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The Philippine revolution in the late 19th century both affected the church and State. In the second
phase of revolution, which began with Aguinaldos return form Hong Kong. Governor General
Basilio Augustin and Archibishop Bernardo Nozaleda-commisioned father Gregorio Aglipay to
confer with the revolutionary leaders to bring them back to Spanish side with a promise of
autonomy for the Philippines.
Emilio Aguinaldo sent Colonel Luciano San Miguel as his emissary to Aglipay for the
purpose of persuading the later to go to the North to work for the revolutionary case.
Aglipay went north to investigate the condition of the bishopric of Nueva Segovia (Cagayan).
October 20, 1898- Aguinaldo issued decree appointing Aglipay as Military Vicar General,
making him the religious leader of the revolutionary movement.
Archbishop Nozaleda deeply alarmed by Aglipays decisions charge the later with usurpation
of power.
Isabelo de los Reyes newspaperman imprisoned for conspiracy against Spain.

Campaigned for the establishment of a Filipino Church.

July 1902 he founded the UNION ORDERA DEMOCRANCA (Democratic Labor Union).
August 3, 1902 - he called a meeting of his Democratic Labor Union at the Centro de Bellas
Artes and proposed the establishment of the Filipino Church independent of Rome with Father
Aglipay as he supreme Bishop.

The proposal was accepted and thus, the Iglesia Filipina Independiente (Philippine Independent
Church) was founded.
Father Aglipay made his last attempt in a conference with the Jesuits to prevent a schism in
the church.
Father Francisco Foredada a Spaniard, exerted all efforts to win back Aglipay to the catholic
fold although the latter had not yet given up his catholic faith.
Father Juaquin Villalonga was chosen to deal with Aglipay but the latter had already made his
decision to support the Philippines Independent Church.
September 1902 bishops were consecrated.
January 18, 1903 Aglipay was consecrated Supreme Bishop by the bishops of Manila, Cavite,
Nueva Ecija, Isabela, Cagayan, Pangasinan and Abra.
Philippine Independent Church become popularly known as Aglipayan Church.

Bercasio, Marjorie B.

Indigenous religious groups mostly thrive in isolated islands and mountainous localities.
The remnants of Hermano Pules Cofradia de San Jose, retreated to the mountains between
Tayabas and Laguna.
This Group came to be known as colorum, a corruption of the latin phrase, let Saecula
Saeculorum (world without end) used to mass to end certain prayers.
During the American Occupation, the term colorum was used by authorities to refer to rebel
organizations with mystical characteristics. This colorum were groups characterized by religious
fanaticism which was a combination of:
Catholic devotion.
Hero - worship 4
Folk Superstition
Colorum Organization were active in 1920s.
Sociedad dela Confianza was formed in leyte and samar.
Caballeros de la Sagrada Familia had 1000 followers in Pampanga, Pangasinan, Bulacan and
Nueva Ecija.
Other colorum groups were established in Tarlac, Rizal, La Union, Batangas and Surigao.
In Tarlac the colorums worshipped Jose Rizal and Apo Ipe Salvador.
Felipe Salvador (Apo Ipe) born in Baliwag Bulacan on May 26, 1870.
Santa Iglesia or Holy Church group of Apo Ipe.
The colorums of Tarlac believed that anting-antings made all members invulnerable to the bullets
fired by the enemy.

Governor General Leonardo Wood- recognizing the patriotic zeal that animated the colorum
In Nueva Ecija, Pedro Kabola Kapisanan Makabola Makarinag.
In Pangasinan, pedro Calosa in Ilicano, began organizing a colorum group in 1929.
January 1931 the colorums decided to attack the town of Tayug.

Bercasio, Marjorie B.


During the American Colonial rule, the Spanish Feudal System was not dismantled. Through the
system of land registration that favored the Filipino elite, tenancy became more widespread. The
hacienda (state) system that the peasants in bondage.

Tenants were either:

Inquilinos (cash tenants) or;
Kasamas (share tenants)
Inquilinos paid yearly rent for using a piece of land.
Kasamas (sharecropper) provided the labor on the hacienda where he shared the harvest on a
50-50 basis with his landlord/haciendero, after deducting the expenses incurred in planting and in
Cacique (landlord) exploitation insured the tenants a low standard of living.
1920s 1930s 9 number of peasant uprisings and labor protest evolved from cases of
exploitation and poor living conditions.

Bercasio, Marjorie B.

Bercasio, Marjorie B.