V4
NOTES
ELE MENTS
(ANALYTICAL)
Solid Geometry,
BY
CHAS.
S.
VENABLE.
LL.D.,
NEW YORK:
UNIVERSITY PUBLISHING COMPANY.
1879.
.^3
a^l"
\j;
und Schlomilch.
C. S. V.
^.J:"^
339
In
Exchange
Univ, of
r^.
Copyright, by
1.
have seen
how
is
determined by means of
we must add
its
distances
Ox
rmines a plane,
Oz
respectively.
is
of Rectilinear
Plane Coordinates
is
called
it
We
very easy.
The
from the
can best
P by conceiving O as the
corner of a parallelopipedon of which OA, OB, OC are the edges,
and the point P is the opposite corner, so that OP is one diagonal of
the parallelopipedon.
2.
If
PM = OA
P
of the point
are
PN = OB rr b, PR
y :=z b, z ^=^ c, and
=L a,
:=i
a,
maybe found
z=
OC =
the equations
c,
Measure on/
P^AK/A'
through
draw
and
A
the
plane
a,
parallel to the plane yOz.
Measure on Oy the distance OB = b, /
and draw the plane pMbR parallel to xOz, and finally lay off 0(y
= c and draw the plane PMCN parallel to xOy. The intersection
equations
OX
the distance
The
is
P required.
Oz are called the axes of
planes xOy, xOz and yOz are
the point
respectively
OA
the three
x,
and
called the
The
r= a,
4.
The
h,
r= ^
is
b, c).
As
and
axes
Ox
space coordinates the planes xy, xz and yz divide the space considered
into
0xyz,
0xy'z,
on the
down
four
Ox'yz, 0x[yz
Ox^z',
O'Xy^z^ Oxy'z',
signs laid
compartments
eight
in
as
all
all
jv's
all
y's
above
In the
first
Octant, 0xyz P,
fifth
Octant, P5
is
(''>
P^; is
The
signs thus
(,
and
c give
is
a,
(
b.
c)
^?,
h.
c)
c)
c)
c)
b.
h,
(a.
is
b.
compartment
us in which
tell
a,
{a,
(
is
c)
{a,
is
In the
{a, h. c)
is
is
us
its
c)
point
the
falls,
ments.
1.
2.
i,
i,
2,
3, 4
o,
i, 2
2,
3, o
o,
3, o,
o,
4, o, 3
2, o, o.
The
points
M,
We
which
will give
will
now some
be of use to
us.
Definitions.
6.
The
projections of
When
is
its
projection of the
The
first
area.
may be
idea of projection
extended:
if
between the
feet
of the perpendiculars
is
latter intercepted
From
we
this
see that
of a point are
OB and
on the three
OA,
OP
the projections
OC
(coordinates rectangular)
of its
coordinate axes.
7.
Fundamental Theorems.
I.
The length of
equal
to the line
of a
the projection
the plane.
of
is
makes with
it
PQ
Let
jection
be the given finite straight line, xOy the plane of prodraw PM, QN perpendicular to it then
is the projec
MN
PQ
tion of
is
finite
the angle
MN
= the angle
to
made by
PQ
with
MN.
MN QR
Now
PQ
cos
PQR.
II.
The
projection on
We
shall
The
= AD
planes.
2.
cos
A'B'C
ADM.
Hence A'B'C
ABC
ABC = BC
 B'C x A'l/
Moreover
= ABC
rallel to
area of
ADM =
is
equal
to
the planes,
A'y
BC
is
parallel
But B'C
BC and
is
pa
/i?
Through
corner
the
CD
AB
Now
D.
in
we
if
parallel to the
6 the angle
call
=:ABC
cos
e,
3.
triangles of each of
the polygon,
i,
e.,
sum
of the
of the triangles.
The
8.
equal
'
projection
is
right line
finiie
imiltiplied by the
of
cosine
the
line is
between the
afigle
^li7ies\
PQ
Let
means of
PQ
meeting
mtt.^Af^,
If there
?M
MN
PM
the perpendiculars
parallel to ININ
of a
to
its
and QN.
Through
Then PQR
PQ cos PQR.
in R.
MN =r QR =
be three points P,
P',
draw
the angle
is
QR
made by
lines PP',
PP" and P'P", the projections of PP" on any line will be equal to
the sum of the projections of PP' and P'P" on that line.
Let D, D',
be the projections of the points P.
D''
Then D'
D'.
between
and
P',
D"
P" on the
or
and
D"
line
between
in the other
AB.
and
DD"
DD' D"D' = in both cases the algebraic sum of DD' and D'D''.
The projection is + or according as the cosine of the angle above
is
or
^
In general
if
there be any
PP', P'P'',
etc.,
or, the
number
equal to the
is
sum
etc.,
the pro
of the projections of
is
equal to the
sum
of the projections
The
projectioji
equal the
PN
sum of
of
the
radius vector
the projections
of the point P.
For
sum
line.
OF
of a point P on any
OPMN
OP
on
is
OM,
OM, MN,
line, and
must be equal to
MN, and PN on that
closed broken
a straight line
line is
Two
Distance between
Points.
We
is
PQ' := PM'
= 0' 0.
=_>/ J/ QN
Hence PQ' = {x
;
 xj ^ {yyy+
12.
To
MN^ + QNl
f
z)
y,
and
^J
then
^=1
o,
y =^
6, z =^ o,
Axes.
Take
OP
the line
POy
PO.r =: a,
Then by
(.v',
But
(^
at the origin
{x,
PMNRQ of which PQ
PM ^ x'  x, MN
the diagonal,
PO0
/^,
8,
:=^
cos'
r^
a^
the angle
cos'
}/
a, cos
cos
/?,
y determine
cos'
y) or
(i)
i.
very
im
We
tion (i)
is
m and
/,
(/,
cos
We
(i),
i,
;^
will
of the line.
direction cosines,
m, n).
13.
its
direction cosines
n respectively.
^'+ '=
a,
(3,
we may
call
it
can be assumed at
= Vi cos'
cos'
//.
for
determining the
For since any two planes make with each other the
is made by two lines perpendicular to them respecthe angles made by a plane with the rectangular coordinate
nate planes.
made by
with xz
/^,
is
made by
the angle /i
^t<ft^
r cos y.
^=^
portant relation.
Cos
if
y''+ z\
cos' /?
r,
the coordinates of P.
a y'= r cos ^
(cos' a f cos' (5 +
r cos
r^~
Hence
.r''+
OP =
Let
and x\ y,
y,
r=
Art. 11,
But, Art.
Thus
if
OP
be the perpendicular to a
and with yz
is
xy
is
the angle a.
the angle
So cos a, cos
That
is,
the
of a plane with
direction cosines
of a
The
14.
line
reference
y3+
to
perpendicular
plane,
to this
cos^
enables us to prove
Then
zx and xy respectively.
A^ = A cos y.
/?
Squaring and adding we have
coordinate planes
cos
A,2+
or a;'
That
is,
+ A/
To
cos
a +
a;
the square
Art.
7,
II.,
A^
= A (cos''
+ A/ = A^
A/+
cos' /S
equal
is
\
to the
cos' y)
sum of
the squares
of its projections on
15.
yz,
=A
A,,
in
;/)
given
lines,
*^^'j6A#/_
^^'^ by ^^^'
Wed or^i,
^^^/i/>
^A^^^*.
>^
yy
{y
 zj ^
(0
/^jP'
T^f
And
from triangle
hence
r'H r'
z'^
+./+
x^
0^+ x^^y'^
(2a;v'+ 2yy
r'
r'^h
2/7''
r+
\
COS
r'=
Therefore
x'
+ y''+
z'
^
fy
and r''=
z^
rr' cos
cos
or
= au''+
cos 6
which we write
cos
ex
= X x'
H
r
.
Hence
2zz),
6',
x'' ^
y"
{
+
But
V
POQ,
PQ2=:
i^.^^S
V;^V^/
coor
^'
 xj^
PQ"^= {x
A,f,'^p
)',
6^,
cos
cos ^
a +
//'
f
{2xx'
2zz'),
cos
;/'
(2)
.v"'+,v''h z'\
rr'+ zz,
.^
r
cos
2y]>'
z'
fi
+ r .
r
cos ji
mm' + nn,
cos
;/
(2)
{
7171
larity of the
Cor.
1.
//'f 7)17)1
two
(3).
lines
From
2.
w,
/9
o or
is
(3)
(/,
ti),
(/',
711
7t').
we can
convenient one
find a
for sin^ 6.
Thus
sin
(//'+
7171)'=
/;/;;/'+
+
whence
To
16.
sin^
l'my\
{I771
+ ^/^'^
(/'
7l'^)
l'7if'\
(Iti
(//'h
(77171
(/''+
?/')
\
771771
Tif.
771
?;/"'
7l7l'y
(4)
oblique coordinates.
Q [x'y'z)
The
A,
XOZ =
/i,
YOZ =
axes respectively a,
PQ.
PQ Now
We
project the
PQ
MN
a +
P:M cos
broken
PQ
line
itself.
cos
f^
^
Hence we
NQ
XOY
with the
PMNQ
y.
equal to
is
oblique.
is
y,
and
/?
This projection
MPQN
parallelopipedon
on
will have.
cos y.
{a)
respectively.
PQ
PQ
PQ
Now
cos
cos
/3
cos
multiply the
and the
by
third
NQ
= PM + MN cos A + NQ cos
= PM cos A + MN + NQcos v
= PM cos + MN cos v + NQ
//
(d)
jii
MN
first
have
PQ2
/A
PQ^
or
=.
{x
cos A
x'Y
Cr
^r')^
PO^
17.
PQ
call
IS
+2{xx')(z 2')cos
.V
Di7'Lctio)i
r
s
Ratios.
ratios.
2{x 
cos V
.v')
(y
j.i\2{yy'){zz') cos
be
at the origin
2,\r cos A
2x2 cos
cos
(c)
y)
7^
(5)
then
//
f
2zr cos v.
(6)
determined by the
direction
+ 2MN NQ
 z'y+
(3
+ 2PM NQ
cos A
MN NO
PM
ratios
\Vc
pQ
may name
f3Q:
these
pTy
/,
w,
and
//
these
we
respectively,
lO
taking care to note that we are using oblique coordinates and call
the
PQ, the
line
direction ratios,
line
we
To
m, n).
(/,
divide equation
find a
among these
PQ^ We thus
relation
by
have
/^+ m^A n^
2/m cos A
{
2/n cos
f
/a
+ 2mn
cos r,
the
(7)
desired relation.
The
18.
+ nx
7?ix
The proof
my
,
?n
{
of this
(8)
{ 71
same
precisely the
is
= ^?^'.
\ny
Polar Coordinates.
19.
The
The
OP =
radius vector
makes with
vector
a fixed axis
OC
OZ makes
We
have
the angle
r,
projection
is
also
sometimes expressed by
VOm=
OC
r sin
ft
OX
Hence
yOx
COX
which the
perpendicular to
in that plane.
r sin
z=i
r sin d sin qj v
r cos 6
r'
= x^ +
1''
cos
cp
(9)
z"
tan o) z=.'
(10).
and
let
plane of the
face
first
latitude,
Then,
if
the plane
zOx be
the
longitude of a point on
the
earth's sur
Let
Pbe
MN
is
(r',
then
d\ cp) and
this projection,
on
respectively
PR
Project
PQ
the projections of
Through P draw
PR
parallel to
MN,
have
Moreover
r'^
+ RQ'
=:
MN^ + (QN
 RN)^
MON
MN^
MN^
PR^
==
in triangle
Hence
(r, d, cp).
OM ON
that plane.
PQ^
But
draw
MN.
==
And we
or
II
rr.
PQ^=
OM^ + ON^
r^ sin^
6',
r'
/9
cp')*
6'
cos (<^
(r cos d
^')
r cos ffy
or
PQ^=
(cos
6*
(^
<^'))
(^0
,.^_
CHAPTER
11.
INTERPRETATION OF EQUATIONS.
TRIPLANAR COORDINATES.
2 1.
Let us take F
.v,
which enables us
that
o,
and
is
This
z.
may be
considered as a
to
may
{x, y, z)
)'.
be written
z^/{xy),
in
And
plane xv
and
to the axis of
if
0,
to .v
and j'.
is
deterviinaie
=o
by the equation,
is
it
{x,
22.
it
r,
z)
is
a surface,
two variables as
{x,
y)=
o then
For F
{x,
pendently of
y)
0,
and
satisfied
is
and
.r
to
are
inde
is
given
this
it
which
is
same coordinates
Hence F {x,y)
^{x,y)
=o
in the plane
xy and
.v
and
>
as
o repre
drawn through
parallel to the
This locus
0.
as the equation
either
is
what
is
sr
{x^y)
y^
r^= o
straight line.
For example,
x'^ {
rectangular
in
coordinates
and
And dx
by
\
c ^=:
\^
2i
F {x,
=o
(y, 0)
to the axis of
An
23.
z)
\'
by =^
a
a
z.
ax
is
r^ is
0,
intersect
c.
ioy or a plane
axis parallel
the axis of
x^^y^
parallel ioy,
:r
Thus X
And
= o when
2i?>/{x)
values of
as
:r,
^= a,
=.
b,
c,
etc.,
so
it
number
of
represents several
Thus
F {y)
also
plane xz.
And F
{z)
= o,
Thus we
24.
preted
number
The apparent
satisfied
ay +
(.r
(jF
satisfied
when [x
y ~
b,
Now
is
inter
must
represents a surface of
it
by
\
a)^
= o,
{z
c.
a,
b,
c.
So also {x
by '= o is only satisfied hy x z=z a, y =z b,
aY \ {y
and hence though x
a Is a plane, and y = b is 3. plane, the two
together must represent a line common to both of these planes, that
is their line of intersection, which must be parallel to z,
25.
/{x,y,
z)
{x,y, z)
=o
14
Thus
=o
F (x)
axis of
z,
of
number
represent a
>
and
z,
xz.
represent a
number
etc.
j^,
F ixy) =. o
T^
F {xz); = o
ders F [x, y)
)
>
26.
represent
^
=o
^
and F
o,
{y, z)
etc.,
etc.
F
as
=0
{x, y, z)
y^ z)
=:ol
(p{x,y,z)
= 0)
/{x,
or
F
F
{x,
y)
(x, z)
= o\
= o i etc.,
F(j^, 0) =0
represent points in space or the intersections of the lines of intersection of the surfaces.
The
simplest case
is,
=^ a
b,
c),.
So also
x^
X
+ y^ = 2z^
y =^ 2z
{
xy
4
can be found by
Interpretation
27.
Hence
r ^=
b,
1.
=a
the equation
r =:
c,
etc.,
pole as centre.
of Polar Equations.
(r)
for
its
centre.
r as r
:=:
a,
2.
its
Hence
the equation
(^)
o giving values 6
common
etc.,
zOx
of
6)
it
q),
a,
^,
etc.,
angle
at angles /?,
etc.
/5',
4. If the
{r,
with
to the plane
xy makes an
2:
equal to 2a,
3:.
is
vertex.
(p =1
3.
15
= o gives
gives the
the
same
same curve
assigning values to
relation
(r,
= o,
6)
for
since
any value
in
Hence
cp.
between r and 6
it
z.
sr.
5.
equation be F((^, 6)
o for every value of q) there
values of 6 corresponding to which lines through
If .the
are one or
the pole
more
containing
new
positions in each
it
new
position of the plane, and thus generate conical surfaces about Oz.
(A conical surface being any surface generated by a straight line
moving in any manner about a fixed straight line which it intersects.
6.
If the
equation be
r,
F (r,
= o, for every
q?)
value of
there are
q?
Oz
circles vary in
q).
As
q?
magnitude.
The equation
thus
of
2:
which vary
which they
7. If the
general.
=:
in
all
magnitude
equation be
For
if
contain.
we
(r,
6,
qj)
assign a value to q)
Oz
plane
this
o, it
3.s
qj
q? =:
represents a surface in
=
j3.
/3,
then
And
(r,
as <p
6, /3)
changes
all
these curves.
28.
Two
line, or lines
surfaces.
And
three simulta
Thus
r zn a
= a\ taken
CHAPTER
III.
EQUATION OF A PLANE.
COORDINATES OBLIQUE OR RECTANGULAR.
To find equation of a plane
29.
and
origin
OD =
Let
and
let it
make
OP
the angles a, /?
The
OP
and
of the
is
on OD.
projection of
OM + MN + NP
OP
on
OD
on
OD
x
Hence we have
To find
projection of
jection of
30.
Oy and Oz
Let
OM,
The
the
/)
respectively.
plane
in terms
direction cosines.
its
cos
the equation
is
is
cos
OD
a
iy cos /3
of a plane
itself,
^y cos
\
p+
z cos
in terms
z cos y.
of its
= p.
(12)
intercepts
on the
may be
OA =
X
p
But since
/>
sec
or
a,
OB
b,
OC =
c.
The equation
written
sec
sec
ps^c y
= OA =
c.
+! + =:
its
(13)
intercepts.
have
Any
31.
y and
=D
Ax + By + Cz
equation
z is the equation
of a
plane.
And
putting
Hence
(14)
^=:
a,
"C"
^
<^,
we have
^,
form
the
(13).
is
coordinates.
Hence
we
make^
=r
o and
find intercept
Example.
32.
to the
nates.
We
plane given by
it
x= o and
j' =:
cos
{y
on
/3
{
and
z cos
=p
+
Ax
2.r
cos
equation on
o to find intercept on
its
in
=: o to find intercept
ony
It is useful often to
form
put
either
j)/
52
By
\
jr
o to
60.
z.
Cz
{
=D
in rectangular coordi
have
cos
a +
A ~
A^
cos^ f6
B^
cos^
O
I
Va' + b^+
Hence
1:T
cos
=.
a
,
cos
p^,
B
:
Va" +
Hence
if
we
6^
B
+ B^ +
C^
Vambmo
0"
write (14)
A
X +
VA'+B' + C^'
v/A'
y +
VA' +
B^+a
D
VA''+
it is
in the perpendicular
form (12).
B^
Q^
(15)
19
Hence
+ Cz=:D,
length
the
ive divide
of
the
of this perpendicular.
Example.
Rule: If
23
^y
4z
Result.
cos
= :=,
^4 +
V 29
16
cos
= =,
V 29
cos
V 29
V 29
33.
To find
the
(coordinates
rectangu
lar).
form
then since
this
cos
cos a^
angle
is
^
\
cos
/S \ z
cos
/5'
cos
cos
^=^
= p\
cos
cos fS
cos
A'jr
cos
cos
=D
+ Cz ^ D\
B^
+ B>
C0
^A^+
AO
cos
(5
VA2+
B^
C^
cos y
VA^ +
cos
cos
AA'
V=
rns .r
VA= +
B'
B^
C^
p
cos
A A
And
cos a'
form
A^ +
Then
V=
cos y'
+ BB' + CC
+ CVA" + B"^ +
y
C"'
'i
+
.,
(i6)
B'^
C'^
20
From
.
^^^
this
(A'+ B'+
,,
Cor.
I.
sin
.
..
C) (A^^+
(A''+ B^
(AH
B^
+ e)(A'='+
AA'+ BB'+ CC = o
{\%^
is
CC')'
B'C)'
^''
"
B'^+C'^)
y=o.
of perpendicularity
the condition
of
the
planes.
Cor.
A'B)5
 A'B =
^
(AB'
AB'
or
V=
2.
Hence
o.
(AC
ABC.,
o/x, Y and
Ex,
BS^^
ffJ^T^j"
is
^^^^ ^+
7^""^^
,
Show
2.
I.
z in the
'
^I'
+ S^^
and 3a;4y}
2=
lo.
^^~
:t:
3jV
5^
20 and 2x
{
^=^
lo are perpen
3.
To find
34.
a point
(x'y'z') to
cos
o'
j^^
cos /3
OD
to
meet
it
Now
Then
^ cos
;K
= / when p =
and produce
iy cos
ft
\
z'
cos
p'
let
OD.
in D'.
The equation
x' cos
when OD'
=/.
PM
And X
{x' cos
x' cos
=.
cos
y'
{
p.
cos
z'
\
21
/3
z'
a^
cos
y5
cos
y p,
Kx
2.
Then
cos
f
By
D.
etc., etc.
^A^ + B^hC^
Hence
on the
is
it.
C0
f
the expression
{x' cos a
iy' cos
cos
^ z'
^ p)
becomes
(3, 2,
i)
on
the plane
3.r
T^i
Result.
9
^
[
4.y
V9+
6z
16+
24.
24
^
36
13
_j_
V 61
*35.
cos
=p
{
in
projec'ions.
The volume of
the triangle
point (x,
the tetrahedron
ABC/^r
y, z) in
the projections
its
base
which has
equal
is
to the three
the plane
of the area
for
the origin
its
vertex
and
bases
respectively.
For
let
ABC
X
the equation of
its
cos
\
cos
{
and
z cos
^=
plane.
Then
or
But
cos
a x
.
\.
cos
(3 .y
\K
cos
(3
\
^A cos
a X
cos a,
\
y,
+ A
.y
cos
+ ^A
cos
z :=
z =i
and
vertex,
and
A/> is
the
on the
common
^A/.
{x, y, z) as
Kp
volume
of the
22
and
for vertex
we may
To find
36.
OP =
Let
point
POS
Then
= 3 V.
+ A^
6,
(22)
perpendicular on plane
POD =
and
/3,
KyV
coordinates of a
of the plane.
OD =
Let
^p
angle
DOS =
OP
^^'^'^'^^the
POD =
cos
r as radius.
cos
Ce9,
or
cos
Now in
go.
Smt
r^^^
^ ^^g
^Og J^n^
OD
order to
as centre
Draw
on the sphere.
SPF, SD"D; MP'D' and D'T.
Prolong
D'OM'
a,
go.
with
Tf%
the theorem
the
r,
k^x
Hence
for base.
true.
is
sides
its
to D^'
SD"
^ cp.
ft
gj) ^^g gp
=:
o',
SP
6,
D"P
go
But
g.^
gj^,r
gjj^
gp
^^g j),,gp^
Or
i*J2..
"^^
cos
Therefore
Gj?
cos
cos
a cos
cos ^
sin
sin
ar
sin
6 cos
{/S
cp).
^) (23)
is
the
The
37.
Ax +
B>'
C0
=D
may
BV + Cz=
A'x +
And
z
m mx
z=z
m,
4
^+
{25)
by dividing by
= n and  =
and
c.
transposing and
putting
1.
The equation
general form
by
:r
2.
o, j^
Ax +
= 0.
By
o and
The equation
C2:
o, for the
is
of the
Kx +
form
to thQ axis of
.4.
xisBy
The equation
parallel to ^2:
By
is
Cz
T)
=D
xy
parallel to
Ax + By
is
one
parallel
is
Cz
in the
==
is
Ax = D
D.
forms
x= a, y=z ^,
To find
39.
and parallel
First,
ten
Cz
\
J).
Ax
is
Kx + Cz
is
The equation
3.
=D
23
to
the equation
a given plane
Ax \By \Cz=^V>'
coordinates
Hence by
(a,
<5,
r)
subtraction
A(^
we
a) +
Ax +
when D'
(2)
must
undetermined.
is
Therefore
satisfy (2).
Secondly, the
A^hB^ +
Q =D\
(jF
+
<^)
(0
^)
=o
or
(26)
Example.
point
40.
(i,
2,
To find
(x", y",
the equation
B and C
Ax
By
f
C0
i,
to
is
A^ + By' + C^^
we must have
=1
A^'"+By'^+a'"=i.
Hence
X,
I,
x'\
A=
B=
x,y,
X ,y
X ,y
It
tt
Substituting
II
these
x'\
x',y,
z'
I,
I,
z"
z"
C=
X ,y,
n
X ,y
III
values in the
x",
1
'
z
I.
equation
J<:'",/",
Ax +
'Ry
\
x\y\
II
III
v'",
x,y,
It
x",y",
z"
z'"
Cz
^ z
24
we have
s
I,
I,
y
,n f
ttt
X +
J + X ,y
I,
x,y,
^,J^^,
z'
= x"\
y"'
(27)
2rx
comparing
this
K,x
II
we
+ Ky
= 6V,
II
see that
4
Kz = 3V
That
is
6 times the
volume of the
pyramid which has the origin for vertex and the triangle of the three
This equation fully written out is
x {y'z"'y"z")+x"{y"z'yz"') +x"'iyz"y'z')=^6v.
(28)
of the planes which contain the line of intersectwo planes Ax + By + Cz = D and Ax' + By'+ Cz' = D'.
of the
ThisequationisAjr + Byf C0
when
is
trary
For
arbitrary.
particular value
and
is
it
this represents a
sa'isfied
it
When
42.
the identity
U = o,
equations
the
intersect
each
KU + KiUi + KgUg = o
U2=o, Us^ o of
other in one
and
planes which
and
line.
planes
these
This
of[
is
an
the
first
all
the
it
exists between
degree in x,
(30)
may be
of intersection
line.
This
all
parallel.
Example
JiLy
i.
The
planes
6a:
+ 22^ 3
o 2indy=
o.
two
2.
The
by 2x
planes represented
\
25
^y
42 =
{n
The
Example.
planes 2>^
\
\y
\
6z
2 \
4X
4y
{
6z
2 J
intersect in
{sx^4y + 622)
is
an
i) ^
because
^{4^ + 4y + 6z2)
/
=o
identity.
Wken
43.
{x + 2y+s2
line
Ug
o,
o,
U3
intersect each
U3
form
U = o,
U]
the identity
and
first
(31)
the
exists,
same
three
then
point.
U=
o,
= o.
First
we have
Kx +
By
C0
+ K (A'jtr + B>
^
Cz \)o
planes.
..
K=The
I.
required equation
(A
or
therefore
  {Mx + B> + Cz  i) = o
 A')
(B  B')^ + (C  C) := o.
+ By +
A.T
is
C^
:r
f
2.
OC =
Now NR
z
1.
is
Hence
+V =

and
26
hT i+K{
'X'
/ z
To
ij=:o.
determine
Hence we have
+ 
K \c^i
i f
XV
+VH
Ex.
9C)
3.
Find
in like
o ^ ^^/y^//
^^
^^^
45.
If
cos a:4j^cos/5 +
h^H
2.
in the
normal form
\y
p\Y^{x cos
as
cos
figure.
X
or
oca
y+
i.
same
,
Result,
manner
K=:
..
{a, b^ o).
jNI
== o.
the
is
a
we impose
fi'
\zzo^
y=zp\
is
+Z
cos y'
p')
=o
cos
/?'
cos y'
/)= o
\which represents the two plane bisectors of the supplementary angles
>
bisectors
of
the supplementary
equations in the
normal form
Example.
2^ + 3^+55
3^ + 4>'2.4
^^,
V2I
VI4
z cos y p and
Remark, If we place A = jv cos a\ y cos ji
/'.
.A' = X cos a'
y cos ^' z cos y'
Then A' A = o is the plane bisector of one of the angles beitween the planes A and A' and A + A' = o is that of the suppleResult,
j^
\
\
{
imentary angle.
46.
The
a common
three planes
line
which
of intersection.
Let
A = o, A'=
o and
A"
=o
be three
let
Then
A'
have a
A" A
o,
common
= o.
A' A"
=3 o,
vanish simultaneously,
together
27
is
the vertex.
it
line of intersection.
A= o,
A':=
o,
A"= o
The
three arcs of great circles which bisect the angles of this spherical
triangle
the
and
their
common
common
angles of a
Hence
demon
the above
circles
which
To find
the
point 0/ intersection
D,
Kx + B> + Cz =
We
have by elimination
D', A'x'
of
B'>
the planes
C'2
Kx +
D,
B,
A,
D,
A,
B,
D',
B',
A',
D',
A',
B',
D"
B",
C"
B,
(32)
A,
B,
A,
B,
A',
B',
A',
B',
A',
B',
A"
B",
C"
A"
B",
C"
Hence
C^r
D"
y
A,
D
D
A", B",
By
= D".
C
C
of intersection of the other two, or that the planes shall not meet in
a point,
is
ac,
^XA,
B,
A',
B',
A", B",
A(B'C"B"C')
47.
The condition
A.t.C^4''UA'.BUB".'f'*A
C
=
C"
A'(B"C
'^^
0, that is
=
+ IB^ + Cs + D
=0
A'jt: + B> + C's + E
=0
A";r + B'> + C"2 +D"
A"';^^^B"> + C"'2 + D"' = o
A;r
>'
shall
meet
in a point
is'
28
a;
b,
c,
A',
B',
C\
D'
A",
B",
C\ D"
A"', B'",
49,
We
C", D'"
o.
(33)
= o and
h!x{ Bj^
QJz
we combine
D'z=
number
^Cz
x we
If
shall obtain
we eliminate
_)^
we obtain
contain
we eliminate z we obtain
containing the" same line.
a plane
and
finally if
CHAPTER
IV.
THE STRAIGHT
T/ie equations
50.
their line
LINE.
represent
0/ intersection,
^,
^,
;;,
we eliminate
If
x and y between
alternately
these equations
we
~
(35)
to the
(35).
planes
line
= mzia, y = nz + d
on the planes of xz
useful.
The
2ind yz,
also the:
we eliminate
we
=i
get
A^
/J
t)
^or
in
71
yz=z
^
n x]q
VI
p the equa771
The
equations (35) of the straight line contain four arbitrary constants, VI, n, p, q^ to which we can give proper significance by com
= 77ix\h in
plane coor
dinate geometry.
The equations
(35)
maybe thrown
in the
^^=.2JZf=f
n
7n
form
(36)
^^ ^
To find
the equations
of a
line
straight line in
of a point
07i
by the equations;
te7'vis
of
the li7ie:
29
its
directiom
30
Let a,
(3,
on the
{x, y, z)
I
cos
/?
respectively.
^=.yb
line
/
cos
xa
yb
COS/i
COS)/'
COS
^^'^
and
is
xa
It
is
symmetrical
+ cos^ y
y3
holds,
To find the
52.
iox
If the equations
in terms oi
z.
lijie
given by
its eqicatiojis.
be in the form
X La = ^ =
y
y and x
^^
rr
L,
'
and
are proportional
]N
J\I
to the
So
that
we have
cos
M^ + N2
Hence
VL~fxM^ +
cosfJ=
N=^
^L^ + M^+^N^'
cosy
~VL ^4M^fN^
(38)
Hence to
Ax
K'x
we throw
+ Czz=zJ)
+ B> + C^^ = D'
\By
by eliminating y ajid x,
to
squares
line
xa
equal
any straight
and
y b
zc
of all
three.
of
the
sum of
the
hne
X p ^"^V q
we^yrltelt
==
jj
7iz^q
z
1
Hence
cos
/:j
cos
cos
(39)
Ex.
I.
y = 22 + s
y  301
To find
53.
the cosine
^^^
'
lines
^'^^'
2xisy\62 =z 24
3.r 4_y+20 r= 10
of ihe angle
hvo
heiiveen
lines
^
'^*
tions
xa
We
XT
Hence
rr
If the
^
rvu
Then
V=
cos
^'
cos
.r
v
cos a'
yb'
cos
M
V=
I.
/3
VIZ ] ^p
nz^q
,y
X
^^^^
71'
^^^
(40)
=: PI Z
V
\
p'
\
n z^q
=1.
(41)
?i'
and^^'=='
>'
y= 3^1
cos y',
m m' +
= nnji
V + + \^ 1 +?n^ +
x=22 + 6]
2.
cos
{
LU + MM'4NN'
Ex^
x a'
Ex.
lines
=2^2
(2)
lines
32
X
3 (0
5 + 12 V=
rns
The condition
54.
The
is
and
1'
"5
=4>
~2
(3)
VI26x38
V26.V38
equations in
X_3
3"_
^
in the forms
last article is
(42)
o.
(LM'L'M)2 + (LN^L'N)H(xMN'M'N7=.o
or irp=
forms
7nz\p
z=z
nz\q
y=
V
\
mvi' ^nn'
become
=1^:77(43).
iTFT
\\
viz\p^
/
n z\q
o,
and
(44)
vi
m\
7t
7t'
(45) respec
tively.
To find
55.
the condition
of the
=: nz\q
mz \p
is
derived by eliminating x,
VI
VI 'z \p'
^
and
/
^
q
,
Similarly
from the second and fourth z
^
=
m VI
two values of
xa
b _ zc
M ~ N
V
v
l>
'
^
There
are equal.
^^ + 3
y Z^l
)
\
x^zz^i\ ^^^j^
2z\q
two
q'
(46)
tersect.
If the
=!
^^ n z\q
first
we have
Ex. Find
p'
^,
7n
lines
ana
This
of two
intersection
form
.
,
^^^'
'^"~'^'_
""
y^^'
M'
_
~
^
"~
N'
'^^
.^_
the elimination of x,
ing
(i)=Kand
.*.
and
z can be effected
more
33
readily by writ
=K'.
(2)
xa = LK
Xa L
Similarly
h~V = M'K'MK
cc'
Therefore eliminating
= N'K'NK.
L, a a'
M, M', di>'
N, N', cc'
L,
or
o.
(47)
T/ze Straight Liite
The equations
56.
The equations
axes as
y,
a")
y = b\
z') is
'
the point
^
v^
we have seen
or
if
mx\p.
r=
To find the equations ofa straight line passing through a given point.
57.
If (x
are
^=^ c,
X
z^
the equation
jV"
'1/
y
Z
~ N~
2,
is
ivf
^^^^
the form
""
then
"
~ )
n\zz
Hence
if
the
all
=inz\q
\
)
yy'
,;
)
y (40).
)
58.
To find
the equations
[x\
y\
of a
z'z'
v'

x^'x
L
N
M
v
=:
^z
this to eliminate
or dividing?
(48)/ by
o \t
/
34
M^ and
L,
we have
xx^
If
yv _
__
z')
zz'
be
at the origin
become
tions
^=y=77^ find
59.
of a straight
equation
the
to
the
yh
Hence
,;
71
{zz
yv'
zz'
Then
71
,/
)
>
,.
hue be
and the given
^
y', z'
be of the form
~ mz\p
y nz\q.
^
"n^
(52)
n and
~"
Ar
is
m'(zz')
=:
^,
z= r=y.
XX
xx'
Vy
j^
^.
and nom the second^ condition
line
we must have
condition
first
litie
a given straight
Xa
From
(51)
;;/,
be
To find
60.
point
x\
Xa
I
y', z'
y
The
the equations
and perpendicular
h
7n
of a
'~
and
to
inter secti7ig
a given right
c
71
'
xx'
where L, M, and
first
yv'
zz'
are to be determined
1.1+lslmV^n
by the conditions
o (Art. 54)
li7ie
35
and
+ (^0')(L;;zM/)r:zo(Art.55).
(^jr')(M;^N;;2)+(3y)(N/L;z)
6i. Ex. I. Find the equation of the line joining the points (b, c, a)
and (C^^) ^^d show that it is perpendicular to the line joining the
and that it
origin and the point midway between these two points
;
is
2
a ==.
b
and
=: v =. z
Ex.
The
2.
straight
lines
Take
one of the
axes of ^, y,
Let M, M',
N, N',
tively,
M"be
MN,
We
(Mj,
N"
OA =
Let
Then
Hence
Then
N') (M",
2a
is (0,
b,
OB =
c)
2b
the equation of
OC
and
is (^,
MN
the equation of
OA,
(2) give
zz rr
"'
y y
,
,,
to
the points
0),
0,
is
M'N'
z
^
is
yb
b
M"N"
(2)
is
_y __zb~ c
and
OC respecOB and AB
and
=r 2c.
'y
(i)
as the
respectively.
iN^')
xa y
a ~ b~
Anid
OC
M"N".
M'N',
(]\r,
AC
==
,
apply
^
^^ ^ the equation
xx'
NO
origin
vertices as
z.
c
y =, z ,
(3)
(,,\2
satisfy (3)
/ hj^^ ^
36
ON SOLID GEOMETRY,
^'OTES
To find the
62.
given by
its
line shall be
perpendicular
be of the form
If the plane
we know
conditio7is that
a plane
to
equation.
/?,
cos
=z p (i)
cosines of the
And
If
any plane
cos
cos
cos
16
'
Ax + By + C0 = D be parallel
plane
to the
we must
have
B _
~ cosp ~~
A _
cos
and
if
X
cos
~
^
the line
j;
cos
Hence
^= cos
'
AT
~ N
'
C
cos
we must have
]\I
cos^
cos/y
cosy
'
Tr.u r
"u
If the hne be
.L
And
7iz\q
we write
be
Xp
J' O

= Z
it
or
= ?iC^Y
^
VI
==
;/
Ax + By + Cz
=D
(sO
^^"^^
be
(54)
;;/
The equation
:=i
shall
IN
1\1
= D will
Ax + Bv + Cz
ABC
~M~
=<
^^
L,
will
then be
<&'
and
37
To find
6^,
Now
the condiiion
xa
yb
if this
To find
line
Hence
must
line
satisfy
it
be perpendicular to
will
a straight
(56)
xa
with a given
yh
M ~ N
the condition
And
also
to
line of
fulfil
AL + BM + CN =::o.
must
and the
D.
The
=D
zc
is
Ax + By + Cz
1.
2,
5.
AL + BM + CN =
plane
(i,
^=3^^^^.
64.
40 =
given plane.
the form
o.
(57)
x=mz \p
y=i7iz{q
x and y
in the equation
\
)
Sub
of the plane,
we
have
A(m+/)+B(;/0 + ^) + C0
whence
7.^=^
^
Km^^n\C
And
for
= D,
A/ + B;7 D = o
Aw + B;^ + Cr=oj
(rg)
are
the
condi
tions of coincidence.
Note.
This
last
method
is
equation.
ON SOLID GEOMETRY,
AZOTES
38
terminate
tity
if
there be coincidence
we
treat this
equation as an iden
powers of z separately
equal to zero.
To find the
65.
o
I
Let
y',z')
1
But PA^
PA
AB given by
line
x a = vh=
hne be
cos p
cos a
cos
equation,
where
its
a, b, c
,.
tion of
on a straight
on the
line.
projec
on AB, we have
AD
=:
{xa)
^^{zb)
cos y.
Hence
YVi'^^x' a)''\{y bY y[z' cY{{xa) cos
+
2.
a^{yb)
yb
y5
'(59)
^
be of the form
xa
cos
(0^) cos;/).
Then
cos
And
a:
A
= =====
etc., etc.
therefore PD'^
be
:= mz\p
^=.
jiz^q
Then PD^
To fijid
66.
lines
two straight
PB and
is
a straight line
AB
perpendicular to both
SR.
And
L,
M,
= the
lines.
AB.
'
3g
L
L
cos
cos
^ + M cos /? f N cos y
a h M cos /5' + N cos y'
=o
= o.
Whence
L
cos
cos ^'
cos
cos y'
cos
~"
cos
N
cos
VL'+ lAP+N'
(cos
/3
COS
y'
cos
/3^
COS
a'
]8)2
.<
I
sin
(Art. 15).
Now
AB
P be
let
{a\ b\ c)
itself,
AB
the point
=:
[a, 5, c)
Then
on the
line
PB and Q
as the projection of
be the point
PQ
on
AB
is
=:
(62)
(a aO(COS^COSv' C07C0S^')+(^ ^')(COSaCOSY' C0Sa'C0S7)+(C C')(COSaCOSj8' COSa'COSjS)
""
sin 6,
If the given lines are expressed in other forms
cos
/?,
etc.
we can
find cos a,
in {^^2),
CHAPTER
V.
TRANSFORMATION OF COORDINATES.
To transform^
67.
nates
to
of which referred
Let
OA
=: X,
AN
to the
^=i
y,
FN =
a, b,
new
c.
to
O and the axes Ox, Oy and Oz. Also let O' be the new
origin, and OA' 1= a, A'N' b, N'O' == r be its coordinates and let
O'H 1= x\ HK z=zy' and PK = z be the coordinates of P referred to
O' as origin and axes parallel to the original axes.
Then x = OA = OA' + A'H.
the origin
Similarly
and
:=
a^x'
c\z'
we
obtain the
remaining the
to
oj'igin
sa?ne.
Let Ox, Oy, Oz be the old axes at right angles to each other Ox',
Oy\ Oz the new axes inclined to each other at any angle
OM = X, MN =y, NP =
NT = z\
Now the projection of the broken line OM'f MN' + N'P on the
axis Ox is equal to the projection OM of the radius vector OP on
Ox. Let cos a, cos (3, cos y be
new axes make with the axis Ox
then
40
axes
a\ cos
make
/?',
and
/5",
make
shall
Hence
z.
+y cos /3
+y cos
y X
cos
^
a
x'
co^
we
with Oz,
X =:
We
new
41
X' cos
{Z
COS
f5'
^z'
cos y'
13"
{z'
co^y".
(64)
have of course
cos'
a + cos'
+ COS^ y
r=z
+cos'
/ =
cos' <^''+C0S'/5"
+ C0S'
;^" r= I.
/?
>
(B)
For the angles A, fi, 1^ between the new axes ofy and z\ of 0' and
x\ of x' and y respectively we have
cos A
cos
yu
COS
cos
= cos
a" co?>
cos
a"+
a +
<x' +
cos
(3^
cos
cos /5"cos
cos
cos
69.
>
(C)
rectangular.
The
= o,
cos
=0 and
cos a^ cos
cos
a" cos
cos
cos
new axes
same
A=o,
cos
}x
o.
(D)
Since between the nine quantities there are six equations of conditions, (B)
cos
independent.
f3,
70.
etc.,
quantities, cos
etc.,
is
new
made by the
that the
among
of,
with the
For
new
rectangular axes,
must have
cos'
a! + cos' a"
+ cos'/5' + cos' (3"
y + cos' y + cos' y"
a + cos'
zn
cos' /^
^\\
cos'
z=z
(E)
etc.,
we
42
cos
a
a
cos
cos
ji
cos
COS
cos /?4cos
a cosy5'+cos a^
+ cos
7' + cos
;k
;k'
= X cos
y = cos
X
a:
r=
z'
COS
in
flf''
cos /5"
To do
/5" cos
/"
Then
=AxhBy,
2:
this
angle
cp
which
x'Oy be
Let
cp
(F)
>
)
referred
Then PR
OQ
=:
cos
6,
and
let
ji^'
B;^
xy
in the line
o.
OR = x\ RM =y
and
=j;,
PM =
Os:.
^ be
Then
the coordinates of
=zy
sin
=y
cp,
M
d
sin 6,
QP= OR
sin
cpRT
sin
cos
cp.
and the
M in
V^l
^4RP
/. z
And
the plane
cp.
=/ cos
OR
makes with
be the axis of
OP
x,
in
to
XOX'
OQ =
often
it is
coordinates
also let
(F)
\
)
and
the given
fix
traces
it
Oy
we must
is
it
=:
to
71.
xy
cos y'z=.o
as z
cp y
cp
(65)
Y{x, y, z)
o the result
will
be a relation bet^veen
x andy,
coor
Let
many
in the plane
zx the
axis of x',
axes, the
PM=a;',
OM y.
O^'
its
trace
the coordinates of
nates of
MQ =. X
ON
in the section,
NQ
=3 x,
cos
d,
PQ = X
sin
ft
*.
^=.y,
QP =
43
z the coordi
tion are
= x' cos
y=y'
z
That
is,
we have only
to
^=z
x'
make x
sm
(66)
:= x' cos
6,
z =: x^ sin
d,
^y in
the equation of any surface, in order to find the equation of the section of this surface
CHAPTER
VL
THE SPHERE.,
73.
To fijid
1.
In rectangular coordinates.
Let
a,
the equation
sphere,
is
then (Art.
i)(.r
^)' + (jV
if
x'\f^z^^V^\
2.
In oblique coordinates.
Let
A,
if
the equation
t^
is
(Art. 16)
z=
R^
(69)
^^ + j^
2:^
+ 2a7cos
3.
In polar coordinates
Let
r',
tion
(68)
//,
2[xa)(zc)
or
= R.
^)' + (2 0'=R (67)
b^ c
The equation
or
of the
R^
(70)
is
r^
+ r 2rr'(cos
equation
cos {cp
/3)) = R\
(71)
0,
the
is
Y^= 2R
Since that
is
cos
e,
(72)
any one of
positions.
44
its
74.
The equation
((i^])
may be
written
x'i/+2'{'Dxi'Ey + F2
or
Auxd
since this
45
+G
o,
{js)
may be made
to fulfil /bur conditions (which are compatiFour given conditions give four equations for
determining the constants D, E, F, G, and with these determined
we know the radius and centre of the sphere, for we have only by
sphere
ble)
and no more.
is
to
1.
is
2/
J32
p2
 + +
G.
A, e,
x^^y''^z'^'Y){xd)\Y.{ye)\Y{zf)d'e'^f':=^o,
If the given point be the origin the equation
from
the axis
f,
is
(74)
is
o.
(75)
of z
at distances c
and d
the origin is
x^\f^{zc){zc)^T)x^Yy^ o
must give two values
for
0,
and
c,
^
for"^^^
(76)
and
this
equation
fulfils
that
condition.
3.
the axis
of z at a
distance
cfrom
the origin is
x^^y'^\{zcY\^x^Y.y
dent values of
when
"
46
4.
all three
origin.
To meet
when
>
the
same equal
'
when
Z
for
""
^
x when
roots for
as
Let
be
x'2ax^y'2ay\z''2az^a^ =.Q
above conditions.
(78)
the origin
and having
its
x'\f\z'^2Rx.
6.
to the
(79)
(a,
b)
is
{xaY^{yhy\z\Yz^o (80)
for
then
75.
0=0
Interpretation
of the expression
(^xaY^{yhY^(zcy^\
1.
Let
(jc,
ji',
2:)
PM^
{^xaY^^yVf V[z'cY'^\
the
<:)
QY^^^xaY^{yhY\(zcY
and hence
point
P without
is (a, h,
Now
(i)
is
to the sphere.
Join
2".
PM
in
i\I,
OP and
and join
OM.
Then P]\Pi=OM"^OP
is
^y
P perpendicular
to
the radius
through P.
of two
The
Def.
spheres,
to tlje
is
is
{xaY^{y^hY^{zcy^^'{{xay^{y^hJ^{zcJ^^')
o
For this expresses (Art 75) that the squares of the tangents from
point {x, y, z) to the two spheres are equal^ and moreover it is an
equation of the
of a plane.
plane
degree in x,
first
y and
of intersection.
may be
It
is
'
six
their radical
is
their
easily
tres.
J J, The
spheres intersect
If the
of four
radical planes
spheres intersect in a
common
point.

Let S
spheres.
= o,
S' zn
Then
=o
S''
S'"= o be
SS"
^o
SS"'z=o
S"S'"
S"'=:o
S'
as to vanish simultaneously
common
planes
is
point.
and therefore
spheres.
78.
Examples
1.
^^fy
+ 2^ 2^ + 3;' 52:
0.
four
ON SOLID GEOMETRY,
A'OTES
48
5jc^
x^\y^
2.
+ z^ =
o.
320.
the points
i, 2,
~i,
3,
4, 5>
3. o^ i
CHAPTER
CYLINDERS, CONES,
79. Cylinders.
Def.
VIL
The moving
line.
which
it
is
straight line
is
always intersects
is
called the directrix ox guiding curve, the fixed straight line the axis,
*
80.
Let m,
And
which
let
7n
the axis.
its
n,
equation
of a
cylinder.
3^
(0 ^^ ^^
axis.
(2)
'
2=0
we obtain
Now making
=o
in
xpyq
which the
and q between
(i)
and
(3)
we obtain
Y{xmz,ynz)^:^o
(82)
Y{x,y)
= o,
(83)
is
8i.
of second
We
order.
^g
To find the
Here Y(x,y)
equation
1,
= x^ +/
%\\^%(xmzY\{y'nzf^^o
To find
3.
is
F(^) = o
X^
be
curve in plane
^y
^
^
Then {x,y)
a^
that
If
is
1/2
+^ =
i.
b'
X
^+^1=0
V
is
b''
(x
mzY
The equation
4.
(y nzY
"^
a'
b'
X
V
+ ^=:
^,2
.^2
axis
is
5.
axis of
the axis of z
is
F{Xy y)
o,
that
is,
i.
is
the
82. Cones.
Def.
cone
is
The
fixed point
is
^'^,
To find
the
the generator,
line
moving
xa = y~b
zc
(i)
{a, b, c)
,
j
,.
in the
Now
(2).
directrix
and
(i)
we
if
(2)
the result will be the equation to the cone, the locus of the right
line (i).
Making
which
= o in
result will
5
x andy,
namely,
2ZI
a
,
mc
)
>
50
xy and these
=o
=o
Y{amc, bnc)
will
consequently
We
have therefore
But from
(3).
satisfy
and therefore
'
m =
(i)
F(^, y)
=
z
becomes
(3)
or
the general equation of cones.
and
(85)
If vertex
be on axis of
becomes F(
,
z,
then a
=o
=z o.
(86)
cone
and the
at the origin
is
and the
directrix will
be
To
We
(i).
^
^
Hence we have
thus get
Y{niCj nc)
^^ nic
:=zi
it
then the
(2)
directrix
we
=0,
nc
but
/?/
X
=
Therefore
and
=V from
(i).
F(f,f)=o
is
make0r^<:in
directrix in a
from
=z'=z
~
=c
^^^
The equation
85.
(87)
is
homogeneous equation
1.
The
eqiiaiion
in
of an
x,y and
circular base.
The equation
of the directrix
is
Y{x, y)
= x^\y^ R^ =
Hence
z,
C J
o.
'
or
(88)
2"^.
of the directrix
z=^
or
Ar^4y=j(0 r)^
axis of
3.
^[cx ^cy\
F(
~)==o
\zc zc)
^
Hence
axis of
The equation
^
^
IS
base, the
c^x^
is
,
This
(89).
is
c.
^4
cY
'
,,
^,
R'
<sr.
the origin
and circular,
or hypej'bolic bases.
elliptical,
The equations
F(jt:,j^')=;vH/R'=o
2:
Hence
f ex
Ff
cy\
,
^\=zo
The equations
c^x^
cY
^
of the elliptical
^ +^.  ^ o
I
Hence
^H
gives
and
R^
R^=:ooTx'^'{y=~.z\
and hyperbolic
,~  1
= 0)
the elliptical
=.
Z =:
directrices are
respectively.
o)
cY
f
^ + ^^.ioor+z=x'
c'x'
c'x''
86.
(90)
cY
x"
z'
(91)
Surfaces of Revolution.
To find
the
the axis
of z.
to
52
OM = x, MN =jk, NP = z the
= ON^ = O^P + i\IN^ or r'  x'^y'.
Then
SP^
That
is,
erator)
coordinates of P.
r=L^x^\y^
is
But r being an
(i).
= F(0)
(2).
we have
(93)
Vy+? = F(.v).
Surfaces of revolutmi of secojid
87.
.*.
(94)
07'dei\
V^'+y^
F(2^)
gives
x+y
=:
a^,
= ??i^{zcy
Hence or^+y
^=z
'S:^
V^t^My
4^. Equation
The
The equation
= "f a^ z^
or
x'^
+y^\z^
generator
is .
z^
+ 7^ =
or r^
al
the revolution
= a^i^(3^
of an
one of the
ellipsoids
l
v^
2:^).
is
_^ + _=i.
oc^
or
is
conjugate axis,
Hence
is
a^ or r z=z^fa^z^.
Hence
its
made by
3.
This
The
2.
about
z.
= a.
is
(o, o, c).
is r^
of^r.
is
1.
the
Therefore
ordi
we must have by
V^^' = F(2)
(gen
z^
(96)
oblate spheroid.
ellipse
about
Take
ellipse
the axis o{
of the generator
is
x^
^
r^
5
0'
the equation
32
= aC'^'^ ^^).
Then
a
or r^
53
Hence V^'^ +
'S:^
Y{x) gives
^=1
(97)
of one
its
of
When
sheet.
of
it
it
When
the Hyperbola
revolution of
two
(2;^f<5^).
or r^ =:
Hence
is
Then
r
x'^
generator
^
for the
5*
sheets.
Take
(:v^ a^).
<5
or r^
^^=1.
89. Equation
Hence
(99)
gen
sheet.
the axis of
it
sheets.
2.
Definitions.
revolution.
conjugate axis
generator
is r^
of the Surface
the axis
ofx.
^dx.
isj'^
2:^
Adx.
(100)
CHAPTER
VIII.
ELLIPSOIDS, HYPERBOLOIDS,
89.
To find
moves
AND PARABOLOIDS.
of an
Ellipsoid.
is
fixed ellipses
semiaxes
QPR
position, having
AC, BC, so
ON
z,
Then
centre in
NM = x^ MP y be
^ ^^ =z
I
QN^
^=i__
z'
h^ve
OC
and two of
QN,
its
are
its
semiaxes
And
i.
RN
since
RN^
.,
^
Similarly
is
on the
ellipse
also let
in
it:
AC we
2'
^= I.
x^
"(7:) '(;.)
2^
1/2
X^
To deternwie
x^
the equation
the form
y^
^l^ +
of the
z^
^=
i,
ellipsoid from
its eqiiaiio7i.
Since in
and
is
a,y between
limited in
on
trace
b,
is
between
and
r,
the surface
equation to the
for the
i,
b^
AB.
02
X^
If
and
we obtain ^ +
a
which
xy,
all directions.
0=0
we put
If
and
55
ellipse
AC.
a*
,2
If
we put
:v
= o we have '^=.1.
BC.
or the ellipse
These three sections by the coordinate planes are called the principal sections, and their semiaxes a, h, c, are the semiaxes of the ellipsoid
If
and
we make
which
it
has
six.
we have
z^=^h
d^'^ b^~~^
c"'
is
an
ellipse similar
AB, since its axes are in the ratio oi a to b, whatever be the value
of ^, and which becomes imaginary when h ^ c.
In the same manner all sections parallel to xz^ and yz are ellipses respectively similar
to AC and BC.
The whole surface consists of eight portions precisely similar and equal to that represented in the figure.
to
Cor,
If3=athe
x'^
ellipsoid
becomes
\
y^
z^
hy
the ellip
soid of revolution about the axis of z. Art. (87), all the sections of
which by planes parallel to_>';^, are circles. Hence the spheroids may
be generated by a variable circle moving as the variable ellipse, in
Def. Art. (89).
^
91.
to the
hyperboloid
of one
sheet.
Definition.
This surface is generated by a variable ellipse, which
moves parallel to a fixed plane, and changes so that its vertices rest
on two fixed hyperbolas, whose planes are perpendicular to each
other, and to the plane of the moving ellipse, the two hyperbolas
having a
common
their planes.
Let
OC =
of z
AQ
and
c their
BR
common
OA = a, OB =
ellipse in
its
QPR
the generating
its
centre in
56
OC, and
its
NQ, NR,
its
semiaxes.
PQR
MN = ^, MP =7, ON =
Also, let
AQ, BR,
are
z,
then the
gives
NQ^
AQ
NR'
'
And
NR^
BR
from hyperbola
0
~f^""
^'^
Hence^
+./.=.
\
S^
""?"+
or
92.
To determine
r/S^
^
the
~r
form of
the hyperloloid
of one
from
sheet
its
equation.
x^
y^
^ + ^
If
hyperbola
AQ,
on
^r)^
xz and
and z
and
all
we obtain
w^hich
^'2:
is
AB.
the ellipse
Similarly
x^
are respectively ^
and^ =
positive
extended indefinitely on
is
we put
the hyperbola
z^
^~
The
BR.
^^^
ellipse
AB
and the hyperbolas AQ and BR are the principal sections. The sections
The
parallel to xy are all ellipses similar to and greater than AB.
sections parallel to xz and j^ are hyperbolas similar to the principal
sections.
<:\/ I.
The
extremities
volume of
this
The
one
since
of
the
surface
sheet.
a:
real
is
o and
axes
^=.0 give z
are
called
the
The hollow
space in
=
is
the inte
AB
is
the
If 3
=^
the equation
becomes
57
^=
that of the
to
xy
all circles.
To fifid
93.
Definition.
moves
This surface
is
with
its
parallel to
itself,
and
of two
sheets.
generated by a variable
ellipse
which
common
^nd
ver
transverse
axis.
xy,
in the ellipse.
v'^
Then
4
RN^
jr~,
X'
jv^
^a
U"
Hence
x^
RN^
AR
,4.
QiV
'
QN
AQ
z"
r2
^.TT^r^
(103)
To
sheets from
its
equa
tion.
common
results, therefore
parallel
transverse axis
\.o
yz through
vertices of the
satisfied
by values
58
oi X, y,
to
If
~
v^
we have
h^
have
in
y =
j^
AQ and
For
^=i
an imaginary curve
h and h'^ a
+ ^ =
i
r^
ellipses.
parallel
respec
2:
j^ a hyperbola similar to
AR
with
The
we
vertices
its
and conjugate
axis
parallel to Oy,
perbolas similar to
AQ
AR
with vertices in
parallel to Oj, za
and
The
opposite branch
its
is
it
z.
The
Cor. If d =:
the equation
Hence
interval.
becomes
y^
1.
sheet
X^
its
equation
y^
x^
z^
y +
c'^
j\^z=L~^{i\
J
is
its
the equa
transverse axis.
to the
Putting
Z'
a"
name.
^r =
x^
~
its
V*
^7^
Y"
(^)
in the
Now when
cone,
form
is
very great
increased
j.
(2)
without limit
X^
~~Y
its
y2
'jr
is
^2
"T
(3)
Moreover,
and
its elliptical
having
NOTES ON SOLID GEOMETRY.
same
we have
and
(i)
(2) respectively
+ 4^ =
^K
y^
x^
^ +
a^
This cone
b^
x^
x^
y^
^T +
^
^
a ^ rr 4
and with an
^~
as a limiting
form of
elliptical
at the
origin
Moreover,
same
For putting
plane.
we have
z^
h^
= ^
z'
x:=i
in (i)
and
(2)
a^
c^
h'
is
To find the
equation
to the elliptic
This surface
Definition.
whose vertex
w^ ^^ve
+ ^
r
1'^
96.
elliptical
This cone
2"
(i)
cone.
respectively
^
=1
~2
an
(2)
I
z^
/^ +
'~yI
when^ and
equation
,h\Yi
V^
~^
b'
this
sheets
TT
is
2.
k^
= ^
r
4^
For putting
plane.
59
lies
on a
is
paraboloid.
two parabolas
being perpendicular to each other, their axes parallel and their concavities turned in the same direction.
Let
OR
at,
and
and
axis parallel to
ON = X, NM
also
draw
=^v,
RM'
Ox, and
MP
=:
/ its latus
its
its
rectum;
RP
let /'
denote
its
latus rectum.
parallel to Oy.
its
the generating
OR,
Also
let
in it;
6o
Then
z'
= l\ RM =
.*.
7^ determine
97.
the form
of the
to the surface.
elliptic
is
sections parallel to
OR,
If
jv.
to
OQ, with
to
OQ.
If
equation.
its
= o,
we makej^'
OQ, and
all
vertices in
with vertices in
no
is
tion
paraboloidfrom
are admissible,
2:*= I'x
sections parallel
OR
similarly, all
we make x
we have
z'
Ih'^l'h^'
Therefore the sections parallel to
^are
similar ellipses,
and hence
its
name.
Cor.
If
/=3
the equation
becomes x+z'^
= Zr,
the paraboloid of
revolution.
To find
98.
This surface
Definition.
whose vertex
lies
on a
is
Let
OR
their con
any
ing parabola in
let
two parabolas
and
and
parallel,
I denote
its
.r,
and
position, vertex in
latus rectum,
it
RP
the generat
axis parallel
ON = x, NM
and
in
OR,
draw R*M'
to O.r,
MP =
y,
0,
to Oy,
parallel
Then
2^=/'.
but
Hence
99.
The
To determine
MR
and/^/.OM';
OM'MRz= ON =
x
the form
.r.
of the
hyperbolic paraboloidfrom
its
.v, >',
equation.
and since
z,
as great
NOTES
we
as
6l
origin.
If
bola
tions parallel to
we
If
z^/ 1
y \/r
z=i
oiyz, and all seczx are parabolas .^qual to OQ with their vertices in
we have^^
Ix the parabola OR, and sections
Making
OR.
parallel to
Tr
i/i
In
making x
In
%
we have
/i
a hyperbola with
=1
its
in
vertices
in yz,
tions parallel to yz
z^
777
a hyperbola with
its
vertices in
In
The
infinite axis.
1
00.
A symptotic planes
The equation
io
7
^2
j;2
r~~j^
and
^=
when
V
or
V/
V =
become
x may be
/
^
"^
rx\
2"
written
which has
for
its
,
limiting form
^^
V/
a//
7
=H
t=
and
'S/I'
z
=.
loi
ellipsoid
ITie elliptic
and
and
hyperboloid
Take
the centres
of the
of these
to infinite distance,
x^
the equation
v^
z^
^ + 4r + ^ =1, and
0^
a^
c^
when
62
the
left
(New
^, o, o).
coordinates being
{xaf
^^
\
or multiplying through by a
y^
^^
h tf
^^
which
and
tions
in
^'^
xy and
which remain
Now make
zx.
equal to
finite,
and /
00,
and put
and
respectively.
becomes
(i)
/.
^ =
102.
"^^
a
in
L
2jt:,
which we have
A;tHBy + Cs^=D
(i)
^f^Qz'^kx
(2)
and we
will
may by
The
show
first
form
(i)
For
have centres.
the equation
is
elliptical
.r,
y^
if
and
is
is
a point P'
be written
for
for ever}^
point
which
{x, y, z) in (i)
{x,
j',
z)
on
passes through
bisected in O.
all
2lx^
principal
(2) includes the elliptic and hyperbolic paraboand the parabolic cylinder which have a centre at an infinite
distance.
The
may be
no
A = o when
and
63
centre.
Examples.
1.
r^asin^cos^.
is
^V^<f^^^^^
W^f ^^^^(f
/^
Find the locus of the point the sum of the squares of the dis^^ ^^
2^/^'=^'^'~^~ '^
/j=*
constant/<^v<^/v
is
tances of which from n fixed points
ratio of the distances of which
3. Find the locus of the point the
2.
.,
it
^^/Jv^
from two fixed points is constant. ^^^'^ ,>:v^v^y^^
'^'1$:^l^^o
motion of a
4. Find the equation of the surface generated by the
variable circle whose diameter is one of a system of parallel chords
of a given circle to which the plane of the variable circle is perpendicular.
5.
The
= a cos
q)
cos d
=z a cos
sin ^ V
z
6.
The
ellipsoid
may be
The hyperboloid
s>ixi
cp
x=^
a cos cp co^ 6
y=
b cos
s
7.
=a
= ^ sin
^
(p
of one sheet
%^^V1 */
sin ^
>
may be
tions
= a SQC o) cos 6
y z=z
z
8.
The hyperboloid
= c tan
q)
of two sheets
4,y
i,
'
may be
tions
=^ a sec q)
y=
z
9.
line
moves so
d tan
q) V
c cos
6 tan
q?
P on
its line.
on it move on three
Find the locus of any other
point
d sin
64
Solution
Let the three fixed planes be the coordinate planes {x\yyZ) the coordinates
of P.
A, B, C the points in which the line meets the coordinate planes oiyz^
xy, respectively.
Take VA=a, PB=^, PC=^, ON=;r, NQ=jr, QP=2,
<ACA'=r<p, <CBx=zB (CA' being the projection of CA on the plane xy and B'
the projection of B on the axis of x).
Then x=:a cos cp cos Q^yz=zd cos q) sin 0, z=:c sin (p, and therefore the sur
xz,
'
face
is
10.
is
an
ellipsoid.
equal to
11.
which
12.
all
elliptical
paraboloid as a surface
axes
axis
in
'
14.
15.
dinates.
a,
= ^7t
in rectangular coor
CHAPTER
IX.
into
and
which can
into those
belong
he
viz.
straight line
which cannot.
to the cylinder
of a
ellipsoid being a closed finite surface does not possess this property
nor the hyperboloid of two sheets, since that consists of two surfaces
nor the elliptical paraboloid, since that is
separated by an interval
;
The equation
^^
r=
may be
X''
written
(A)
is satisfied
i
(B)
 + a
also
yL
b'
^x
and
b'
(^r)er)(+i)(i)=Now
sheet.
by the pair
\a
X
OT
6*
+ y
+r
(C)
66
And m
lines,
and
of these
all
lie
on the hyperboloid
as the
two equations
which also
lie
may be used
No
"I
i=i'i
f +7
Combining
the
first
{m'
Combining
^O^)/
w")
y]
=0
first
of (2)
we obtain
01 yb.
we
have
{rn'
These values
106.
for
j^^
m")
(^i
+ ^\ =
or
=^L
Any generator of
the system
(B) will
intersect
intersect.
any generator of
Take
(:r)=i
1
^
\a
c I
bj
67
(4)
of system (C).
='( 1)
(:r)
Eliminating x, j\ and z we obtain the
identity m'm^'
= m^ni!\
107.
No
straight line
lies
of generating
lines
(B)
d?r
to
(C).
if possiJDle,
hyperboloid,
lie
on the
it
surface.
of a
straight line resting on three fixed straight lines which do not intersect, and
In the
which
is
tions
it
is
same plane.
necessary that the motion of a right line
For, since
tions.
to the
place
first
would
fix
its
position absolutely
is
its
will
less the
always be on a certain
Take then
move
straight lines,
it
in such a
will trace
manner
Now,
if
generating lines.
For the moving line meets the hyperboloid in three points (one
on each of the fixed straight lines), and hence must necessarily lie
wholly upon the surface. For the equation of intersection of a line
and this surface being a quadratic equation, if satisfied by more than
two
line,
roots,
it is
satisfied
therefore, in
boloid.
its
The moving
straight
hyper
by an
infinite
number.
68
and (C)
Y +
For
this
lie
generators 0/ the
to
on the cone
~2"
TT
may be
J/
(fn)=
(f7)
y^
b' b'
which gives two systems of lines through the origin lying on the
cone, one system evidently parallel to the lines (B) and the other to
the lines (C).
no. The
projection
principal planes^
is
The equation
of a generating
tangent
to the traces
of
line
upon
either system
of the surface on
the
those planes.
is
"^*
a"
The
c,
m^
(X
z\
or
x

2m
''
This condition
^m^
a^
{m'\iy
Hence
x^
z^
a^
c^
^
III.
on xz
m^\i
+ +  =2m;
\acjac
[
Now,
^m^
c'
is fulfilled
c'^
r ^
a^
is
m^
2m
f
4 \
=i
r=i.
/
(i), for
^i
2^2
{im'Y
this projection is
The straight
The equation
line
shall
CSL.
r
(i).
'
^
p^
by the projection
m^
i
\
be
IT
69
niay be written
*^
= X.
And
hence
it is
satisfied
=
V~i
vix
V/'
(D)
m
or by the pair
V
s/
z^
= mx
V/
(E).
VI
Hence
/ y_
!^'
(D)
and (E).
The
lines
The
y^ +
=
V/
V/
112.
We
and (35)
o and
== o.
V/
^/l'
that
line of either system intersects all the lines of the other system, 'and
that
no other
hyperbolic paraboloid.
surface two lines
And
And hence
lie
on the
on three
also
which are
by a straight
all
line
parallel to the
is
con
which
rests
same plane.
113. The projections of the generating lines on the principal planes are
tafigent to the principal sections
The
principal section in
of the paraboloid.
xy is^ = Ix (i).
70
The
2y
=
Now
mx\
or v
= m^J
Hence
/;tr
i
and
if /
Distinctions
of
is
then
of the form
=:
2m
is
sia'faces
of
secoiid order
(2)
24/
4/
is
y7
'
x\
^
114.
xy
y = Zr.
generated by straight
lines.
or developable surfaces.
perboloid of one sheet and the hyperbolic paraboloid, the generators of neither system intersect or are parallel.
twisted or
faces
is
skew surfaces.
The
plane.
115. Plane sections
If
we
intersect
we
will obtain
we
intersect
it
=D
=D
by a plane z =^ a we have
section
Kx' + Bf + 2Cxy^2G'xV2liy\'fpi.=
T>\
we may confine
the origin.
116.
a surface of
Take
A.r^
the nature
71
the intersection
of
the equation
curve of intersection in
And
its
own plane
Make
x^= X
cos q)
4y
cos d sin cp
y z= x'
sin q?
y'
cos 6 cos cp
=y
sin 6,
cos^<7?
4y^((A
+B
sin^ (p
sin^ cp)
+B
+ 2xy{k
cos'^ cp)
B) cos 6 sin
cp
cos cp
2AV cos
cp
cp,
(AB)^
AB
or
cos'
cphC
(??(A cos'
is
Hence
The
9?
^ BC
is
an
sin^ cp sin' ^,
ellipse
may be
(i)
because A,
ellipses,
cp
6*)
B and
parabolas or
and C
will then
be negative.
Hence for the elliptic paraboloid in
For paraboloids A =r o.
which B and C have the same sizes the section is an ellipse except
;
when ^
o or
(^
in
which cases
it is
a parabola.
is
a hyperbola except
when
^=0
or
^=0
when
it is
parabola.
117.
axes
it
Circular sections.
cannot be a
is
referred to rectangular
>J2
(A B)
or
or
C7
which shows
dicular
to 0716
th2it
7t
/or a
cos 6 sin
7t
or 9:?=
^=
or
o
must
118. Let us
^=o
cos
cp
now examine
be
perpen
surface,
the surfaces
of
cular sections.
Take
first
and
therefore represented
by the equation
+ B/4C0^=
A:v^
(i)
I.
Since every circular section must be perpendicular to a princicutting plane contain the axis of
and make
xy
To
y^
make
= x'
cos d
x'
sin 6.
Art
{^2),
Hence we have
x'\\
which represents a
cos^
+C
sin* 6) f B/'^
(2)
circle if
cos^
or
We
(5
e+C
_
tan^
for
sin^
(9
r=
BA
= C^B'
B
,
^^^
it
is
For the
Hence
ellipsoid
for a real
is its
mean
6 b must
B=7^, C
lie (in
is
axis.
ne
we must put
A = ^, B =
..
/.
>
<5
<3:
tan
l9
= ay
is
73
=~
T7X2
r
+ 0'
axes.
3.
and
im
negative,
A B C~
^>r
,*.
is
aginary axes.
an angle 6 or i8o 6
sets
may be inclined
Hence there are two
Since tan
at
to the
plane of x}\
the surface
00
119. Secondly.
2Mx
If
or o, and
centre,
other,
we
take
(i).
for circular
sin
^ ==
sections
principal section
we must have
the condition
whose
latus
rectum
is
sin^^
= B,
or
perpendicular to the
is least.
signs, sin
tions.
120.
Then,
to
sum
up,
all
admit of two
sets
of planes of cir
74
cular sections.
whose centre
variable circle
121.
The
is
on a diameter of the
surface.
may be found
directly
from
The
may be
written
or
\/AB;k:4^
VBC.0=:O
Hence
on which
The equation
122. Sections
The
all
may be
treated in a similar
0/ Cones and
Cylinders.
may be
"i^
the
same
plane, as
is
parabola, or hyperbola.
ticularly.
r^
0(?'\y^z=.
..,,,,..:
"J
tafil!)
For
always ^'*^
made by
Hence
(when
(2)
circles.
1,
VAB a: VBC.0 = o
the surface in
elliptic
it
(i)
(z
cY,
put
or
x'^\y^
x=x'
=
'
cos ^
^^=y
z
= x'
'
sin
'
tan^ v
(^0*
75
y^(cos^ ^tan^ V
^<z=>
tan
sin'*
ellipse, parabola,
> = < o,
is
that
x=x'
cos 6,y
tersection
=y in
is x'^
=o
(i).
or hyperbola,
is
according as
v.
2.
6^c^
equation
its
cos^ 04y^z=z
an
x^+y
i= r^;
axis of
,\
^,
we make
ellipse.
+f
x^
9
for the point (2, 3 ?)
2.
on the
z'
surface.
/"^
i)
on the
surface.
j
+ 4rH9^'=36
^x:'^^fl^z'^\^^
x'^zf^Az'=i2
6x'fsy=3^^'
4.
find
(i)
:^^S^' o
(2)
^xtfx^r
(3)
x^"^^:^':. J
(4)
plane xz
5.
^^^
~
2"
its
vertex.
Find the sections of the cone x^\y={z2y by planes conxy of 30, 45, and 60''
x'+y+=i
4
CHAPTER
X.
0/ second
We
kx*
By'
order.
C2''+2A>+2B'2a:+2C'.r>' + 2A";tr
2B'> +2C"0 +
F=o
to polar coordinates
by writing x ^^
Ir,
^=z
mr, z
= nr,
(when
(I)
m, n
/,
/^(A/'
Hence
Tangent Plane
to
line
surfaces
is
o.
(2)
and
if
these
of second
order.
Let the origin be on the surface (and therefore F=: o) then one
of the values of r in (2)
is
= o.
Now,
vector shall touch the surface at the origin, the second root
o,
this
for this is
by r and replacing
/r,
mr^ nr by x,yj
A";, +
Hence
A'7+B'V;z + C;/
B> + C''^ = o.
z,
this
= o.
becomes
(3)
the locus of
and
all
as
/,
must be
Multiplying
B"_;;
lies in
+ C"0 =
at
the
is
the
origin,
76
degree in x, y, and
first
gent plane
z),
then u^=z o
Therefore,
to
to
Ug
at the origin.
is
77
lo
= o^
4 Uj
a7id Ui ==
this point.
the
is
Ui= o
he
to
the
to
the
primitive one,
For the
125.
and
{x\ y\
let
the point
{x',
z')
y\
by the formulae
X = x+x
y =y + y >
z=z z + z')
\
we have
Hence
kxx' f ^yy
Now
new
+ iCzz' = o.
origin
+ Qzz'=.
o.
is
(i
to
formulae
x x^
= y y'
z = z z'
x
y
^=^
and we obtain
Cz"=
o,
(2)
Hence
2.
(2) gives
For the
r=B
r=
xx +yy + zz'=
ellipsoid
A=
a
a^.
,Bi=:7^C=
a^
xx^
3"".
(3)
yy'
b^
c^
zz'
=:
a^
XX
7*
yy
zz
B:=:
0^
0=
^
78
4^ For
A==
r,
B=rx.
C= s.
obtain
= A\x\x')
Byy + Czz^
B)yCzz=:A'{x\x')
and
(8) for the' tangent plane to the hyper
bolic paraboloid.
Remark.
linders.
surfaces
io
of second
The equations
order.
(3)
(4) (5) (6) (7) (8) are the equations to the polar planes to the sur
The length of
128.
plane
the
io
the perpendicular
ellipsoid is
Ihe equation
\/a^ cos^
cos
from
a+
cos'^ /^
<^'^
+ c^
cos'^
when
also be written
are
p=
\y cos /3
\
r + '^ + ^ =
is
It
may
Hence we must
y =p*
z cos
i.
have
__
i~
cos
x'
_ cos
~~
/3
__ cos
""
z'
/^^cos^a + <^^cos^/^
/i/
A
^^^2
Hence
7^
I
__ci cos
f^cos^;/
^7^
'
___
may be
_b
cos
~~
ft
^aH'
f
cos
__
"~"
z'
/,
m^
n^
written
lx^my\nz=i
^c
tangent plane
x'
b'^m^
+ c'n^
(9 )
129.
h 4 H
/3
x^
the ellipsoid
"tt
(i) with
f +
j^'
"ir
't'Jt:'
=1
y
Comparing
79
to
z^
r = ^*
"^
zz^
~F
we must have
y=~'
^^="^' 7"="!'
'
a^
3^
~T + ~^
adding
c^
2"
"J
is
'
q"^""^^^d
tion.
130.
centre
of
p, p', "^"^
from
the
the ellipsoid
is
constant.
Let cos
cos
yS
cos
/J^
y\
etc.,
be the direction
cosines.
Then
/'^
_ ^2
= c^ cos^
/^2
/^
^^^gS
^ ^32
a:'
a^ cos' ^^'
^^gu
/J
+^2
^.^gS
+ 3'
cos' y3"
^*^
cos' /',
planes
to the ellipsoid
of the radius
For
'
the
d^
+ +
3'
a concentric sphere
c'.
square of
/+/'+/'', and
Remark.
which
its
distance
therefore to a^
is
equal to
+ 3' + ^'.
negative,
is
8o
132.
Diametral Planes,
Definition.'
diametral surface
is
the
Diametral
surface.
lines
diametral surfaces.
To find
133.
the
to
ce^
given series of
centre.
+ B/ + a^==i,
(i)
the coordinates of
The equation
its
xx
__
yy'
_ zz _
Then
for the
z'
middle point.
points in which
it,
'
have
K{x'^lry^B{y'^mry^C{z'Vnry=i',
or
this the
r,
i.
we have
Klx' {Bmy' \Cnz' ^=^ o (2) the equation of the diametral surface, a
X
The diameter
= ^V = z
m
is
one of the
series
of parallel
ft
(2),
and
is
^.
A.r
Bv
r= ^
If a diametral plane be
the origin
then, since
con
its
con
=
n
is
Cz
new
axis of
0,
the centre
Oz
is
O being
still
bisected by
the plane xy, the equation of surface will contain only the second
power of 0.
intersection of
AV+By + CV=i,
that
is
(3)
135.
may
3
the centre
0/ a
of the
other two.
The
I'^x
+ m'y + n'z =
Ax _
be
if this
,,
,//
l^
r
first
o.
plane are
Csr
'
two planes, we
By
and
= o,
Tx\my\'n\
o,
shall
^^
,f
have
= o,
found in
like
their intersec
Since
will
be an
surface.
we
make
A'
Then
x^
"R^
JL
C'
y^
72+773
z"
+ 2=
ameters, and
a! ,
will
shall have
^^^Remark.
di
The tangent
diameter to a central
and
^^^^l^
surface
are
parallel to the
diametral plane
z')
xx'
on the
\y'
ellipsoid
zz'
is
82
137.
oy the
ellipsoid is co?tstant.
In the
cos
cos
yu,
cos^
A + cos^
place^
first
the equations
a cos A,
^=^
j^
^, z
+ cos^
may be
ellipsoid
= 3 cos
some
represented by
cos v,
^=^
when
cos A,
condition
satisfy the
cos A, cos
if
/i,
//',
~ +^^r^ o
Now
+ cos
cos
)jL
/i'
will give
+ cos y
cos y'
= o.
expressed in terms of A,
a"^=
y,
//,
a^ cos
in
is
\^V cos^
terms of
2'''^
}x\c^ cos* y,
y\ \'\
A', }x\
+ ^
cos^
}Ji^
y'*
fx",
}x"\c' cos'
y".
Adding we have
a"" ^h''' \c"^
= + P \c\
a'^
//,
y,
\\
//',
i^^
and
To find
extremities
The equations
X
cos A^ + vV
a
+ ^ cos
7=
 cos y
cos
y"
i.
f
a^
x'
 cos r
cos u{
cos
^ + ^4
for the
!^V~Tf
^v'
139.
of an
83
ellipsoid
0s'
Hence parallelogram
0^1.
AB.
..
a'b'=i parallelogram
this
principal plane
Oz form
Oj'i,
them
it
Oz
for,
being conjugate to
must be perpendicular
to that plane
O^t'i
C,
in
hence Ox^,
are situated.
.'.
140.
To
QJ
k
..
c')
=Vol
(A, C,
Vol (A, C, ^)
=Vol
{a, b, c)
Vol {a\ b\
=:Vol
{a, b, c).
Vol (A, B,
c')
a*C
ofparallel
B/4a^=2A":v
I,
J
andA one ofr^u
the chords
=
^r jc'

Vy'
=
= z = r
z'
m
Hence
Byin
Cz
= l^
common
axis of the
We
such that
and
for
to a third plane,
By taking
we can
find
the origin
an
infinite
number
Art. (135).
By + Cz'=2E''x.
84
And
the
new
is
origin.
141.
io the
paraboloid at a point x'y'z' intersect the surfaces each in two right line
generators through the point
The equation
jugate diameters
of contact.
a"
"^
~^'*
b"
c"
a:'
and
it
c"
is
x'^
z^
7^
= o,
^=
ft parallel
""^
b"''
/?=
7^
is
y,
z^)
By_CV=2E'';t'
the tangent plane through the origin
with (i)
is
(i)
is
B^ CV=
o,
= o,
and
its
intersection
CHAPTER XL
GENERAL EQUATION OF THE SECOND DEGREE
x,y, AND
IN
z,
numerical equation
^
Ax^ +
2AV+2A"^
W +2B'2x +
Cz'
we
will first
2B'y
+2Cxy}2C'z
=D
(E)
new
means of
origin by
the formulae
=.
a + x^
y=
^+y
X
z
and endeavor
to
origin in such
manner
appear.
If this
z'
yi
(I),
[
)
(<t,
/3,
will
y) of the new
first
degree to dis
be reduced to the
form
kx"
in
^W \Cz^+2k'zy
which there
+ .V,
+j',
tZ,
\
centre,
Now,
relations
among
1.
a,
2.
a,
ft,
3.
a,
ft,
(F)
may
arise
is
at this centre.
C, A",
B", C".
y may
have
y may be
8
infinite values.
indeterminate.
85
86
The
>
Making
143.
number
of centres.
we have
A^H2A;rs + 2(A^
4_C^/5fB';/+A")jc
+A';k + B^^)v
+2avr+2(B'a' + A'/3+Cx+C'>
Qz"
'
ByS'^
+ 2B'a';/+2B"/?
D.
appear,
degree in
first
A + C'/54B>f A"= o
C'a + B/? + Ay + B"=o
B'f
A'/J
+ C;/ + C"=o
.v,
y, z shall dis
we must have
If these
(C)
centre.
fj,
y, then
If
values for a,
3.
/3,
If the
this
shows
infinite
centre.
line of centres.
is
the equation of a
plane, and two taken simultaneously represent a line, and the surface
is
an
elliptical
or hyperbolic cylinder.
planes
that
its
centre on
may
the
line D,
ard hence an
ellipse or hyperbola.
The
section
will
is
a cylinder.
If the three
or parallel planes).
Note.
The equations
87
and
respectively), the x, y,
a,
/J,
y.
Example
144.
by the equation
The
Determine the
i.
x'^
2x{^z^6y
26 =
6y \'2z 6x 24
8s + 2;F + 4jv 32
\
and
:= o
Example
Determine the
2.
x'^ {y^
The equations
2z'^
2y\2Z\2X2
\Z\2y\2X\2
the
first
o.
2,
=o
O
=O
^
)
x\y\z =:
no
class
infinite,
are incompatible,
centre.
Example
Determine the
3.
x'^
The
0.
=o
Sy2z^4x = o
V.
2 z 2yx{ 2=0)
20:
The
duce
first
to
The
Example
Sx^
+4>'
2:
4.
1 8>'^
Determine the
line of centres
(/.
e.,
is
a cylinder).
80
+ 24_y 50 =
o
36 y+ 120+ 24.V 75
404 I2l'+ S.V 25 =: O
)
,
88
which are
all
and
42^
Hence
25.
planes.
145. Recurring to the general equations of the centre
C'+B/J + Ay + B"=
'>
B'a'
we may
an easy rule
find
among
for a relation
we can
(C)
is
R=
Now,
R=
The
if
it
of the values of a,
A,
C, B'
c,
B',
B',
A, C
A'
AA"^ + BB
A' B'
formed
in these
either have
R mav
no centre
three terms,
To find an
equatio?i
of
but
if
c
c
or an infinity of centres.
A, B, c;
A' B'
146.
and y
may
value of
form
f5,
the determinant
easy rule
columns
for F,
last.
the
when
the origin
is
the trans
moved
to the
centre.
+ By 4 CV f 2^zy f 2^'zx + 2C xy F
I
F=DNow, multiplying
a, the second by
we have
is
ft,
the
^^
first
and the
\
{
+ 2A'/^;K + 2A"f
B/5'^i2B^a;K + 2B"^
Art'^
when
'^
.
third by y,
B/5'+2B'ay + B"/3
Cy' + 2C' a ^ + C"y
o.
F=D(A"a + B''/5hCV).
Hence
substitute
for
x,
ordinates
of
the
from D.
Example
in the
y,
centre
(i,
^a,
i.
F=26 + 26 x ^f24
we have
^y
/J,
i,
respectively)
Art. (i44),in
=1, j^
jc
2,
+32 xf =1 1 1;
2.
1 1
f
,\
F=20 + 6 x^48
C"
2x^
Removal of
co
take result
0=3,
20.
= i,y z='i.
+ 14 X I=::I7;
147.
and
is
is
x^ + 3y^
Ex.
of
tei'vis
e.,
89
2,
is
7.
of
two forms.
we
will
transform
it
to a system
in rectangular axes
we propose now to
manner that the
rectangular in such
also
The
disappearance of these
terms can only be effected by taking for coordinate planes either diametral planes or planes parallel to them.
.
We
will
therefore begin
a given diameter.
148.
xa
x
a\lr,
y=
a given diameter,
yb _ zc
m
Putting
to
b^mr, z =:
reference to
r,
+ nr
we have
degree in r
+ a'?i) =0;
90
and
this
is
namely
(A/+B';;z
149.
it bisects,
that
to
is,
to the
o.
chords which
.V
ZC
A/+C';;/
+ B';^ _
J.
71
s.
A/+B';/+C'/?/
C7+B7;^ +A';/
B7f AV;/
^r^^
B7+AV;/+C;
in
ClvV>m\Mn
and
we must have
+ C;/
=
= ms
= ns
/r
(A)
To
determine
/,
first
find
s.
Writ
+ B';/ =
Cl\{Bs)m + A'n =
B7 + A';;/ + (C^);/ =
(Aj^)/+C';;/
A~^, C,
B'
C, B.r, A'
B', A',
or
Cs
or
4_CC^'^ABC2A'B'C'=o
This cubic has necessarily one
in
set
real
value for
/,
m, n.
s,
(D).
which substituted
Hence
there
is
one
principal plane.
let
then
z,
A'=:
Now we know
transformation
is
m =
o, and nz=L\,
And hence equaand the general equation transformed
plane o{ xy is of the form
/ r= o,
o,
91
o,
Hence
appear.
values for
The
m^
/,
and three
n,
may
general equation
dis
sets of
f
150.
JVie
2N z
r=
(E^
all
0/
this equation
reduction
2M> + N0=D.
Lx^
two forms.
to
transiernng the
u
to the
ongm
The
will
be of the form
pomt x ^^
(jc',
z)
If
and L^'^be
We
diff"erent
from
J'
F.
coefficients, L,
M'
Kv2_^Mj;2^N0^Z=
2^.
L'
=
by
to disappear
^^
= N'
irr
(I.)
M, N,
for
example
o.
 D
2L
M'
=
= ^rr,
,
2^
INI
N'
^i:^
M/ + NV=2V.v.
The forms
I.
and
II.,
we have
Ml
seen,
(II.)
belong
Hence
the general
92
The form
151.
we have seen
I.
elliptic
152.
simple forms
The
and
\,
the equation
of the
II.
m, n\
/,
/',
n\
in\
/", ;;/',
We
n.
n\ which
j*
in
must be
appear
referred
in
y
z
If
a^,
jit,
>'2:
to dis
we take only
= Ix
Viy
=1 VI x
+ m^y
nx^ \ny
{Tz'
\m"z
\n'^z\
A/^
A/HB;;z2f CV
is
find
Hence L
we
+ 2A'w + 2BW+2C7w
and
and
/,
m, n and add,
s;
two
roots.
L',
M', N'
we
=A"/ +B''m
will
have
\C'n
The
absolute term
the origin
is
U,
/,
and
is
equal to
(M).
is
computed by
coefficient designated
first
we
rule.
by
w, n^ which correspond to S
= o.
Both
in the cases
to solve to
determine
L and M.
if
93
its
tell us whether the surface is an ellipone sheet, or hyperboloid of two sheets. These
signs we can ascertain from inspection by Descartes's rule * without
soid, hyperboloid of
1=
\^z^\yz \xy
.'.
of signs
all
"jx^ \()}'^
So also
is
for surfaces
is
an
o; or
=: o.
Hence
ellipsoid.
And
for surfaces
of tJie second
We
degree
mode
degree in x, y, and
Form
I.
0,
and of finding
its
principal elements.
4_CC'_ABC2A'B'd=:
observing that the absolute term
is
equal to R,
o,
the denominator
ABC
and
(Art.
145).
A'B'C
Then
155.
1.
If
be different from
o,
Find
Note. ''All the roots being real the number of positive roots is equal to the number of
changes of sign in the row of signs of the terms, and the number of negative roots is equal to the
number
of continuations of sign."
94
the coordinates of the centre and transform to the centre by the rule
Determine the signs of the roots of the cubic by Descalling these roots L, M, and N, and calling F
in Art. (146).
Then
cartes's rule.
new
the
Then
a.
If L,
M,
all
If L,
M,
all
is
an
ellip
soid.
h.
im
is
aginary.
If
f.
surface
If only
d.
is
INI,
surface
is
If
e.
o and L,
]\I,
all
is
point.
If
f.
=o
156.
If
R =
roots L,
is
M,
And
no
if
an elip^ cone
S,
its
(Art. ^^),
roots S
namely
o and
is
AB + AC + BC
centre.
Then
a.
the
is
If the roots
same sign
(/.
M and N
e,) if
AB + AC + BC A'''B''C''> o
the surface
(/.
e.) if
{i.
e.) if
is
c.
is
^157. 3.
If
rr
one of
its
roots S
The
cubic as in
If the roots
and
{i.
^.)
o the surface
95
is
an
elliptic
{i.
e.)
if
cy
linder.
If the roots
b.
and
hne
and
o,
If
and
^\
and
o\
be
a straight
is
<^.
AB + AC
.is
If in the
c.
the surface
H=
oand
of intersecting planes.
sists
158. 4. If
==
and
consists of
5.
159.
To
roots.
surfaces of revolution,
and
its first
we simply look
for
common
root between
it
/,
in the case
And
9,
General Remark.
160.
plete
for
we may
find V,
Remark
161.
I.
a centre,
we can
If the
will tell
is
an
elliptic or
a hyperbolic cylinder.
2.
a.
When
If there
are ellipses
is
an
among
show no
centre, then
elliptical paraboloid.
among
is
hyperbolic paraboloid.
c.
If
all
these
sections are
is
parabolas, or
one of them
a parabolic cylinder.
parallel
GEOMETRY,
96
162.
Remark
Again,
II.
if
must
We may
note also
either
is
parabolic
cylinder
or two
parallel planes.
We
163.
Ex.
now
7.r^
I.
As
will
I3>^'
/ 343^^ + 2058
The
signs
this is a central
by a few examples
illustrate
cubic,,
which
or
we only
is
a hyperboloid of
is
By
we
and then by depresswe find the other two roots are 14 and 21. Therethe equation of the surface referred to its centre and axes is
trial
find that 7
is
y.v^!
Ex.
i4v^
10'=:
84;
or .r^f 2^^30=:
2^X'^+2 2y{l6z'^\l6)'Z
2.
The equations
12,
25.V iqi' 20 =: 13
= i,y =1,
0=1.
Moreover
F= 44 + 26
The
discriminating cubic
j^
Its
The
J + 40.i + 44i=
is
changes.
an
ellipsoid.
surface then
is
9
Hence
all
o.
NOTES
By
trial
other two
we
find that 9
are 18
36.
or
5.r^+
3.
The
ioy+
I'jz^
==
90
7.r+ioy+
13s
9.v+i3_>'+i70
Multiplying the
is
Hence
surface
it
=5.
third.
The
=3
=4
of these equations by
first
2,
the
\
^x+
by
Hence
then
is
+ 2y^ + 42^
.r^
V2
Ex.
97
is
+ 8y f 362^ =
()x^
And
and
solid GEOMETRY.
OjV
therefore a cylinder.
making
i, e.,
0=0,
In
we obtain
z^x^j^iAxy+ioy''\6x\^y= 64,
which
an
is
ellipse.
To complete
The
surface
where the
/Y>
is
we
the reduction
QCr
rj \f
_1_
line of centres
and
find
is,
to the point
0,
^ = 1,
j^^
170= 5
x =:2^
+ 5V
o,
pierces
the plane
"^
which gives
10 and 16
5 V'
'\
is
32/46^ =
Ex. 4
'J
F=:64+6 4 = 66.
And
9:r+i3j^/f
X, y, that
transfer
5^^
/ 32^^ + 6 =
10.
is
The equations
5.V47H20
xi
y{4z
=3
o.
o,
^8
Adding
= 2^.
Sx4y\2z
Hence
first.
An
equation w^hich
no
is
centre.
/ i8/ + 8ij'= o;
The cubic
we have
or s''i8s}8i
The
to 9.
surface
= o,
therefore a para
is
boloid of revolution
gy^
To
we
find V,
+ gz^
determine
first
=
m
/,
Yx.
and
n.
equations
4/^m2n =
/+w + 4 = o
which give /
22
Therefore
n =z
(Eq.
M) A'"=
Ex.
5.
=
33232
.+ 
f 3
2 A'"
is
therefore
The
If
is
is
a hyperboloid
if A',
B'
and
be a hyperboloid
of one sheet.
= o.
C are
in the
holoid
D.
is
surface
A'B'C
2Cxy + 2K"x\2B"y+2C"z
o.
=9.
of the surface
2Ayzi2B'zx +
The cubic
2V
and
all
different
from
F and
it
would be a hyper
of two sheets.
= o the cubic becomes
If A'
S^
\
2C xy
^
different signs.
ih!' x ^ 2B"y ^ 2C z
is
Hence
a hyperbolic
paraboloid.
Ex.
6.
x^
The equations
o.
99
is
a parabolic
cylinder.
Examples.
164.
I.
ing equations.
(i).
(2).
X'
(4).
4x^ + qy^^gjz'^i6zx{'^^zy='36,
(5).
2.
The equation
7;t'^48y
a hyperboloid of one
3.
The equation
'/^^v z":^*
*
r%
t^^Z.
=: O.
^^ represents
sheet.
A:^+y^+3s:V 3j'242:j;+^
7^147250= 13 ^
< = >
67.
The equation
x'^+y^^z^
+yz+zx + xy
= a^ represents an
oblate
spheroid.
{y'zy+{zxy + \:fjA
5.
6.
7.
ax^\\y^^^z^^i2yz^()zxV\xy{\\x\i6y^2\z{\'] r= o
=si^.
d^.
re
paraboloid according as a
> = <
i,
CHAPTER XIL
PROBLEMS OF
165. Prob.
line
To find
I.
LOCI.
the
it
let
lie
equation
Then
Prob.
in the
~=
I
a^
To find
2.
a, j/ = mz.
is
a^
The hyperboloid
is .r
= a' ^7?rz'
{y
or
its
the locus
of a
poi?il
Take
lines, the
distance
2c,
be
z ^^
and we have
(z
^
cY^^^
'
z^
y = mx
'
)
mx
~^ (z^cY^
+ VI t
i^ni^
or
cz{\
^nf) ^mxy
centre and
Prob.
straight
Take
its
3.
line.
^:^
o,
hyperbolic
paraboloid since
Two
2.
Then
it
has no
real factors.
their line
of intersection.
100
The
o\
10
o.
Y^{z\c)^y^mx
(i)
is
KK'jiw^ = o,
and equations
(i)
y~ wV +
'ni^)z^
( I
To find
4,
sheet.
of which are
faces
let its
Then
which always
line
same plane.
in the
the distances a,
at
equation
this
 rn^Y
generated by a right
the surface
piped, and
( I
(2)
respectively from
b, c
yz=b
Assume
for the
X=
X x'
cos a
The
=c
_ y y^ _z z^
cos
y'
cos
conditions that the line (4) shall meet the lines (1) (2) and
y^
cos
b
fi
z'\c
cos
'
cos
and we have
x'
y
/?,
\
cos
'
cos
y'
h b
'
cos fi
to
(^xa){y^b){zc)z={xa){y + b){z^c)',
or reducing
The same
,
jr
5.
be a hyperboloid of one
to
o,
To find
the
=a
= c
v=:
>
)
X
y
=^
^^
I02
to the
Then
Now,
*
z\
(4) (^
meet
^^d ^
mk
k by
zb
To find
6.
(4),
o,
is
always parallel
to
(0,
'
^
"~
z^=.
which meets
a fixed plane.
Since the two fixed lines must meet the fixed plane,
2:3=^
we have
and
that this
'
(2) are
mx{cb)
a hyperbolic paraboloid, as
and
means of equation
cy
cyz
lines (i)
(cd),
~V'^
or
meeting
line
arbitrary),
(3) is Ic
moving
the equations of a
in the
we can
take
and the
Then
is
The
moving
line parallel
(3)>
^^d k
yz
arbitrary.
conditions that this line shall meet the lines (i) and (2)
are
mk
=z
Ic+p
?;//('
mk
or
or eliminating
/,
k,
Ic
lc\p
2indp =^ o
z= c
y
~
z
mxz
cy,
and /,
mx
or
^'
\.o
a hyperbolic paraboloid.
2 wo
7.
non
finite
intersecting
which
lines
is
the
locus
of
the
joining
IO3
; to
lines
are
sion.
Let the line which joins two corresponding extremities of the given
lines
be the axis of
2:
the axes oi
let
x and^
Then
and
Let the
b.
2:
zz: r,
^ ma,
z= O] s
= c,
o,
^=^
^=
mb
ma
mo
2X
ma
")
'
whence eliminating
2cx^a{z^c)
is
(f+^)
a hyperbolic paraboloid.
Prob. 8. To find the locus of the middle
of the second order that has a centre, which
of chords of a surface
points
all pass
poiftt.
Take
it
parallel to the third conjugate plane for that o^yz; then the
to the surface will
ax''
Let
^1 VIZ,
+ by^ 4
= nz he
cz'^
+ 2a
(am^
'x
+/ =
o.
in
equation
be of the form
Combining
we have
o,
I04
Therefore the z of
its
middle point
,_
is
a"rn
^' am'^bn' + c
^^^'
Hence eliminating
mz\
(2)
y^nz\
centre
(3)
origin.
first,
CHAPTER
XIII.
66.
To find
If a
Definition,
from P to
P', so
as
its
to describe
an arc equal
to the angle
is
through
the equable
spherical spiral.
Taking PP'
as the axis of
PAP' the
0,
initial
is
x'Vf^z'=.a\
Let
POM
6,
AON =
q),
= a cos 6 cos y
X = a cos^ 6, y = a cos
^'^+y =
cos^ 6 (cos'^
X
,\
Therefore
Hence
^=:
q),
a'^
6.
^4sin'^ 6) =: ax.
{i)
x'Vf
ax
(2)
and a
whose diameter is the radius of the sphere.
we subtract (2) from (i) we obtain
or the spiral
is
right
circular cylinder
If
z^
a^
ax
And
the equations (2) and (3) also represent the curve, which is
therefore also the intersection of a right circular and right parabolic
Definition.
The
to
a spherical
spherical ellipse
is
ellipse.
a curve traced
on the surface
105
Io6
sum
it
HP
If
P be any
SP and
SP + HP
2a
a constant.
in the
SPM we
have
cos
And
circle perpendicular to
6.
HP =
CD. cos
Now, cos SP
f
XTT.
/SP+HP\
2
cos
cos
/SPHP\
cos
/SPHF
cos
QP
SP
HP cos
/SP + HP\
2 sin
sin
/SPHP\
sin
^SPH_P).
SPHPN
sin
'
Therefore,
/SP HP\
__ cos
COS
cos cp cos
^SP HPN^
_^ sin
Sin
sin q) coe
sin
a:
ya
COS''
^
r^ cos'
^ cos' u
cos'
or
if
y
a
aV
sin^
\
r,
sin^
/i
cos^
c^
=1;
sin'
to rectangular coordinates
sin^
sin'
J^
^^
\]
^'+yf^'
determine the spherical
cylinder and the sphere.
r2
(2)
of a right elliptic
168.
side
Definition.
its
AB, so
107
ABCM
CM
AB
Let
xz
let
be the axis of
P and
..
Also
AM =
AN =
let
0,
both be at
X,
PM =
NM
^y^
.arc
PM =
DM.
be the coordinates of
P,
and
a the radius of the circular base of the cylinder in the plane xy,
. .
z =. na cos~^
and
j/^
o;^
= a^
Or we may represent
z
or the
same
na
'
z =^
na sin~^
cos [2m7T\
\
y
^
=1 a sin
na
z \
the
^^ a cos
=
na
na cos~^
(2);
in the forms
since cos
^:z
The equations
na J
(3)
^^^
and
/
and
sin
na
sin
[2m7t\
\
na
(i) (2) and (3) show that the projecon the planes xz^ and^^ give the curve of sines,
and the projection on xy is the circle.
values of
z.
qA
^l^6l
c^lccrccft,
d di^unLol
^ruiJ
SxjiytcU/j^
^^
^
Cx,
^^ ^ ^J
e/r^
4.
^^.^y
^^it
:>
^^yJ'^/^
S^^^^^r '^^^^^^Z
^^^XLtAt^ ^i/^
J*
K
'I
II
ii
II
';^
^
II
<^
5^
t."
<
^
If
>
E'
tC
0\
Jt
__
la
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^^1^
^s
l^oc^60^i^
t24='SSt36 hZ6 4
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^A5
^'T".^
^f^
/^rS
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f
ff
CONGRESS