the different

equation as an iden-

powers of z separately

equal to zero.

To find the

65.

any point P(x',


T

o
I

Let

expression for the length

y',z')

1-

But PA^

PA

of the perpeiidictilar VT) from

AB given by

line

x a =- vh-=
hne be
cos p
cos a

cos

equation,

where

its

a, b, c

,.

are the coordi-

Now PD^ ~ PA^ ADl


[^x'-aY^\-{y -bY-V{z-cf and AD being the

nates of any point

tion of

on a straight

on the

line.

projec-

on AB, we have

AD

=:

{xa)

cos a-\-i^yb) cos

^^-{zb)

cos y.

Hence
YVi'^^x' -a)''-\-{y -bY y[z' -cY-{{x-a) cos

+
2.

If the given line

a^{y-b)

yb

y5

'(59)
^

be of the form

xa

cos

(0-^) cos;/).

Then
cos

And

a:

A
= =====

etc., etc.

therefore PD'^

3. If the given line

be

:= mz-\-p

^=.

jiz^q

Then PD^

To fijid

66.
lines

the expressionfor the shortest distance between

two straight

given by their equations.

This shortest distance


the given lines

PB and

is

a straight line

AB

perpendicular to both

SR.

Let the given equations

xa 7-yb' z c' and


X a =:^ vb-=
zc
777=
and
cos y
cos p
cos a
cos p
cos a
cos y

angle between the

And

L,

M,

= the

lines.

the direction cosines of the perpendicular

AB.

'

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

3g

Then we must have

L
L

cos
cos

^ + M cos /? -f N cos y
a -h M cos /5' + N cos y'

=o
= o.

Whence

L
cos

cos ^'

COS j3^ cos

cos

cos y'

cos

~"

cos

N
cos

cos //'cos a! cos

VL'+ lAP+N'
(cos

/3

COS

y'

cos

/3^

COS y;2_j_(cos a COS y'

COS

a'

COS y)2-|-(c0S a COS ^'

COS a' COS

]8)2

.<
I

sin

(Art. 15).

Now

AB

P be

let

{a\ b\ c)
itself,

AB

the point

on the line SR.


we have

=:

[a, 5, c)

Then

on the

line

PB and Q

as the projection of

(^-^')L + (^-^')M + {^-^')N

be the point

PQ

on

AB

is

=:

(62)
(a aO(COS^COSv' C07C0S^')+(^ ^')(COSaCOSY' C0Sa'C0S7)+(C C')(COSaCOSj8' COSa'COSjS)

""
sin 6,
If the given lines are expressed in other forms

cos

/?,

etc.

we can

from the given equations and substitute them

find cos a,
in {^^2),

CHAPTER

V.

TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
To transform^

67.
nates

to

of which referred

Let

OA

=: X,

AN

parallel axes through a

to the

^=i

y,

old axes are

FN =

a, b,

new

origin the coordi-

c.

be the coordinates of/ referred

to

O and the axes Ox, Oy and Oz. Also let O' be the new
origin, and OA' 1= a, A'N' b, N'O' == r be its coordinates and let
O'H 1= x\ HK z=zy' and PK = z be the coordinates of P referred to
O' as origin and axes parallel to the original axes.
Then x = OA = OA' + A'H.
the origin

Similarly

and

:=

a^x'

c-\-z'

Substituting these values in the equation of a surface

we

obtain the

equation referred to the new origin and axes.


68.

To pass from a rectangular system

remaining the

to

another system the

oj'igin

sa?ne.

Let Ox, Oy, Oz be the old axes at right angles to each other Ox',
Oy\ Oz the new axes inclined to each other at any angle

OM = X, MN =y, NP =
NT = z\

O^V :=x\ M'N' =y,

Now the projection of the broken line OM'-f MN' + N'P on the
axis Ox is equal to the projection OM of the radius vector OP on
Ox. Let cos a, cos (3, cos y be
new axes make with the axis Ox

the cosines of the angles which the


;

then

x' cos a-\-y' cos l3-\-z' cos y,

40

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,


If COS

axes

a\ cos

make

cos y' be the cosines of angles which the

/?',

and

/5",

cos y'\ the cosines

make

shall

have similar values

Hence

z.

+y cos /3
+y cos

y X

cos

^
a

x'

co^

a" -{-y co^

we

with Oz,

the three equations of transformation are

X =:

We

new

with the axis Oy, and cos a' cos

of the angles which they


for V

41

X' cos

-{-Z

COS

f5'

^-z'

cos y'

13"

-{-z'

co^y".

(64)

have of course
cos'

a + cos'

+ COS^ y

r=z

cos' a' +cos'/5'

+cos'

/ =

cos' <^''+C0S'/5"

+ C0S'

;^" r= I.

/?

>

(B)

For the angles A, fi, 1^ between the new axes ofy and z\ of 0' and
x\ of x' and y respectively we have
cos A

cos a' cos

cos

yu

COS

cos

= cos

a" co?>

cos

a"+
a +
<x' +

cos

(3^

cos

cos /5"cos

cos

cos

^" +cos ;k' cos y"


y5 +cos ;k"cos /
/?' +cos y cos }/'.

To pass from one system of rectangular

69.

>

(C)

coordinates to another also

rectangular.

The

formulae in this case are the

exception that since the

= o,

cos

=0 and

cos a^ cos

cos

a" cos

cos

cos

new axes

same

as those in the last with the

are also rectangular cos

A=o,

cos

}x

formulae (C) give

+ cos ft' cos /5" + cos y cos 7''=


a + cos /^"cos /? +cos ;k' cos ^ =
a:' + cos /? cos y^' +cos y cos ^' ==
(^''

o.

(D)

Since between the nine quantities there are six equations of conditions, (B)

and (D) there are only three of the

cos

independent.

f3,

70.

etc.,

In changing from rectangular axes to rectangular, there

another set of equations of condition


cos ^,

quantities, cos

etc.,

is

the quantities, cos a,

equivalent to the preceding which result from the fact

new
made by the

that the

among

of,

axes are rectangular.


old axis of

with the

For

new

a, a', a!' being the angles

rectangular axes,

must have
cos'

a! + cos' a"
+ cos'/5' + cos' (3"
y + cos' y + cos' y"

a + cos'

zn

cos' /^

^\\

cos'

z=z

(E)

etc.,

we

NOTES OX SOLID GEOMETRY.

42

cos

a
a

cos

cos

ji

cos

COS

cos /?4-cos

a cosy5'+cos a^

+ cos a' cos


;^ + cos yS' cos

+ cos
7' + cos

;k

;k'

and the new coordinates expressed

= X cos
y = cos
X

a:

r=

z'

COS

in

flf''

cos /5"

To do

the cutting plane.

/5" cos

/"

Then

=Ax-hBy,

2:

this

angle

cp

which

x'Oy be

Let

cp

(F)

>
)

referred

Then PR

OQ

=:

cos

6,

and

let
ji^'

B;^

xy

in the line

o.

Oy' a line perpendicular

OR = x\ RM =y

and

the plane referred to the axes O.v',

=j;,

PM =
O-s:.

^ be

Then

the coordinates of

the angle ]\IRP

=zy

sin

=y

cp,

M
d

sin 6,

QP= OR

sin

cp-RT

sin

cos

cp.

X = x' cos ^+y cos s'm


= x' sin cpy cos 6 cos
J'
if

and the

M in

V^l

^4-RP
/. z

And

the plane

cp.

=/ cos

OR

makes with

be the axis of

OP

x,

in

the plane with reference

plane, cutting the plane

the old axes O.v, O;',

to

XOX'

OQ =

often

it is

coordinates

, the trace being A.v +

for the axis of x'

in the given plane

also let

(F)

\
)

Let the equation of the plane be given

the coordinates of any point

and

on that plane makes with the axis of

the given

Ox' which take

fix

the angle 6 which this

traces

it

by the equation tan

Oy

we must

determined by the equation cos

is

it

=:

terms of the old are

a -\-y cos ft -\-z cos y


a -\-_ycos /3' +s:cos y'
a" +^ COS/5'' -f COS /"

to the old coordinate planes.

to

In the Study of surfaces by sections made by planes

71.

xy

cos y'z=.o

necessary to transform the coordinates in space to

as z

cp y
cp

(65)

these values be substituted in the equation of any surface

Y{x, y, z)

o the result

will

be a relation bet^veen

x andy,

coor-

dinates of the curve cut from the surface by the plane.


72. If the cutting plane contain

formulae are simplified and in

Let

many

one of the coordinate

X'OY be the cutting plane containing

in the plane

zx the

axis of x',

axes, the

cases sufficiently general.

PM=a;',

the axis ofj-;

OM y.

O^'

its

trace

the coordinates of

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


any point P

nates of

MQ =. X

ON

in the section,

NQ

=3 x,

referred to the old axes.

cos

d,

PQ = X

sin

ft

*.

^=.y,

QP =

43
z the coordi-

Then angle PMQ = d, and


The formulae of transforma-

tion are

= x' cos

y=y'
z

That

is,

we have only

to

^=z

x'

make x

sm

(66)

:= x' cos

6,

z =: x^ sin

d,

^y in

the equation of any surface, in order to find the equation of the section of this surface

by a plane, containing the axis of^and making an

angle d with the plane xy.

CHAPTER

VL

THE SPHERE.,
73.

To fijid

1.

In rectangular coordinates.

Let

a,

the equation

sphere,

is

then (Art.

i)(.r

^)' + (jV

the origin be at the centre

if

x'-\-f^z^^V^\
2.

In oblique coordinates.

Let

A,

if

the equation

cos }x-\-2^yh)(zc) cos

t^

is

(Art. 16)

z=

R^

(69)

the origin be at the centre

^^ + j^

2:^

+ 2a7cos

\-\-2xz cos }x-\-2yz cos

3.

In polar coordinates

Let

r',

tion

(68)

V be the angles of the axes then

//,

2[xa)(zc)
or

= R.
^)' + (2 0'=R- (67)

be coordinates of the Centre, and Radius

b^ c

The equation
or

of the

R^

(70)

a, /3 be the polar coordinates of the centre then the equa-

is

r^

+ r- 2rr'(cos

6 cos ^4-sin 9 sin

If the pole be at the origin

equation

cos {cp

/3)) = R\

and the centre on the axis of

(71)
0,

the

is

Y^= 2R
Since that

is

cos

e,

(72)

the equation of the generating circle in

any one of

positions.

44

its

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


The Sphere under

74.

The equation

((i^])

conditions (coordinates rectangular).

may be

written

x'-i-/+2'-{-'Dx-i-'Ey + F2

or

Auxd

since this

45

+G

o,

{js)

equation contains /bur arbitrary constants, the

may be made

to fulfil /bur conditions (which are compatiFour given conditions give four equations for
determining the constants D, E, F, G, and with these determined
we know the radius and centre of the sphere, for we have only by

sphere

ble)

and no more.

completing the squares

to see that the centre

is

to

throw the equation

1.

into the form

and the radius

is

2/

J32

p2

- + +

G.

The equation of a sphere passing through a given point

A, e,

x^^y''-^z'^'Y){x-d)-\-Y.{y-e)-\-Y{z-f)-d'-e'^f':=^o,
If the given point be the origin the equation

^'+y + 32 + Dj^ + E^ + F0r=


2.

from

The equation of a sphere cutting

the axis

f,

is

(74)

is

o.

(75)

of z

at distances c

and d

the origin is

x^-\-f^{z-c){z-c)^T)x^Yy^ o
must give two values

for

0,

and

c,

^
for"^^^

(76)

and

this

equation

fulfils

that

condition.
3.

The equation of a sphere touching

the axis

of z at a

distance

cfrom

the origin is

x^-^y'^-\-{zcY\-^x^Y.y
dent values of

when

"

(jj) for this gives two coinci-

46

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

The equation of a sphere touching

4.

axes at distance 2ifrom

all three

origin.

To meet

these conditions the equation

to give equal roots for z

when

>

must be of such a form

the

same equal

'

when
Z

and the same equal


roots
^

for

""

-^

x when

roots for

as

Let

the distance of points of contact from origin be a, then the equation


will

be

x'2ax^y'2ay-\-z''2az-^a^ =.Q
above conditions.

as this fulfils the


5.

(78)

The equation of a sphere passing through

the origin

and having

its

centre on the axis ofx\s>

x'-\-f-\-z'^2Rx.
6.

The equation of a sphere tangent

to the

(79)

plane xy at the point

(a,

b)

is

{x-aY^{y-hy--\-z--\-Yz^o (80)
for

then

75.

0=0

gives x^=^a, andj'=(^, a point {a, b) in the plane xy,

Interpretation

of the expression

(^x-aY^{y-hY^(z-cy-^\
1.

Let

(jc,

ji',

be the coordinates of a point

2:)

sphere whose centre

PM^

{^x-aY-^^y-Vf -V[z-'cY-'^\

Therefore the expression (i)

the

<:)

QY^^^x-aY-^{y-hY-\-(z-cY

and hence

point

P without

and radius == R and let P^I be


Then P]\P =: OP^ OMl
point M.

is (a, h,

tangent to this sphere at the

Now

(i)

is

the square of the tangent from the

to the sphere.

Let Y{x,y,z) be a point within the sphere.


to OP meeting the sphere
erect a perpendicular

Join

2".

PM

in

i\I,

OP and
and join

OM.
Then P]\Pi=OM"^-OP

^' -{{x-aY^iy-hY -Viz-c)')

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,


That

becomes negative and represents the

the expression (i)

is

^y

P perpendicular

square of the half chord through

to

the radius

through P.

of two

76. Radical plane

The

Def.

spheres,

radical plane of two spheres

drawn from any point of which

to tlje

is

the plane the tangents

two spheres are equal.

If the equations of the two spheres are

the equation of their radical plane

is

{x-aY^{y^hY^{z-cy-^^'-{{x-ay^{y-^hJ-^{z-cJ^^')

o
For this expresses (Art 75) that the squares of the tangents from
point {x, y, z) to the two spheres are equal^ and moreover it is an
equation of the
of a plane.

plane

degree in x,

first

y and

of intersection.

plane of two spheres

may be

It

is

'
six

and therefore the equation


plane

their radical

is

their

proved that the radical

easily

perpendicular to the line joining their cen-

tres.

J J, The

spheres intersect

If the

of four

radical planes

spheres intersect in a

common

point.
-

Let S
spheres.

= o,

S' zn

Then

=o

S''

S'"= o be

the equations of the four

the equations of their radical planes are

S-S"

^o

S-S"'z=o

S"-S'"

These may be added, so


the planes intersect in a

of the six radical

-S"'=:o

S'

as to vanish simultaneously

common

planes

is

point.

and therefore

This point of intersection

called the radical centre of the

spheres.
78.

Examples

1.

Find the centres and

^^-f-y

radii respectively of the spheres

+ 2^ 2^ + 3;' 52:

0.

four

ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

A'OTES

48

5jc^

+ 5^4- 52:'-- 1 2:^+20); +240 40

x^-\-y^
2.

+ z^ =

o.

320.

Find the equation of a sphere passing through the origin and

the points

i, 2,

~i,

3,

4, 5>

3. o^ i-

CHAPTER
CYLINDERS, CONES,
79. Cylinders.

Def.

VIL

AND SURFACES OF REVOLUTION.

A cylinder is a surface generated by the motion

of a straight line which always intersects a given plane curve, and

always parallel to a fixed straight

The moving

line.

called the generator; the plane curve

which

it

is

straight line

is

always intersects

is

called the directrix ox guiding curve, the fixed straight line the axis,
*

80.

To find the general

Let m,

And
which

let

7n

the axis.
its

n,

equation

of a

cylinder.

be the direction cosines of the

3^

(0 ^^ ^^

axis.

equations of the generator in

and n are constant since the generator remains parallel to


For convenience take the guiding curve in the plane xy,
^^^^~~

equations will then be

the equations (i)

(2)

'

2=0

we obtain

Now making

=o

in

xpyq

for the point in

which the

generator pierces the guiding curve F(:v, y) in the plane xy.


Hence we have F(/, q)
o, (3) and eliminating the arbitraries/

and q between

(i)

and

(3)

we obtain

Y{xmz,ynz)^:^o

(82)

the general equation of cylinders.


If the cylinder

be a right cylinder with its guiding curve in the


its axis, then in equation (82) m z= o,

plane xy and the axis of 2 for

and n=^Q, and the required equation of the cylinder

Y{x,y)

= o,

(83)

is

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,


Cylinders

8i.

of second

We

order.

^g

shall confine ourselves to cylin-

ders whose equations are of the second degree.

To find the
Here Y(x,y)

of the oblique cylinder with circular base.


R^ o. Hence Y(xmz^ ynz)

equation

1,

= x^ +/

%\\^%(xmzY-\-{y'-nzf^^o

(84) the required equation.


cylinder with circular base.

To find the equation of the right


the axis be the axis of z, the equation
2.

To find

3.

is

F(^) = o

the oblique cylinder with elliptical base.

X^

be
curve in plane
^y
^
-^

Then {x,y)

a^

that

If

is

Let the guiding

1/2

+^ =

i.

b'

X
^+^1=0
V

and the equation

is

b''

(x

mzY

The equation

4.

(y nzY
"^

a'

b'

of the right cylinder with elliptical base whose

X
V

+ ^=:
^,2

.^2

axis

is

5.

axis of

the axis of z

is

F{Xy y)

o,

that

The equation of the right parabolic


is y^^4dx = o or^ = 4dx.

is,

i.

cylinder whose axis

is

the

82. Cones.

Def.

cone

is

a surface generated by a straight line which passes

through a fixed point and always intersects a given plane curve.

The

fixed point

is

^'^,

To find

the

the generator,

line

directrix or guiding curve,

general equation of a cone.

Let the coordinates of the vertex be


generator

moving

called the vertex, the

and the given plane curve the

xa = y~b

zc

(i)

plane (jcy) its equation being then


eliminate the arbitraries

the equation of the

{a, b, c)
,

and take the

j-

,.

in the

Now

(2).

and n between the equations

directrix

and

(i)

we

if

(2)

the result will be the equation to the cone, the locus of the right
line (i).

Making
which

= o in

result will
5

(i) the values of

x andy,

namely,

2ZI

a
,

mc

)
>

be the coordinates of the point in which the gene-

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

50

xy and these

rator meets the plane

=o

the equation of the directrix.

=o

Y{amc, bnc)

will

consequently

We

have therefore

But from

(3).

satisfy

and therefore

'

m =-

(i)

F(^, y)

=
z

becomes

(3)

or
the general equation of cones.

and

=zo and equation

(85)

If vertex

be on axis of

becomes F(

-,

z,

then a

=o

=z o.

(86)

84. Cone with vertex at origin.

cone

If the vertex of the

and the

at the origin

is

plane parallel to the plane xy, and at a distance

equation of the generatrix will be

and the

directrix will

be

To

We

(i).
^
^

Hence we have

thus get

Y{niCj nc)

^^ nic

:=zi

it

then the

(i) the vertex (o, o, o)


^

(2)
directrix

we

=0,

nc

but

/?/

X
=

Therefore

and

=V from

(i).

F(f,f)=o
is

which the generator meets the

find the point in

make0r^<:in

directrix in a

from

=z'=z

~
=c

-^^^

the equation required.

The equation
85.

(87)

is

homogeneous equation

Cones 0/ second degree.

1.

The

eqiiaiion

in

of an

x,y and

oblique cone with

circular base.

The equation

of the directrix

is

Y{x, y)

= x^-\-y^ R^ =

Hence

z,

C J

o.

'

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,


{az'-cxY-\-(hz-cyY^^\z-c)\

or

(88)

To find the equation of a right cone with circular


of the cone and vertex being (o, o, c).

2"^.

z being the axis

of the directrix

z=^

or

Ar^4-y=-j(0 r)^

axis of
3.

^[cx ^cy\
F(
~)==o
\zc zc)

^
Hence

axis of

The equation

-^

-^

IS

base, the

c^x^

is

-,

This

(89).

is

c.

^4-

cY
'

,,

^,
-R'

a cone of revolution about the

<sr.

The equation of a right cone with vertex at

the origin

and circular,

or hypej'bolic bases.

elliptical,

The equations

of the circular base (directrix) are

F(jt:,j^')=;vH/-R'=o
2:

Hence

f ex

Ff

cy\
,

^\=zo

The equations

c^x^

cY
^

of the elliptical

^ +^. - ^ o
I

Hence

-^H

gives

and

R^
R^=:ooTx'^'{-y=~.z\

and hyperbolic

-,~- - 1

= 0)

the elliptical

=.

Z =:

directrices are

respectively.

o)

and hyperbolic cones are

cY
f
-^ + ^-^.-i-oor-+--z=x'

c'x'

c'x''

86.

(90)

cY

x"

z'

(91)

Surfaces of Revolution.

To find

the

general equation of a surface generated by the rroolution of

a plane curve generator about

the axis

of z.

Let SP=:r be an ordinate of the point

to

the axis of z of the

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

52

OM = x, MN =jk, NP = z the
= ON^ = O^P + i\IN^ or r' - x'-^y'.

plane curve and

Then

SP^

That

is,

the distance from any point of revolving curve

from the axis of z

erator)

coordinates of P.

r=L^x^-\-y^

is

But r being an

(i).

nate of the generating curve to the axis of z

equation of the curve in any position r

= F(0)

(2).

we have

(93)

about the axis of ;v the equation

Vy+? = F(.v).
Surfaces of revolutmi of secojid

87.

.*.

(94)

07'dei\

V-^'+y^

F(2^)

gives

x-+y

=:

a^,

= ??i^{zcy

Hence or^+y

the tangent of the angle

(95) the required equation where


side of cone with axis of 0.

^=z

'S:^

V^t^M-y

4^. Equation

The

The equation

= "f a^ z^

or

x'^

+y^-\-z^

of the Surface generated by


r^

generator

is -.

z^

+ 7^ =

or r^

al

the revolution

= a^i^(3^

the equation of the surface

of an

one of the

ellipsoids

-l-

v^

2:^).

is

_^ + _=i.

oc^

or

is

of the generating curve

conjugate axis,

Hence

is

a^ or r z=z^fa^z^.

Hence

its

made by

Equation of the Sphere.

3.

This

The

Equation of a Cone of revolution about the axis of z, vertex at


The equation of the generating line is r
7n[zc),

2.

about

z.

= a.

is

(o, o, c).

is r^

of^r.

is

Equation of Cylinder of revolution about the axis of

1.

equation of the revolving line

the

Therefore

the required equation of surfaces of revolution about axis


If the curve revolved

ordi-

we must have by

eliminating the arbitrary r between (i) and (2)

V^^' = F(2)

(gen-

z^

(96)

of revolution called the

oblate spheroid.

ellipse

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


5.

about

Equation of the Ellipsoid generated by the revolution of an


its

Take

ellipse

transverse axis the {^Prolate spheroid).

the axis o{

of the generator

is

x^
-^

r^
-5
0'

the equation

32

= aC'^'^ ^^).

Then

as the axis of revolution.

a
or r^

53

Hence V^'^ +

'S:^

Y{x) gives

^=1

(97)

the required equation.


88. Hyperboloids
revolves about
lution

of one

its

of

When

sheet.

erates the hyperboloid


1.

of

it

it

When

the Hyperbola

generates the Hyperboloid of revo-

revolves about the transverse axis

revolution of

two

(2;^-f<5^).

or r^ =:

Hence

is

Then

as the axis of revolution.


r-

x'^

generator

-^

for the

5*

sheets.

Take

the equation of the

(:v^ a^).
<5-

or r^

^--^=1.
89. Equation

Hence

equation of the surface we have

(99)

of the Paraboloid of revolution about

The equation of the


Hence the equation

gen-

Let the axis of z be

sheet.

The equation of the Hyper'boloid of revolution of two

the axis of

it

sheets.

Equation of the Hyperboloid of one

the conjugate axis then

2.

Definitions.

revolution.

conjugate axis

generator

is r^

of the Surface

the axis

ofx.

^dx.

isj'^

2:^

Adx.

(100)

CHAPTER

VIII.

ELLIPSOIDS, HYPERBOLOIDS,

89.

To find

the equation to the surface

Def. This surface

moves

AND PARABOLOIDS.

of an

Ellipsoid.

generated by a variable ellipse which always

is

and changes so that its vertices lie on


whose planes are perpendicular to each other and to
the plane of the moving ellipse, and which have one axis in common.
Let BC, CA be quadrants of the given fixed ellipses traced in the
r* planes j^^^, zx OB
c their common semi-axis along the axis of 0,
OA = a (on the axis of ^), and OB = b (on the axis oi y) the other
two

parallel to a fixed plane

fixed ellipses

semi-axes

QPR

position, having

AC, BC, so

ON

z,

Then

a quadrant of the variable generating ellipse in any


its

centre in

NM = x^ MP y be

-^ ^^ =z
-I-

QN^
-^=i__

z'

h^ve

OC

that the ordinates

and two of

QN,

its

are

vertices in the ellipses

its

semi-axes

the coordinates of any point

And

i.

RN

since

RN^

.,
^
Similarly

is

on the

ellipse

also let

in

it:

AC we

2'

-^= I--.

Hence eliminating RN^ and QN^ we have

x^

"(-7:) '(-;.)
2^

1/2

X^

the equation to the surface.


90.

To deternwie
x^

the equation

the form

y^

^-l--^ +

of the

z^

^=

i,

ellipsoid from

its eqiiaiio7i.

Since in

can only receive values between a


54

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

and
is

a,y between

limited in

on

trace

b,

is

between

and

r,

the surface

equation to the

for the

i,

b^

therefore the ellipse

AB.

02

X^

If

and

we obtain -^ +
a

which

xy,

all directions.

0=0

we put

If

and

55

weputj^== owe have ^-{.^ i^ the

ellipse

AC.

a*
,2

If

we put

:v

= o we have '--^-=.1.

BC.

or the ellipse

These three sections by the coordinate planes are called the principal sections, and their semi-axes a, h, c, are the semi-axes of the ellipsoid
If

and

their vertices the vertices of the ellipsoid, of

we make

which

it

has

six.

we have

z^=^h

d^'^ b^~~^

c"'

the equations of any section parallel to xy, which

is

an

ellipse similar

AB, since its axes are in the ratio oi a to b, whatever be the value
of ^, and which becomes imaginary when h ^ c.
In the same manner all sections parallel to xz^ and yz are ellipses respectively similar
to AC and BC.
The whole surface consists of eight portions precisely similar and equal to that represented in the figure.
to

Cor,

If3=athe

x'^

ellipsoid

becomes

-\-

y^

z^

h-y-

the ellip-

soid of revolution about the axis of z. Art. (87), all the sections of
which by planes parallel to_>';^, are circles. Hence the spheroids may
be generated by a variable circle moving as the variable ellipse, in
Def. Art. (89).
^

91.

To find the equation

to the

hyperboloid

of one

sheet.

Definition.
This surface is generated by a variable ellipse, which
moves parallel to a fixed plane, and changes so that its vertices rest
on two fixed hyperbolas, whose planes are perpendicular to each
other, and to the plane of the moving ellipse, the two hyperbolas

having a

common

conjugate axis coincident with the intersection of

their planes.

Let

OC =
of z

AQ

and

c their

BR

be the given hyperbolas traced in the planes zx.yz

common

OA = a, OB =

ellipse in

semi-conjugate axis coinciding with the axis

b the semi-transverse axes

any position having

its

QPR

the generating

plane parallel to xy^

its

centre in

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

56

OC, and

its

NQ, NR,

its

semi-axes.

PQR

so that the ordinates

MN = ^, MP =7, ON =

Also, let

be the coordinates of any point


ellipse

AQ, BR,

vertices in the hyperbolas

are

in the generating ellipse

z,

then the

gives

NQ^

AQ

Also from hyperbola

NR'

'

And

NR^

BR

from hyperbola

0-

~f^-""
^'^

Hence^

+-.-/-.=.
\

S^

""?"+

or

92.

To determine

r/-S^

^
the

~-r

(^02) the equation to the surface.

form of

the hyperloloid

of one

from

sheet

its

equation.

Since the equation (102) admits values of x,


negative however large, the surface
sides of the origin.

x^

y^

^ + ^

If

for the trace

the sections by the planes

hyperbola

AQ,

on

^r)^

xz and

and z

and
all

we obtain

w^hich

^'2:

is

AB.

the ellipse

Similarly

x^
are respectively -^

and^ =

positive

extended indefinitely on

is

we put

the hyperbola

z^

^~

The

BR.

^^^

ellipse

AB

and the hyperbolas AQ and BR are the principal sections. The sections
The
parallel to xy are all ellipses similar to and greater than AB.
sections parallel to xz and j^ are hyperbolas similar to the principal
sections.

The -semi-axes a and


and

h are called the r^^/ semi-axes of the surface

the imaginary semi-axis,

<:\/ I.

The

extremities

vertices of the surface.

called the hyperboloid of


rior of the

volume of

this

The
one

since

of

the

surface

sheet.

a:

real
is

o and
axes

^=.0 give z

are

called

the

continuous and hence

The hollow

space in

hyperboloid of which the ellipse

smallest section has the shape of an elliptical dice-box.

=
is

the inte-

AB

is

the

NOTS ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


Cor.

If 3

=^

the equation

hyperboloid of revolution of one sheet.


are

becomes

57

^=

that of the

Its sections parallel

to

xy

all circles.

To fifid

93.

the equation to the hypei'holoid

Definition.

moves

This surface

is

with

its

parallel to

gles to each other


tices in

itself,

and

of two

sheets.

generated by a variable

ellipse

which

axes on two fixed planes at right an-

to the plane of the generating ellipse

two hyperbolas in those planes having a

common

^nd

ver-

transverse

axis.

AQ and AR be the given hyperbolas traced in the planes zx,


OA = a their common semi-transverse axis along the axis of ^,
OB = h OC = c the semi-conjugate axes along the axes ofj' and z
QPR the generating ellipse in any position having its plane parallel
Xoyz, its centre in Ox, and its vertices AQ, AR so that the ordinates
'QN, RN are its semi-axes.
Let ON x, MN y, MP = be the
Let

xy,

coordinates of any point

in the ellipse.

v'^

Then

-4--

RN^

also from hyperbola

and from hyperbola

jr~,

X'

jv^

^a

U"

Hence

x^

RN^

AR

,4.
QiV

'

QN-

AQ

z"

r-2

-^.--TT-^r-^

(103)

the equation to the surface.


94.

To

determifie the form

of the hyperboloid of two

sheets from

its

equa-

tion.

The equation shows


imaginary

tween two planes

common

.r between -\-a and a give


no part of the surface can be situated be-

that all values of

results, therefore

parallel

transverse axis

\.o

yz through

and A' the

but the equation can be

vertices of the

satisfied

by values

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

58

Zj indefinitely great, therefore there is no limit to the distance


which the surface may extend on both sides of the centre.

oi X, y,
to

If

we make x^=^o we have

for the principal

~
v^

we have

h^

have
in

y =

-j^

AQ and

For

^=i

which represents similar

For- the sections


x"

an imaginary curve

h and h'^ a

principal sections by the planes


tively.

+ ^ =

section by the plane j^'2:.


z^

-i

-r^

ellipses.

xy and zx are AR and AQ,


=
to xy and putting

parallel

respec-

2:

j^ a hyperbola similar to

the opposite branch of that hyperbola

AR

with

The

we

vertices

its

and conjugate

axis

In the same way the sections parallel to zx are hy-

parallel to Oy,

perbolas similar to

and conjugate axes


and its vertices the

AQ

AR

with vertices in

parallel to Oj, za

and

The

vertices of the surface.

are the imaginary axes of the surface as

opposite branch

its

the real axis of the surface

is

it

axes 2a, 2b and 2c

cuts neither J^^ nor

z.

The

whole surface consists of two indefinitely extended sheets perfectly


similar

and equal, separated by an

Cor. If d =:

the equation

Hence

interval.

becomes

y^

1.

sheet

X^

its

equation

y^

x^

z^

y- +

c'^

j--\-^z=L~^{i-\

J-

is

its

the equa-

transverse axis.

two hyper boloids,

to the

The hyperboloid 0/ one

Putting

Z'

a"

95. Asymptotic cones

name.

^r =

x^
~

tion to the hyperboloid of revolution about

its

has an interior asymptotic


z^

V*
^7^

Y"

(^)

in the

Now when

cone,

form

is

very great

very small, and hence the limiting form of (2) for

increased

j.

(2)

without limit
X^
~~Y
its

y2

'-jr

is

^2

"T

(3)

vertex at the origin

Moreover,

t^^ equation of an elliptical cone

and

its elliptical

this elliptical section is

having

section parallel to xy.

always within the corresponding


NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.
same
we have

section of the surface by the

and

(i)

(2) respectively

+ 4^ =

^K-

y^

x^

^ +
a^
This cone

b^

x^

x^

y^

^T +

^
^

a ^ rr 4
and with an

^~

the surface by the

as a limiting

form of

elliptical

cone with vertex

at the

origin

Moreover,

greater than the corresponding section of.

same

For putting

plane.

we have

z^

h^

= ^

z'

x:=i

in (i)

and

(2)

a^

c^

h'

asymptotic to both branches of the hyperboloid.

is

To find the

equation

to the elliptic

This surface

Definition.

whose vertex

w^ ^^ve

+ -^
r

z increase without limit,

1'^

96.

under the form

section parallel to the plane yz.

elliptical

This cone

2"

(i)

cone.

this elliptical section is

respectively
^

=1

~2

an

(2)

-I

z^

/^ +

'~yI

when^ and

equation

,h\Yi

for the section of the cone,

V^
~-^

b'

this

for the section of the surface

has an exterior asymptotic

sheets

Putting the equation

TT

asymptotic to the hyperbola.

is

Tht hyperholoid of two

2.

k^
= -^
r

4^-

For putting

plane.

59

lies

on a

is

paraboloid.

generated by the motion of a parabola

fixed parabola, the planes of the

two parabolas

being perpendicular to each other, their axes parallel and their concavities turned in the same direction.

Let

OR

be a parabola in the plane xy,

axis along the axis of

at,

and

parabola in any position with

and

axis parallel to

ON = X, NM
also

draw

=^v,

RM'

Ox, and

MP

=:

/ its latus
its

its

vertex at the origin,

rectum;

RP

plane parallel to zx, vertex in

let /'

denote

its

latus rectum.

be the coordinates of any point

parallel to Oy.

its

the generating

OR,

Also

let

in it;

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

6o

Then

z'

= l\ RM =

M'N and / = I'.OM'


butOM^ + M'Nzn.r.
l'.

~--\--^=ix (103) the equation

.*.

7^ determine

97.

the form

of the

Since only positive values of


face

to the surface.

elliptic

is

the equation to the principal section

zx are parabolas equal

sections parallel to

OR,

If

jv.

to

OQ, with

to

OQ.

If

equation.

its

part of the sur-

= o,

we makej^'

OQ, and

all

vertices in

xy are parabolas equal

with vertices in

no

But the surface extends

situated to the left of the planej'^.

is

indefinitely in the positive direction of

tion

paraboloidfrom

are admissible,

2:*= I'x

sections parallel

OR

similarly, all

to the other principal sec-

we make x

we have

z'

Ih'^l'h-^'
Therefore the sections parallel to

^are

similar ellipses,

and hence

its

name.
Cor.

If

/=3

the equation

becomes x+z'^

= Zr,

the paraboloid of

revolution.

To find

98.

This surface

Definition.

whose vertex

the equation to the hyperbolic paraboloid.

lies

on a

is

generated by the motion of a parabola

fixed parabola, the planes of the

being perpendicular to each other, their axes


cavities

Let

OR

their con-

be a parabola in the plane of xy, vertex at the origin, and

any

ing parabola in
let

two parabolas

and

turned in opposite directions.

axis along with the axis of

and

parallel,

I denote

its

.r,

and

/its latus rectum,

position, vertex in

latus rectum,

the coordinates of any point

it

RP

the generat-

axis parallel

ON = x, NM

and

in

OR,

draw R*M'

to O.r,

MP =

y,

0,

to Oy,

parallel

Then
2^=/'.

but

Hence
99.

The

To determine

MR

and/^/.OM';

OM'-MRz= ON =
x

the form

.r.

(104), the equation of the surface.

of the

hyperbolic paraboloidfrom

its

surface cuts the coordinate axes only at the origin,

the equation admits positive and negative values of

.v, >',

equation.

and since
z,

as great

NOTES
we

as

4DN SOLID GEOMETRY.

6l

both ways from the

please, the surface extends indefinitely

origin.

we makej^^ = o we have z^ = tx the principal


OQ, with its concavity turned towards the left

If

bola

tions parallel to

we

If

z^/ 1

xy are parabolas equal to OR with vertices in OQ.


make ^ = o we have the principal section

y \/r

z=i

oiyz, and all seczx are parabolas .^qual to OQ with their vertices in
we have^^
Ix the parabola OR, and sections

Making

OR.

parallel to

-T-r

i/i

In

making x

In

%-

we have

/i

a hyperbola with

=1

its

in

vertices

OR, and con-

For h negative the section becomes

jugate axis parallel to Oz,


v^

in yz,

or two straight lines through the origin; and for sec-

tions parallel to yz

z^
-777

section, the para-

a hyperbola with

its

vertices in

OQ, and conjugate

In

axis parallel to Ov.

The

surface has but

one vertex, and consists of one sheet and one

infinite axis.
1

00.

A symptotic planes

The equation

io

-7-

^2

j;2

r~~j^

and

^-=

when
V

or

V/
V =

become

Ihe hyperbolic paraboloid.

x may be

/
^

"^

rx\
2"

written

which has

for

its

infinitely great with regard to x,

-,

limiting form

This represents two planes

-^^

V/

a//

7-

=H

t=

and

'S/I'

z
-=.

through the origin and asymptotic to the surface.

These planes contain the asymptotes

to all the hyperbolic sections of

the surface parallel to yz,

loi

ellipsoid

ITie elliptic

and

and

hyperboloid

surfaces are removed

Take

hyperbolic paraboloids are particular cases

of one sheet respectively

the centres

of the
of these

to infinite distance,

x^

the equation

v^

z^

-^ + 4r + -^ =1, and
0^
a^
c^

when

transfer the origin to

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

62
the

vertex of the axis la

left

(New

^, o, o).

coordinates being

parallel to the primitive.)

{xaf

^^
\

or multiplying through by a

y^

-^^

h -tf

-^^

which

and

tions

in

^'^

are the semi-latera recta of the principal sec-

xy and

which remain

Now make

zx.

equal to

finite,

and /

00,

and put

and

respectively.

becomes

(i)

/.

-^ =
102.

"^^

-t- =2.r (i),

a
in

-L

2jt:,

the equations to the paraboloids.

The equatmts of the surfaces of


of the two forms

the second order

which we have

been studying are

A;tHBy + Cs^=D

(i)

^f^Qz'^kx

(2)

and we

will

may by
The

transformation of coordinates be included in these two forms.

show

first

hereafter that all the surfaces of the second degree

form

(i)

includes the sphere, ellipsoid, hyperboloids,

cones of second order,

For

have centres.
the equation

is

elliptical
.r,

y^

and hyperbolic cylinders

not altered, therefore

the surface there


the origin

if

and

is
is

a point P'

be written

for

for ever}^

point

{x, y, z) and PP'

which

{x, y, z) in (i)

{x,

j',

z)

on

passes through

bisected in O.

Moreover, the coordinate planes bisect

all

the chords parallel to

the axes perpendicular to these planes respectively and

2lx^

principal

planes of the surface.

The second form


loids

(2) includes the elliptic and hyperbolic paraboand the parabolic cylinder which have a centre at an infinite

distance.

The

planes j/0 and zx are principal planes of the two paraboloids,

the other principal plane being at an infinite distance.

Also both families

may be

represented by the equation

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

the origin being at the vertex

no

A = o when

and

63

the surfaces have

centre.

Examples.
1.

Construct the sphere whose polar equation

r^asin^cos^.

is

^V^<f^^^^^

W^f ^^^^(f

/^
Find the locus of the point the sum of the squares of the dis-^^ ^^
2^/^--'=^-'^'~^~- '^
/j=*
constant/<^v<^/v
is
tances of which from n fixed points
ratio of the distances of which
3. Find the locus of the point the

2.

.,

it

^^-/Jv^
from two fixed points is constant. -^^^'^ ,>:v^v^y-^^
'^'1$:^l^^o
motion of a
4. Find the equation of the surface generated by the
variable circle whose diameter is one of a system of parallel chords
of a given circle to which the plane of the variable circle is perpendicular.
5.

The

sphere can be represented by the simultaneous equations

= a cos

q)

cos d

=z a cos

sin ^ V

z
6.

The

ellipsoid

may be

The hyperboloid

s>ixi

cp

represented by the equations

x=^

a cos cp co^ 6

y=

b cos

s
7.

=a

= ^ sin

^
(p

of one sheet

%^^V|1 */

sin ^

>

may be

represented by the equa-

tions

-= a SQC o) cos 6

y z=z
z
8.

The hyperboloid

= c tan

q)

of two sheets

4,y

SQC cp Sin u >

i,

'

may be

represented by the equa-

tions

=^ a sec q)

y=
z
9.

line

moves so

d tan

q) V

c cos

6 tan

q?

P on

its line.

on it move on three
Find the locus of any other

that three fixed points

fixed planes mutually, at right angles.

point

d sin

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

64
Solution

Let the three fixed planes be the coordinate planes {x\yyZ) the coordinates
of P.
A, B, C the points in which the line meets the coordinate planes oiyz^
xy, respectively.
Take VA=a, PB=^, PC=^, ON=;r, NQ=jr, QP=2,
<ACA'=r<p, <CBx=zB (CA' being the projection of CA on the plane xy and B'
the projection of B on the axis of x).
Then x=:a cos cp cos Q^yz=zd cos q) sin 0, z=:c sin (p, and therefore the sur-

xz,

'

face

is

10.
is

an

ellipsoid.

Find the locus of a point distance of which from the plane xy


(coordinates rectangular).
its distance from the axis of

equal to
11.

which
12.

Find the locus of the centres of plane sections of a sphere


pass through a point on the surface.

all

Find the equation of the

elliptical

paraboloid as a surface

generated by the motion of a variable ellipse the extremities of whose


lie on two parabolas having a common vertex and common
and whose planes are at right angles to each other.
13. Find the equation of the hyperbolic paraboloid as generated
a similar manner by the motion of a variable hyperbola.

axes
axis

in

'

14.

Construct the surface r sin ^

15.

Find the equation to the surface d

dinates.

a,

= ^7t

in rectangular coor-

CHAPTER

IX.

RIGHT LINE GENERATORS AND CIRCULAR SECTIONS.


103. Surfaces of the second degree admit of another division,
those

into

and

which can

into those

belong

generated by the motion

he

viz.

straight line

This property which we have seen to

which cannot.

to the cylinder

of a

and cone we shall now show to belong also to


and the hyperbolic paraboloid. The

the hyperboloid of one sheet

ellipsoid being a closed finite surface does not possess this property

nor the hyperboloid of two sheets, since that consists of two surfaces
nor the elliptical paraboloid, since that is
separated by an interval
;

limited in one direction.


104. Straight line generators

The equation

^^

of the hyperboloid of one

r=

may be

X''

written

(A)

is satisfied

by the pair of equations


z

-i
(B)

- + a

also

yL
b'

^x

and

b'

(^r)e-r)-(-+i)(--i)=Now

sheet.

of the hyperboloid of one sheet

by the pair

\a

X
OT

6*

+ y

+r

(C)

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

66

And m
lines,

being arbitrary equations (B) represent a system of straight

and

of these

all

lie

on the hyperboloid

as the

two equations

together satisfy the equation to the hyperboloid.

and distinct system of


on the hyperboloid which is the locus of

Similarly equations (C) represent another


straight lines

which also

lie

both systems, and we shall see the lines of either system

may be used

as generators of the surface.


105.

No

two generators 0/ the same system

intersect one another.

For example take two of the system (B),

"I

i=i-'i

f +7
Combining

the

first

{m'

Combining

^---O-^)/

equation of (i) with the

w")

-y]

=0

first

of (2)

we obtain

01 yb.

the second equation of (i) with the second of (2)

we

have
{rn'

These values
106.

for

j^^

m")

(^i

+ ^\ =

or

=^L

being incompatible the lines do not

Any generator of

the system

(B) will

intersect

intersect.

any generator of

the system (C).

Take

(:-r)=--i

1
^

(3) of system (B)

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


m

\a

c I

bj

67

(4)

of system (C).

='(- 1)
(:--r)
Eliminating x, j\ and z we obtain the

identity m'm^'

= m^ni!\

therefore the lines intersect.

Hence, through any point of an hyperboloid of one sheet two


be drawn lying wholly on the surface,

straight lines can

107.

No

straight line

one of the systems

on an hyperboloid which does not belong

lies

of generating

lines

(B)

d?r

to

(C).

suppose a straight line H to lie entirely on the


must meet an infinite number of generating lines of
Let two of these (one of B and one of
both systems (B) and (C).
points, we could then have a plane indifferent
in
two
H
intersect
C)
lines, which is impossible since
in
three
straight
surface
tersecting the
Hence no such line as H can
the equation is of the second degree.
For,

if possiJDle,

hyperboloid,

lie

on the

it

surface.

108. The hyperboloid of one sheet may be generated by the motion

of a

straight line resting on three fixed straight lines which do not intersect, and

which are not parallel

In the

which

is

tions

it

is

same plane.
necessary that the motion of a right line

to generate a surface should

For, since

tions.

to the

place

first

would

fix

its

position of the line

position absolutely
is

be regulated by three condi-

equations contain four constants, four condi-

its

so far limited that

with one condition


it

will

less the

always be on a certain

locus whose equation can be found.

Take then

three fixed generating lines of the

system (B), these do

not intersect, nor are they parallel to the sam.e plane.


straight line

move

straight lines,

it

in such a

will trace

manner

Now,

if

as always to intersect these three

out the hyperboloid of which they are the

generating lines.

For the moving line meets the hyperboloid in three points (one
on each of the fixed straight lines), and hence must necessarily lie
wholly upon the surface. For the equation of intersection of a line
and this surface being a quadratic equation, if satisfied by more than
two
line,

roots,

it is

satisfied

therefore, in

boloid.

its

The moving

straight

different positions, will generate the

hyper-

by an

infinite

number.

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

68

109. Lines through the origin parallel respectively


systems (B)

and (C)

Y +
For

this

lie

generators 0/ the

to

on the cone

~2"

-TT

(i^y^ptotic to the hyperloloid.

equation of the cone

may be

put in the form

J/

(fn)=

(f-7)

y^

b' b'

which gives two systems of lines through the origin lying on the
cone, one system evidently parallel to the lines (B) and the other to
the lines (C).

no. The

projection

principal planes^

is

The equation

of a generating

tangent

to the traces

of

line

upon

either system

of the surface on

the

those planes.

of the trace of the surface on the plane zx

is

"^*
a"

The
c,

m^

projection of the line of system (B)

(X

z\

or

x
-

2m

the condition that a line in the form

''

This condition

^m^

a^

{m'-\-iy

Hence

x^

z^

a^

c^

-^

tangent to the hyperbola

III.

on xz

m^-\-i

+ -+ - =2m;
\acjac
[

Now,

^m^

c'

is fulfilled

c'^

r ^

a^
is

m^

2m

-f

4 \

-=i

r=i.
/

(i), for

^i

2^2

{i-m'Y
this projection is

The straight

The equation

line

tangent to the hyperbola.

generators of the hyperbolic paraboloid.

of the hyperbolic paraboloid

shall

CSL.

-r-

(i).
'
^

p^

by the projection

m^

i
-\

be

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

IT

69

niay be written

*^

= X.
And

hence

it is

satisfied

by the pair of equations

=
V~i

vix

V/'

(D)

m
or by the pair
V

s/

-z^

= mx

V/

(E).
VI

Hence

/ y_

!^'

the surface has two systems of straight line generators

(D)

and (E).

The

of both systems are parallel to the asymptotic planes

lines

The

of the surface respectively.

y^ +
=
V/
V/
112.

We

and (35)

equations of these planes being

o and

== o.

V/

^/l'

can show in the same manner as in the Articles (34)


no two lines of the same system intersect and that a

that

line of either system intersects all the lines of the other system, 'and

that

no other

line than the lines of these

hyperbolic paraboloid.
surface two lines

And

And hence

two systems can

lie

on the

that through every point of the

may be drawn which lie wholly on the surface.


may be generated by the motion

as in (108) that this paraboloid

of a straight line which rests on two fixed straight lines and

standy parallel to a fixed plane

on three

fixed straight lines

also

which are

by a straight
all

line

parallel to the

is

con-

which

rests

same plane.

113. The projections of the generating lines on the principal planes are
tafigent to the principal sections

The

principal section in

of the paraboloid.
xy is^ = Ix (i).

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

70

The

projection of any line of the system (D) on

2y
-=

Now

mx-\

or v

= m^-J

Hence

/;tr

-i

and

if /

the projection (2)

Distinctions

of

is

then

of the form

=:

2m

tangent to the section

is

sia'faces

of

secoiid order

(2)

24/

4/

is

y7

'

x-\

the tangent line to the parabola y=: Ix

-^

114.

xy

y = Zr.

generated by straight

lines.

All the generators of the cone intersect in one point.


erators of the cylinder are parallel.

called 7'uled surfaces

Hence cones and

or developable surfaces.

All the gencylinders are

In the case of the hy-

perboloid of one sheet and the hyperbolic paraboloid, the generators of neither system intersect or are parallel.
twisted or

faces

is

skew surfaces.

The

These are styled


two sur-

distinction between these last

that the generators in the paraboloid are parallel to a fixed

plane.
115. Plane sections
If

we

of surfaces of the second order.

the surfaces represented by the general equation

intersect

AjcH By + Cs- + 2A'.r0 + 2B>4- 2Ca:y + 2A'';v+ 2B'> + 2C''2


by the plane

we

will obtain

A^^ + B>'^ + 2C'jr)^-f2A"^ + 2B'>


If

we

intersect

it

=D

=D

(i) a conic section.

by a plane z =^ a we have

for the curve of inter-

section

Kx' + Bf + 2Cxy-^2G'x-V2liy-\-'fpi.=

T>\

a conic similar to the conic (i).

Therefore sections of surfaces of the second order by parallel


planes are similar curves, and hence, in determining the form of these
sections

we may confine

the origin.

ourselves to the discussion of sections through

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


To determine

116.

a surface of

Take
A.r^

the nature

the second order by

of the curve formed by


any plane.

71
the intersection

of

the equation

+ By^ + Cs^ = 2A'x

curve of intersection in

And
its

in order to get the equation of the

own plane

Make
x^= X

cos q)

4-y

cos d sin cp

y z= x'

sin q?

y'

cos 6 cos cp

=y

See Art. (71).

sin 6,

Arranging the result we have


x"^{K

cos^<7?

4-y^((A

+B

sin^ (p

sin^ cp)

+B

+ 2xy{k

cos'^ cp)

B) cos 6 sin

cos^ 6 -\-C sin^ 6)

cp

cos cp

2AV cos

cp

2h!y cos 6 sin

cp,

the equation to a conic section which will be an ellipse, parabola or

of these curves,) according

hyperbola, (including particular cases


as the quantity

(A-B)^

cos' e cos' cp sin'

AB

or

cos'

cphC

(??-(A cos'

cos' <^ sin^

is

negative, zero or positive.

are all positive.

Hence

The

+ B sin^ ^)(A cos' 6 sin'


+ Bcos' 6>cos' 9? + Csin'

9?

^ BC

every section of an ellipsoid

sections of the hyperboloids

is

an

sin^ cp sin' ^,

ellipse

may be

(i)

because A,

ellipses,

hyperbolas since one or two of the quantities A,

cp
6*)

B and

parabolas or

and C

will then

be negative.
Hence for the elliptic paraboloid in
For paraboloids A =r o.
which B and C have the same sizes the section is an ellipse except
;

when ^

o or

(^

in

which cases

it is

a parabola.

For the hyperbolic paraboloid since B and


the section

is

a hyperbola except

when

^=0

are of contrary signs

or

^=0

when

it is

parabola.
117.

axes

it

Circular sections.

cannot be a

Since the section

is

referred to rectangular

circle unless the coefficient of x'y' vanishes

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

>J2

(A B)

or

or

C7

which shows
dicular

to 0716

th2it

7t

/or a

cos 6 sin

7t

or 9:?=

^=

or

o
must

circular sectmt the cutting plane

0/ the principal planes of the

118. Let us

^=o

cos

cp

now examine

be

perpen-

surface,

the surfaces

the second order for cir-

-of

cular sections.

Take

first

the surfaces having a centre

and

therefore represented

by the equation

+ B/4-C0^=

A:v^

(i)

I.

Since every circular section must be perpendicular to a princicutting plane contain the axis of

pal plane, let the

and make

xy

the angle 6 with the plane

To

y^

transform (i) to this plane

make

= x'

cos d

x'

sin 6.

Art

{^2),

Hence we have

x'\\
which represents a

cos^

+C

sin* 6) -f B/'^

(2)

circle if

cos^

or

We

(5

must now examine

e+C
_

tan^

for

sin^

(9

r=

B-A
= C^B'

B
,

^^^

each of the surfaces which axis

it

is

that coincides with the axis ofj^.


1.

For the

Hence

ellipsoid

for a real

axis of the surface to


parallel
2.

is its

mean

6 b must

B=-7^, C

lie (in

value) between a and c or the

which the cutting plane of circular sections

is

axis.

For the hyperboloid of one sheet since we cannot have

ne-

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


gative

we must put

A = ^, B =
.-.

/.

>

<5

<3:

tan

l9

= a-y

or the cutting plane

is

73

=~
-T-7-X2
r
+ 0'

parallel to the greater of the real

axes.
3.

and

parallel to the greater of the

im-

For the hyperboloid of two sheets since we cannot have


we must put

negative,

A- B- C~-
^>r

,*.

or the cutting plane

is

aginary axes.

an angle 6 or i8o 6

sets

may be inclined
Hence there are two

has two equal values the cutting plane

Since tan
at

to the

plane of x}\

of parallel circular sections of the surfaces having a centre.

the surface

becomes one of revolution we have tan ^

00

the two positions of the circular sections coincide with each


and are parallel to the two equal axes.

For the surfaces not having a

119. Secondly.

equation By^ + Cz^

2Mx

If

or o, and

centre,

other,

we

take

(i).

For the elliptic paraboloid, B and C have the same sign.


Transforming (i) we have By^-^-Cx'^ sin^^= 2K'x cos 6] and hence
1.

for circular

sin

^ ==

sections

principal section

we must have

the condition

Therefore the cutting plane

whose

latus

rectum

is

sin^^

= B,

or

perpendicular to the

is least.

For the hyperbolic paraboloid, since B and C have different


6 is imaginary, and no plane can be drawn which shall intersect it in a circle.
This was evident, too, from the fact (Art.
116) that the hyperbolic paraboloid can have no elliptic sec2.

signs, sin

tions.

120.

Then,

to

sum

up,

all

the surfeces discussed with the excep-

tion of the hyperbolic paraboloid

admit of two

sets

of planes of cir-

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

74

Therefore they can be generated by the motion of a

cular sections.

whose centre

variable circle
121.

The

is

on a diameter of the

planes of circular section

surface.

may be found

directly

from

the equations of the .surfaces, as follows:

The

may be

equations of the central surfaces

B(:rH/ + :5') + (A--B)j^2-(B-C)0'=i;

written

or

B(^H/ + 2') + (VA-B ^+v'B^IC.2)(VX=B.;t:-y'B-C.0) = i


which shows

that either of the planes

\/A-B;k:4^

VB-C.0=:O

cuts the surface

Hence

on which

The equation

122. Sections

The

cuts the sphere

planes parallel to them cut

all

to the elliptic paraboloid


its

may be

treated in a similar

planes of circular section.

0/ Cones and

Cylinders.

sections of the cones

may be

inferred from Art. 95.

cones sections of the hyperboloids by any plane

"i^

similar to the section of the asymptotic cone to the surface

the

same

plane, as

is

evident from the equations respectively.

parabola, or hyperbola.
ticularly.

In the equation of the cone of revolution

r^

0(?'\-y^z=.

..,,,-,..:

-"J

tafil!)

For
always ^'*^

made by
Hence

by a plane will give an ellipse,


But we will examine this case more par-

the section of a cone of revolution

(when

(2)

circles.

manner, thus showing

1,

VA-B a: VB--C.0 = o

the planes (i) and (2) and

the surface in

elliptic

it

(i)

(z

cY,
put

or

x'^-\-y^

x=x'

=
'

cos ^

^^=y
z

= x'

'

sin

'

tan^ v

(^0*

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


And we

75

have for the curve of intersection by the plane containing

the axis of^

y^(cos^ ^tan^ V

sin- 6) +y^ tan^ v-{-2cx' sin

This equation (i) represents an


according as cos^ 6 tSjrl;
tan

^<z=>

tan

sin'*

ellipse, parabola,

> = < o,

is

that

x=x'

cos 6,y

tersection

=y in

is x'^

=o

(i).

or hyperbola,

is

according as

v.

For the cylinder of revolution about the

2.

6^c^

equation

its

cos^ 04-y^z=z

an

x^+y

i= r^;

axis of
,\

^,

we make

the curve of in-

ellipse.

Examples (Coordinates Rectangular).


1.

Find the right

line generators of the hyperboloid

+f

x^

9
for the point (2, 3 ?)
2.

Find the right

for the poinfc'(? 2,


3.

on the

z'

surface.

/"^

line generators of the paraboloid 4>^^- 2 52:^=1 oor

i)

on the

surface.

j-

Find the planes of circular sections of the following surfaces


6:^^

+ 4rH9^'=36

^x:'^^f-l^z'^\^^

x'^zf^Az'=i2
6x'fsy=3^^'
4.

find

(i)

:^^S^'- o

(2)

^xtfx^r

(3)

x^"^^:^':. J

the equations of the generating line


is

(4)

In the hyperboloid of revolution of one sheet

plane xz
5.

^^^

-~

2"

whose projection on the

tangent to hyperbolic section in that plane at

its

vertex.

Find the sections of the cone x^-\-y={z2y by planes conxy of 30, 45, and 60''

taining the axis of j^, at angles to the plane


respectively.
6.

Find the curve of intersection of the surface

x'+y+=i
4

by a plane inclined at an angle of 30 to the plane xy, and whose


trace on that plane makes an angle of 45 with the axis O^.

CHAPTER

X.

TANGENT PLANES, DIAMETRAL PLANES, AND


CONJUGATE DIAMETERS,
123. Straight line meeiing surfaces

0/ second

We

can transform the general equation

kx*

By'

order.

C2''+2A>+2B'2a:+2C'.r>' + 2A";tr

2B'> +2C"0 +

F=o
to polar coordinates

by writing x ^^

Ir,

^=z

mr, z

= nr,

(when

(I)

m, n

/,

are in rectangular coordinates, direction cosines, and in oblique co-

The equation becomes

ordinates, direction ratios).

/^(A/'

Hence

+ Bw^ + Cfi' + 2Ps.'mn + 2^' In + 2Ci??i)


+ 2r(A'7+B";;z + C^^;/) + F=

a straight line meets the surface in two points,

two points be coincident the


124.

Tangent Plane

to

line

surfaces

is

o.

(2)

and

if

these

tangent to the surface,

of second

order.

Let the origin be on the surface (and therefore F=: o) then one
of the values of r in (2)

is

= o.

Now,

in order that the radius

vector shall touch the surface at the origin, the second root
o,

and the condition

this

for this is

by r and replacing

/r,

mr^ nr by x,yj

A";, +

Hence

A'7+B'V;z + C;/

B> + C''^ = o.

z,

this

= o.

becomes

(3)

the radius vector touching the surface at the origin

fixed plane (3);

the locus of

and

all

as

/,

m, n are arbitrary, A";t: +

the radii vectores which

must be

Multiplying

B"_;;

lies in

+ C"0 =

touch the surface

at

the

is

the

and is therefore the tangent plane at the origin.


Hence, if the equation of the surface can be written in the form
2 4-Wi= o (where u^ represents terms of second degree and u^^ terms

origin,

76

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


of

degree in x, y, and

first

gent plane

z),

then u^=z o

Therefore,

find the equation

to

to

Ug

the equation of the tan-

at the origin.

point x'y'z, transfer the origin


written

is

77

lo

= o^

4- Uj

a7id Ui ==

the tangent plane to the surface at the

The equation may then

this point.

tangent plane referred

the

is

Ui= o

point of contact as origin ; then in

retran.fer the oj'igin

he

to

the

to

the

primitive one,

For the

125.

and

{x\ y\

let

the point

{x',

z')

y\

central surfaces (origin at centre) take the equation

be the point of contact.


z')

Transferring the origin to

by the formulae

X = x+x
y =y + y >
z=z z + z')
\

we have

Ax' + B/ + Cz' + 2kxx' + 2^yy

Hence

the tangent plane at the

kxx' -f ^yy

Now

new

+ iCzz' = o.

origin

+ Qzz'=.

o.

is

(i

retransfer the origin for equation (i)

to

the centre by the

formulae

x x^

= y y'
z = z z'

x
y

^=^

and we obtain

Axx'-^-Byy + Czz- Ax"-- By''or

Axx' + Bjy + Czz=i

Cz"=

o,

the required equation of the tangent

(2)

plane, at the point xy'z' referred to centre.


1.

For the sphere

Hence
2.

(2) gives

For the

r=B

r=

xx +yy + zz'=

ellipsoid

A=

a
a^.

,Bi=:-7^C=
a^

xx^

3"".

(3)

yy'

b^

c^

zz'

For the hyperboloid of two sheets

=:

a^

XX
7*

yy

zz

B:=:
0^

0=

-^

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

78

4^ For

the hyperboloid of one sheet,

A==

r-,

B=-rx-.

C= -s.

For the surfaces which have no centre (origin at vertex) by


treating the equation By^ + C-s:^ = 2h!x in a similar manner we
126.

obtain

= A\x-\-x')

Byy + Czz^

(7) for the equation to the tangent plane

to the elliptical paraboloid

B)y-Czz=:A'{x-\-x')

and
(8) for the' tangent plane to the hyper-

bolic paraboloid.

The same method may be

Remark.

applied to cones and cy-

linders.

127. Polar planes

surfaces

io

of second

The equations

order.

(3)

(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) are the equations to the polar planes to the sur-

faces respectively with respect to the point {x\

y\ z) and these polar

planes possess properties analogous to the polar lines to the conic


sections.

The length of

128.

plane

the

io

the perpendicular

ellipsoid is

cos ay cos ^, cos

Ihe equation

\/a^ cos^

cos

from

the centre on the tangent

a+

cos'^ /^

<^'^

+ c^

cos'^

when

its direction cosines,

to the tangent plane

also be written

are

p=

-\-y cos /3

-\-

r + '^ + ^ =

is

It

may

Hence we must

y =p*

z cos

i.

have

__

i~

cos
x'

_ cos
~~

/3

__ cos
""
z'

/^^cos^a + <^^cos^/^

/i/
A

^^^2

Hence

-7^

-I-

__ci cos

f^cos^;/

^7^

'

___

may be

_b

cos

~~

ft

^aH'

-f-

cos

__
"~"

z'

/,

m^

n^

the equation of the

written

lx^my-\-nz=i

^c

V^^cos^a 4- b^cos^fi 4- Aos'y

calling the direction cosines

tangent plane

x'

b'^m^

+ c'n^

(9 )

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


To find the

129.

condition ihai the plane

h -4- H

/3

x^
the ellipsoid

"tt

(i) with

f +

j^'
"ir

-'t'Jt:'

=1

-y-

Comparing

79

(i)^ shall be tangent

to

z^

r = ^*

"^

zz^

~F

we must have

'^~"^' ^'^~' y"""^

y=~'

^-^="^' 7"="!'

'

a^

3^

~T + ~^

adding

c^
2"

"J

is

'

q"^""^^^d

the required condi-

tion.

The sum of the squares of the perpendiculars

130.
centre

of

p, p', "^"^

from

the

on three tangent planes mutually at right singles

the ellipsoid

is

constant.

Let cos

cos

yS

cos y\ cos a! cos

cos

/J^

y\

etc.,

be the direction

cosines.

Then

/'^

_ ^2
= c^ cos^

/^2

/^

^^^gS

^ ^32
a:'

a^ cos' ^^'

^^gu

/J

+^2

^.^gS

+<^^ cos^ /5'

+^^ cos^ /'

+ 3'

cos' y3"

^*^

cos' /',

and adding we have

131. Cor. Hence the locus

planes

to the ellipsoid

of the radius
For

'

the

d^

+ +
3'

of the point of intersection of three tangent

intersect at right angles is

a concentric sphere

c'.

square of

/+/'+/'', and
Remark.

which

its

distance

therefore to a^

from the centre

is

equal to

+ 3' + ^'.

In the case of hyperboloids one at least of the quantities

and hence their sum may be negative or nothing


is no point in space through which three
rectangular planes touching the hyperboloid can be drawn, and in
a', ^', c^ is

negative,

in the former case there

the latter case the centre

is

the only point which has that property.

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

8o
132.

Diametral Planes,

Definition.'

diametral surface

is

the

locus of the middle points of a series of parallel chords of a given

Diametral

surface.

or diameters are the intersections of the

lines

diametral surfaces.

To find

133.

the

diametral surface corresponding

to

ce^

given series of

of the second order which has a

parallel chords in a surface

centre.

Let the equation of the surface be


Ajt^
7,772,

+ B/ + a^==i,

(i)

n the direction cosines of each the parallel chords, and x\ y\

the coordinates of

The equation

its

of the chord will be

xx

__

yy'

_ zz _

Then

for the

z'

middle point.

points in which

it,

'

meets the surface (i) we shall

have

K{x'^lry-^B{y'^mry-^C{z'-Vnry=i',
or

{KP + Bw' + Cn^y + 2{klx' + Bmf ^- Cnz')r + Kx"" + By" + Cz"'^


Imposing on

this the

condition of equal roots for

r,

i.

we have

Klx' -{-Bmy' -\-Cnz' ^=^ o (2) the equation of the diametral surface, a

plane passing through the centre.


1^4.

X
The diameter

= ^V = z
m

chords bisected by the plane

is

one of the

series

of parallel

ft

(2),

and

is

called the diameter conju-

gate to the plane, and conversely the plane Ix + my -^^ 7iz == o


^

^.

jugate to the diameter

A.r

Bv

-r-= -^

If a diametral plane be

the origin

then, since

con-

its

con-

=
n

chosen as a new plane of xy and

jugate diameter be taken as the

is

Cz

new

axis of

0,

the centre

every chord parallel to

Oz

is

O being

still

bisected by

the plane xy, the equation of surface will contain only the second

power of 0.

Hence, if there be three planes through the centre the


any two of which is conjugate to the third, the equa-

intersection of

tion of the surface referred to these planes will be of the form

AV+By + CV=i,
that

is

(3)

of the same form as the equation referred to rectangular axes.

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


To find

135.

the condiiions that

of three planes through

may

surface of the second order each

3
the centre

he diametral to the intersection

0/ a

of the

other two.

Let the planes be


lx-{-my-^nz^=^

The

I'^x

+ m'y + n'z =

equations of the diameters conjugate to the

Ax _
be

if this

parallel to the other

,,

,//

these with the third equation

l^

r-

first

o.

plane are

Csr
'

two planes, we

By

and

= o,

Tx-\-my-\'n\

o,

shall

^^

,f

have

= o,

w' -5-+ ^'"tt-

manner, are the required conditions.


These three planes are called conjugate planes, and

found in

like

their intersec-

tions conjugate diameters.

Since
will

we have only three relations between the six quantities there


infinite number of systems of conjugate planes in each

be an

surface.

136. Equations referred to conjugate diameters.

If in (3) Art. 134

we

make

A'
Then
x^

"R^--

JL

C'

for the ellipsoid

y^

-7-2+773

z"

+ 2=

ameters, and

a! ,

be the equation referred to conjugate

will

b\ c will be the semi-conjugate diameters.

For the hyperboloids we

shall have

-^-^--^Remark.

di-

The tangent

diameter to a central

and

^^^^l-^

planes at the extremities {x\ y', z) of any

surface

are

parallel to the

diametral plane

conjugate to the diameter so that the conjugate plane of the diameter

through the point {x\ y,

z')

xx'

on the
\y'

ellipsoid
zz'

is

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

82

The sum 0/ the squares 0/

137.

oy the

three conjugate semt'diameters

ellipsoid is co?tstant.

In the
cos

cos

yu,

cos^

A + cos^

any point on the

place^

first

the equations

a cos A,

^=^

j^

^, z

are the direction cosines of


yu

+ cos^

may be

ellipsoid

= 3 cos

some

represented by

cos v,

^=^

when

cos A,

line, for the

condition

cause these three equations to

satisfy the

equation of the ellipsoid.


Therefore

cos A, cos

if

cos r, cos A', cos

/i,

c6s r' are the direc-

//',

tion cosines of two lines answering to the extremities of two conju-

gate diameters, these will be at right angles to each other.

ror the equation

~ +^^r^ o

cos A cos A'

Now

+ cos

cos

)jL

/i'

will give

+ cos y

cos y'

= o.

the square of the length of any semi-diameter .v'^4-y^+

expressed in terms of A,

a"^=

and of the conjugates

y,

//,

a^ cos-

in

is

\^V cos^

terms of

l"^a^ cos^ A'

2'''^

}x-\-c^ cos* y,

y\ \'\

A', }x\

+ ^-

cos^

}Ji^

c"=: a' cos^ \"-{-P cos'

y'*

fx",

\-c^ cos^ y'

}x"-\-c' cos'

y".

Adding we have
a"" ^h''' -\-c"^

= + P -\-c\

since the lines A,

a'^

//,

y,

\\

//',

i^^

and

A", ^'\ y" are mutually at right angles.


138.

To find

extremities

the locus of the intersection of


of three conjugate diameters.

The equations

of the three tangent planes are

X
cos A^ + vV
a

+ ^ cos

7-=

- cos y

cos

y"

i.

Squaring and adding, we get


H

-f

-COS A''+ ^cos y"

a^

x'

- cos r

cos u-{-

cos

^ + ^4-

three tangent planes at the

for the

equation of the locus

an ellipsoid with the semi-axes a^/~i

!^V~Tf

^v-'

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

The parallelopiped whose edges are three conjugate semi-diameters

139.

of an

83

has a constant volume.

ellipsoid

Oz be the semi-axes of the surface a, b, c\ Ox\ Oy


any system of semi-conjugate diameters a\ b\ c; let the plane
of x'y' intersect that of xy in the semi-diameter 0^i= A, and let
0^2= B be the semi-diameter of the curve Xi x' which is conjugate to
Let Ox, Oy,

0-s'

Hence parallelogram

0^1.

AB.

Vol {a\ b\ c')=Yo\ (A, B, /)

.-.

for these figures

a'b'=i parallelogram

have the same altitudes and equal bases.

Let the plane z'Oy^ intersect xy in the semi-diameter Oy^


then

this

plane must contain

principal plane

Oz form

Oj'i,

them

it

Oz

for,

being conjugate to

must be perpendicular

to that plane

a system of semi-conjugate diameters,

O^t'i

C,

in

hence Ox^,

and any two of


which they

are semi-conjugate diameters of the plane section in

are situated.

.'.

140.

To

QJ

k
.-.

c')

=Vol

(A, C,

Vol (A, C, ^)

=Vol

{a, b, c)

Vol {a\ b\

=:Vol

{a, b, c).

Vol (A, B,

fi?td the diametral

c')

a*C

plane bisecting a given system

ofparallel

chords in the case of the surfaces which have not a centre^

Taking the equation of the surface

B/4-a^=2A":v
I,
J
andA one ofr^u
the chords

=
^r jc'
-

Vy'
=

= z = r
z'

the equation of the diametral plane will be

m
Hence

By-i-n

Cz

= l^

the diametral planes are parallel to the

common

axis of the

principal parabolic sections.

We

cannot, therefore, in these surfaces have a system of three con-

jugate planes at a finite distance, but

such that

and

for

to a third plane,

By taking

we can

find

two of them each bisects the chords


by proceeding as in

the origin

an

infinite

number

parallel to the other

Art. (135).

where the intersection of these two meets the

paraboloid, and referring to these three planes, the equation of the


surface will be of the form

By + Cz'=2E''x.

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

84

And
the

the third plane

new

is

evidently the tangent plane to the surface at

origin.

The tangent planes

141.

hyperlohid of one sheet and the hyperbolic

io the

paraboloid at a point x'y'z' intersect the surfaces each in two right line
generators through the point

The equation
jugate diameters

of contact.

of the hyperboloid of one sheet referred to any conis

a"

"^

~^'*

b"

c"

and the equation of the section made by any plane


to the conjugate plane oi xz,

a:'

and

it

c"

evident that the value

is

x'^

z^
7^

= o,

^=-

ft parallel

""^
b"''

/?=

tangent plane at the extremity {x\

7^

is

gives us the section of the

y,

z^)

of the diameter y-, or

two right line generators.

For the hyperbolic paraboloid

By_CV=2E'';t'
the tangent plane through the origin

with (i)

is

(i)

is

B^ CV=

o,

two right line generators.

= o,

and

its

intersection

CHAPTER XL
GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND DEGREE
x,y, AND

IN

z,

142. In order to discover all the curves represented by the general

numerical equation

-^

Ax^ +

2AV+2A"^

W +2B'2x +
Cz'

we

will first

2B'y

+2Cxy-}-2C'z

=D

transform the coordinates to a

(E)

new

means of

origin by

the formulae
=.

a + x^

y=

^+y

X
z

and endeavor

to

origin in such

manner

appear.

If this

z'

y-i-

(I),
[
)

determine the coordinates

(<t,

/3,

as to cause the terms of the

can be effected the equation

will

y) of the new

first

degree to dis-

be reduced to the

form

kx"
in

^W -\-Cz^+2k'zy

which there

+ .V,

+j',

-tZ,

-\-

2Wzx + 2Cxy ='

is no change when -x, y,


are substituted for
and which therefore represents a surface having a

and the new origin of coordinates

centre,

Now,
relations

several different cases

among

1.

a,

2.

a,

ft,

3.

a,

ft,

(F)

may

arise

is

at this centre.

according to the numerical

the coefficients A, B, C, A', B',

C, A",

B", C".

/?, y the coordinates of the centre may each have a finite


value found from the three equations determining the conditions of
the transformation.

y may

have

y may be
8

infinite values.

indeterminate.

85

NOTES OX SOLID GEOMETRY.

86

The

surfaces corresponding to these three cases will be

(A) Surfaces having a centre.

>

(B) Surface's having no centre (centre at an infinite distance).


(C) Surfaces having an indefinite

Making

143.

number

of centres.

the actual transformation of (E) by the formulae (r)

we have

A^H2A;rs + 2(A^

4_C^/5-fB';/+A")jc

By + 2B'0.v + 2(C'a' + B/S

+A';k + B^^)v

+2avr+2(B'a' + A'/3+Cx+C'>

Qz"

'

ByS'^

+ 2B'a';/+2B"/?

D.

[Cy -^2Ca^ + 2C'y)


And

in order that the terms of the

appear,

degree in

first

A + C'/54-B>-f A"-= o
C'a + B/? + Ay + B"=o
B'f

A'/J

+ C;/ + C"=o

which are called the equations of the


1.

.v,

y, z shall dis-

we must have

If these

(C)

centre.

three equations give finite values for a,

fj,

y, then

the surface represented by the given equation has a centre.


2.

If

two of these equations are incompatible

values for a,
3.

/3,

If the

y, and the surface has no

this

shows

infinite

centre.

three equations reduce to two, then the surface has a

line of centres.

For each one of the equations

is

the equation of a

plane, and two taken simultaneously represent a line, and the surface
is

an

elliptical

or hyperbolic cylinder.

For, cut the surface by the

P and Q, P cutdng the line of centres (D) and Q containing


line.
The section by P is a curve of the second degree having

planes
that
its

centre on

may

the

line D,

ard hence an

ellipse or hyperbola.

The

be two straight lines parallel to the line D, and as Q


revolve about D in all its positions giving two straight line sec-

section

will

tions parallel to D, the surface

is

a cylinder.

equations reduce to a single one, then the surface


has a plane of centres (/. e., the given equation represents coincident
4.

If the three

or parallel planes).
Note.

The equations

of the centre can be found in any given

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

87

equation most readily by finding the derived equations with regard


to x^ y, and z respectively {t, e., by differentiating with regard to x, j', 2

and

respectively), the x, y,

a,

/J,

z in the resulting equ'ations standing for

y.

Example

144.

by the equation

The

Determine the

i.

x'^

+ 3^ + 4s^ + 2yz + ^zx + 6xy^26x2^y'^2z=26,

equations of the centre are

2x-{-^z-^6y

26 =

6y -\'2z 6x 24
8s + 2;F + 4jv 32
-\-

and

:= o

the surface has a centre.

Example

Determine the

2.

x'^ -{-y^

The equations

2z'^

class of the surface

+ 2yz + 2XZ + 2xy^4x 2y -f 20

2y-\-2Z-\-2X2

\Z-\-2y-\-2X-\-2
the

first

o.

of the centre are


2X-{-2Z-{-2y~-4.

two of which x-\-yi-z

2,

=o
O
=O

^
)

x-\-y-\-z =:

hence the coordinates of the centre are

no

of the surface represented

class

infinite,

are incompatible,

and the surface has

centre.

Example

Determine the

3.

x'^

The

class of the surface

+ 4y z^ 2yz %x -f \xy +20 =

0.

equations of the centre are

=o
Sy2z-^4x = o
V.
2 z 2yx-{- 2=0)
20:

The
duce

first

to

The

two of these are identical, hence the three equations re-

two and the surface has a

Example
Sx^

+4>'

2:

4.

1 8>'^

Determine the

line of centres

(/.

e.,

is

a cylinder).

class of the surface

+ 2z^ -hi2yz-{- Szx + 24;r>'~ 50.^757250 + 75=0.

equations of the centre are


i6:v-h

80

+ 24_y 50 =

o
36 y+ 120+ 24.V 75
404- I2l'+ S.V 25 =: O

)
,-

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

88
which are

three the same, each being 8.v+ I2r-f

all

the surface has a plane of centres,

and

42^

Hence

25.

consists of a pair of parallel

planes.
145. Recurring to the general equations of the centre

C'+B/J + Ay + B"=

'>

+ A'^ + C;K + C"=

B'a'

we may

an easy rule

find

among

for a relation

we can

given equation by which

(C)

the coefficients in any

distinguish the central surfaces from

those having no centre and those having an infinity of centres.

The common denominator


equations

is

R=
Now,

R=

The

if

it

of the values of a,

A,

C, B'

c,

B',

B',

A, C

A'

AA"^ + BB

A' B'

formed

in these

+ CC'"^ - ABC - 2 A'B'C

either have

R mav

no centre

three terms,

To find an
equatio?i

of

but

if

be written out bv the followins: mnemonic

the letters to be multiplied by

c
c

or an infinity of centres.

A, B, c;

A' B'

146.

and y

be different from zero, the surface has a centre

may

value of

form

f5,

the determinant

easy rule

columns

and by rows /or the two

for F,

last.

nezv absolute term

the

when

the central surfaces

for the first

the origin

is

the trans-

moved

to the

centre.

This complete transformed equation


A.V'

+ By 4- CV -f 2^zy -f 2^'zx + 2C xy F
I

F=DNow, multiplying
a, the second by

we have

is

ft,

the

^^

first

and the

\
{

+ 2A'/^;K + 2A"f
B/5'^-i-2B^a;K + 2B"^

Art'^

when

'^
.

of the equations (C) of the centre by

third by y,

and adding them

B/5'+2B'ay + B"/3
Cy' + 2C' a ^ + C"y

o.

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

F=D-(A"a + B''/5-hCV).

Hence
substitute

for

x,

ordinates

of

the

from D.
Example

in the

y,

centre

(i,

^a,

Taking the Example

i.

F=26 + 26 x ^-f-24

we have

and the transformed equation

^y

|-/J,

nates of ihe centre are found to be

Therefore the rule for

i,

respectively)

Art. (i44),in

=1, j^

jc

2,

which the coordi-

+32 xf =1 1 1;

+ 4<s^ + 2yz 4- ^zx 6xy == 1


2x'^ + ^y'^-\-^z^-{-^yz-\-6xz + ^xy6x'Syi^z

2.

1 1

-f-

,\

F=20 + 6 x^4-8

and the transformed equation

C"

2x^

Removal of

ihe second degree to

co-

take result

0=3,

20.

= i,y z='i.
+ 14 X I=::I7;

Here the coordinates of the centre are x

147.

and

is

is

x^ + 3y^

Ex.

the first degree one-half thd

of

tei'vis

e.,

89

2,

is

+ 3/ + 42^ + 8yz + 6xz + 4^y


the terms in xy, xz, yz.

7.

Reduction of the equation

of

two forms.

For a more complete discrimination of the surfaces represented by


we will now remove the terms in xy, xz, yz by
a transformation of coordinates. So far we have made no supposition
the general equation,

Henceforth, for convenience,

as to the direction of the axes.

we

will

consider the axes rectangular.


'

Taking the equation (E)

transform

it

to a system

in rectangular axes

we propose now to
manner that the

rectangular in such

also

The

terms in xy, xz, yz shall disappear.

disappearance of these

terms can only be effected by taking for coordinate planes either diametral planes or planes parallel to them.
.

We

will

by finding a diametral plane conjugate to

therefore begin

a given diameter.
148.

To find a diametral plane conjugate

xa
x

a-\-lr,

and arranging with


first

y=

a given diameter,

yb _ zc
m

Putting

to

b-^mr, z =:

reference to

r,

+ nr

we have

in the general equation,


for the coefficient of the

degree in r

2{Al+B'm + Cn)x+2{Cl-i-Bm-{-A'n)y-\-2{B'l+A'm + Cn)z


j-2{A''l+B''m

+ a'?i) =0;

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

90
and

placed equal to zero

this

is

the equation of the diametral plane,

namely
(A/+B';;z

149.

+ CV/).v + (CV+B;7z+A'4j'+(B7+A';;/ + 0/)2 + A'7


4-B";;z + C";/ =

To determine a diametral plane perpendicular

it bisects,

that

to

is,

to the

o.

chords which

find a principal plane.

In order that the diametral plane shall be perpendicular to the line

.V

ZC

A/+C';;/

+ B';^ _

J.

71

s.

A/+B';/+C'/?/

C7+B7;^ +A';/
B7-f AV;/

^r^^

B7+AV;/+C;

in

or putting each of these equal to

the conditions fulnlled

Cl-vV>m-\-Mn

and

we must have

+ C;/

=
= ms
= ns
/r

(A)

P -\- 7?r -\- n"^ i


w, and ;/ in equations (A) we

also the condition

To

determine

/,

first

find

s.

Writ-

ing these equations

+ B';/ =
Cl-\-{B-s)m + A'n =
B7 + A';;/ + (C-^);/ =
(A--j^)/+C';;/

they give the result

A~^, C,

B'

C, B-.r, A'
B', A',

or

C-s

(A-S)(B-S')(C-S)-(A-S)A'^ + A'B'C -C'^(C-S)-hA^B'C


_B'^(B-S;=:o;

or

S'3_(A + B + C)/ + {AB + AC + BC-A'^-B'^-C'^)^4-AA'^ + BB"^

4_CC^'^-ABC-2A'B'C'=o
This cubic has necessarily one
in

(A) gives one

set

real

value for

of real values for

/,

m, n.

s,

(D).

which substituted

Hence

there

is

one

principal plane.

For convenience of discussion

let

us take this plane perpendicular

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,


to the axis oi

then

z,

tions (A) give ^'

A'=:

to this principal plane as

Now we know
transformation

is

m =

o, and nz=L\,
And hence equaand the general equation transformed
plane o{ xy is of the form

/ r= o,

o,

91

o,

from the like discussions in conic sections that one


always possible, and but one to a system of rectan-

gular axes in the plane xy which shall cause the term in xy to

Hence

appear.

values for

The

m^

/,

and three

there are three principal planes,

and the cubic (D) has

n,

may

general equation

dis-

sets of

three real roots.

then be always reduced in rectangular

coordinates to the form

L.r24-My + N22 + 2L^^ +


which represents then

-f

150.

JVie

2N z

r=

(E^

all

the surfaces of the second order.

0/

this equation

reduction

2M> + N0=D.

Lx^

+ My^ -f-Nz^ + 2L'x-f 2M y

two forms.

to

1. If L, M, and N are different from o.


Then we may cause the terms of the first degree
.

transiernng the

u
to the

ongm

The

surface will then have

will

be of the form

pomt x ^^

(jc',

z)

If

one of the three

and L^'^be

We

diff"erent

from

J'

F.

coefficients, L,

M'

for its centre,

Kv2_^Mj;2^N0^Z=
2^.

L'
-=

by

to disappear

^^

= N'

irr-

and the equation

(I.)

M, N,

for

example

o.

cannot then cause the term 2L7^ to disappear, but by trans-

ferring the origin to the point

- D
2L

M'
=
= ^rr,
,

-2^

INI

N'

^i:^

M/ + NV=2V.v.
The forms

I.

and

II.,

we have

Ml

will take the form


the equation
^

seen,

(II.)

belong

to the surfaces of the

second order, which we have already discussed.

Hence

the general

equation of the second degree (E) represents these surfaces and no


others.

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

92

The form

151.

we have seen

I.

represents the ellipsoid, the two

hyperboloids and cones of second degree, and includes the

elliptic

and hyperbolic cylinder, My^ + N^^ =F and parallel planes NV=F.


The form II. represents the elliptic and hyperbolic paraboloids,
and the parabolic cylinder.
The complete reduction 0/

152.

simple forms

The

and

\,

the equation

of the

seco7id degree to the

Use of the discriminating cubic (D).

II.

resolution of the equations (A) furnishes each value of

the cubic (D), one system of values of/, m,


systems,

m, n\

/,

/',

n\

in\

/", ;;/',

We

n.

n\ which

j*

in

have then three

are the direction cosines

of the three rectangular axes {^principal axes) to which the surface

must be
appear

referred

in

order to cause the products

y
z
If

a-^,

jit,

>'-2:

to dis-

the formulae of transformation are then

we take only

= Ix

-Viy

=1 VI x

+ m^y

nx^ -\-ny

-{-Tz'

\-m"z
-\-n'^z\

the terms in x'^ in this substitution

A/^

A/HB;;z2-f CV
is

find

+ B;;^HC' + 2A'ww-f 2BW+2C7/;/.

But if we multiply the equations (A) respectively by


remembering that l^ -\- 7?i^ -[- n^ z=z i we have

Hence L

we

+ 2A'w + 2BW+2C7w

a root of the cubic (D)

and

and

/,

m, n and add,

s;

are the other

two

roots.

For the values of

L',

M', N'

we

=A"/ +B''m

will

have

-\-C'n

I\r= A'7' \-^"m'^C'n'


N' = A^r + B'V/' + C'V

The

absolute term

the origin

is

U,
/,

and

is

after solving the cubic,

which we have given a

For the surfaces having no centre the


the values of

does not change in this transformation since

For the surfaces having a single centre

equal to

(M).

not changed thereby.

liave only to calculate F, for

is

computed by

coefficient designated

first

we

rule.

by

finding in equations (A)

w, n^ which correspond to S

= o.

Both

in the cases

of surfaces having no centre and a line of centres, one root of cubic

o and we have only a quadratic

to solve to

determine

L and M.

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


153.

For surfaces having a centre,

if

particular class of the surface, without

formation of the equation to

93

we wish only to discover the


making the complete trans-

centre and axis, the sign of the roots

its

tell us whether the surface is an ellipone sheet, or hyperboloid of two sheets. These
signs we can ascertain from inspection by Descartes's rule * without

of the discriminating cubic will

soid, hyperboloid of

solving the equation.

1=

Example. Find the nature of the surface


The cubic (D) gives
6.
S'

\-^z^\yz \xy

(7 + 6 + 5)S'^+(43 + 35 + 30 4 4)S-|-28-f-20 210 =


S^ 18S- + 99S 162
The row

.'.

of signs

the roots are

all

"jx^ \-()}'^

So also

is

and the surface

for surfaces

three changes of sign.

is

an

o; or

=: o.

Hence

ellipsoid.

having a line of centres, the signs of the roots

of the quadratic into which the discriminating cubic degenerates,


serve to distinguish the elliptic from the hyperbolic cylinder.

And

having no centre, the signs of the roots distinguish

for surfaces

the elliptic paraboloid from the hyperbolic paraboloid.


154. Recapitulation

of tJie second

We

degree

of the viethod of reduction of iiumei'ical equations


and of distinguishifig the surfaces represented by them.

now^ propose to give the

mode

of distinguishing the nature of

the surface represented by any given numerical equation of the second

degree in x, y, and

Form

I.

0,

and of finding

its

principal elements.

the equations of the centre, and also the discriminating-

cubic from the remembered form

S3_(A + B-hC)S^ + (AB + AC + BC-A'^-B'^-C'^)S + AA'^-fBB'^

4_CC'_ABC-2A'B'd=:
observing that the absolute term

is

equal to R,

o,

the denominator

of the values of the coordinates of the centre in the general equation,

ABC
and

therefore can be formed by the mnemonic A'B'C

(Art.

145).

A'B'C

Then
155.

1.

If

be different from

o,

the surface has a centre.

Find

Note. ''All the roots being real the number of positive roots is equal to the number of
changes of sign in the row of signs of the terms, and the number of negative roots is equal to the

number

of continuations of sign."

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

94

the coordinates of the centre and transform to the centre by the rule

Determine the signs of the roots of the cubic by Descalling these roots L, M, and N, and calling F

in Art. (146).

Then

cartes's rule.

new

the

absolute term on the second side of the equation.

Then
a.

If L,

M,

all

have the same sign as F, the surface

If L,

M,

all

have a different sign from F, the surface

is

an

ellip-

soid.
h.

im-

is

aginary.
If

f.

two only of the roots L, M,

surface

If only

d.

have the same sign as F, the

the hyperboloid of one sheet.

is

one of the roots L,

INI,

surface

is

the hyperboloid of two sheets.

If

e.

o and L,

]\I,

all

has the same sign as F, the

have the same sign, the locus

is

point.

If

f.

=o

and one of the

from the other two, the surface


2.

156.

If

R =

roots L,
is

M,

o the cubic has one of

degraded to a quadratic, the coefficient of

A'^ B'^ C"^, becomes

And
no

if

has a different sign

an el|ip^ cone

S,

its

(Art. ^^),

roots S

namely

o and

is

AB + AC + BC

the absolute term.

the equations of the centre are incompatible the surface has

centre.

Then
a.

the
is

If the roots

same sign

(/.

M and N
e,) if

of the quadratic (degenerate cubic) have

AB + AC + BC- A'''-B''-C''> o

the surface

the elliptical paraboloid.

If M and N have different signs


AB + AC + BC-A'"^
B'^ C'"<o the surface the hyperbolic paraboloid.
AB + AC-f BC-A''
If one of the roots M or N be zero
B'^ C"^= o the surface the parabolic cylinder.
b.

(/.

e.) if

{i.

e.) if

is

c.

is

^157. 3.

If

o and the equations of the centre can be reduced

rr

to two equations, the surface has a line of centres.


(2) has

one of

its

roots S

The

cubic as in

o and degenerates into the quadratic

S--(A + B-f-C)S + AB + AC-hBC-A'--B'-C"'=:o.


Then
a.

If the roots

and

of this quadratic have the same sign

{i.

^.)

NOTES Oy SOLID GEOMETRY.


if

AB + AC + BC A"- B'- C'"^ >

o the surface

95

is

an

elliptic

{i.

e.)

if

cy-

linder.

If the roots

b.

and

4-BC A'^ B'* C'^< o


equal to

hne

and

o,

If

and

^\

and

o\-

both of same sign, the locus

be

a straight

is

<^.

AB + AC

the hyperbolic cylinder.

-.is

reduced equation of the cylinder M2:^ + N)^^ := H,

If in the

c.

have different signs

the surface

H=

o-and

be of different signs the surface con-

of intersecting planes.

sists

158. 4. If

==

o and the equations of the centre become a

and

single equation, the surface has a plane of centres,

consists of

two parallel or coincident planes, which are readily found by solving


the equation with reference to any one of the variables.
In the case of surfaces of revolution the cubic has equal

5.

159.

To

roots.

examine the cubic

surfaces of revolution,

and

its first

equal roots in the case of central

we simply look

for

common

root between

it

/,

m, n from equations (A),

of the surfaces without a centre

in the case

may comnew axes and

In any of the above cases we

the reduction by solving the cubic to get the

thus obtain their direction by finding

And

9,

derived equation (differential).

General Remark.

160.
plete

for

we may

find V,

from equations (M).

Remark

161.

In the cases of surfaces having a line of centres

I.

and of those not having

a centre,

face represented b) a given

we can

distinguish readily the sur-

numerical equation through sections by

the coordinate planes.


1.

equations of the centre show a line of centres, sections

If the

by tne coordinate planes

will tell

whether the surface

is

an

elliptic or

a hyperbolic cylinder.
2.
a.

When

the equations of the centre

If there

are ellipses

planes, the surface


I.

is

an

among

show no

centre, then

these sections by the coordinate

elliptical paraboloid.

If there are hyperbolas

among

these sections, the surface

is

hyperbolic paraboloid.
c.

If

all

these

sections are

straight lines, the surface

is

parabolas, or

one of them

a parabolic cylinder.

parallel

GEOMETRY,

A'Ol^ES OiV SOLID

96
162.

Remark

Again,

II.

the terms of the second degree in the

if

given equation break up into unequal

real factors, the surface

must

be either the hyperbolic paraboloid or hyperbolic cylinder, and these

We may

two surfaces are otherwise readily distinguished.


perfect

note also

of the second degree in the given equation form a

that if the terms

square, the surface

either

is

parabolic

cylinder

or two

parallel planes.

We

163.

Ex.

now

7.r^

I.

As

will

I3>^'

surface with the origin at the centre,

need the discriminating

/ 343^^ + 2058
The

signs

+ 62-+24A3'H- 1210 I22.r rr: 84.

this is a central

hence the surface

by a few examples

illustrate

cubic,,

which

or

we only

is

/or 343^^^+ 2058 o.

show one coniimiatmi and two changes, and


one sheet, or two sheets, accord-

a hyperboloid of

is

ing to the sign of 84.

By

we

and then by depresswe find the other two roots are 14 and 21. Therethe equation of the surface referred to its centre and axes is
trial

find that 7

is

a root of the cubic,

ing the equation


fore

y.v^-!-

Ex.

i4v^

10'=:

84;

or .r^-f 2^^30-=:

2^X'^+2 2y-{-l6z'^-\-l6)'Z

2.

The equations

12,

4ZX20X)'2 6x 40V 443


= 44.

of the centre are

25.V iqi' 20 =: 13

io.r + 22^+ 80=20


2A'+ 8j'+ 160 = 2 2
whence we

find the coordinates of the centre

= i,y =1,

0=1.

Moreover

F=- 44 + 26
The

discriminating cubic
j^

Its

The

J + 40.i + 44-i=

is

65/+ 1134^ 5832 =

signs give three

changes.

an

ellipsoid.

surface then

is

9-

Hence

all

o.

the roots are positive.

NOTES
By

trial

other two

we

find that 9

are 18

The reduced equation

36.

the principal semi-axes are

or

5.r^+

3.

The

ioy+

I'jz^

==

equations of the centre are


T^H-

90

7.r+ioy+

13s

9.v+i3_>'+i70
Multiplying the

is

and the second

Hence

surface

by the coordinate plane xy,

it

=-5.

third.

The

only two independent ones.


tersecting

=3
=4

of these equations by

first

and adding, we obtain the

2,

the

26yz+iizx + i^xy -\- 6x -\-iy -\- loz =64.

-\-

^x+

by

Hence

then

is

+ 2y^ + 42^

.r^

V2
Ex.

97

one of the roots of the cubic.

is

+ 8y -f 362^ =

()x^

And

and

solid GEOMETRY.

OjV

the equations are

therefore a cylinder.

making

i, e.,

0=0,

In-

we obtain

z^x^j^iAxy+ioy''-\-6x-\-^y= 64,

which

an

is

ellipse.

To complete

The

surface

where the

/Y>

is

we

the reduction

therefore an elliptic cylinder.

QCr

rj \f

_1_

line of centres

and

find

is,

to the point

0,

^ = 1,

j^^

170= 5
x =:2^

+ 5V

o,

pierces
the plane
"^

which gives

10 and 16

5 V'

the reduced equation of the cylinder

'\

is

32/4-6^- =

the roots of which are 16

Ex. 4

'J

F=:64+6 4 = 66.

Also the discriminating cubic

And

9:r+i3j^/-f
X, y, that

the origin to the point

transfer

5^^

/ 32^^ + 6 =

10.

is

+ 5/ + 82^ + 40>' + ^zx ^xy + 6x + 6y7,z

The equations

of the centre are

5.V-47H-20
x-i-

y-{-4z

=3

o.

o,

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

^8
Adding

the two last of these equations

= 2^.

Sx4y-\-2z

Hence

first.

An

equation w^hich

no

the surface has

which gives two roots equal

incompatible with the

is

centre.

/- i8/ + 8ij'= o;

The cubic

we have

or s''i8s-}-8i

The

to 9.

surface

= o,

therefore a para-

is

boloid of revolution
gy^

To

we

find V,

+ gz^

determine

first

=
m

/,

Yx.

and

For these we have the

n.

equations

4/^m2n =
/+w + 4 = o

which give /

22

Therefore

n =z

(Eq.

M) A'"=

Ex.

5.

=
33232

.-+ -

-f 3

2 A'"

is

therefore

The
If

is

is

a hyperboloid

if A',

of the same sign as

B'

and

be a hyperboloid

of one sheet.

= o.

C are

in the

cubic will have two roots of the same sign as

holoid

D.

is

surface

A'B'C

2Cxy + 2K"x-\-2B"y+2C"z

S3-(A'2 4.B'-^ + C'^)S-2A'B'C

o.

=9.

of the surface

2Ayz-i-2B'zx +

The cubic

2V

The reduced equation

and

all

different

from

reduced equation the

F and

In the opposite case

it

the surface will

would be a hyper-

of two sheets.
= o the cubic becomes

If A'
S^

(B''^ + C'^) =0,

the surface 2B' zx

\-

whose roots are of

2C xy

^-

different signs.

ih!' x -^ 2B"y ^ 2C z

is

Hence

a hyperbolic

paraboloid.

Ex.

6.

x^

+y 4- 92^ + 6>'2 ()xz 2xy + 2xaz =

The equations

o.

of the centre are incompatible and the terms of the

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

99

second degree form a perfect square, hence the surface

is

a parabolic

cylinder.

Examples.
164.

I.

Find the nature of the surfaces represented by the follow-

ing equations.

sy -^ ^^' 20yz -{- 4ZX + i6xy + 22X {- i6y i- 4z -{- 11=0.


^y^ + z^ + 2JZ + 2XZ -h 2xy lox loy loz -h 2 ^ = o.
^o./z-^a
^(3)- 3x'^sy'^i2yz-\-i2zx-\'8xy6x6y-{-^z = c.
ix^ -\-

(i).

(2).

X'

(4).

4x^ + qy^-^gjz'^-i6zx-{'^^zy='36,

(5).

3JC-+ 2^2X0 f 4^2 4^^ 80 8

2.

The equation

7;t'^4-8y

a hyperboloid of one
3.

The equation

'-/^^v z":^*

*-

r%

t^^Z.

=: O.

+ 4-s^ Z>'<2r ii^jv 7^j/ =

^^ represents

sheet.

A:^+y^+3-s:V 3j'-24-2:j;+^

7^147250= 13 ^

represents an ellipsoid, a point, or an imaginary surface according


as ^is
4.

< = >

67.

The equation

x'^+y^-^-z^

+yz+zx + xy

= a^ represents an

oblate

spheroid.

{y'-zy+{zxy + \:fjA-

5.

Find the nature of the surface

6.

Find the nature of the surface >'0 + zx-i-xy

7.

ax^-\-\y^-^^z^^i2yz^()zx-V\xy-{-\\x-\-i6y^2\z-{-\'] r= o

=si^-.

d^.

re-

presents an elliptic paraboloid, a parabolic cylinder or a hyperbolic

paraboloid according as a

> = <

i,

CHAPTER XIL
PROBLEMS OF
165. Prob.
line

To find

I.

LOCI.

surface of revolution generated by a right

the

turning around a fixed axis which

it

does not intersect.

Let the fixed line be the axis of z and

the shortest distance a

let

from the revolving line to the axis of ^

lie

original position of this line so that

equation

Then

the equation of the surface

Prob.

in the

~=

I-

a^

of revolution of one sheet.

To find

2.

a, j/ = mz.

is

a^

The hyperboloid

is .r

= a' -^7?rz'

-{-y

or

its

along the axis of

the locus

of a

poi?il

whose shortest distances from two

given non-intersecting, non-parallel straight lines are equal

Take

the axis of z along the shortest distance between the two

lines, the

distance

plane xy perpendicular to z at the middle point of this

and the axes oi x and y bisecting the angles between the


on their plane. Then the equation of the lines

2c,

projections of the line


will

be
z ^^

and we have

(z
^

cY^^^
'

z^

y = mx

'
)

mx

~^ (z-^cY^-
+ VI t

i^ni^

or
cz{\

^nf) ^mxy

centre and

Prob.
straight

Take

its

3.

line.

^:^

o,

hyperbolic

paraboloid since

term of second degree breaks up into two

Two

planes mutually perpendicular

To find the surface generated by

the axes as in Prob.

2.

Then

it

has no

real factors.

contain each a fixed

their line

of intersection.

the equations of the planes are

100

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,


Y^{zc)'^-ymx

The

o\

10

o.

Y^{z-\-c)-^y-^mx

(i)

condition of perpendicularity of these planes

is

KK'-j-iw^ = o,
and equations

and eliminating K-f-K' between


and (2) we have

(i)

y~ wV +

'-ni^)z^

( I

which represents a hyperboloid of one


Prob.

To find

4,

sheet.

of which are

For greatest simplicity take the origin


be

faces

let its

at the centre of a parallelo-

Then

the coordinate planes ^0, xz, and xy.

which always

line

same plane.

in the

the distances a,

at

equation

this

- rn^Y

generated by a right

the surface

meets three fixed right lines no two

piped, and

( I

(2)

respectively from

b, c

take three edges of this

parallelopipedon as the three fixed lines fulfilling the conditions.

yz=b

Assume

for the

X=

equations of the movable line

X x'
cos a
The

=c

_ y y^ _z z^
cos

y'

cos

conditions that the line (4) shall meet the lines (1) (2) and

(3) are respectively

y^

cos

b
fi

z'-\-c

cos

'

cos

Eliminate the arbitraries a,


gether,

and we have

x'

y
/?,

-\-

cos

'

cos

y'

-h b
'

cos fi

by multiplying the equations

to-

for the surface

(^xa){y^b){z-c)z={x-a){y + b){z^-c)',
or reducing

ayz + bzx + cxy + abc ==

which the discriminating cubic shows


sheet.
,

The same
,

jr

5.

be a hyperboloid of one

surface will be generated by a straight line resting

on the other three edges


Prob.

to

o,

To find

the

=a
= c

v=:

>
)

X
y

=^
^^

surface generated by a right line which always

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

I02

meets three fixed right lines

of which are parallel

Take one of the

no two of which are


same plane.

to the

fixed lines as the axis of x,

Then

parallel to the plane oi xy.

Now,
*

z\

line shall also

(4) (^

meet

^^d ^

and eliminating the /and

mk

k by

z-b

To find

6.

(4),

\-m(b c)xz cby =


its

o,

equation shows no centre, and the


factors.

is

always parallel

to

(0,
'
^

"~
z^=.

which meets

a fixed plane.

Since the two fixed lines must meet the fixed plane,

2:3=^

we have

the sujface generated by a right line

and

that this

'

terms of the second degree break up into two real


Prob.

(2) are

mx{cb)

a hyperbolic paraboloid, as

V^'O fixed right lines,

and

and the condition

means of equation

cy

cyz

lines (i)

(cd),

~V'^
or

and then the other two

meeting

line

arbitrary),

(3) is Ic

same plane, but all

their equations are

moving

the equations of a

in the

we can

(2), as in 2, as the fixed lines,

take

and the

plane V2 as the fixed plane.

Then

the equation of the

is

The

moving

line parallel

(3)>

^^d k

yz
arbitrary.

conditions that this line shall meet the lines (i) and (2)

are

mk

=z

Ic+p

?;//('

mk

or
or eliminating

/,

k,

Ic

lc-\-p

2indp =^ o

z= c

y
~
z

mxz

cy,

and /,

mx
or

^'

\.o

a hyperbolic paraboloid.

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,


Prob.

2 wo

7.

non

finite

intersecting

non -parallel right

divided each into the same

number 0/ equal parts

which

lines

is

the

locus

of

the

joining

IO3

; to

lines

are

find the surface

corresponding points of divi-

sion.

Let the line which joins two corresponding extremities of the given
lines

be the axis of

2:

the axes oi

let

x and^

be taken parallel to the

given lines and the plane oi xy be halfway between them.


lengths of the given lines be a

Then

and

Let the

b.

the coordinates of two corresponding points are

2:

zz: r,

^ ma,

and the equations of the

z= O] s

= c,

o,

^=^

^=

mb

lines joining these points are

ma

mo

2X

ma

")

'

whence eliminating

the equation of the locus

2cx^a{z^c)

is

(f+^)

a hyperbolic paraboloid.
Prob. 8. To find the locus of the middle
of the second order that has a centre, which

of chords of a surface

points

all pass

through a given fixed

poiftt.

Take

the given point for the origin

planes which pass through

it

and two conjugate diametral


zx and xy, and a plane

for the planes of

parallel to the third conjugate plane for that o^yz; then the
to the surface will

ax''

Let

^1 VIZ,

+ by^ 4-

= nz he

cz'^

+ 2a

(am^

which the values of

'x

+/ =

o.

the equations of any chord.

these with the equation of the surface,

in

equation

be of the form

Combining

we have

+ bn^ -\-c)z^+ 2a'' viz + ^ =

o,

^ belonsr to the extremities of the chord.

I04

VOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

Therefore the z of

its

middle point

,_

is

a"rn

^-' am'-^bn' + c

^^^'

and the other two coordinates of the middle point are


x'=z

Hence eliminating

mz\

(2)

y^nz\

and n the required equation of the locus

a surface of the second order similar to the


its

centre

(3)

and through the

origin.

first,

and passing through

CHAPTER

XIII.

SOME CURVES OF DOUBLE CURVATURE.


1

66.

To find

the equations to the equable spherical spiral.

If a

Definition,

meridian of a sphere revolve uniformly about

diameter PP' while a point

from P to

P', so

as

its

moves uniformly along the meridian

to describe

an arc equal

to the angle

which the meridian has revolved, the locus of

is

through

the equable

spherical spiral.

Taking PP'

as the axis of

PAP' the

0,

initial

position of tke plane

of the meridian as the plane oi xz^ the equation of the sphere

is

x'-Vf^z'=.a\
Let

POM

6,

AON =

then, by definition 6 =q),

q),

and from polar coordinates

= a cos 6 cos y
X = a cos^ 6, y = a cos
^'^+y =
cos^ 6 (cos'^

X
,\

Therefore

Hence

^=:

q),

a'^

a cos ^ sin q)]


6 sin

6.

^4-sin'^ 6) =: ax.

the equations of the spiral are

x'+f + z' =a'

{i)

x'-Vf

ax

(2)

and a
whose diameter is the radius of the sphere.
we subtract (2) from (i) we obtain

or the spiral

the curve of intersection of the sphere

is

right

circular cylinder
If

z^

a^

ax

(3) a parabolic cylinder.

And

the equations (2) and (3) also represent the curve, which is
therefore also the intersection of a right circular and right parabolic

cylinder at right angles to each other.


167.

To find the equations

Definition.

The

to

a spherical

spherical ellipse

is

ellipse.

a curve traced

on the surface
105

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

Io6

sum

of a sphere such that the

of the distances of any point on

it

from two fixed points on the sphere is constant.


Let SH be the two fixed points on the surface of the sphere
whose radius is r, C the middle point of the arc of the great circle

which joins them.

HP

If

P be any

point of the spherical ellipse

SP and

arcs of great circles, then

SP + HP

2a

a constant.

Through P draw PM, an arc of a great


SH, and let SH = 2;/, CM = cp, PM = B.
Then,

in the right-angled spherical triangle

in the

SPM we

have

= cos {y (p) cos d.


triangle HPM
cos HP = cos (ycp) cos
SP

cos

And

circle perpendicular to

6.

HP =

C-D. cos
Now, cos SP
-f

XTT.

/SP+HP\
2

cos

cos

/SP-HP\

cos

/SP-HF

cos

QP
SP

HP cos

AndA cos uTD


A

/SP + HP\

2 sin

sin

/SP-HP\

sin

^SP-H_P).
SP-HPN

sin

'

Therefore,

/SP HP\

__ cos

COS

cos cp cos

^SP HPN^

_^ sin

Sin

sin q) coe

sin

a:

Squaring and adding

ya

COS''

^
r-^ cos'
^ cos' u
cos'

or

if

we transform from polar


cos^
cos'

y
a

aV
sin^

-\

r,

sin^

/i

cos^

c^

=1;

sin'

to rectangular coordinates
sin^
sin'

J^

^^

\]

This equation and the equation of the sphere'N

^'+y-f^'
determine the spherical
cylinder and the sphere.

r2

(2)

ellipse, as the intersection

of a right elliptic

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.


To find

168.

side

the equations to the helix.

Whilst the rectangle

Definition.
its

AB, so

107

ABCM

revolves uniformly about

CM

generates the surface of a

that the parallel side

right circular cylinder, the point

moves uniformly along CM, and

generates a curve called a helix.

AB

and when the rectangle is in the plane


on the axis of x, and let the velocity of
times the velocity of M.

Let

xz

let

be the axis of

P and

.-.

Also

AM =

AN =

let

0,

both be at

X,

PM =

NM

^y^

.arc

PM =

DM.
be the coordinates of

P,

and

a the radius of the circular base of the cylinder in the plane xy,

. .

z =. na cos~^

and

j/^

o;^

= a^

are the required equations of the helix.

Or we may represent
z

or the

same

na

'

z =^

na sin~^

cos [2m7T-\
\

same values of x and

y
-^

=1 a sin

na

z \

the

^^ a cos

=
na

na cos~^

(2);

in the forms

since cos

^:z

the curve by the two equations

The equations

na J

(3)
^^^

and
/

and

sin

na

sin

[2m7t-\
\

na

correspond to an infinite number of

(i) (2) and (3) show that the projecon the planes xz^ and^^ give the curve of sines,
and the projection on xy is the circle.

values of

z.

tions of the helix

qA

^l^6l

c^lccrccft,

d di^unLol

^ruiJ

SxjiytcU/j^

linn, z'zuW ^^ ^J^^^t<it cz^74^^


I

^^

-^

Cx,

^^ ^ ^J

-e/r^

4-.

^-^-.^y

^^it

:>

^^y-J'^-/^

S^-^^^-^r '^-^^^^^-Z

^^^XLtAt^ ^i/^

J*
K

'I

II

ii

II

';^

^
II

<^
5^

t."

-<

^
If

>

E'

tC
0\

Jt

__

la

#^^^/Vy^==/>f^
^^1^

^s

^^i^/6 ^24'^^ -^^t-^^

l^oc^6-0^i^

t24='S-S--t36 -hZ6 4-

CO

^A5

-^'T".^

^f^

/^rS

Si^^ -f-SJf^

-f-

ff

CONGRESS