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# Book_-

V4

NOTES

ELE MENTS
(ANALYTICAL)

Solid Geometry,

BY

CHAS.

S.

VENABLE.

LL.D.,

## Professor of Mathematics, University of Virginia.

NEW YORK:
UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY.
1879.

.^3

a^l"
\j;

## In preparing these Notes I have used the treatises of Gregory,

Hymers, Salmon, Frost and Wostenhohiie, Bourdon, Sonnet et
Frontera, Joachimsthal-Hesse, and Fort

und Schlomilch.
C. S. V.

^.J:"^

339

In

Exchange

Univ, of

r^.

1879-

CHAPTER
We

1.

have seen

how

## erence to a given origin

is

determined by means of

its

distances

## So that each pair of axes

Ox
and Oy determining the plane xOy
Oz the plane xOz Oy and Oz the plane yOz. And the posiot the point P with reference to the origin O is determined by
its distance^ ^M, PN, PR from the zOy, zOx, xOy respectively, these
distances being measured on lines parallel to the axes Ox, Oy and
ensions,

Ox

rmines a plane,

Oz

respectively.

is

## System of Triplahar Coordinates, and the transition to

System

of Rectilinear

Plane Coordinates

is

called
it

We

very easy.

The

from the
can best

P by conceiving O as the
corner of a parallelopipedon of which OA, OB, OC are the edges,
and the point P is the opposite corner, so that OP is one diagonal of

## conceive of these three coordinates of

the parallelopipedon.
2.

If

PM = OA
P

of the point

are

PN = OB rr b, PR
y :=z b, z ^=^ c, and

=L a,

:=i

a,

maybe found

z=

OC =

the equations

c,

## the point given by these

Measure on/
P^AK/A'
through
draw
and
A
the
plane
a,
parallel to the plane yOz.
Measure on Oy the distance OB = b, /
and draw the plane pMbR parallel to xOz, and finally lay off 0(y
= c and draw the plane PMCN parallel to xOy. The intersection
equations

OX

the distance

3.

The

## by the following construction

is

P required.
Oz are called the axes of
planes xOy, xOz and yOz are

the point

respectively

OA

the three

x,

and

called the

The

r= a,
4.

The

h,

r= ^

is

b, c).

As

and

axes

Ox

## O;^ divide the

space coordinates the planes xy, xz and yz divide the space considered

into

0-xyz,

0-xy'z,

on the

down

four

## above the plane xy, viz.

and four below it, viz. 0'Xyz\
By an easy extension of the rule of

O-x'yz, 0-x[yz

O-x^z',

O'Xy^z^ O-xy'z',
signs laid

compartments

eight

in

## and on the left of j's:

and those behind it as

as

all

all

jv's

all

y's

above

## We can then write the

xy as + and those behind it as
points whose distances from the coordinate planes are a, h and c in
the plane

In the

first

Octant, 0-xyz P,

## In the second Octant, Pg

In the third Octant, P3

fifth

Octant, P5

is

(''>

P^; is

The

signs thus

(,

and

c give

is

-a,

(-

b.

c)

^?,

h.

c)

c)

c)

c)

b.

--h,

(-a.

is

b.

compartment

us in which

tell

a,

{-a,
(-

is

c)

{a,

is

In the

{a, h. c)

is

is

us

its

c)

point

the

falls,

ments.

1.

2.

i,
i,

2,

3, 4

o,

i, 2

2,

3, o

o,
3, o,

o,

4, o, 3
2, o, o.

## and R are called the projections of P on the

and when the axes are rectangular they are
its orthogonal projections.
We will treat mainly of orthogonal projections.
For shortness' sake when we speak simply of projections,
we are to be understood to mean orthogonal projections, unless we
5.

The

points

M,

We
which

will give
will

now some

be of use to

us.

Definitions.

6.

The

projections of

When

is

its

## one line or several lines connected together enclose a plane

by the projection of the lines is called the

## area, the area enclosed

projection of the

The

first

area.

may be

idea of projection

extended:

if

## perpendiculars to a second line, the portion of the

between the

feet

of the perpendiculars

is

latter intercepted

From

we

this

see that

## are the projections of

nates

of a point are

OB and
on the three

OA,

OP

the projections

OC

(coordinates rectangular)

## axes, or the rectangular coordidistance from the origin on the

of its

coordinate axes.

7.

Fundamental Theorems.

I.

The length of

equal

to the line

of a

the projection

the plane.

of

## the angle which

is

makes with

it

PQ

Let
jection

be the given finite straight line, xOy the plane of prodraw PM, QN perpendicular to it then
is the projec-

MN

PQ

## on the plane. Now the angle made by PQ with the plane

made by PQ with MN. Through Q draw QR parallel
meeting QN in R, then QR = MN, and the angle PQR

tion of
is

finite

the angle

MN
= the angle

to

PQ

with

MN.

MN QR

Now

PQ

cos

PQR.
II.

The

projection on

1.

We

shall

The

planes.
2.

cos

A'B'C

Hence A'B'C

ABC

ABC = BC

- B'C x A'l/

Moreover

= ABC

rallel to

area of

is

equal

to

the planes,

A'y

BC

is

parallel

But B'C

BC and

## x cos angle between the planes.

of which no one of the sides

is

pa-

/i?

Through

corner

the

CD

AB

Now

D.

in

we

if

parallel to the

6 the angle

call

## between the planes, then from i"^ A'B D'

ABD cos 6 and B'C'D'
B'C'D'^: (ABD-BCD) cos d or A^'B'C
=iBCD cos e. .-. A'B'D

=:ABC

cos

e,

## may be divided up into a number of

which the proposition is true it is true also of

## Since every polygon

3.

triangles of each of

the polygon,

i,

e.,

sum

of the

## Also by the theory of

of the triangles.

The

8.

equal
'

projection

is

## upon another right

right line

finiie

imiltiplied by the

of

cosine

the

line is

between the

afigle

^li7ies\

PQ

Let

means of

PQ

meeting

## with O.v, and

mtt.^Af^,

If there

?M

MN

PM

the perpendiculars

parallel to ININ

of a

to

its

## projection on the line O.v, by

and QN.

Through

Then PQR
PQ cos PQR.

in R.

MN =r QR =

be three points P,

## P" joined by the right

P',

draw

the angle

is

QR

lines PP',

PP" and P'P", the projections of PP" on any line will be equal to
the sum of the projections of PP' and P'P" on that line.
Let D, D',
be the projections of the points P.

D''

Then D'

D'.

between

and

P',

D"

## DD" = DD'+ D'D"

P" on the
or

and

D"

line

between

in the other

AB.
and

DD"

DD' D"D' = in both cases the algebraic sum of DD' and D'D''.
The projection is + or according as the cosine of the angle above
is

or

^-

In general

if

there be any

PP', P'P'',

etc.,

or, the

number

## of points P, P', P",

equal to the

is

sum

etc.,

the pro-

of the projections of

## lygonal line on a straight line

is

equal to the

sum

of the projections

lo.

The

projectioji

equal the

PN

sum of

of

the

the projections

of the point P.

For

## the projection of the side

the

sum

line.

OF

of a point P on any

## on that line of the coordinates

OPMN
OP

on

is

OM,

OM, MN,

line, and
must be equal to
MN, and PN on that

closed broken

a straight line

line is

11.

Two

Distance between

Points.

## Let P and Q, whose rectangular coordinates are

y\ 0'), be the two points.

We
is

PQ' := PM'
= 0' 0.

=_>/ J/ QN
Hence PQ' = {x
;

- xj ^ {y-yy+

## one of the points P be

and PQ'== .%^'' 4-/^+0''.
If

12.

To

MN^ + QNl

-f

z)

y,

and

^J-

then

^=1

o,

y =^

6, z =^ o,

## FIND THE Relations between the Cosines of the Angles

WHICH A Straight Line makes with three Rectangular

Axes.

Take

OP

the line

POy

PO.r =: a,

Then by

(.v',

But

(^

at the origin

{x,

PMNRQ of which PQ
PM ^ x' - x, MN

the diagonal,

PO0

/^,

8,

:=^

cos'

r^

a^

the angle

cos'

}/

a, cos

cos

/?,

y determine

cos'

y) or

(i)

i.

very

im-

We

tion (i)

is

m and

/,

the line

(/,

cos

We

(i),

i,

;^

will

of the line.

## So the equaand when we wish to

direction cosines,

m, n).

## pleasure, for the third

13.

its

direction- cosines

n respectively.

^'+ '=

## usually written /'+

a,

(3,

we may

call

it

can be assumed at

= Vi cos'

cos'

//.

for

determining the

## position of any plane area with reference to three rectangular coordi-

For since any two planes make with each other the
is made by two lines perpendicular to them respecthe angles made by a plane with the rectangular coordinate

nate planes.

tively,

## coordinate axes respectively.

plane, the angle

with xz
/^,

is

the angle /i

^t<ft^

r cos y.

^=^

portant relation.

Cos

if-

y''+ z\

cos' /?

r,

the coordinates of P.

a y'= r cos ^
(cos' a -f cos' (5 +

r cos

r^~

Hence

.r''+

OP =

Let

and x\ y,

y,

r-=

Art. 11,

But, Art.

## a perpendicular to the plane with the

Thus

if

OP

be the perpendicular to a

and with yz

is

xy

is

the angle a.

the angle

So cos a, cos

That

is,

the

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

of a plane with

direction cosines

of a

The

14.

line

reference

y3+

## rectangular coordinates are

to

perpendicular

plane,

to this

cos^

enables us to prove

## an important property of the orthogonal projections of plane areas.

For let A be any plane area, and A^, A, A. its projections on the

Then

zx and xy respectively.
A^ = A cos y.
/?
Squaring and adding we have

coordinate planes

cos

A,2+
or a;'

That

is,

+ A/

To

cos

a +

a;-

the square

Art.

7,

II.,

A^

= A- (cos''
+ A/ = A^

A/+

cos' /S

equal

is

-\-

to the

cos' y)

sum of

the squares

## three planes at right angles to each other.

of its projections on
15.

yz,

=A

A,,

## FIND THE Cosine of the Angles between Two Lines

Terms of their Direction Cosines (cos a, cos /J, cos
AND (cos a\ cos /?', cos }/').

## Draw OP, OQ through the origin parallel respectively to the

lines.
They will have the same direction cosines as the given

## POQ will be the angle between the given lines.

POQ = OP r, OQ = /', coordinates of P (a\ z),
dinates of Q (.rV'-s').

in
;/)

given
lines,

Let

*^^'j6A#/_

^^'^ by ^^^'

Wed- or^i,
^^^/i/>

^A^^^*.
>-^

-yy

{y

- zj ^

(0

/^jP'

T^f

And

from triangle

hence

r'H r'-

z'^

+./+

x^

0^+ x^^y'^

(2a;v'+ 2yy

r'--

r'^-h

2/7''

r+

-\

COS

r'=

Therefore

x'

+ y''+

z'

^
fy

and r''=

z^

rr' cos

cos

or

= au''+

cos 6

which we write

cos

ex

= X x'
H
r
.

Hence

2zz),

6',

x'' -^

y"

-{-

+
But

-V

POQ,
PQ2=:

i^.^^S

V;^V^--/

coor-

^'

- xj^

PQ"^= {x

A,f,'^p

)',

6^,

cos

cos ^

a +
//'

-f-

{2xx'

2zz'),

cos

;/'

(2)

.v"'+,v''-h z'\

rr'+ zz,

.-^
r

cos

2y]>'

z'

fi

+ r .
r

cos ji

mm' + nn,

cos

;/

(2)

Cor.

-{

7171

larity of the

Cor.

1.

//'-f- 7)17)1

two

(3).

lines

From

2.

w,

/9

o or

is

(3)

(/,

ti),

(/',

711

7t').

we can

convenient one

find a

for sin^ 6.

Thus

sin-

(//'+

7171)'=

/;/;;/'+

+
whence

To

16.

sin^

l'my-\-

{I771

+ ^/^'^-

(/'

7l'^)

l'7if'\-

(Iti

(//'-h

(77171

(/''+

?/')

-\-

771771

Tif.

771

?;/"'

7l7l'y

(4)

## express the distance between two points in terms of their

oblique coordinates.

Q [x'y'z)

## Let P {xyz) and

The

A,

XOZ =

/i,

YOZ =

axes respectively a,

PQ.

PQ Now

We

project the

PQ

MN

a +

P:M cos

broken

PQ

line

itself.

cos

f^

^-

Hence we

NQ

XOY

with the

PMNQ

y.

equal to

is

oblique.

is

y,

and

/?

This projection

MPQN

parallelopipedon

on

will have.

cos y.

{a)

respectively.

## obtain thus the three equations

PQ
PQ
PQ
Now

cos

cos

/3

cos

multiply the

and the

by

third

NQ

= PM + MN cos A + NQ cos
= PM cos A + MN + NQcos v
= PM cos + MN cos v + NQ
//

(d)

jii

MN

## of equations (5) by PM, the second by

and add them taking (a) into account and we

first

have

PQ2

.

/A

PQ^

or

=.

{x

cos A

x'Y

Cr

^r')^

## Cor. If one of the points as

PO^
17.

PQ
call

IS

+2{xx')(z 2')cos

.V-

Di7'Lctio)i

r-

s-

Ratios.

ratios.

2{x -

cos V

.v')

(y

j.i-\-2{yy'){zz') cos

be

at the origin

2,\r cos A

2x2 cos

cos
(c)

-y)

7^

(5)

then
//

-f-

2zr cos v.

(6)

## In oblique coordinates the position of a line

determined by the

direction

+ 2MN NQ

- z'y+

(3

+ 2PM NQ

cos A

MN NO

PM
ratios

\Vc

pQ

may name

f3Q-:

these

pTy
/,

w,

and
//

these

we

respectively,

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

lO

taking care to note that we are using oblique coordinates and call
the

PQ, the

line

direction ratios,

line

we

To

m, n).

(/,

divide equation

find a

among these
PQ^ We thus

relation

## (c) Art. i6,

by

have

/^+ m^A- n^

2/m cos A

-{-

2/n cos

-f

/a

+ 2mn

cos r,

the

(7)

desired relation.

The

18.

+ nx

7?ix

The proof

my
,

?n

-{-

of this

(8)

-{- 71

same

precisely the

is

= ^?^'.

-\-ny

## ing theorem in Plane Coordinate Geometr}\

Polar Coordinates.

19.

The

The

OP =

makes with

vector

a fixed axis

OC

OZ makes

## with the fixed line

We

have

the angle

r,

projection

is

also

sometimes expressed by

VOm=

OC

r sin

ft

OX

Hence

yOx

COX

which the

perpendicular to

in that plane.

r sin

z=i

r sin d sin qj v

r cos 6

r'

= x^ +

1''

cos

cp

(9)

z"-

tan o) z=.'

(10).

and

let

plane of the

face

first

latitude,

Then,

if

the plane

zOx be

the

## meridian and the axis of z the axis of the earth,

qj

longitude of a point on

the

earth's sur-

20.

Let

Pbe

MN

is

(r',

then

d\ cp) and

this projection,

on

respectively

PR

Project

PQ

## on the plane xy,

OP and OQ

the projections of

Through P draw

PR

parallel to

MN,

have

Moreover

r'^

+ RQ'

=:

MN^ + (QN

- RN)^

MON

## - 2OM ON cos MON,

sin^ & + r^ sin^ 6 2rr' sin d sin d' cos {(p
QN = r cos and RN 1= PM = cos

MN^
MN^

PR^

==

in triangle

Hence

(r, d, cp).

OM ON

that plane.

PQ^
But

draw

MN.

==

And we

or

II

rr.

PQ^=

OM^ + ON^

r^ sin^

6',

r'

/9

-f

cp')*

6'

cos (<^

(r cos d

^')

r cos ffy

or

PQ^=

(cos

6*

## cos ^' 4-sin d sin ^' cos

(^

<^'))-

(^0

,.^_-

CHAPTER

11.

INTERPRETATION OF EQUATIONS.
TRIPLANAR COORDINATES.
2 1.

Let us take F

relation

.v,

which enables us

that

o,

and

is

This

z.

may be

considered as a

## determine any one of the variables when

So the equation
Let these be v and

to

may

{x, y, z)

)'.

be written

z^/{xy),
in

And

plane xv

and

to the axis of

if

0,

to .v

and j'.

is

## through each of these points we draw a line parallel

and take on it lengths equal to the values of ^ given

deterviinaie

## way we will get a series of

and not a solid since we take
lengths on each of the lines drawn parallel to z. Hence

=o

by the equation,

is

it

{x,
22.

it

r,

z)

is

a surface,

two variables as

{x,

y)=

o then

For F

{x,

pendently of

y)
0,

and

satisfied

is

and

.r

to

are

## by certain values of x and

no longer arbitrary but one

inde-

is

given

## each pair of values corresponds a point in

of these points is a curve in that plane.

If
z,

this

sents a surface

it

which

is

same coordinates

Hence F {x,y)

^{x,y)

=o

in the plane

xy and

.v

and

>

as

o repre-

drawn through
parallel to the

axis of

This locus

0.

as the equation

either

is

what

is

sr

{x^y)

y^

r^= o

straight line.

For example,

x'^ -{

rectangular

in

coordinates

and

And dx

by

\-

c ^=:

\^

2i

Similarly

F {x,

=o

(y, 0)

to the axis of

An

23.

z)

-\'

by =^

a
a

z.

ax

is

r^ is

0,

intersect-

c.

ioy or a plane

axis parallel

the axis of

x^-^y^

parallel ioy,

:r

Thus X

And

= o when

2i?>/{x)

values of

as

:r,

^= a,

## solved will give a determinate

=.

b,

c,

etc.,

so

it

number

of

represents several

Thus

F {y)

also

plane xz.

And F

{z)

= o,

Thus we

24.

preted

number

The apparent

satisfied

ay +

(.r

(jF

satisfied

when [x

y ~

b,

Now

is

inter-

must

## when a single equation

some kind or other.

## see that in all cases

represents a surface of

it

by

-\-

a)^

= o,

{z

As for example

## cY o. This equation can only be

{y by = o, {z cY = c, or x = a,

c.

## represent the point

a,

b,

c.

So also {x
by '= o is only satisfied hy x z=z a, y =z b,
aY -\- {y
and hence though x
a Is a plane, and y = b is 3. plane, the two
together must represent a line common to both of these planes, that
is their line of intersection, which must be parallel to z,

25.

/{x,y,

z)

{x,y, z)

=o

14

Thus

=o

F (x)

axis of

z,

of

number

represent a

>

and

r^\ !

z,

xz.

represent a

number

etc.

j^,

F ixy) =. o
T^
F {xz); = o
ders F [x, y)

)
>

26.

represent
^

=o

-^

and F

o,

{y, z)

etc.,

etc.

## Three simultaneous equations

F
as

=0

{x, y, z)

y^ z)

=:ol

(p{x,y,z)

= 0)

/{x,

or

F
F

{x,

y)

(x, z)

= o\
= o i etc.,

F(j^, 0) --=0

represent points in space or the intersections of the lines of intersection of the surfaces.

The

simplest case

is,

=^ a

z := c )

b,

c),.

So also
x^
X

+ y^ = 2z^
y =^ 2z

-{-

xy

4-

can be found by

Interpretation
27.

Hence
r ^=

b,

1.

=a

## represents a sphere having the pole for

the equation
r =:

c,

etc.,

pole as centre.

of Polar Equations.

(r)

for

its

centre.

r as r

:=:

a,

6 =^

2.

## vertex at the origin of which the vertical angle

its

Hence

the equation

(^)

o giving values 6

common

etc.,

zOx

of

6)
it

q),

a,

^,

etc.,

angle

at angles /?,

etc.

/5',

4. If the
{r,

with

## o which gives values cp=. ^, qj

F (^)
represents several planes containing the axis of inclined

to the plane

xy makes an

/?',

2:

equal to 2a,

## of intersection with the plane

X.

3:.

is

vertex.

(p =1

3.

15

= o gives
gives the

the

same

same curve

assigning values to

relation

(r,

= o,

6)
for

since

any value

in

Hence

cp.

between r and 6

it

z.

## Example, r = a cos 6 is the equation of a circle in the plane

xz, or in any plane containing the axis of z. - Hence r z= a cos 6
represents a sphere described by revolving this circle about the axis
of

-sr.

5.

equation be F((^, 6)
o for every value of q) there
values of 6 corresponding to which lines through

If .the

are one or

the pole

more

## may be drawn, and

O0 revolves, these

containing

## as cp changes or the plane fixed by

lines take

new

positions in each

it

new

position of the plane, and thus generate conical surfaces about Oz.
(A conical surface being any surface generated by a straight line
moving in any manner about a fixed straight line which it intersects.

6.

If the

equation be

r,

F (r,

= o, for every

q?)

value of

there are

q?

Oz

circles vary in

q).

As

q?

magnitude.

The equation

thus

pole,

of

2:

which vary

which they

7. If the

general.
=:

in

all

magnitude

equation be

For

if

## about the axis

contain.

we

(r,

6,

qj)

assign a value to q)

## or the plane revolves about

Oz

plane

this

o, it
3.s

qj

q? =:

represents a surface in

=
j3.

/3,

then

And

(r,

as <p

6, /3)

changes

all

these curves.

28.

Two

line, or lines

surfaces.

And

three simulta-

surfaces.

Thus
r zn a

= a\ taken

## by the intersection of a sphere, cone and plane.

CHAPTER

III.

EQUATION OF A PLANE.
COORDINATES OBLIQUE OR RECTANGULAR.
To find equation of a plane

29.

and

origin

OD =

Let

and

let it

make

OP

the angles a, /?

## MN and NP the coordinates of P.

OM + NM + NP on OD

The

OP

and

of the

is

on OD.

projection of

OM + MN + NP

OP

on

OD

on

OD
x

Hence we have
To find

projection of

jection of

30.

Oy and Oz

Let

OM,

The

the

/)

respectively.

plane

## of the perpendicular from

in terms

direction cosines.

its

cos

the equation

is

is

cos

OD
a

-i-y cos /3

of a plane

itself,

-^-y cos
-\-

p+

z cos

in terms

z cos y.

of its

= p.

(12)

intercepts

on the

(12)

may be

OA =

X
p
But since
/>

sec

or

a,

OB

b,

OC =

c.

The equation

written

sec

sec

ps^c y

## ODA, ODB and ODC are right-angled triangles, we

a,^p sec /S = OB h, p sec y = 0C

= OA =

c.

-+! + -=:

its

(13)
intercepts.

have

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

Any

31.

y and

=D

Ax + By + Cz

equation

z is the equation

of a

plane.

And

putting

Hence

(14)

-^=:

a,

"C"

-^

<^,

we have

^,

form

the

(13).

is

coordinates.

Hence

we

make^

=r

o and

find intercept

Example.
32.

to the
nates.

We

plane given by
it

x= o and

j' =:

cos

-{-y

on

/3

-{-

and

z cos

=p

+
Ax

2.r

## reduce the equation

cos

equation on

o to find intercept on

its

## the form (13) or simply

in

=: o to find intercept

ony

It is useful often to

form

put

either

j)/

52

By

-\-

jr

o to

60.

z.

Cz

-{-

=D

in rectangular coordi-

have
cos

## _ cos /? _ cos y __P __ Vcos*

B " C ""D"^

a +

A ~

A^

cos^ f6

B^

cos^

O
I

Va' + b^+
Hence

1:T

cos

-=.

a
,

cos

p^,

B
:

Va" +
Hence

if

we

6^

B
+ B^ +

C^

Vam-bm-o

0"

write (14)

A
X +
VA'+B' + C^'

-v/A'

y +

VA' +

B^+a

D
VA''+
it is

in the perpendicular

form (12).

B^

Q^

(15)

19

## each term of the equation Ax + By

sum of the squares of the coefficients
of X, Y and z, the new coefficients will be the direction cosines of the perpendicular to the plane from the origin^ and the absolute term will be the

Hence

+ Cz=:D,

length

the

ive divide

of

the

of this perpendicular.

Example.

Rule: If

23

^y

4z

Result.

cos

= -:=,

^4 +

V 29

16

cos

= -=,

V 29

cos

V 29
V 29

33.

To find

the

(coordinates

rectangu-

lar).

form

then since

this

cos

cos a^

angle

is

-^

-\-

cos

/S \- z

cos

/5'

cos

cos

^=^

= p\

cos

cos fS

cos

A'jr

cos

cos

=D
+ Cz ^ D\

B^

+ B>

C0

^A^+

A-O

cos

(5

VA2+

B^

C^

cos y-

VA^ +
cos

cos

AA'

V=

rns .r

VA= +

B'

B^

C^

p
cos

A A
And

cos a'

form

A^ +

Then

V=

cos y'

+ BB' + CC
+ CVA" + B"^ +

y-

C"'

'i

+
.,

(i6)

B'^

C'^

20

From
.

^^^

this

(A'+ B'+

,,

Cor.

I.

sin
.

..

+ a)(A'^+B'^+C')

C) (A^^+

(A''+ B^

(AH

B^

+ e)(A'='+

AA'+ BB'+ CC = o

{\%^

is

CC')'

B'C)'

^''

"

B'^+C'^)

## each other, then cos

y=o.

of perpendicularity

the condition

of

the

planes.

Cor.

A'B)5

- A'B =

^-

(AB'

AB'

or

V=

2.

Hence

o.

## - A'C)^ = (BC - B'C)= = o

AC - A'C = o BC - B'C = o

(AC

ABC.,

o/x, Y and
Ex,

B-S^^

ffJ^T^j"

is

^^^^ ^+
7^""^^
,

Show

2.

I.

z in the

'

^I'

+ S^^

and 3a;-4y-}

2=

lo.

^^~

:t:

3jV

5^

20 and 2x

-{

^=^

lo are perpen-

3.

To find

34.

a point

(x'y'z') to

1.

:v

cos

o'

j^^

cos /3

OD

to

meet

it

Now
Then

^ cos

;K

= / when p =

and produce

-i-y cos

ft

-\-

z'

cos

p'

## PM be the perpendicular from P

PM = OD' - OD ==/ -/.

let

OD.

in D'.

The equation
x' cos

when OD'

=/.

Hence

PM

And X

{x' cos

x' cos

=.

cos

y'

-{

p.

cos

z'

-\-

21

## cos y) p (20) is the expression

for the perpendicular from the point x'y'z' on the plane x cos
-{-/ cos

/3

z'

a^

cos

y5

cos

y p,

Kx

2.

Then

cos

-f

By

D.

etc., etc.

^A^ + B^-hC^
Hence

on the

is

it.

C0

-f-

the expression

{x' cos a

i-y' cos

cos

-^ z'

^ p)

becomes

(3, 2,

i)

on

the plane
3.r

T^i

Result.

9
^

-[-

4.y

V9+

6z

16+

24.

24
^

36

13
_j_
V 61

## The equation of the plane in the form .rcos a -\-y cos j3

may be used to demonstrate the following theorem
y

*35.

cos

=p

-{-

in

projec'ions.

The volume of
the triangle

point (x,

the tetrahedron

ABC/^r

y, z) in

the projections

its

base

which has

equal

is

to the three

ABC on the three

the plane

of the area

for

the origin

its

vertex

and

bases

respectively.

For

let

ABC

X
the equation of

its

cos

\-

cos

-{

and

z cos

^=

plane.

Then
or

But

cos

a x
.

\.

cos

(3 .y

\K

cos

(3

-\-

-^A cos

a X

cos a,

-\-

y,

+ A

.y

cos

+ ^A

cos

z :=

z =i

and

vertex,

and

-|-A/> is

the

on the

common

^A/.

{x, y, z) as

Kp

volume

pyramid

of the

22

and

for vertex

we may

To find

36.

OP =

Let

point

POS

Then

= 3 V.

+ A^

6,

(22)

## YQW = cpbe the polar

perpendicular on plane

POD =

and

/3,

KyV

coordinates of a

of the plane.

OD =

Let

-^-p-

angle

DOS =

OP

-^^'^'^'^-^the

POD =

cos

cos

Ce9,

or

cos

Now in

go.

Smt

r^^^

## SD'T has for

D"SP = D'OF =

^ ^^g

^Og J^n^

OD

order to
as centre

Draw

on the sphere.
SPF, SD"D; MP'D' and D'T.
Prolong

"^^l^nd angle

D'OM'

a,

go.

with

Tf%

the theorem

the

r,

k^x

Hence

for base.

true.

is

sides

its

to D^'

SD"

-^ cp.
ft

gj) ^^g gp

=:

o',

SP

6,

D"P

go

But

g.^

gj^,r

gjj^

gp

^^g j),,gp^

Or

i*J2..
"^^

cos

Therefore

Gj?

cos

cos

a cos

cos ^

sin

sin

ar

sin

6 cos

{/S

cp).

^) (23)

is

the

The

37.

Ax +

B>'

C0

=D

may

BV + Cz=

A'x +

And
z

m mx

z=z

m,

4-

^+

{25)

by dividing by

= n and - =

and

c.

transposing and

putting

38.

1.

The equation

general form

by

:r

2.

o, j^

Ax +

= 0.

By
o and

The equation

C2:

o, for the

is

of the

Kx +

form

## o a plane containing the axis oi y

By
one containing the axis of x is By -}- Cz =^ o,

to thQ axis of
.4.

xisBy

The equation

parallel to ^2:

By

is

Cz

T)

=D

xy

parallel to

Ax + By

is

one

parallel

is

Cz

in the

==

is

Ax = D

D.

forms

x= a, y=z ^,

## of a plane containing a given point (a, b, c)

Ax + By + Cz = D. ( i )
since the required plane is to be parallel to (i) it may be writ-

To find

39.

and parallel
First,

ten

Cz

-\-

J).

## These equations we have had already

z

Ax

is

Kx + Cz

is

The equation

3.

=D

23

to

the equation

a given plane

Ax \-By -\-Cz-=^V>'

coordinates

Hence by

(a,

<5,

r)

subtraction

A(^

we

a) +

Ax +

when D'

(2)

must

undetermined.

is

Therefore

satisfy (2).

Secondly, the

A^-hB^ +

Q =D\

(jF

+
<^)

(0

^)

=o

or

(26)

Example.
point
40.

(i,

2,

## Find the equation of the plane passing through the

4) parallel to the plane 2x \- ^y ^z ^=:. 6.

To find

(x", y",

## of a plane passing through

z") and (x'", y'". z'").

the equation

A,

B and C

Ax

By

-f

C0

i,

to

is

A^ + By' + C^^

we must have

=1

A^'"+By'^+a'"=i.
Hence
X,

I,

x'\

A=

B=
x,y,
X ,y
X ,y
It

tt

Substituting

II

these

x'\

x',y,

z'

I,
I,

z"
z"

C=

X ,y,
n
X ,y
III

values in the

x",
1

'

z
I.

equation

J<:'",/",

Ax +

'Ry

-\-

x\y\

II

III

v'",

x,y,

It

x",y",

z"
z'"

Cz

^- z

24

we have
s

I,
I,

y
,n f

ttt

X +

J + X ,y

I,

x,y,

^,J^^,

z'

= x"\

y"'

(27)

## But from plane coordinate geometry the coefBcients oi x^y ahd z

Mjk4.
(jt^^Z"*)^"^ these equations are the double areas of triangles in the planes j^^,
jrji^\/^^z and xy respectively. Moreover these triangles are the projections
Hence
^^ ^^ triangle of the three given points, on these planes.
j

-2rx

comparing

this

## equation wi h the equation (22)

K,x
II

we

+ Ky

= 6V,

II

see that

4-

Kz = 3V

That

is

6 times the

volume of the

pyramid which has the origin for vertex and the triangle of the three
This equation fully written out is

## given points for base.

x {y'z"'-y"z")+x"{y"z'-yz"') +x"'iyz"-y'z')=^6v.

(28)

## 41. To fi7id the equation

tion

of the planes which contain the line of intersectwo planes Ax + By + Cz = D and Ax' + By'+ Cz' = D'.

of the

ThisequationisAjr + By-f C0

## plane when K takes a

when A^ + Bj' + C^ D = o and
A'x + ^y + C'z D' =: o are satisfied simultaneously. Hence it
Hence as K is arbiis a plane containing their line of intersection.

when

is

trary

For

arbitrary.

particular value

and

is

it

this represents a

sa'isfied

it

## of the two given planes.

When

42.

the identity

U = o,

equations

the

intersect

each

KU + KiUi + KgUg = o

U2=o, Us^ o of

other in one

and

planes which

and

line.

planes

these

This
of[

is

an

the

first

all

the

it

line

exists between

degree in x,

(30)

may be

of intersection

at infinity

line.

This

all

parallel.

Example
JiLy

i.

The

planes

6a:

+ 22^ 3

o 2indy=

o.

two

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

Example

2.

The

by 2x

planes represented

-\-

25

^y

42 =

{n

The

Example.

planes 2>^

-\-

\y

\-

6z

2 \

4X

4y

-{-

6z

2 J

intersect in

{sx-^4y + 622)
is

an

i) -^

because

^{4^ + 4y + 6z2)

-/

=o

identity.

Wken

43.

{x + 2y+s2

line

Ug

o,

o,

U3

other in one

intersect each

U3

form

U = o,

U]

the identity

and
first

(31)

the

exists,

same

three

## these four planes

For then any coorUj
o and U2 = o will

then

point.

U=

o,

= o.

## Example i. 'Find the equation of the plane passing through

the origin and containing the line of intersection of the two planes
Aa^ + By + C0 = I and h!x + B> + Cz i.
44.

First

we have

Kx +

By

C0

+ K (A'jtr + B>

-^

Cz \)o

## But as the required plane must contain the origin, the

equation must be satisfied by (o, o, o).
Hence we have i K=o.

planes.

.-.

K=The

I.

required equation

(A

or

therefore

- - {Mx + B> + Cz - i) = o
- A')
(B - B')^ + (C - C) := o.

+ By +

A.T

is

C^

:r

-f-

## On the three axes of x, y and z take OA = a, OB =: b,

and
construct on these a parallelopipedon having MP as the
c
edge opposite parallel to OC, and AR in the plane xz the edge
opposite and parallel to BN.
Find the equation to the plane containing the three points M, N
and R.
Ex.

2.

OC =

Now NR
z

1.

is

Hence

+V =
-

and

26

h-T i+K{
'X'

/ z

To

ij=:o.

determine

Hence we have

+ -

K \c^i

i -f-

XV
+VH

Ex.

9C)

3.

Find

in like

o ^ ^^/y^/-/

^^

^^^

45.

If

## two given planes be

cos a:4-j^cos/5 +

h^H

2.

in the

normal form
-\-y

p-\-Y^{x cos

as

cos

figure.

X
or

oca

-y-+

i.

same

|,|
Result,

manner

K=:

.-.

{a, b^ o).

jNI

== o.

the

is

-a

we impose

fi'

\-zzo^

y-=zp\

is

+Z

cos y'

-p')

## And if K = the equation becomes

X cos a -\-y cos /? + cos y Pl{x cos a + y

=o

cos

/?'

cos y'

-/)=- o
\which represents the two plane bisectors of the supplementary angles

## imade by the given planes.

That is to find the equations to the plane
angles made by two given planes, put their
and then add and subtract them.

>

bisectors

of

the supplementary

equations in the

normal form

## Find the two planes which bisect the supplementaiy

4.
angles made by the planes 2x-^'^y'\-z
5 and ^x-{-4y2z

Example.

2^ + 3^+5-5

3^ + 4>'-2.-4

^^,
V2I
VI4
z cos y p and
Remark, If we place A = jv cos a-\- y cos ji
/'.
.A' = X cos a'
y cos ^' z cos y'
Then A' A = o is the plane bisector of one of the angles beitween the planes A and A' and A + A' = o is that of the suppleResult,

j^

-\-

-\-

-{-

imentary angle.
46.

The

a common

three planes

line

which

of intersection.

Let

A = o, A'=

o and

A"

=o

be three

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

planes in the normal form, and

let

Then

A'

have a

## the plane bisectors of the angles

A" A

o,

common

= o.

A' A"

=3 o,

vanish simultaneously,

together

27

is

the vertex.

## made by these planes is

And as these when added
planes

## follows that these three

it

line of intersection.

three planes

A= o,

A':=

o,

A"= o

The

## which form a spherical triangle and the three

o cut the sphere in
o and A' A''
planes A A'=o, A'' A

## arcs of great circles

three arcs of great circles which bisect the angles of this spherical
triangle

the

and

their

common

common

bisect ihe

angles of a

Hence

demon-

the above

circles

which

## (the pole of the inscribed circle of the triangle).

^J.

To find

the

point 0/ intersection

D,

Kx + B> + Cz =

We

have by elimination

D', A'x'

of
B'>

the planes

C'2

Kx +

D,

B,

A,

D,

A,

B,

D',

B',

A',

D',

A',

B',

D"

B",

C"

B,

(32)

A,

B,

A,

B,

A',

B',

A',

B',

A',

B',

A"

B",

C"

A"

B",

C"

Hence

C^r

D"

y
A,

D
D

A", B",

By

= D".

C
C

## the condition that one of these shall be parallel to the line

of intersection of the other two, or that the planes shall not meet in
a point,

is

ac,

^XA,

B,

A',

B',

A", B",

A(B'C"-B"C')
47.

The condition

A.t.C^4''UA'.BUB".'f'*A

C
=

C"

A'(B"C

'^^

0, that is

## that four planes

=
+ IB^ + Cs + D
=0
A'jt: + B> + C's + E
=0
A";r + B'> + C"2 +-D"
A"';^^^-B"> + C"'2 + D"' = o
A;r

>'

shall

meet

in a point

is'

28

a;

b,

c,

A',

B',

C\

D'

A",

B",

C\ D"

A"', B'",

49,

We

C", D'"

o.

(33)

= o and

h!x-{- Bj^

QJz

we combine

D'z=

number

^Cz

x we

If

shall obtain

If

we eliminate

_)^

we obtain

## ing the same line

contain-

we eliminate z we obtain
containing the" same line.

a plane

and

finally if

CHAPTER

IV.

THE STRAIGHT

T/ie equations

50.

their line

LINE.
represent

0/ intersection,
^,

^,

;;,

we eliminate

If

x and y between

alternately

these equations

we

~
(35)

to the

## These non-symmetrical forms (35) are very

(35).

planes
line

= mzi-a, y = nz + d

on the planes of xz

useful.

The

2ind yz,

also the:

If

we eliminate

we

-=i

get

A^

/J

t)

^or

in

71

yz=z
-^

n x-]-q
VI

p the equa-771

## on the coordinate plane xy.

The

equations (35) of the straight line contain four arbitrary constants, VI, n, p, q^ to which we can give proper significance by com--

= 77ix-\-h in

plane coor-

dinate geometry.

The equations

(35)

maybe thrown

in the

^^=.2JZf=f
n

7n

form

(36)
^^ ^

## which gives us an easy choice of fixing the

of any two of its projecting planes.
51.

To find

the equations

of a

## cosines a7id the coordinates a, b, c

line

straight line in

of a point

07i

by the equations;

te7'vis

of

the li7ie:

29

its

directiom

30
Let a,

(3,

on the

{x, y, z)
I

cos

/?

Let

respectively.

^=.yb

line
/

## and the point (^, h^ c). Then / cos a =

y zc and eliminating / we have

cos

xa

yb

COS/i

COS)/'

COS

^^'^

and

is

xa

It

is

symmetrical

+ cos^ y

y3

## and of the three a, b, c one of them may be

assumed at will, leaving only two independent.
We have seen that the equation (35) may be thrown into the form
So also (37) may be thrown into the form (35) by finding
KZl^'
:=

holds,

To find the

52.

iox

If the equations

in terms oi

z.

lijie

given by

its eqicatiojis.

be in the form

X La = ^ =
y

y and x

^^

rr

L,

'

and

are proportional

]N

J\I

to the

So

that

we have

L
M
N
~V^ +
VL^ + MHN^

cos

M^ + N2

Hence

VL~-fxM^ +

cosfJ=
N=^

^L^ + M^+^N^'

cosy

~VL ^4-M^-fN^
(38)

Hence to

## find the direction cosines of

Ax
K'x

we throw

+ Czz=zJ)
+ B> + C^^ = D'

-\-By

by eliminating y ajid x,
to

squares

line

xa

equal

any straight

and

y b

zc

of all

three.

of

the

sum of

the

Thus

hne

X p ^"^V q

we^yrltelt

==

jj

7iz-^q

z
1

Hence
cos

/-:j-

cos

cos

(39)

Ex.

## Find the direction cosines of the

I.

y = 22 + s
y - 301
To find

53.

the cosine

^^^

'

lines

^'^^'

2x-i-sy-\-62 =z 24

3.r 4_y+20 r= 10

of ihe angle

hvo

heiiveen

lines

^
'^*

tions

xa
We

XT

Hence

rr
If the
^

rvu

Then

V=
cos

^'

cos

.r
v

cos a'

yb'

cos

M
V=

I.

/3

VIZ ]- ^p

nz^-q
,y
X

^^^^

71'

^^^

(40)

=: PI Z

V
\

p'
\-

n z-^q

=1.

(41)

?i'-

and^^'=='
>'

## Find the cosine of the angle between the

y= 3^1

cos y',

m m' +
= nnj-i
V + + \^ 1 +?n^ +

x=22 + 6]
2.

cos

-{

LU + MM'4-NN'

Ex^

x a'

cos

Ex.

lines

=2-^2

(2)

lines

xjiz =4)
x+j + z 2)

32

13

X-

-3 (0

-5 + 12 V=

rns

The condition

54.

The
is

and

1'

"5

=4>
~2

(3)

VI26x38

V26.V38
equations in

X-_3

3"_

--^

in the forms

last article is

(42)

o.

## condition that they shall be parallel (see Art. 15)

(LM'-L'M)2 + (LN^-L'N)H(xMN'-M'N7=.o

or -ir-p=

forms

7nz-\-p

z=z

nz-\-q

y=

V
\

mvi' ^-nn'

become

=1^:77(43).

iTFT

-\-\

## lines are in the

viz-\-p^
/

n z-\-q

o,

and

(44)

vi

m\

7t

7t'

(45) respec-

tively.

To find

55.

the condition

of the

=: nz-\-q

mz -\-p

is

derived by eliminating x,

/. z

VI

fore

VI 'z -\-p'
^

and

## from the four equations.

/
^

q
,

Similarly
from the second and fourth z
^

=
m VI

two values of

xa

b _ zc
M ~ N

V
v

l>

'

-^

There-

are equal.

^^ + 3

y Z-^l

)
\

x^zz^i\ ^^^j^

2z-\-q

two

q'

(46)

tersect.

If the

=!

^^ n z-\-q

first

we have

Ex. Find

p'

-^,
7n

lines

ana

This

of two

intersection

form
.
,

^^^'

'^"~'^'_

""

y^^'

M'

_
~

-^

"~

N'

'^^

.^_

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

y

the elimination of x,

ing

(i)=Kand
.*.

and

z can be effected

more

33

=K'.

(2)

xa = LK
Xa L
Similarly

h~V = M'K'MK
c-c'

Therefore eliminating

= N'K'-NK.

L, a a'
M, -M', d-i>'
N, -N', c-c'
L,

or

## (a-a')(NM'-MN') + (5-<5')(LN'-L'N) + {c-c'){h'M -LM') =

o.

(47)
T/ze Straight Liite

The equations

56.

## nate planes as xy are z

The equations
axes as

y,

a")

y = b\

z') is

'

the point

^
-v^

we have seen
or

if

mx-\-p.

r=-

To find the equations ofa straight line passing through a given point.

57.

If (x

are

^=^ c,

X
z^

the equation

jV"

'1/

y
Z
~ N~

2,

is

ivf

^^^^

the form

""

then

"

~ )
n\zz

Hence

if

the

all

=inz-\-q

\
)

yy'

,;
)

y (40).
)

a single point.

58.

To find

the equations

[x\

y\

of a

z'z'
v'

-
x^'x
L
N
M
v

=:

## z') using (48) we' have

^z

this to eliminate
or dividing?
(48)/ by
o \t
/

34

M^ and

L,

we have

xx^

If

yv _

__

z')

zz'

be

at the origin

become

tions

-^=y=77^ find

59.

of a straight

equation

the

to

the

yh

Hence

,;
71

{zz

yv'

zz'

Then

71

,/
)

>-

,.

hue be
and the given
^

y', z'

be of the form

~ mz-\-p
y nz-\-q.

-^

## = and the line will

^^^r^ = -(^-^')
yy = ?l(z z). (53)
;;/

"n^

(52)

n and

~"

,

Ar

is

m'(zz')
=:

^,

z= r=y.

XX

## If the equation passing

xx'
Vy

-j-^

^.
and n-om the second^ condition

line

we must have

condition

first

## passing through a given

litie

a given straight

Xa

From

(51)

;;/,

be

To find

60.

point

x\

Xa
I

y', z'
y

The

the equations

and perpendicular

h
7n

of a

'~

and

to

inter secti7ig

a given right

c
71

'

xx'
where L, M, and

first

## condition wdll be of the form

yv'

zz'

are to be determined

1.1+lslm-V^n

by the conditions

o (Art. 54)

li7ie

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

35

and

+ (^--0')(L;;z--M/)r:zo(Art.55).

(^-jr')(M;^--N;;2)+(3-y)(N/-L;z)

6i. Ex. I. Find the equation of the line joining the points (b, c, a)
and (C^^) ^^d show that it is perpendicular to the line joining the
and that it
origin and the point midway between these two points
;

is

2
a =-=-.
b

and

=: v =. z

Ex.

The

2.

straight

## which join the middle points of the

all pass through one point.

lines

Take

one of the

axes of ^, y,

Let M, M',
N, N',

tively,

M"be

MN,

We
(Mj,

N"

OA =

Let

Then

Hence

Then

N') (M",

2a

is (0,

b,

OB =
c)

2b

the equation of

OC

and

is (^,

MN

the equation of

OA,

## to find the equations of the

(2) give

zz rr

"'

y y
,

,,

to

the points

0),

0,

is

M'N'

z
^

is

y-b

-b

M"N"

(2)

is

_y __zb~ -c

and

OC respecOB and AB

and

=r 2c.

'y

(i)

as the

respectively.

iN^')

xa y
-a ~ b~

Anid

OC

M"N".

M'N',

(]\r,

AC

## the middle points of the edges

-==
,
apply
^
^^ ^ the equation
xx'

NO

lines

origin

vertices as

z.

-c

y =, z ,

(3)

## Consequently these lines pass through the point

(-,-,\2

satisfy (3)

/ hj^^ -^

36

ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

^'OTES

To find the

62.

given by

its

line shall be

perpendicular

## x cos a-\-y cos /? +

cos y are the direction

be of the form

If the plane

we know

conditio7is that

a plane

to

equation.

/?,

cos

=z p (i)

cosines of the

And

## the equation of this perpendicular will be

If

any plane

cos

cos

cos

16

'

Ax + By + C0 = D be parallel

plane

to the

we must

have

B _
~ cosp ~~

A _
cos

and

if

X
cos

~
^

the line

j;

cos

Hence

^= cos

'

AT

~ N

'

C
cos

we must have

]\I

cos^

cos/y

cosy

'

Tr.u r
"u
If the hne be

.-L

And

7iz-\-q

we write

be

Xp
J' O
-
= -Z

it-

or

= ?iC^Y

-^

VI

==

;/

Ax + By + Cz

=D

(sO
^-^"^^

be

(54)

;;/

The equation

:=i

shall

IN

1\1

= D will

Ax + Bv + Cz

ABC
~M~

=-<-

^^

L,

will

"~A~'^'~B~~~"C~*

then be

<&'

and

37

## Ex. Find the equation of a line passing through the point

3) and perpendicular

To find

6^,

Now

the condiiion

xa

yb

if this

To find

line

Hence

## the conditions that

must

line

satisfy

it

be perpendicular to

will

o.

a straight

(56)

xa

with a given

yh

M ~ N

the condition

And

also

2.

to

line of

## ) above of parallelism above,

(
any point on the line as {a^ 3, c)
the equation of the plane.
Hence we must have the

fulfil

AL + BM + CN =::o.
must

and the

D.

The

=D

zc

is

Ax + By + Cz

1.

2,

5.

AL + BM + CN =
plane

(i,

^-=-3^^^^.

64.

40 =

given plane.

the form

o.

(57)

x=mz \-p
y=i7iz-{-q

## stituting these values of

x and y

in the equation

\
)

Sub-

of the plane,

we

have

A(m+/)+B(;/0 + ^) + C0
whence

7.^=^

-^

Km^^n-\-C

And

for

= D,

## coincidence this value of Z must

A/ + B;7 D = o
Aw + B;^ + Cr=oj

(rg)
are

the

condi-

tions of coincidence.

Note.

This

last

method

is

## and any surface given by its

That is substitute x andjj/ of the line in the equation of
the surface and since the z in the resulting equation must be indeditions coincidence of a straight line

equation.

ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

AZOTES

38
terminate
tity

if

there be coincidence

we

treat this

## coefficients of the different

equation as an iden-

powers of z separately

equal to zero.

To find the

65.

T

o
I

Let

y',z')

1-

But PA^

PA

AB given by

line

x a =- vh-=
hne be
cos p
cos a

cos

equation,

where

its

a, b, c

,.

## Now PD^ ~ PA^ ADl

[^x'-aY^\-{y -bY-V{z-cf and AD being the

tion of

on a straight

on the

line.

projec-

on AB, we have

=:

{xa)

## cos a-\-i^yb) cos

^^-{zb)

cos y.

Hence
YVi'^^x' -a)''-\-{y -bY y[z' -cY-{{x-a) cos

+
2.

a^{y-b)

yb

y5

'(59)
^

be of the form

xa

cos

(0-^) cos;/).

Then
cos

And

a:

A
= =====

etc., etc.

therefore PD'^

be

:= mz-\-p

^=.

jiz^q

Then PD^

To fijid

66.
lines

two straight

## This shortest distance

the given lines

PB and

is

a straight line

AB

perpendicular to both

SR.

X a =:^ vb-=
zc
777=
and
cos y
cos p
cos a
cos p
cos a
cos y

And

L,

M,

= the

lines.

AB.

'

3g

## Then we must have

L
L

cos
cos

^ + M cos /? -f N cos y
a -h M cos /5' + N cos y'

=o
= o.

Whence

L
cos

cos ^'

cos

cos y'

cos

~"

cos

N
cos

VL'+ lAP+N'
(cos

/3

COS

y'

cos

/3^

COS

a'

]8)2

.<
I

sin

(Art. 15).

Now

AB

P be

let

{a\ b\ c)
itself,

AB

the point

## on the line SR.

we have

=:

[a, 5, c)

Then

on the

line

PB and Q

as the projection of

## (^-^')L + (^-^')M + {^-^')N

be the point

PQ

on

AB

is

=:

(62)
(a aO(COS^COSv' C07C0S^')+(^ ^')(COSaCOSY' C0Sa'C0S7)+(C C')(COSaCOSj8' COSa'COSjS)

""
sin 6,
If the given lines are expressed in other forms

cos

/?,

etc.

we can

## from the given equations and substitute them

find cos a,
in {^^2),

CHAPTER

V.

TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
To transform^

67.
nates

to

of which referred

Let

OA

=: X,

AN

to the

^=i

y,

FN =

a, b,

new

c.

## be the coordinates of/ referred

to

O and the axes Ox, Oy and Oz. Also let O' be the new
origin, and OA' 1= a, A'N' b, N'O' == r be its coordinates and let
O'H 1= x\ HK z=zy' and PK = z be the coordinates of P referred to
O' as origin and axes parallel to the original axes.
Then x = OA = OA' + A'H.
the origin

Similarly

and

:=

a^x'

c-\-z'

we

obtain the

68.

remaining the

to

## another system the

oj'igin

sa?ne.

Let Ox, Oy, Oz be the old axes at right angles to each other Ox',
Oy\ Oz the new axes inclined to each other at any angle

OM = X, MN =y, NP =
NT = z\

## O^V :=x\ M'N' =y,

Now the projection of the broken line OM'-f MN' + N'P on the
axis Ox is equal to the projection OM of the radius vector OP on
Ox. Let cos a, cos (3, cos y be
new axes make with the axis Ox

;

then

40

If COS

axes

a\ cos

make

/?',

and

/5",

make

shall

Hence

z.

+y cos /3
+y cos

y X

cos

^
a

x'

co^

we

with Oz,

X =:

We

new

for V

41

X' cos

-{-Z

COS

f5'

^-z'

cos y'

13"

-{-z'

co^y".

(64)

have of course
cos'

a + cos'

+ COS^ y

r=z

## cos' a' +cos'/5'

+cos'

/ =

cos' <^''+C0S'/5"

+ C0S'

;^" r= I.

/?

>

(B)

For the angles A, fi, 1^ between the new axes ofy and z\ of 0' and
x\ of x' and y respectively we have
cos A

cos

yu

COS

cos

= cos

a" co?>

cos

a"+
a +
<x' +

cos

(3^

cos

cos /5"cos

cos

cos

## ^" +cos ;k' cos y"

y5 +cos ;k"cos /
/?' +cos y cos }/'.

69.

>

(C)

rectangular.

The

= o,

cos

=0 and

cos a^ cos

cos

a" cos

cos

cos

new axes

same

A=o,

cos

}x

## + cos ft' cos /5" + cos y cos 7''=

a + cos /^"cos /? +cos ;k' cos ^ =
a:' + cos /? cos y^' +cos y cos ^' ==
(^''

o.

(D)

Since between the nine quantities there are six equations of conditions, (B)

cos

independent.

f3,

70.

etc.,

cos ^,

quantities, cos

etc.,

is

new

that the

among

of,

old axis of

with the

For

new

## a, a', a!' being the angles

rectangular axes,

must have
cos'

a! + cos' a"
+ cos'/5' + cos' (3"
y + cos' y + cos' y"

a + cos'

zn

cos' /^

^\\

cos'

z=z

(E)

etc.,

we

42

cos

a
a

cos

cos

ji

cos

COS

cos /?4-cos

a cosy5'+cos a^

;^ + cos yS' cos

+ cos
7' + cos

;k

;k'

= X cos
y = cos
X

a:

r=

z'

COS

in

flf''

cos /5"

To do

/5" cos

/"

Then

=Ax-hBy,

2:

this

angle

cp

which

x'Oy be

Let

cp

(F)

>
)

referred

Then PR

OQ

=:

cos

6,

and

let
ji^'

B;^

xy

in the line

o.

OR = x\ RM =y

and

## the plane referred to the axes O.v',

=j;,

PM =
O-s:.

^ be

Then

the coordinates of

=zy

sin

=y

cp,

M
d

sin 6,

QP= OR

sin

cp-RT

sin

cos

cp.

## X = x' cos ^+y cos s'm

= x' sin cpy cos 6 cos
J'
if

and the

M in

V^l

^4-RP
/. z

And

the plane

cp.

=/ cos

OR

makes with

be the axis of

OP

x,

in

to

XOX'

OQ =

often

it is

coordinates

also let

(F)

\
)

and

the given

fix

traces

it

Oy

we must

is

it

=:

## a -\-y cos ft -\-z cos y

a -\-_ycos /3' +s:cos y'
a" +^ COS/5'' -f COS /"

to

71.

xy

cos y'z=.o

as z

cp y
cp

(65)

## these values be substituted in the equation of any surface

Y{x, y, z)

o the result

will

be a relation bet^veen

x andy,

coor-

## dinates of the curve cut from the surface by the plane.

72. If the cutting plane contain

Let

many

in the plane

zx the

axis of x',

axes, the

PM=a;',

## the axis ofj-;

OM y.

O^'

its

trace

the coordinates of

any point P

nates of

MQ =. X

ON

in the section,

NQ

=3 x,

cos

d,

PQ = X

sin

ft

*.

^=.y,

QP =

43
z the coordi-

## Then angle PMQ = d, and

The formulae of transforma-

tion are

= x' cos

y=y'
z

That

is,

we have only

to

^=z

x'

make x

sm

(66)

:= x' cos

6,

z =: x^ sin

d,

^y in

the equation of any surface, in order to find the equation of the section of this surface

## angle d with the plane xy.

CHAPTER

VL

THE SPHERE.,
73.

To fijid

1.

In rectangular coordinates.

Let

a,

the equation

sphere,

is

then (Art.

i)(.r

^)' + (jV

## the origin be at the centre

if

x'-\-f^z^^V^\
2.

In oblique coordinates.

Let

A,

if

the equation

t^

is

(Art. 16)

z=

R^

(69)

^^ + j^

2:^

+ 2a7cos

## \-\-2xz cos }x-\-2yz cos

3.

In polar coordinates

Let

r',

tion

(68)

## V be the angles of the axes then

//,

2[xa)(zc)
or

= R.
^)' + (2 0'=R- (67)

b^ c

The equation
or

of the

R^

(70)

is

r^

+ r- 2rr'(cos

equation

cos {cp

/3)) = R\

(71)
0,

the

is

Y^= 2R
Since that

is

cos

e,

(72)

any one of

positions.

44

its

The Sphere under

74.

The equation

((i^])

## conditions (coordinates rectangular).

may be

written

x'-i-/+2'-{-'Dx-i-'Ey + F2

or

Auxd

since this

45

+G

o,

{js)

## equation contains /bur arbitrary constants, the

to fulfil /bur conditions (which are compatiFour given conditions give four equations for
determining the constants D, E, F, G, and with these determined
we know the radius and centre of the sphere, for we have only by

sphere

ble)

and no more.

is

to

1.

is

2/

J32

p2

- + +

G.

## The equation of a sphere passing through a given point

A, e,

x^^y''-^z'^'Y){x-d)-\-Y.{y-e)-\-Y{z-f)-d'-e'^f':=^o,
If the given point be the origin the equation

2.

from

## The equation of a sphere cutting

the axis

f,

is

(74)

is

o.

(75)

of z

at distances c

and d

the origin is

x^-\-f^{z-c){z-c)^T)x^Yy^ o
must give two values

for

0,

and

c,

^
for"^^^

(76)

and

this

equation

fulfils

that

condition.
3.

## The equation of a sphere touching

the axis

of z at a

distance

cfrom

the origin is

x^-^y'^-\-{zcY\-^x^Y.y
dent values of

when

"

46

4.

all three

origin.

To meet

when

>

the

same equal

'

when
Z

roots
^

for

""

-^

x when

roots for

as

Let

## the distance of points of contact from origin be a, then the equation

will

be

x'2ax^y'2ay-\-z''2az-^a^ =.Q
above conditions.

5.

(78)

the origin

and having

its

x'-\-f-\-z'^2Rx.
6.

to the

(79)

## plane xy at the point

(a,

b)

is

{x-aY^{y-hy--\-z--\-Yz^o (80)
for

then

75.

0=0

## gives x^=^a, andj'=(^, a point {a, b) in the plane xy,

Interpretation

of the expression

(^x-aY^{y-hY^(z-cy-^\
1.

Let

(jc,

ji',

2:)

## sphere whose centre

PM^

{^x-aY-^^y-Vf -V[z-'cY-'^\

## Therefore the expression (i)

the

<:)

QY^^^x-aY-^{y-hY-\-(z-cY

and hence

point

P without

## and radius == R and let P^I be

Then P]\P =: OP^ OMl
point M.

is (a, h,

Now

(i)

is

to the sphere.

## Let Y{x,y,z) be a point within the sphere.

to OP meeting the sphere
erect a perpendicular

Join

2".

PM

in

i\I,

OP and
and join

OM.
Then P]\Pi=OM"^-OP

That

is

^y

P perpendicular

to

through P.

of two

The

Def.

spheres,

to tlje

is

## the equation of their radical plane

is

{x-aY^{y^hY^{z-cy-^^'-{{x-ay^{y-^hJ-^{z-cJ^^')

o
For this expresses (Art 75) that the squares of the tangents from
point {x, y, z) to the two spheres are equal^ and moreover it is an
equation of the
of a plane.

plane

degree in x,

first

y and

of intersection.

may be

It

is

'
six

plane

is

their

easily

## perpendicular to the line joining their cen-

tres.

J J, The

spheres intersect

If the

of four

spheres intersect in a

common

point.
-

Let S
spheres.

= o,

S' zn

Then

=o

S''

S'"= o be

S-S"

^o

S-S"'z=o

S"-S'"

## These may be added, so

the planes intersect in a

## of the six radical

-S"'=:o

S'

as to vanish simultaneously

common

planes

is

point.

and therefore

spheres.
78.

Examples

1.

^^-f-y

## radii respectively of the spheres

+ 2^ 2^ + 3;' 52:

0.

four

ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

A'OTES

48

5jc^

x^-\-y^
2.

+ z^ =

o.

320.

## Find the equation of a sphere passing through the origin and

the points

i, 2,

~i,

3,

4, 5>

3. o^ i-

CHAPTER
CYLINDERS, CONES,
79. Cylinders.

Def.

VIL

The moving

line.

## called the generator; the plane curve

which

it

is

straight line

is

always intersects

is

called the directrix ox guiding curve, the fixed straight line the axis,
*

80.

Let m,

And
which

let

7n

the axis.
its

n,

equation

of a

cylinder.

3^

(0 ^^ ^^

axis.

## and n are constant since the generator remains parallel to

For convenience take the guiding curve in the plane xy,
^^^^~~

(2)

'

2=0

we obtain

Now making

=o

in

xpyq

which the

## generator pierces the guiding curve F(:v, y) in the plane xy.

Hence we have F(/, q)
o, (3) and eliminating the arbitraries/

and q between

(i)

and

(3)

we obtain

Y{xmz,ynz)^:^o

(82)

If the cylinder

## be a right cylinder with its guiding curve in the

its axis, then in equation (82) m z= o,

Y{x,y)

= o,

(83)

is

Cylinders

8i.

of second

We

order.

^g

To find the
Here Y(x,y)

## of the oblique cylinder with circular base.

R^ o. Hence Y(xmz^ ynz)

equation

1,

= x^ +/

%\\^%(xmzY-\-{y'-nzf^^o

## (84) the required equation.

cylinder with circular base.

## To find the equation of the right

the axis be the axis of z, the equation
2.

To find

3.

is

F(^) = o

X^

be
curve in plane
^y
^
-^

Then {x,y)

a^

that

If

is

1/2

+^ =

i.

b'

X
^+^1=0
V

is

b''

(x

mzY

The equation

4.

(y nzY
"^

a'

b'

X
V

+ ^=:
^,2

.^2

axis

is

5.

axis of

the axis of z

is

F{Xy y)

o,

that

## The equation of the right parabolic

is y^^4dx = o or^ = 4dx.

is,

i.

is

the

82. Cones.

Def.

cone

is

The

fixed point

is

^'^,

To find

the

the generator,

line

generator

moving

xa = y~b

zc

(i)

## plane (jcy) its equation being then

eliminate the arbitraries

{a, b, c)
,

j-

,.

in the

Now

(2).

## and n between the equations

directrix

and

(i)

we

if

(2)

the result will be the equation to the cone, the locus of the right
line (i).

Making
which

= o in

result will
5

x andy,

namely,

2ZI

a
,

mc

)
>

50

xy and these

=o

## the equation of the directrix.

=o

Y{amc, bnc)

will

consequently

We

have therefore

But from

(3).

satisfy

and therefore

'

m =-

(i)

F(^, y)

=
z

becomes

(3)

or
the general equation of cones.

and

(85)

If vertex

be on axis of

becomes F(

-,

z,

then a

=o

=z o.

(86)

cone

and the

at the origin

is

and the

directrix will

be

To

We

(i).
^
^

Hence we have

thus get

Y{niCj nc)

^^ nic

:=zi

it

then the

^

(2)
directrix

we

=0,

nc

but

/?/

X
=

Therefore

and

=V from

(i).

F(f,f)=o
is

make0r^<:in

directrix in a

from

=z'=z

~
=c

-^^^

## the equation required.

The equation
85.

(87)

is

homogeneous equation

1.

The

eqiiaiion

in

of an

x,y and

circular base.

The equation

of the directrix

is

Y{x, y)

= x^-\-y^ R^ =

Hence

z,

C J

o.

'

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

{az'-cxY-\-(hz-cyY^^\z-c)\

or

(88)

## To find the equation of a right cone with circular

of the cone and vertex being (o, o, c).

2"^.

of the directrix

z=^

or

Ar^4-y=-j(0 r)^

axis of
3.

^[cx ^cy\
F(
~)==o
\zc zc)

^
Hence

axis of

The equation

-^

-^

IS

base, the

c^x^

is

-,

This

(89).

is

c.

^4-

cY
'

,,

^,
-R'

<sr.

## The equation of a right cone with vertex at

the origin

and circular,

or hypej'bolic bases.

elliptical,

The equations

## of the circular base (directrix) are

F(jt:,j^')=;vH/-R'=o
2:

Hence

f ex

Ff

cy\
,

^\=zo

The equations

c^x^

cY
^

of the elliptical

^ +^. - ^ o
I

Hence

-^H

gives

and

R^
R^=:ooTx'^'{-y=~.z\

and hyperbolic

-,~- - 1

= 0)

the elliptical

=.

Z =:

directrices are

respectively.

o)

## and hyperbolic cones are

cY
f
-^ + ^-^.-i-oor-+--z=x'

c'x'

c'x''

86.

(90)

cY

x"

z'

(91)

Surfaces of Revolution.

To find

the

the axis

of z.

to

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

52

OM = x, MN =jk, NP = z the
= ON^ = O^P + i\IN^ or r' - x'-^y'.

Then

SP^

That

is,

## from the axis of z

erator)

coordinates of P.

r=L^x^-\-y^

is

But r being an

(i).

= F(0)

(2).

we have

(93)

## about the axis of ;v the equation

Vy+? = F(.v).
Surfaces of revolutmi of secojid

87.

.*.

(94)

07'dei\

V-^'+y^

F(2^)

gives

x-+y

=:

a^,

= ??i^{zcy

Hence or^+y

## (95) the required equation where

side of cone with axis of 0.

^=z

'S:^

V^t^M-y

4^. Equation

The

The equation

= "f a^ z^

or

x'^

+y^-\-z^

r^

generator

is -.

z^

+ 7^ =

or r^

al

the revolution

= a^i^(3^

of an

one of the

ellipsoids

-l-

v^

2:^).

is

_^ + _=i.

oc^

or

is

## of the generating curve

conjugate axis,

Hence

is

a^ or r z=z^fa^z^.

Hence

its

3.

This

The

## Equation of a Cone of revolution about the axis of z, vertex at

The equation of the generating line is r
7n[zc),

2.

z.

= a.

is

(o, o, c).

is r^

of^r.

is

1.

the

Therefore

## the required equation of surfaces of revolution about axis

If the curve revolved

ordi-

we must have by

V^^' = F(2)

(gen-

z^

(96)

oblate spheroid.

ellipse

5.

its

Take

ellipse

the axis o{

of the generator

is

x^
-^

r^
-5
0'

the equation

32

= aC'^'^ ^^).

Then

a
or r^

53

Hence V^'^ +

'S:^

Y{x) gives

^=1

(97)

88. Hyperboloids
lution

of one

its

of

When

sheet.

1.

of

it

it

When

the Hyperbola

revolution of

two

(2;^-f<5^).

or r^ =:

Hence

is

Then

r-

x'^

generator

-^

for the

5*

sheets.

Take

(:v^ a^).
<5-

or r^

^--^=1.
89. Equation

Hence

(99)

## The equation of the

Hence the equation

gen-

sheet.

the axis of

it

sheets.

## the conjugate axis then

2.

Definitions.

revolution.

conjugate axis

generator

is r^

of the Surface

the axis

ofx.

^dx.

isj'^

2:^

(100)

CHAPTER

VIII.

ELLIPSOIDS, HYPERBOLOIDS,

89.

To find

moves

AND PARABOLOIDS.

of an

Ellipsoid.

is

## and changes so that its vertices lie on

whose planes are perpendicular to each other and to
the plane of the moving ellipse, and which have one axis in common.
Let BC, CA be quadrants of the given fixed ellipses traced in the
r* planes j^^^, zx OB
c their common semi-axis along the axis of 0,
OA = a (on the axis of ^), and OB = b (on the axis oi y) the other
two

fixed ellipses

semi-axes

QPR

position, having

AC, BC, so

ON

z,

Then

its

centre in

NM = x^ MP y be

-^ ^^ =z
-I-

QN^
-^=i__

z'

h^ve

OC

and two of

QN,

its

are

its

semi-axes

And

i.

RN

since

RN^

.,
^
Similarly

is

on the

ellipse

also let

in

it:

AC we

2'

-^= I--.

x^

"(-7:) '(-;.)
2^

1/2

X^

90.

To deternwie
x^

the equation

the form

y^

^-l--^ +

of the

z^

^=

i,

ellipsoid from

its eqiiaiio7i.

Since in

54

and
is

a,y between

limited in

on

trace

b,

is

between

and

r,

the surface

equation to the

for the

i,

b^

AB.

02

X^

If

and

we obtain -^ +
a

which

xy,

all directions.

0=0

we put

If

and

55

## weputj^== owe have ^-{.^ i^ the

ellipse

AC.

a*
,2

If

we put

:v

= o we have '--^-=.1.

BC.

or the ellipse

These three sections by the coordinate planes are called the principal sections, and their semi-axes a, h, c, are the semi-axes of the ellipsoid
If

and

we make

which

it

has

six.

we have

z^=^h

d^'^ b^~~^

c"'

## the equations of any section parallel to xy, which

is

an

ellipse similar

AB, since its axes are in the ratio oi a to b, whatever be the value
of ^, and which becomes imaginary when h ^ c.
In the same manner all sections parallel to xz^ and yz are ellipses respectively similar
to AC and BC.
The whole surface consists of eight portions precisely similar and equal to that represented in the figure.
to

Cor,

If3=athe

x'^

ellipsoid

becomes

-\-

y^

z^

h-y-

the ellip-

soid of revolution about the axis of z. Art. (87), all the sections of
which by planes parallel to_>';^, are circles. Hence the spheroids may
be generated by a variable circle moving as the variable ellipse, in
Def. Art. (89).
^

91.

## To find the equation

to the

hyperboloid

of one

sheet.

Definition.
This surface is generated by a variable ellipse, which
moves parallel to a fixed plane, and changes so that its vertices rest
on two fixed hyperbolas, whose planes are perpendicular to each
other, and to the plane of the moving ellipse, the two hyperbolas

having a

common

their planes.

Let

OC =
of z

AQ

and

c their

BR

common

OA = a, OB =

ellipse in

its

QPR

the generating

its

centre in

56

OC, and

its

NQ, NR,

its

semi-axes.

PQR

## so that the ordinates

MN = ^, MP =7, ON =

Also, let

ellipse

AQ, BR,

are

z,

then the

gives

NQ^

AQ

NR'

'

And

NR^

BR

from hyperbola

0-

~f^-""
^'^

Hence^

+-.-/-.=.
\

S^

""?"+

or

92.

To determine

r/-S^

^
the

~-r

form of

the hyperloloid

of one

from

sheet

its

equation.

## Since the equation (102) admits values of x,

negative however large, the surface
sides of the origin.

x^

y^

^ + ^

If

## the sections by the planes

hyperbola

AQ,

on

^r)^

xz and

and z

and
all

we obtain

w^hich

^'2:

is

AB.

the ellipse

Similarly

x^
are respectively -^

and^ =

positive

extended indefinitely on

is

we put

the hyperbola

z^

^~

The

BR.

^^^

ellipse

AB

and the hyperbolas AQ and BR are the principal sections. The sections
The
parallel to xy are all ellipses similar to and greater than AB.
sections parallel to xz and j^ are hyperbolas similar to the principal
sections.

and

<:\/ I.

The

extremities

rior of the

volume of

this

The
one

since

of

the

surface

sheet.

a:

real
is

o and
axes

^=.0 give z

are

called

the

The hollow

space in

=
is

the inte-

AB

is

the

Cor.

If 3

=^

the equation

are

becomes

57

^=

that of the

to

xy

all circles.

To fifid

93.

Definition.

moves

This surface

is

with

its

parallel to

## gles to each other

tices in

itself,

and

of two

sheets.

generated by a variable

ellipse

which

common

^nd

ver-

transverse

axis.

## AQ and AR be the given hyperbolas traced in the planes zx,

OA = a their common semi-transverse axis along the axis of ^,
OB = h OC = c the semi-conjugate axes along the axes ofj' and z
QPR the generating ellipse in any position having its plane parallel
Xoyz, its centre in Ox, and its vertices AQ, AR so that the ordinates
'QN, RN are its semi-axes.
Let ON x, MN y, MP = be the
Let

xy,

in the ellipse.

v'^

Then

-4--

RN^

jr~,

X'

jv^

^a

U"

Hence

x^

RN^

AR

,4.
QiV

'

QN-

AQ

z"

r-2

-^.--TT-^r-^

(103)

94.

To

sheets from

its

equa-

tion.

imaginary

common

## .r between -\-a and a give

no part of the surface can be situated be-

## that all values of

results, therefore

parallel

transverse axis

\.o

yz through

vertices of the

satisfied

by values

58

## Zj indefinitely great, therefore there is no limit to the distance

which the surface may extend on both sides of the centre.

oi X, y,
to

If

~
v^

we have

h^

have
in

y =

-j^

AQ and

For

^=i

## For- the sections

x"

an imaginary curve

h and h'^ a

tively.

+ ^ =

z^

-i

-r^

ellipses.

## xy and zx are AR and AQ,

=
to xy and putting

parallel

respec-

2:

j^ a hyperbola similar to

AR

with

The

we

vertices

its

and conjugate

axis

## In the same way the sections parallel to zx are hy-

parallel to Oy,

perbolas similar to

## and conjugate axes

and its vertices the

AQ

AR

with vertices in

parallel to Oj, za

and

The

opposite branch

its

is

it

z.

The

similar

Cor. If d =:

the equation

Hence

interval.

becomes

y^

1.

sheet

X^

its

equation

y^

x^

z^

y- +

c'^

j--\-^z=L~^{i-\

J-

is

its

the equa-

transverse axis.

to the

Putting

Z'

a"

name.

^r =

x^
~

its

z^

V*
^7^

Y"

(^)

in the

Now when

cone,

form

is

very great

increased

j.

(2)

without limit
X^
~~Y
its

y2

'-jr

is

^2

"T

(3)

Moreover,

and

its elliptical

having

## always within the corresponding

NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.
same
we have

and

(i)

(2) respectively

+ 4^ =

^K-

y^

x^

^ +
a^
This cone

b^

x^

x^

y^

^T +

^
^

a ^ rr 4
and with an

^~

as a limiting

form of

elliptical

at the

origin

Moreover,

same

For putting

plane.

we have

z^

h^

= ^

z'

x:=i

in (i)

and

(2)

a^

c^

h'

is

To find the

equation

to the elliptic

This surface

Definition.

whose vertex

w^ ^^ve

+ -^
r

1'^

96.

elliptical

This cone

2"

(i)

cone.

respectively
^

=1

~2

an

(2)

-I

z^

/^ +

'~yI

when^ and

equation

,h\Yi

V^
~-^

b'

this

sheets

TT

is

2.

k^
= -^
r

4^-

For putting

plane.

59

lies

on a

is

paraboloid.

## fixed parabola, the planes of the

two parabolas

being perpendicular to each other, their axes parallel and their concavities turned in the same direction.

Let

OR

at,

and

and

axis parallel to

ON = X, NM
also

draw

=^v,

RM'

Ox, and

MP

=:

/ its latus
its

its

rectum;

RP

let /'

denote

its

latus rectum.

parallel to Oy.

its

the generating

OR,

Also

let

in it;

6o

Then

z'

= l\ RM =

## M'N and / = I'.OM'

butOM^ + M'Nzn.r.
l'.

.*.

7^ determine

97.

the form

of the

face

to the surface.

elliptic

is

## zx are parabolas equal

sections parallel to

OR,

If

jv.

to

OQ, with

to

OQ.

If

equation.

its

= o,

we makej^'

OQ, and

all

vertices in

with vertices in

no

is

## indefinitely in the positive direction of

tion

paraboloidfrom

2:*= I'x

sections parallel

OR

similarly, all

## to the other principal sec-

we make x

we have

z'

Ih'^l'h-^'
Therefore the sections parallel to

^are

similar ellipses,

and hence

its

name.
Cor.

If

/=3

the equation

becomes x+z'^

= Zr,

the paraboloid of

revolution.

To find

98.

This surface

Definition.

whose vertex

lies

on a

is

cavities

Let

OR

their con-

any

ing parabola in
let

two parabolas

and

and

parallel,

I denote

its

.r,

and

## /its latus rectum,

position, vertex in

latus rectum,

it

RP

the generat-

axis parallel

ON = x, NM

and

in

OR,

draw R*M'

to O.r,

MP =

y,

0,

to Oy,

parallel

Then
2^=/'.

but

Hence
99.

The

To determine

MR

and/^/.OM';

OM'-MRz= ON =
x

the form

.r.

## (104), the equation of the surface.

of the

hyperbolic paraboloidfrom

its

.v, >',

equation.

and since
z,

as great

NOTES
we

as

6l

origin.

## we makej^^ = o we have z^ = tx the principal

OQ, with its concavity turned towards the left

If

bola

tions parallel to

we

If

z^/ 1

## xy are parabolas equal to OR with vertices in OQ.

make ^ = o we have the principal section

y \/r

z=i

oiyz, and all seczx are parabolas .^qual to OQ with their vertices in
we have^^
Ix the parabola OR, and sections

Making

OR.

parallel to

-T-r

i/i

In

making x

In

%-

we have

/i

a hyperbola with

=1

its

in

vertices

v^

in yz,

## or two straight lines through the origin; and for sec-

tions parallel to yz

z^
-777

a hyperbola with

its

vertices in

In

The

## one vertex, and consists of one sheet and one

infinite axis.
1

00.

A symptotic planes

The equation

io

-7-

^2

j;2

r~~j^

and

^-=

when
V

or

V/
V =

become

x may be

/
^

"^

rx\
2"

written

which has

for

its

-,

limiting form

-^^

V/

a//

7-

=H

t=

and

'S/I'

z
-=.

loi

ellipsoid

ITie elliptic

and

and

hyperboloid

Take

## of one sheet respectively

the centres

of the
of these

to infinite distance,

x^

the equation

v^

z^

-^ + 4r + -^ =1, and
0^
a^
c^

when

62
the

## vertex of the axis la

left

(New

^, o, o).

coordinates being

## parallel to the primitive.)

{xaf

^^
\

or multiplying through by a

y^

-^^

h -tf

-^^

which

and

tions

in

^'^

xy and

which remain

Now make

zx.

equal to

finite,

and /

00,

and put

and

respectively.

becomes

(i)

/.

-^ =
102.

"^^

a
in

-L

2jt:,

of the two forms

which we have

A;tHBy + Cs^=D

(i)

^f^Qz'^kx

(2)

and we

will

may by
The

show

first

form

(i)

For

have centres.
the equation

is

elliptical
.r,

y^

the origin

if

and

is
is

a point P'

be written

for

for ever}^

point

which

{x, y, z) in (i)

{x,

j',

z)

on

passes through

bisected in O.

all

2lx^

principal

## The second form

loids

(2) includes the elliptic and hyperbolic paraboand the parabolic cylinder which have a centre at an infinite

distance.

The

may be

no

A = o when

and

63

centre.

Examples.
1.

## Construct the sphere whose polar equation

r^asin^cos^.

is

^V^<f^^^^^

W^f ^^^^(f

/^
Find the locus of the point the sum of the squares of the dis-^^ ^^
2^/^--'=^-'^'~^~- '^
/j=*
constant/<^v<^/v
is
tances of which from n fixed points
ratio of the distances of which
3. Find the locus of the point the

2.

.,

it

^^-/Jv^
from two fixed points is constant. -^^^'^ ,>:v^v^y-^^
'^'1\$:^l^^o
motion of a
4. Find the equation of the surface generated by the
variable circle whose diameter is one of a system of parallel chords
of a given circle to which the plane of the variable circle is perpendicular.
5.

The

= a cos

q)

cos d

=z a cos

sin ^ V

z
6.

The

ellipsoid

may be

The hyperboloid

s>ixi

cp

x=^

a cos cp co^ 6

y=

b cos

s
7.

=a

= ^ sin

^
(p

of one sheet

%^^V|1 */

sin ^

>

may be

## represented by the equa-

tions

-= a SQC o) cos 6

y z=z
z
8.

The hyperboloid

= c tan

q)

of two sheets

4,y

i,

'

may be

## represented by the equa-

tions

=^ a sec q)

y=
z
9.

line

moves so

d tan

q) V

c cos

6 tan

q?

P on

its line.

on it move on three
Find the locus of any other

point

d sin

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

64
Solution

Let the three fixed planes be the coordinate planes {x\yyZ) the coordinates
of P.
A, B, C the points in which the line meets the coordinate planes oiyz^
xy, respectively.
Take VA=a, PB=^, PC=^, ON=;r, NQ=jr, QP=2,
<ACA'=r<p, <CBx=zB (CA' being the projection of CA on the plane xy and B'
the projection of B on the axis of x).
Then x=:a cos cp cos Q^yz=zd cos q) sin 0, z=:c sin (p, and therefore the sur-

xz,

'

face

is

10.
is

an

ellipsoid.

## Find the locus of a point distance of which from the plane xy

(coordinates rectangular).
its distance from the axis of

equal to
11.

which
12.

## Find the locus of the centres of plane sections of a sphere

pass through a point on the surface.

all

## Find the equation of the

elliptical

paraboloid as a surface

## generated by the motion of a variable ellipse the extremities of whose

lie on two parabolas having a common vertex and common
and whose planes are at right angles to each other.
13. Find the equation of the hyperbolic paraboloid as generated
a similar manner by the motion of a variable hyperbola.

axes
axis

in

'

14.

15.

## Find the equation to the surface d

dinates.

a,

= ^7t

in rectangular coor-

CHAPTER

IX.

## RIGHT LINE GENERATORS AND CIRCULAR SECTIONS.

103. Surfaces of the second degree admit of another division,
those

into

and

which can

into those

belong

he

viz.

straight line

which cannot.

to the cylinder

of a

## and cone we shall now show to belong also to

and the hyperbolic paraboloid. The

## the hyperboloid of one sheet

ellipsoid being a closed finite surface does not possess this property

nor the hyperboloid of two sheets, since that consists of two surfaces
nor the elliptical paraboloid, since that is
separated by an interval
;

## limited in one direction.

104. Straight line generators

The equation

^^

r=

may be

X''

written

(A)

is satisfied

## by the pair of equations

z

-i
(B)

- + a

also

yL
b'

^x

and

b'

(^r)e-r)-(-+i)(--i)=Now

sheet.

by the pair

\a

X
OT

6*

+ y

+r

(C)

66

And m
lines,

## being arbitrary equations (B) represent a system of straight

and

of these

all

lie

on the hyperboloid

as the

two equations

## and distinct system of

on the hyperboloid which is the locus of

straight lines

which also

lie

may be used

105.

No

"I

i=i-'i

f +7
Combining

the

first

{m'

Combining

^---O-^)/

w")

-y]

=0

first

of (2)

we obtain

01 yb.

we

have
{rn'

These values
106.

for

j^^

m")

(^i

+ ^\ =

or

=^L

Any generator of

the system

(B) will

intersect

intersect.

any generator of

Take

(:-r)=--i

1
^

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

m

\a

c I

bj

67

(4)

of system (C).

='(- 1)
(:--r)
Eliminating x, j\ and z we obtain the

identity m'm^'

= m^ni!\

## Hence, through any point of an hyperboloid of one sheet two

be drawn lying wholly on the surface,

107.

No

straight line

lies

of generating

lines

(B)

d?r

to

(C).

## suppose a straight line H to lie entirely on the

must meet an infinite number of generating lines of
Let two of these (one of B and one of
both systems (B) and (C).
points, we could then have a plane indifferent
in
two
H
intersect
C)
lines, which is impossible since
in
three
straight
surface
tersecting the
Hence no such line as H can
the equation is of the second degree.
For,

if possiJDle,

hyperboloid,

lie

on the

it

surface.

## 108. The hyperboloid of one sheet may be generated by the motion

of a

straight line resting on three fixed straight lines which do not intersect, and

## which are not parallel

In the

which

is

tions

it

is

same plane.
necessary that the motion of a right line

For, since

tions.

to the

place

first

would

fix

its

## position of the line

position absolutely
is

its

## with one condition

it

will

less the

always be on a certain

Take then

straight line

move

straight lines,

it

in such a

will trace

manner

Now,

if

## out the hyperboloid of which they are the

generating lines.

For the moving line meets the hyperboloid in three points (one
on each of the fixed straight lines), and hence must necessarily lie
wholly upon the surface. For the equation of intersection of a line
and this surface being a quadratic equation, if satisfied by more than
two
line,

roots,

it is

satisfied

therefore, in

boloid.

its

The moving

straight

hyper-

by an

infinite

number.

68

## 109. Lines through the origin parallel respectively

systems (B)

and (C)

Y +
For

this

lie

generators 0/ the

to

on the cone

~2"

-TT

may be

## put in the form

J/

(fn)=

(f-7)

y^

b' b'

which gives two systems of lines through the origin lying on the
cone, one system evidently parallel to the lines (B) and the other to
the lines (C).

no. The

projection

principal planes^

is

The equation

of a generating

tangent

to the traces

of

line

upon

either system

of the surface on

the

those planes.

is

"^*
a"

The
c,

m^

(X

z\

or

x
-

2m

''

This condition

^m^

a^

{m'-\-iy

Hence

x^

z^

a^

c^

-^

## tangent to the hyperbola

III.

on xz

m^-\-i

+ -+ - =2m;
\acjac
[

Now,

^m^

c'

is fulfilled

c'^

r ^

a^
is

m^

2m

-f

4 \

-=i

r=i.
/

(i), for

^i

2^2

{i-m'Y
this projection is

The straight

The equation

line

## of the hyperbolic paraboloid

shall

CSL.

-r-

(i).
'
^

p^

by the projection

m^

i
-\

be

IT

69

niay be written

*^

= X.
And

hence

it is

satisfied

=
V~i

vix

V/'

(D)

m
or by the pair
V

s/

-z^

= mx

V/

(E).
VI

Hence

/ y_

!^'

(D)

and (E).

The

lines

The

y^ +
=
V/
V/
112.

We

and (35)

o and

== o.

V/

^/l'

## can show in the same manner as in the Articles (34)

no two lines of the same system intersect and that a

that

line of either system intersects all the lines of the other system, 'and

that

no other

## line than the lines of these

hyperbolic paraboloid.
surface two lines

And

And hence

lie

on the

## may be drawn which lie wholly on the surface.

may be generated by the motion

on three

## fixed straight lines

also

which are

by a straight
all

line

parallel to the

is

con-

which

rests

same plane.

113. The projections of the generating lines on the principal planes are
tafigent to the principal sections

The

principal section in

of the paraboloid.
xy is^ = Ix (i).

70

The

2y
-=

Now

mx-\

or v

= m^-J

Hence

/;tr

-i

and

if /

Distinctions

of

is

then

of the form

=:

2m

is

sia'faces

of

secoiid order

(2)

24/

4/

is

y7

'

x-\

## the tangent line to the parabola y=: Ix

-^

114.

xy

y = Zr.

generated by straight

lines.

## All the generators of the cone intersect in one point.

erators of the cylinder are parallel.

## Hence cones and

or developable surfaces.

## In the case of the hy-

perboloid of one sheet and the hyperbolic paraboloid, the generators of neither system intersect or are parallel.
twisted or

faces

is

skew surfaces.

The

two sur-

## that the generators in the paraboloid are parallel to a fixed

plane.
115. Plane sections
If

we

intersect

by the plane

we

will obtain

If

we

intersect

it

=D

=D

## (i) a conic section.

by a plane z =^ a we have

## for the curve of inter-

section

Kx' + Bf + 2Cxy-^2G'x-V2liy-\-'fpi.=

T>\

## Therefore sections of surfaces of the second order by parallel

planes are similar curves, and hence, in determining the form of these
sections

we may confine

the origin.

To determine

116.

a surface of

Take
A.r^

the nature

any plane.

71
the intersection

of

the equation

## + By^ + Cs^ = 2A'x

curve of intersection in

And
its

own plane

Make
x^= X

cos q)

4-y

cos d sin cp

y z= x'

sin q?

y'

cos 6 cos cp

=y

sin 6,

x"^{K

cos^<7?

4-y^((A

+B

sin^ (p

sin^ cp)

+B

+ 2xy{k

cos'^ cp)

B) cos 6 sin

cp

cos cp

2AV cos

cp

cp,

as the quantity

(A-B)^

AB

or

cos'

cphC

(??-(A cos'

is

Hence

The

## + B sin^ ^)(A cos' 6 sin'

+ Bcos' 6>cos' 9? + Csin'

9?

^ BC

is

an

sin^ cp sin' ^,

ellipse

may be

(i)

because A,

ellipses,

## hyperbolas since one or two of the quantities A,

cp
6*)

B and

parabolas or

and C

will then

be negative.
Hence for the elliptic paraboloid in
For paraboloids A =r o.
which B and C have the same sizes the section is an ellipse except
;

when ^

o or

(^

in

which cases

it is

a parabola.

## For the hyperbolic paraboloid since B and

the section

is

a hyperbola except

when

^=0

## are of contrary signs

or

^=0

when

it is

parabola.
117.

axes

it

Circular sections.

cannot be a

## Since the section

is

referred to rectangular

>J2

(A B)

or

or

C7

which shows
dicular

to 0716

th2it

7t

/or a

cos 6 sin

7t

or 9:?=

^=

or

o
must

118. Let us

^=o

cos

cp

now examine

be

perpen-

surface,

the surfaces

-of

cular sections.

Take

first

## the surfaces having a centre

and

therefore represented

by the equation

+ B/4-C0^=

A:v^

(i)

I.

Since every circular section must be perpendicular to a princicutting plane contain the axis of

and make

xy

To

y^

## transform (i) to this plane

make

= x'

cos d

x'

sin 6.

Art

{^2),

Hence we have

x'\\
which represents a

cos^

+C

sin* 6) -f B/'^

(2)

circle if

cos^

or

We

(5

e+C
_

tan^

for

sin^

(9

r=

B-A
= C^B'

B
,

^^^

it

is

1.

For the

Hence

ellipsoid

for a real

parallel
2.

is its

mean

6 b must

B=-7^, C

lie (in

is

axis.

ne-

gative

we must put

A = ^, B =
.-.

/.

>

<5

<3:

tan

l9

= a-y

is

73

=~
-T-7-X2
r
+ 0'

axes.
3.

and

im-

we must put

negative,

A- B- C~-
^>r

,*.

## or the cutting plane

is

aginary axes.

an angle 6 or i8o 6

sets

may be inclined
Hence there are two

Since tan
at

to the

plane of x}\

the surface

00

## the two positions of the circular sections coincide with each

and are parallel to the two equal axes.

119. Secondly.

2Mx

If

or o, and

centre,

other,

we

take

(i).

## For the elliptic paraboloid, B and C have the same sign.

Transforming (i) we have By^-^-Cx'^ sin^^= 2K'x cos 6] and hence
1.

for circular

sin

^ ==

sections

principal section

we must have

the condition

## Therefore the cutting plane

whose

latus

rectum

is

sin^^

= B,

or

perpendicular to the

is least.

## For the hyperbolic paraboloid, since B and C have different

6 is imaginary, and no plane can be drawn which shall intersect it in a circle.
This was evident, too, from the fact (Art.
116) that the hyperbolic paraboloid can have no elliptic sec2.

signs, sin

tions.

120.

Then,

to

sum

up,

all

## tion of the hyperbolic paraboloid

sets

of planes of cir-

74

## Therefore they can be generated by the motion of a

cular sections.

whose centre

variable circle
121.

The

is

on a diameter of the

surface.

may be found

directly

from

The

may be

written

or

which shows

\/A-B;k:4^

VB-C.0=:O

Hence

on which

The equation

122. Sections

The

all

## to the elliptic paraboloid

its

may be

treated in a similar

0/ Cones and

Cylinders.

may be

"i^

the

same

plane, as

is

## evident from the equations respectively.

parabola, or hyperbola.
ticularly.

r^

0(?'\-y^z=.

..,,,-,..:

-"J

tafil!)

For
always ^'*^

Hence

## by a plane will give an ellipse,

But we will examine this case more par-

(when

(2)

circles.

## manner, thus showing

1,

VA-B a: VB--C.0 = o

the surface in

elliptic

it

(i)

(z

cY,
put

or

x'^-\-y^

x=x'

=
'

cos ^

^^=y
z

= x'

'

sin

'

tan^ v

(^0*

And we

75

y^(cos^ ^tan^ V

## This equation (i) represents an

according as cos^ 6 tSjrl;
tan

^<z=>

tan

sin'*

ellipse, parabola,

> = < o,

is

that

x=x'

cos 6,y

tersection

=y in

is x'^

=o

(i).

or hyperbola,

is

according as

v.

2.

6^c^

equation

its

cos^ 04-y^z=z

an

x^+y

i= r^;

axis of
,\

^,

we make

ellipse.

1.

## line generators of the hyperboloid

+f

x^

9
for the point (2, 3 ?)
2.

3.

on the

z'

surface.

/"^

i)

on the

surface.

j-

6:^^

+ 4rH9^'=36

^x:'^^f-l^z'^\^^

x'^zf^Az'=i2
6x'fsy=3^^'
4.

find

(i)

:^^S^'- o

(2)

^xtfx^r

(3)

x^"^^:^':. J

is

(4)

plane xz
5.

^^^

-~

2"

## tangent to hyperbolic section in that plane at

its

vertex.

Find the sections of the cone x^-\-y={z2y by planes conxy of 30, 45, and 60''

respectively.
6.

x'+y+=i
4

## by a plane inclined at an angle of 30 to the plane xy, and whose

trace on that plane makes an angle of 45 with the axis O^.

CHAPTER

X.

## TANGENT PLANES, DIAMETRAL PLANES, AND

CONJUGATE DIAMETERS,
123. Straight line meeiing surfaces

0/ second

We

## can transform the general equation

kx*

By'

order.

C2''+2A>+2B'2a:+2C'.r>' + 2A";tr

2B'> +2C"0 +

F=o
to polar coordinates

by writing x ^^

Ir,

^=z

mr, z

= nr,

(when

(I)

m, n

/,

/^(A/'

Hence

## + Bw^ + Cfi' + 2Ps.'mn + 2^' In + 2Ci??i)

+ 2r(A'7+B";;z + C^^;/) + F=

124.

Tangent Plane

to

line

surfaces

is

o.

(2)

and

if

these

## tangent to the surface,

of second

order.

Let the origin be on the surface (and therefore F=: o) then one
of the values of r in (2)

is

= o.

Now,

## in order that the radius

vector shall touch the surface at the origin, the second root
o,

## and the condition

this

for this is

by r and replacing

/r,

mr^ nr by x,yj

A";, +

Hence

A'7+B'V;z + C;/

B> + C''^ = o.

z,

this

= o.

becomes

(3)

the locus of

and

all

as

/,

must be

Multiplying

B"_;;

lies in

+ C"0 =

at

the

is

the

## and is therefore the tangent plane at the origin.

Hence, if the equation of the surface can be written in the form
2 4-Wi= o (where u^ represents terms of second degree and u^^ terms

origin,

76

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

of

degree in x, y, and

first

gent plane

z),

then u^=z o

Therefore,

to

to

Ug

at the origin.

written

is

77

lo

= o^

4- Uj

a7id Ui ==

this point.

the

is

Ui= o

he

to

the

to

the

primitive one,

For the

125.

and

{x\ y\

let

the point

{x',

z')

y\

z')

by the formulae

X = x+x
y =y + y >
z=z z + z')
\

we have

Hence

kxx' -f ^yy

Now

new

+ iCzz' = o.

origin

+ Qzz'=.

o.

is

(i

to

formulae

x x^

= y y'
z = z z'

x
y

^=^

and we obtain

Cz"=

o,

(2)

1.

Hence
2.

(2) gives

For the

r=B

r=

xx +yy + zz'=

ellipsoid

A=

a
a^.

,Bi=:-7^C=
a^

xx^

3"".

(3)

yy'

b^

c^

zz'

=:

a^

XX
7*

yy

zz

B:=:
0^

0=

-^

78

4^ For

A==

r-,

B=-rx-.

C= -s.

## For the surfaces which have no centre (origin at vertex) by

treating the equation By^ + C-s:^ = 2h!x in a similar manner we
126.

obtain

= A\x-\-x')

Byy + Czz^

## to the elliptical paraboloid

B)y-Czz=:A'{x-\-x')

and
(8) for the' tangent plane to the hyper-

bolic paraboloid.

Remark.

linders.

## 127. Polar planes

surfaces

io

of second

The equations

order.

(3)

(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) are the equations to the polar planes to the sur-

## planes possess properties analogous to the polar lines to the conic

sections.

The length of

128.

plane

the

io

the perpendicular

ellipsoid is

Ihe equation

\/a^ cos^

cos

from

a+

cos'^ /^

<^'^

+ c^

cos'^

when

## to the tangent plane

also be written

are

p=

-\-y cos /3

-\-

r + '^ + ^ =

is

It

may

Hence we must

y =p*

z cos

i.

have

__

i~

cos
x'

_ cos
~~

/3

__ cos
""
z'

/^^cos^a + <^^cos^/^

/i/
A

^^^2

Hence

-7^

-I-

__ci cos

f^cos^;/

^7^

'

___

may be

_b

cos

~~

ft

^aH'

-f-

cos

__
"~"

z'

/,

m^

n^

written

lx^my-\-nz=i

^c

tangent plane

x'

b'^m^

+ c'n^

(9 )

To find the

129.

h -4- H

/3

x^
the ellipsoid

"tt

(i) with

f +

j^'
"ir

-'t'Jt:'

=1

-y-

Comparing

79

to

z^

r = ^*

"^

zz^

~F

we must have

y=~'

^-^="^' 7"="!'

'

a^

3^

~T + ~^

c^
2"

"J

is

'

q"^""^^^d

tion.

130.
centre

of

p, p', "^"^

from

the

the ellipsoid

is

constant.

Let cos

cos

yS

cos

/J^

y\

etc.,

be the direction

cosines.

Then

/'^

_ ^2
= c^ cos^

/^2

/^

^^^gS

^ ^32
a:'

a^ cos' ^^'

^^gu

/J

+^2

^.^gS

+ 3'

cos' y3"

^*^

cos' /',

planes

to the ellipsoid

For

'

the

d^

+ +
3'

## intersect at right angles is

a concentric sphere

c'.

square of

/+/'+/'', and
Remark.

which

its

distance

therefore to a^

is

equal to

+ 3' + ^'.

## and hence their sum may be negative or nothing

is no point in space through which three
rectangular planes touching the hyperboloid can be drawn, and in
a', ^', c^ is

negative,

is

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.

8o
132.

Diametral Planes,

Definition.'

diametral surface

is

the

Diametral

surface.

## or diameters are the intersections of the

lines

diametral surfaces.

To find

133.

the

to

ce^

given series of

centre.

Ajt^
7,772,

+ B/ + a^==i,

(i)

## n the direction cosines of each the parallel chords, and x\ y\

the coordinates of

The equation

its

xx

__

yy'

_ zz _

Then

for the

z'

middle point.

points in which

it,

'

## meets the surface (i) we shall

have

K{x'^lry-^B{y'^mry-^C{z'-Vnry=i',
or

Imposing on

this the

## condition of equal roots for

r,

i.

we have

Klx' -{-Bmy' -\-Cnz' ^=^ o (2) the equation of the diametral surface, a

1^4.

X
The diameter

= ^V = z
m

is

one of the

series

of parallel

ft

(2),

and

is

^

^.

## jugate to the diameter

A.r

Bv

-r-= -^

If a diametral plane be

the origin

then, since

con-

its

con-

=
n

is

Cz

new

axis of

0,

the centre

## every chord parallel to

Oz

is

O being

still

bisected by

the plane xy, the equation of surface will contain only the second

power of 0.

## Hence, if there be three planes through the centre the

any two of which is conjugate to the third, the equa-

intersection of

AV+By + CV=i,
that

is

(3)

To find

135.

may

3
the centre

0/ a

of the

other two.

lx-{-my-^nz^=^

The

I'^x

+ m'y + n'z =

Ax _
be

if this

,,

,//

l^

r-

first

o.

plane are

Csr
'

two planes, we

By

and

= o,

Tx-\-my-\'n\

o,

shall

^^

,f

have

= o,

## manner, are the required conditions.

These three planes are called conjugate planes, and

found in

like

their intersec-

Since
will

## we have only three relations between the six quantities there

infinite number of systems of conjugate planes in each

be an

surface.

we

make

A'
Then
x^

"R^--

JL

C'

y^

-7-2+773

z"

+ 2=

ameters, and

a! ,

will

## For the hyperboloids we

shall have

-^-^--^Remark.

di-

The tangent

diameter to a central

and

^^^^l-^

surface

are

parallel to the

diametral plane

z')

xx'

on the
\y'

ellipsoid
zz'

is

82

137.

oy the

## three conjugate semt'diameters

ellipsoid is co?tstant.

In the
cos

cos

yu,

cos^

A + cos^

place^

first

the equations

a cos A,

^=^

j^

^, z

yu

+ cos^

may be

ellipsoid

= 3 cos

some

represented by

cos v,

^=^

when

cos A,

condition

satisfy the

Therefore

cos A, cos

if

/i,

//',

~ +^^r^ o

Now

+ cos

cos

)jL

/i'

will give

+ cos y

cos y'

= o.

## the square of the length of any semi-diameter .v'^4-y^+

expressed in terms of A,

a"^=

y,

//,

a^ cos-

in

is

\^V cos^

terms of

2'''^

}x-\-c^ cos* y,

y\ \'\

A', }x\

+ ^-

cos^

}Ji^

y'*

fx",

}x"-\-c' cos'

y".

a"" ^h''' -\-c"^

= + P -\-c\

a'^

//,

y,

\\

//',

i^^

and

138.

To find

extremities

## the locus of the intersection of

of three conjugate diameters.

The equations

X
cos A^ + vV
a

+ ^ cos

7-=

- cos y

cos

y"

i.

H

-f

a^

x'

- cos r

cos u-{-

cos

^ + ^4-

for the

!^V~Tf

^v-'

139.

of an

83

ellipsoid

## Oz be the semi-axes of the surface a, b, c\ Ox\ Oy

any system of semi-conjugate diameters a\ b\ c; let the plane
of x'y' intersect that of xy in the semi-diameter 0^i= A, and let
0^2= B be the semi-diameter of the curve Xi x' which is conjugate to
Let Ox, Oy,

0-s'

Hence parallelogram

0^1.

AB.

.-.

## for these figures

a'b'=i parallelogram

then

this

## plane must contain

principal plane

Oz form

Oj'i,

them

it

Oz

for,

being conjugate to

must be perpendicular

to that plane

O^t'i

C,

in

hence Ox^,

which they

are situated.

.'.

140.

To

QJ

k
.-.

c')

=Vol

(A, C,

Vol (A, C, ^)

=Vol

{a, b, c)

Vol {a\ b\

=:Vol

{a, b, c).

Vol (A, B,

c')

a*C

ofparallel

B/4-a^=2A":v
I,
J
andA one ofr^u
the chords

=
^r jc'
-

Vy'
=

= z = r
z'

m
Hence

By-i-n

Cz

= l^

common

axis of the

We

## jugate planes at a finite distance, but

such that

and

for

to a third plane,

By taking

we can

find

## two of them each bisects the chords

by proceeding as in

the origin

an

infinite

number

Art. (135).

## paraboloid, and referring to these three planes, the equation of the

surface will be of the form

By + Cz'=2E''x.

84

And
the

new

is

origin.

141.

## hyperlohid of one sheet and the hyperbolic

io the

paraboloid at a point x'y'z' intersect the surfaces each in two right line
generators through the point

The equation
jugate diameters

of contact.

a"

"^

~^'*

b"

c"

## and the equation of the section made by any plane

to the conjugate plane oi xz,

a:'

and

it

c"

is

x'^

z^
7^

= o,

^=-

ft parallel

""^
b"''

/?=

7^

is

y,

z^)

## For the hyperbolic paraboloid

By_CV=2E'';t'
the tangent plane through the origin

with (i)

is

(i)

is

B^ CV=

o,

## two right line generators.

= o,

and

its

intersection

CHAPTER XL
GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND DEGREE
x,y, AND

IN

z,

## 142. In order to discover all the curves represented by the general

numerical equation

-^

Ax^ +

2AV+2A"^

W +2B'2x +
Cz'

we

will first

2B'y

+2Cxy-}-2C'z

=D

(E)

new

means of

origin by

the formulae
=.

a + x^

y=

^+y

X
z

and endeavor

to

origin in such

manner

appear.

If this

z'

y-i-

(I),
[
)

(<t,

/3,

## can be effected the equation

will

y) of the new

first

degree to dis-

be reduced to the

form

kx"
in

^W -\-Cz^+2k'zy

which there

+ .V,

+j',

-tZ,

-\-

## is no change when -x, y,

are substituted for
and which therefore represents a surface having a

centre,

Now,
relations

among

1.

a,

2.

a,

ft,

3.

a,

ft,

(F)

may

arise

is

at this centre.

C, A",

B", C".

## /?, y the coordinates of the centre may each have a finite

value found from the three equations determining the conditions of
the transformation.

y may

have

y may be
8

infinite values.

indeterminate.

85

86

The

>

## (B) Surface's having no centre (centre at an infinite distance).

(C) Surfaces having an indefinite

Making

143.

number

of centres.

## the actual transformation of (E) by the formulae (r)

we have

A^H2A;rs + 2(A^

4_C^/5-fB';/+A")jc

## By + 2B'0.v + 2(C'a' + B/S

+A';k + B^^)v

+2avr+2(B'a' + A'/3+Cx+C'>

Qz"

'

ByS'^

+ 2B'a';/+2B"/?

D.

And

## in order that the terms of the

appear,

degree in

first

A + C'/54-B>-f A"-= o
C'a + B/? + Ay + B"=o
B'f

A'/J

+ C;/ + C"=o

1.

.v,

y, z shall dis-

we must have

If these

(C)

centre.

fj,

y, then

2.

If

values for a,
3.

/3,

If the

this

shows

infinite

centre.

line of centres.

## For each one of the equations

is

the equation of a

plane, and two taken simultaneously represent a line, and the surface
is

an

elliptical

or hyperbolic cylinder.

## P and Q, P cutdng the line of centres (D) and Q containing

line.
The section by P is a curve of the second degree having

planes
that
its

centre on

may

the

line D,

ard hence an

ellipse or hyperbola.

The

## be two straight lines parallel to the line D, and as Q

revolve about D in all its positions giving two straight line sec-

section

will

is

a cylinder.

## equations reduce to a single one, then the surface

has a plane of centres (/. e., the given equation represents coincident
4.

If the three

or parallel planes).
Note.

The equations

87

## equation most readily by finding the derived equations with regard

to x^ y, and z respectively {t, e., by differentiating with regard to x, j', 2

and

respectively), the x, y,

a,

/J,

y.

Example

144.

by the equation

The

Determine the

i.

x'^

## equations of the centre are

2x-{-^z-^6y

26 =

6y -\'2z 6x 24
8s + 2;F + 4jv 32
-\-

and

:= o

Example

Determine the

2.

x'^ -{-y^

The equations

2z'^

2y-\-2Z-\-2X2

\Z-\-2y-\-2X-\-2
the

first

o.

2X-{-2Z-{-2y~-4.

2,

=o
O
=O

^
)

x-\-y-\-z =:

no

## of the surface represented

class

infinite,

are incompatible,

centre.

Example

Determine the

3.

x'^

The

0.

=o
Sy2z-^4x = o
V.
2 z 2yx-{- 2=0)
20:

The
duce

first

to

The

Example
Sx^

+4>'

2:

4.

1 8>'^

Determine the

line of centres

(/.

e.,

is

a cylinder).

## equations of the centre are

i6:v-h

80

+ 24_y 50 =

o
36 y+ 120+ 24.V 75
404- I2l'+ S.V 25 =: O

)
,-

88
which are

all

and

42^

Hence

25.

## consists of a pair of parallel

planes.
145. Recurring to the general equations of the centre

C'+B/J + Ay + B"=

'>

B'a'

we may

an easy rule

find

among

for a relation

we can

(C)

## The common denominator

equations

is

R=
Now,

R=

The

if

it

of the values of a,

A,

C, B'

c,

B',

B',

A, C

A'

AA"^ + BB

A' B'

formed

in these

either have

R mav

no centre

three terms,

To find an
equatio?i

of

but

if

## the letters to be multiplied by

c
c

or an infinity of centres.

A, B, c;

A' B'

146.

and y

may

value of

form

f5,

the determinant

easy rule

columns

for F,

last.

the

when

the origin

is

the trans-

moved

to the

centre.

## This complete transformed equation

A.V'

+ By 4- CV -f 2^zy -f 2^'zx + 2C xy F
I

F=DNow, multiplying
a, the second by

we have

is

ft,

the

^^

first

and the

\
{

+ 2A'/^;K + 2A"f
B/5'^-i-2B^a;K + 2B"^

Art'^

when

'^
.

third by y,

## and adding them

B/5'+2B'ay + B"/3
Cy' + 2C' a ^ + C"y

o.

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

F=D-(A"a + B''/5-hCV).

Hence
substitute

for

x,

ordinates

of

the

from D.
Example

in the

y,

centre

(i,

^a,

## Taking the Example

i.

F=26 + 26 x ^-f-24

we have

^y

|-/J,

i,

respectively)

Art. (i44),in

=1, j^

jc

2,

+32 xf =1 1 1;

## + 4<s^ + 2yz 4- ^zx 6xy == 1

2x'^ + ^y'^-\-^z^-{-^yz-\-6xz + ^xy6x'Syi^z

2.

1 1

-f-

,\

F=20 + 6 x^4-8

C"

2x^

Removal of

co-

take result

0=3,

20.

= i,y z='i.
+ 14 X I=::I7;

147.

and

is

is

x^ + 3y^

Ex.

of

tei'vis

e.,

89

2,

is

## + 3/ + 42^ + 8yz + 6xz + 4^y

the terms in xy, xz, yz.

7.

of

two forms.

## For a more complete discrimination of the surfaces represented by

we will now remove the terms in xy, xz, yz by
a transformation of coordinates. So far we have made no supposition
the general equation,

we

will

'

## Taking the equation (E)

transform

it

to a system

in rectangular axes

we propose now to
manner that the

rectangular in such

also

The

## terms in xy, xz, yz shall disappear.

disappearance of these

terms can only be effected by taking for coordinate planes either diametral planes or planes parallel to them.
.

We

will

## by finding a diametral plane conjugate to

therefore begin

a given diameter.
148.

xa
x

a-\-lr,

## and arranging with

first

y=

a given diameter,

yb _ zc
m

Putting

to

b-^mr, z =:

reference to

r,

+ nr

we have

## in the general equation,

for the coefficient of the

degree in r

j-2{A''l+B''m

+ a'?i) =0;

90
and

this

is

namely
(A/+B';;z

149.

4-B";;z + C";/ =

it bisects,

that

to

is,

to the

o.

chords which

.V

ZC

A/+C';;/

+ B';^ _

J.

71

s.

A/+B';/+C'/?/

C7+B7;^ +A';/
B7-f AV;/

^r^^

B7+AV;/+C;

in

Cl-vV>m-\-Mn

and

we must have

+ C;/

=
= ms
= ns
/r

(A)

## P -\- 7?r -\- n"^ i

w, and ;/ in equations (A) we

To

determine

/,

first

find

s.

Writ-

## ing these equations

+ B';/ =
Cl-\-{B-s)m + A'n =
B7 + A';;/ + (C-^);/ =
(A--j^)/+C';;/

A~^, C,

B'

C, B-.r, A'
B', A',

or

C-s

_B'^(B-S;=:o;

or

## S'3_(A + B + C)/ + {AB + AC + BC-A'^-B'^-C'^)^4-AA'^ + BB"^

4_CC^'^-ABC-2A'B'C'=o
This cubic has necessarily one
in

set

real

value for

## of real values for

/,

m, n.

s,

(D).

which substituted

Hence

there

is

one

principal plane.

let

to the axis oi

then

z,

A'=:

## to this principal plane as

Now we know
transformation

is

m =

o, and nz=L\,
And hence equaand the general equation transformed
plane o{ xy is of the form

/ r= o,

o,

91

o,

## from the like discussions in conic sections that one

always possible, and but one to a system of rectan-

Hence

appear.

values for

The

m^

/,

and three

n,

may

general equation

dis-

sets of

## L.r24-My + N22 + 2L^^ +

which represents then

-f

150.

JVie

2N z

r=

(E^

all

0/

this equation

reduction

2M> + N0=D.

Lx^

two forms.

to

## 1. If L, M, and N are different from o.

Then we may cause the terms of the first degree
.

transiernng the

u
to the

ongm

The

will

be of the form

pomt x ^^

(jc',

z)

If

and L^'^be

We

diff"erent

from

J'

F.

coefficients, L,

M'

Kv2_^Mj;2^N0^Z=
2^.

L'
-=

by

to disappear

^^

= N'

irr-

(I.)

M, N,

for

example

o.

- D
2L

M'
=
= ^rr,
,

-2^

INI

N'

^i:^

M/ + NV=2V.v.
The forms

I.

and

II.,

we have

Ml

the equation
^

seen,

(II.)

belong

Hence

the general

others.

92

The form

151.

we have seen

I.

elliptic

## and hyperbolic cylinder, My^ + N^^ =F and parallel planes NV=F.

The form II. represents the elliptic and hyperbolic paraboloids,
and the parabolic cylinder.
The complete reduction 0/

152.

simple forms

The

and

\,

the equation

of the

II.

systems,

m, n\

/,

/',

n\

in\

/", ;;/',

We

n.

n\ which

j*

in

must be
appear

referred

in

y
z
If

a-^,

jit,

>'-2:

to dis-

we take only

= Ix

-Viy

=1 VI x

+ m^y

nx^ -\-ny

-{-Tz'

\-m"z
-\-n'^z\

A/^

A/HB;;z2-f CV
is

find

## But if we multiply the equations (A) respectively by

remembering that l^ -\- 7?i^ -[- n^ z=z i we have

Hence L

we

+ 2A'w + 2BW+2C7w

and

and

/,

m, n and add,

s;

two

roots.

L',

M', N'

we

=A"/ +B''m

will

have

-\-C'n

## I\r= A'7' \-^"m'^C'n'

N' = A^r + B'V/' + C'V

The

absolute term

the origin

is

U,
/,

and

is

the values of

equal to

(M).

## liave only to calculate F, for

is

computed by

coefficient designated

first

we

rule.

by

## finding in equations (A)

w, n^ which correspond to S

= o.

Both

in the cases

to solve to

determine

L and M.

153.

if

93

## we wish only to discover the

making the complete trans-

## centre and axis, the sign of the roots

its

tell us whether the surface is an ellipone sheet, or hyperboloid of two sheets. These
signs we can ascertain from inspection by Descartes's rule * without

## of the discriminating cubic will

soid, hyperboloid of

1=

## Example. Find the nature of the surface

The cubic (D) gives
6.
S'

\-^z^\yz \xy

## (7 + 6 + 5)S'^+(43 + 35 + 30 4 4)S-|-28-f-20 210 =

S^ 18S- + 99S 162
The row

.'.

of signs

all

"jx^ \-()}'^

So also

is

for surfaces

is

an

o; or

=: o.

Hence

ellipsoid.

## of the quadratic into which the discriminating cubic degenerates,

serve to distinguish the elliptic from the hyperbolic cylinder.

And

for surfaces

## the elliptic paraboloid from the hyperbolic paraboloid.

154. Recapitulation

of tJie second

We

degree

## of the viethod of reduction of iiumei'ical equations

and of distinguishifig the surfaces represented by them.

mode

## the surface represented by any given numerical equation of the second

degree in x, y, and

Form

I.

0,

and of finding

its

principal elements.

## S3_(A + B-hC)S^ + (AB + AC + BC-A'^-B'^-C'^)S + AA'^-fBB'^

4_CC'_ABC-2A'B'd=:
observing that the absolute term

is

equal to R,

o,

the denominator

ABC
and

## therefore can be formed by the mnemonic A'B'C

(Art.

145).

A'B'C

Then
155.

1.

If

be different from

o,

## the surface has a centre.

Find

Note. ''All the roots being real the number of positive roots is equal to the number of
changes of sign in the row of signs of the terms, and the number of negative roots is equal to the

number

of continuations of sign."

## NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

94

the coordinates of the centre and transform to the centre by the rule

Determine the signs of the roots of the cubic by Descalling these roots L, M, and N, and calling F

in Art. (146).

Then

cartes's rule.

new

the

Then
a.

If L,

M,

all

If L,

M,

all

is

an

ellip-

soid.
h.

im-

is

aginary.
If

f.

surface

If only

d.

is

INI,

surface

is

If

e.

o and L,

]\I,

all

is

point.

If

f.

=o

2.

156.

If

R =

roots L,
is

M,

And
no

if

an el|ip^ cone

S,

its

(Art. ^^),

roots S

namely

o and

is

AB + AC + BC

centre.

Then
a.

the
is

If the roots

same sign

(/.

M and N
e,) if

## of the quadratic (degenerate cubic) have

AB + AC + BC- A'''-B''-C''> o

the surface

## If M and N have different signs

AB + AC + BC-A'"^
B'^ C'"<o the surface the hyperbolic paraboloid.
AB + AC-f BC-A''
If one of the roots M or N be zero
B'^ C"^= o the surface the parabolic cylinder.
b.

(/.

e.) if

{i.

e.) if

is

c.

is

^157. 3.

If

rr

(2) has

one of

its

roots S

The

cubic as in

Then
a.

If the roots

and

{i.

^.)

if

o the surface

95

is

an

elliptic

{i.

e.)

if

cy-

linder.

If the roots

b.

and

equal to

hne

and

o,

If

and

^\

and

o\-

be

a straight

is

<^.

AB + AC

-.is

If in the

c.

the surface

H=

o-and

## be of different signs the surface con-

of intersecting planes.

sists

158. 4. If

==

and

consists of

## two parallel or coincident planes, which are readily found by solving

the equation with reference to any one of the variables.
In the case of surfaces of revolution the cubic has equal

5.

159.

To

roots.

## examine the cubic

surfaces of revolution,

and

its first

we simply look

for

common

root between

it

/,

in the case

And

9,

General Remark.

160.
plete

for

we may

find V,

Remark

161.

I.

a centre,

we can

1.

If the

will tell

## whether the surface

is

an

elliptic or

a hyperbolic cylinder.
2.
a.

When

If there

are ellipses

I.

is

an

among

show no

centre, then

## these sections by the coordinate

elliptical paraboloid.

among

## these sections, the surface

is

hyperbolic paraboloid.
c.

If

all

these

sections are

## straight lines, the surface

is

parabolas, or

one of them

a parabolic cylinder.

parallel

GEOMETRY,

96
162.

Remark

Again,

II.

if

must

We may

perfect

note also

either

is

parabolic

cylinder

or two

parallel planes.

We

163.

Ex.

now

7.r^

I.

As

will

I3>^'

/ 343^^ + 2058
The

signs

## + 62-+24A3'H- 1210 I22.r rr: 84.

this is a central

## hence the surface

by a few examples

illustrate

cubic,,

which

or

we only

is

## show one coniimiatmi and two changes, and

one sheet, or two sheets, accord-

a hyperboloid of

is

## ing to the sign of 84.

By

we

and then by depresswe find the other two roots are 14 and 21. Therethe equation of the surface referred to its centre and axes is
trial

find that 7

is

## ing the equation

fore

y.v^-!-

Ex.

i4v^

10'=:

84;

or .r^-f 2^^30-=:

2^X'^+2 2y-{-l6z'^-\-l6)'Z

2.

The equations

12,

= 44.

## of the centre are

25.V iqi' 20 =: 13

## io.r + 22^+ 80=20

2A'+ 8j'+ 160 = 2 2
whence we

## find the coordinates of the centre

= i,y =1,

0=1.

Moreover

F=- 44 + 26
The

discriminating cubic
j^

Its

The

J + 40.i + 44-i=

is

changes.

an

ellipsoid.

surface then

is

9-

Hence

all

o.

NOTES
By

trial

other two

we

find that 9

are 18

36.

or

5.r^+

3.

The

ioy+

I'jz^

==

T^H-

90

7.r+ioy+

13s

9.v+i3_>'+i70
Multiplying the

is

Hence

surface

it

=-5.

third.

The

## only two independent ones.

tersecting

=3
=4

of these equations by

first

2,

the

-\-

^x+

by

Hence

then

is

+ 2y^ + 42^

.r^

V2
Ex.

97

is

+ 8y -f 362^ =

()x^

And

and

solid GEOMETRY.

OjV

## the equations are

therefore a cylinder.

making

i, e.,

0=0,

In-

we obtain

z^x^j^iAxy+ioy''-\-6x-\-^y= 64,

which

an

is

ellipse.

To complete

The

surface

where the

/Y>

is

we

the reduction

QCr

rj \f

_1_

line of centres

and

find

is,

to the point

0,

^ = 1,

j^^

170= 5
x =:2^

+ 5V

o,

pierces
the plane
"^

which gives

10 and 16

5 V'

'\

is

32/4-6^- =

Ex. 4

'J

F=:64+6 4 = 66.

And

9:r+i3j^/-f
X, y, that

transfer

5^^

/ 32^^ + 6 =

10.

is

The equations

5.V-47H-20
x-i-

y-{-4z

=3

o.

o,

^8

= 2^.

Sx4y-\-2z

Hence

first.

An

equation w^hich

no

## incompatible with the

is

centre.

/- i8/ + 8ij'= o;

The cubic

we have

or s''i8s-}-8i

The

to 9.

surface

= o,

therefore a para-

is

boloid of revolution
gy^

To

we

find V,

+ gz^

determine

first

=
m

/,

Yx.

and

n.

equations

4/^m2n =
/+w + 4 = o

which give /

22

Therefore

n =z

(Eq.

M) A'"=

Ex.

5.

=
33232

.-+ -

-f 3

2 A'"

is

therefore

The
If

is

is

a hyperboloid

if A',

B'

and

be a hyperboloid

of one sheet.

= o.

C are

in the

## cubic will have two roots of the same sign as

holoid

D.

is

surface

A'B'C

2Cxy + 2K"x-\-2B"y+2C"z

o.

=9.

of the surface

2Ayz-i-2B'zx +

The cubic

2V

and

all

different

from

F and

it

## the surface will

would be a hyper-

of two sheets.
= o the cubic becomes

If A'
S^

\-

## whose roots are of

2C xy

^-

different signs.

ih!' x -^ 2B"y ^ 2C z

is

Hence

a hyperbolic

paraboloid.

Ex.

6.

x^

The equations

o.

99

is

a parabolic

cylinder.

Examples.
164.

I.

ing equations.

## sy -^ ^^' 20yz -{- 4ZX + i6xy + 22X {- i6y i- 4z -{- 11=0.

^y^ + z^ + 2JZ + 2XZ -h 2xy lox loy loz -h 2 ^ = o.
^o./z-^a
^(3)- 3x'^sy'^i2yz-\-i2zx-\'8xy6x6y-{-^z = c.
ix^ -\-

(i).

(2).

X'

(4).

4x^ + qy^-^gjz'^-i6zx-{'^^zy='36,

(5).

## 3JC-+ 2^2X0 f 4^2 4^^ 80 8

2.

The equation

7;t'^4-8y

a hyperboloid of one
3.

The equation

'-/^^v z":^*

*-

r%

t^^Z.

=: O.

## + 4-s^ Z>'<2r ii^jv 7^j/ =

^^ represents

sheet.

A:^+y^+3-s:V 3j'-24-2:j;+^

7^147250= 13 ^

## represents an ellipsoid, a point, or an imaginary surface according

as ^is
4.

< = >

67.

The equation

x'^+y^-^-z^

+yz+zx + xy

= a^ represents an

oblate

spheroid.

{y'-zy+{zxy + \:fjA-

5.

6.

## Find the nature of the surface >'0 + zx-i-xy

7.

ax^-\-\y^-^^z^^i2yz^()zx-V\xy-{-\\x-\-i6y^2\z-{-\'] r= o

=si^-.

d^.

re-

## presents an elliptic paraboloid, a parabolic cylinder or a hyperbolic

paraboloid according as a

> = <

i,

CHAPTER XIL
PROBLEMS OF
165. Prob.
line

To find

I.

LOCI.

the

it

let

lie

equation

Then

Prob.

in the

~=

I-

a^

To find

2.

a, j/ = mz.

is

a^

The hyperboloid

is .r

= a' -^7?rz'

-{-y

or

its

the locus

of a

poi?il

Take

lines, the

distance

## and the axes oi x and y bisecting the angles between the

on their plane. Then the equation of the lines

2c,

will

be
z ^^

and we have

(z
^

cY^^^
'

z^

y = mx

'
)

mx

~^ (z-^cY^-
+ VI t

i^ni^

or
cz{\

^nf) ^mxy

centre and

Prob.
straight

Take

its

3.

line.

^:^

o,

hyperbolic

paraboloid since

Two

2.

Then

it

has no

real factors.

their line

of intersection.

100

Y^{zc)'^-ymx

The

o\

10

o.

Y^{z-\-c)-^y-^mx

(i)

is

KK'-j-iw^ = o,
and equations

and (2) we have

(i)

y~ wV +

'-ni^)z^

( I

Prob.

To find

4,

sheet.

of which are

be

faces

let its

Then

## the coordinate planes ^0, xz, and xy.

which always

line

same plane.

in the

the distances a,

at

equation

this

- rn^Y

generated by a right

the surface

## meets three fixed right lines no two

piped, and

( I

(2)

respectively from

b, c

yz=b

Assume

for the

X=

## equations of the movable line

X x'
cos a
The

=c

_ y y^ _z z^
cos

y'

cos

conditions that the line (4) shall meet the lines (1) (2) and

y^

cos

b
fi

z'-\-c

cos

'

cos

gether,

and we have

x'

y
/?,

-\-

cos

'

cos

y'

-h b
'

cos fi

to-

## for the surface

(^xa){y^b){z-c)z={x-a){y + b){z^-c)',
or reducing

## which the discriminating cubic shows

sheet.
,

The same
,

jr

5.

be a hyperboloid of one

Prob.

to

o,

To find

the

=a
= c

v=:

>
)

X
y

=^
^^

I02

same plane.

to the

Then

Now,
*

z\

(4) (^

meet

^^d ^

mk

k by

z-b

To find

6.

(4),

its

o,

## equation shows no centre, and the

factors.

is

always parallel

to

(0,
'
^

"~
z^=.

which meets

a fixed plane.

Since the two fixed lines must meet the fixed plane,

2:3=^

we have

and

that this

'

## terms of the second degree break up into two real

Prob.

(2) are

mx{cb)

a hyperbolic paraboloid, as

and

## and the condition

means of equation

cy

cyz

lines (i)

(cd),

~V'^
or

meeting

line

arbitrary),

(3) is Ic

## their equations are

moving

the equations of a

in the

we can

take

and the

Then

## the equation of the

is

The

moving

line parallel

(3)>

^^d k

yz
arbitrary.

conditions that this line shall meet the lines (i) and (2)

are

mk

=z

Ic+p

?;//('

mk

or
or eliminating

/,

k,

Ic

lc-\-p

2indp =^ o

z= c

y
~
z

mxz

cy,

and /,

mx
or

^'

\.o

a hyperbolic paraboloid.

Prob.

2 wo

7.

non

finite

intersecting

which

lines

is

the

locus

of

the

joining

IO3

; to

lines

are

## corresponding points of divi-

sion.

Let the line which joins two corresponding extremities of the given
lines

be the axis of

2:

the axes oi

let

x and^

## given lines and the plane oi xy be halfway between them.

lengths of the given lines be a

Then

and

Let the

b.

2:

zz: r,

^ ma,

z= O] s

= c,

o,

^=^

^=

mb

## lines joining these points are

ma

mo

2X

ma

")

'

whence eliminating

## the equation of the locus

2cx^a{z^c)

is

(f+^)

a hyperbolic paraboloid.
Prob. 8. To find the locus of the middle
of the second order that has a centre, which

of chords of a surface

points

all pass

poiftt.

Take

it

## and two conjugate diametral

zx and xy, and a plane

## for the planes of

parallel to the third conjugate plane for that o^yz; then the
to the surface will

ax''

Let

^1 VIZ,

+ by^ 4-

= nz he

cz'^

+ 2a

(am^

'x

+/ =

o.

in

equation

be of the form

Combining

we have

o,

I04

## VOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY,

Therefore the z of

its

middle point

,_

is

a"rn

^-' am'-^bn' + c

^^^'

## and the other two coordinates of the middle point are

x'=z

Hence eliminating

mz\

(2)

y^nz\

its

centre

(3)

origin.

first,

CHAPTER

XIII.

1

66.

To find

If a

Definition,

from P to

P', so

as

its

to describe

an arc equal

to the angle

## which the meridian has revolved, the locus of

is

through

the equable

spherical spiral.

Taking PP'

as the axis of

PAP' the

0,

initial

is

x'-Vf^z'=.a\
Let

POM

6,

AON =

q),

## and from polar coordinates

= a cos 6 cos y
X = a cos^ 6, y = a cos
^'^+y =
cos^ 6 (cos'^

X
,\

Therefore

Hence

^=:

q),

a'^

## a cos ^ sin q)]

6 sin

6.

^4-sin'^ 6) =: ax.

## x'+f + z' =a'

{i)

x'-Vf

ax

(2)

and a
whose diameter is the radius of the sphere.
we subtract (2) from (i) we obtain

or the spiral

## the curve of intersection of the sphere

is

right

circular cylinder
If

z^

a^

ax

## (3) a parabolic cylinder.

And

the equations (2) and (3) also represent the curve, which is
therefore also the intersection of a right circular and right parabolic

167.

## To find the equations

Definition.

The

to

a spherical

spherical ellipse

is

ellipse.

a curve traced

on the surface
105

Io6

sum

it

## from two fixed points on the sphere is constant.

Let SH be the two fixed points on the surface of the sphere
whose radius is r, C the middle point of the arc of the great circle

HP

If

P be any

SP and

SP + HP

2a

a constant.

## Through P draw PM, an arc of a great

SH, and let SH = 2;/, CM = cp, PM = B.
Then,

in the

SPM we

have

## = cos {y (p) cos d.

triangle HPM
cos HP = cos (ycp) cos
SP

cos

And

circle perpendicular to

6.

HP =

C-D. cos
Now, cos SP
-f

XTT.

/SP+HP\
2

cos

cos

/SP-HP\

cos

/SP-HF

cos

QP
SP

HP cos

A

/SP + HP\

2 sin

sin

/SP-HP\

sin

^SP-H_P).
SP-HPN

sin

'

Therefore,

/SP HP\

__ cos

COS

cos cp cos

^SP HPN^

_^ sin

Sin

sin q) coe

sin

a:

ya

COS''

^
r-^ cos'
^ cos' u
cos'

or

if

## we transform from polar

cos^
cos'

y
a

aV
sin^

-\

r,

sin^

/i

cos^

c^

=1;

sin'

to rectangular coordinates
sin^
sin'

J^

^^

\]

## This equation and the equation of the sphere'N

^'+y-f^'
determine the spherical
cylinder and the sphere.

r2

(2)

## ellipse, as the intersection

of a right elliptic

To find

168.

side

Definition.
its

AB, so

107

ABCM

CM

AB

## and when the rectangle is in the plane

on the axis of x, and let the velocity of
times the velocity of M.

Let

xz

let

be the axis of

P and

.-.

Also

AM =

AN =

let

0,

both be at

X,

PM =

NM

^y^

.arc

PM =

DM.
be the coordinates of

P,

and

a the radius of the circular base of the cylinder in the plane xy,

. .

z =. na cos~^

and

j/^

o;^

= a^

## are the required equations of the helix.

Or we may represent
z

or the

same

na

'

z =^

na sin~^

cos [2m7T-\
\

y
-^

=1 a sin

na

z \

the

^^ a cos

=
na

na cos~^

(2);

in the forms

since cos

^:z

The equations

na J

(3)
^^^

and
/

and

sin

na

sin

[2m7t-\
\

na

## correspond to an infinite number of

(i) (2) and (3) show that the projecon the planes xz^ and^^ give the curve of sines,
and the projection on xy is the circle.

values of

z.

qA

^l^6l

c^lccrccft,

d di^unLol

^ruiJ

SxjiytcU/j^

## linn, z'zuW ^^ ^J^^^t<it cz^74^^

I

^^

-^

Cx,

^^ ^ ^J

-e/r^

4-.

^-^-.^y

^^it

:>

^^y-J'^-/^

S^-^^^-^r '^-^^^^^-Z

^^^XLtAt^ ^i/^

J*
K

'I

II

ii

II

';^

^
II

<^
5^

t."

-<

^
If

>

E'

tC
0\

Jt

__

la

#^^^/Vy^==/>f^
^^1^

^s

## ^^i^/6 ^24'^^ -^^t-^^

l^oc^6-0^i^

t24='S-S--t36 -hZ6 4-

CO

^A5

-^'T".^

^f^

/^rS

Si^^ -f-SJf^

-f-

ff

CONGRESS