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CHAPTER 1

INTRODUCTION
Management means efficiently getting activities done with and
through other people. The management process includes planning,
organizing, staffing, directing and controlling activities that takes
place to accomplish organizational vision and mission.
Human resource management is concerned with the people
dimension in management process. Since every organization is
initiated with people, i.e. acquiring their services, developing their
skills, and ensuring that to maintain their commitment on the
organization is essential for achieving organizational objectives.
Those organizations that are able to acquire, develop, stimulate
and keep outstanding workers would be both effectively and
efficiently expending the least amount of resources which are
necessary. Survival of an organization requires competent managers
and workers who coordinate their efforts towards an ultimate goal.
Human resources management is a process consisting of four
functions acquisition, development, motivation and maintenance of
human resources. In less academic terms, we might describe these
four functions as getting people, preparing them, activating them and
keeping them.

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Acquisition function begins with planning. Relating to human


resource requirements, we need to know where we are going and how
we are going to get there. Development function includes training
with emphasis on skilled development and change of attitude among
workers.
Management development is concerned itself primarily with
the knowledge acquisition and the enhancement of executive
conceptual abilities. Career development is the continuous effort to
match long-term individual and organizational needs.
Motivation

function

begins

with

the

recognition

that

individuals are unique and that motivation techniques must reflect the
needs of each individual. Motivation function includes, job
satisfaction, performance appraisal, behavioral and structural
techniques for stimulating worker performance.
Maintenance function is concerned with providing those
working conditions that employees believe are necessary in order to
maintain their commitment to the organization within the confines of
the four functions acquisition, development, motivation, and
maintenance many changes have occurred over the years.

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NEED FOR THE STUDY


To know the different needs of Training and Development
programs in the Organization.
To understand the rapid technological changes in the Organization.
To understand the static nature of the Jobs in the Organization.
To know how to improve the technical skills and knowledge of the
employees.
To know how to evaluate the performance of the employees.

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OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY


Today, training & development does more to the employees to
perform their jobs effectively. Training & development refers to the
methods used to give new loss present employees, the skills they need
to perform their jobs. Having high potential an employee doesnt
guarantee they will succeed.
Instead, they have to know what you want them to do & how
you want them to do it. Good training is vital keeping in view, the
objectives of the study are.
To study the existing training & development system in APEX
SOLUTIONS LIMITED, GUNTUR.
To elicit the opinions of the employees on the existing Training
system.
To identify the areas for improvement and suggest corrective
measures.
To study various types of training programs being conducted in
APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED, GUNTUR.
To find out the satisfaction of employee regarding the training and
development practices.

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RESEARCH METHODOLOGY
DATA COLLECTION:
The design of the research project specifies both the data that
are needed and how they are to be obtained. The step in data
collection process is to look for primary data as well as secondary
data.
Primary data:
Primary data are the data that are collected to help, solve a
problem or take advantage of an opportunity on which a decision is
pending. An important source of primary data is survey research. The
various types of surveys (personal, mail, computer, and telephone).
1. Questionnaire
2. Informal Interviews.
1.

Questionnaire:
Questionnaire consists of questions, which are closed-ended as

well as open-ended questions, having fixed response pattern with


multiple answers.
2.

Informal interviews:
The interviews that have been taken from the General Manager,

Human Resource Manager and some of the executives have helped a


lot in collecting the information.

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Secondary data:
Secondary data are data that were developed for some purpose
other than helping to solve the problem at hand. The secondary data
that are available are relatively quick and inexpensive to obtain.
Internal sources can be classified into four broad categories: appraisal
reports, training reports, miscellaneous records, and internal experts.
2) SAMPLING:
Sample technique:
The sampling method is the way the sample units are to be
selected. The technique used for selecting the samples is nonprobabilistic connivance sampling.
Sample size: The sample size of the project here is 100 employees.
3) DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION:
Analysis was done based on primary i.e., data obtained from the
questionnaire.
Data analysis and Interpretations is done with the help of
percentage and represented graphically.

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SCOPE OF THE STUDY


Project work is done up to 45 days only.
The present study is made only on the training and development
programs in the Organization
Questionnaire consist only 20 questions.
The Sample size is 100 employees.
Data analysis is done totally based on the information that was
collected from the questionnaire.

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IMPORTANCE OF THE STUDY


The study provides an insight of various aspects to training
programs.
The study is useful to policy makers to make necessary changes in
the

policies relating to training programs.

The study articulates how the employees performance is affected


by the training programs.
To know the effectiveness of training and development program
followed by Organization.
To study the impact of

training

and development on the

employees of Organization.

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LIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY


The survey may not reflect the opinions of the all employees.
There may be a chance of personal bias.
Data analysis is done totally based on the information that was
collected from the questionnaire.
For this study, information was gathered from mostly employees
only very less priority to labors.

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CHAPTER 2

INDUSTRY PROFILE
SCENARIO:
Indian Software Industry is estimated to be worth USD 1.2
billion. Wipro, HCL, Tata Consultancy Services, Satyam computer
Services, CMC, IBM etc are some of the major software
development. India is emerging as a Global IT superpower. The
success can be attributed to factor advantage of high quality of
software human resources. The Software Industry has succeeded in
converting this comparative advantage to increasing exports. More
and more companies are receiving the ISO 9000 certification and the
day is not far when India will have the highest number of ISO 9000
companies in the world.
TECHNOLOGY:
Web Technologies
Mainframe Technology
System Software in C, UNIX and networking technologies like
TCP/IP
Application development in Java, .NET
Database development in Oracle, SAP and other ERP
Embedded Software Development
Testing tools
CAD/CAM
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Margins of software companies based out of India will


increasingly come under pressure in future, due to the
combination of various factors. Among them:
An appreciating Indian rupee
Higher cost of people
Competition
Reduction in government incentives so far available to the
software sector.
Competition from large MNCs delivering software out of
India and enjoying better leverage on pricing.

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Higher expectations from customers as Indian companies


move up the value chain.
The obvious answer to maintain & improve profitability is to
charge a higher price and / or control costs.
An advantage of moving up the software services value chain is
the ability to gain some pricing flexibility and ability to move out
of cost pricing.
However this is typically possible for the Tier- I companies and
some of the Tier-II companies who are niche players.
A majority of Indian software companies are not in a position to
influence their charge rates appreciably primarily due to
competition and commoditization of services.
Indian companies should increasingly look at controlling their
project costs, which can give them immediate returns & which are
within the control of the company.
Apart from Tier Multinational Software Services companies
operating out of India, most software companies do not have a
comprehensive cost control & margin tracking system at the
individual project level.
Cost escalation with respect to base estimates can happen at
various stages in projects delivery.

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HUMAN RESOURCE ISSUES:


Software

industry

enlightened

approach

to

employee

development focus on giving people whatever they need to succeed:


be it a virtual assistant or talent transformation sabbaticals; expert
guidance or fast track growth; inner peace or democratic
empowerment. At Software industry employees have Five Fold Path
to Individual Enlightenment. This ensures they are given Support,
Knowledge, Recognition, Empowerment, and Transformation.
Table 2.1.1: Domestic Share of Software Revenue for India,
Western Europe, span and the U. S.
Product Group

United
states

Western
Europe

Japan

India

Custom Programming
Services

52%

41%

21%

19.4%

Software Packages

42%

36%

21%

23%

Custom Designing

18%

8.2%

14%

Core Industry

75%

90%

56%

17.5%

PRICING STRATEGIES:
The foundation of Indias outsourcing industry is based on
cost-based arbitrage, with clients being charged on efforts made,
rather than the actual outcome of the efforts. The software industry
operates on the basis of a fixed hourly rate, (with the client being

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billed at that rate for the total number of man hours spent in fulfilling
the work required).
The contract can be one of two types. One, where the price is
decided and the amount you make depends upon how well the cost is
contained at your end. The second variety works like a sales
commission, where revenue depends on delivering revenue increases.
The fact that international clients are willing to get into such an
arrangement inherently means that they have greater confidence in
the ability of the company to deliver on guaranteed levels of
performance and successful outcome. It could help the industry stake
claims to being a real solution provider rather than just a cheap
human resource destination. Besides, it can also result in increased
profit margins. This new pricing model is proof that the Indian
software companies are now making a real effort to move up the
value chain and become more than just a low cost outsourcing
destination.
Table 2.1.2: Major problems of Indian software firms:PROBLEM
Manpower shortage/skills
Employee attrition
Physical Infrastructure
Commercial infrastructure
Quality certification
Visas
Finance/ Capital
Marketing access

EXPORT
57
44
12
24
11
33
20
42

DOMESTICS
32
27
12
17
6
NA
14
17
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Lack of domestic computerization


Lack of government support
Tariffs and other barriers
Exports:

6
10
11

21
11
8

The National Task Force estimates software exports to grow to


$50 billion by 2008, even if the recessionary trend holds in the shortrun (National Informatics Center New Delhi, 2001).At the
international level, Indias software exports comprise of 1.9% of the
approximately $300 500 billion world IT market.
This ratio may not look very impressive at first glance,
however, when compared with the software services segment and
especially the global outsourced software segment, India has captured
a significant share (Saxenian, 2012).
SWOT ANALYSIS:
Strength:
Proven high-end technology capabilities and strong offshore
business model, Wide Portfolio. (Hardware & Software Expertise)
Weakness:
High dependence on US-centric clients, exposed to client risk
with more than 30% revenues coming from Top 10, high % of shares
with the promoters a cause of concern, reducing profits despite
revenue growth (Imply high costs) and EPS.
Opportunity:
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European Markets, Moving up the value chain, from


application development to software engineering, networking services
and technology development to strategy consulting.
Threat:
Strong Local and International Competition for the Same
Target Market.
Output of the industry:
Indias information technology industry recorded US$8.26 billion
in revenue in2000-01 and rose to nearly $16.5 billion in 2002-03. The
domestic IT market touched revenues of $6.4 billion during 2002-03, of
which software and services accounted for around $2.9 billion. At this
level, the IT industry contributed more than 2.87% to Indias GDP.
As per a recent McKinsey Study, the Indian software industry
will account for7.7% of India's GDP by 2008, growing to more than $87
billion with software and services exports accounting for 35% of Indias
total exports. The following chart captures the growth trends for the
Indian IT industry and its contribution to Indias GDP.
At

SOFTWARE

INDUSTRY, we

have

'Thinking-IT'

framework, which addresses four objectives:


1. IT transformation - changed perspectives, which can be achieved
through re-thinking and re-engineering either the business processes
or service architectures.
2. Technology Transformation - disruptive innovation by radically
changing the way products and services are developed and delivered.
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3. Business led Transformation - through high focus on domain


trends, needs and solutions.
1.

Operations Transformation - by significantly increasing the value


derived from current IT investments and by enabling a real time and
integrated transaction monitoring - resulting in high performance through a
new form of operating various business elements.
Table 2.1.3: Location of primary competitors of Indian software firms
Location of
Competitors

Number of Firms

Percentage of firms

75
12
12
58
19
6
10

82
13
13
63
21
7
11

India
Israel
Ireland
USA
Singapore
Philippines
Eastern
Software Industry

Industry Organization: Computer Software


Custom
Programmin
g

Prepackage
d
Software

Custom
Designin
g

Total

Private
Limited

15

16

37

Public Limited

19

Subsidiary

12

Total

31

26

11

68

Structure

Qualitative Aspects of Software Exports:Page 17

The previous section concerned itself with quantitative estimates


of Indias impressive software exports. This section draws attention to
some of qualitative discontents of Indian software exports by arguing
that though impressive in terms of annual percentage of growth, software
exports have been poorly diversified with respect to product category,
type of contracts, and level of skills. Though it is impressive to have U.S.
market as the major source of export earnings for Indian firms, the
majority of the sales reflect demand for software services that include
custom software work and programming services.
Table 2.1.5: Software Export Profiles of India and its
Competitors in mid 1990s.
Proportion of Exports in Each Category (%)
Country Software Services
(excluding data entry)

Software
Packages

Data
Entry

India

90

Ireland

65

21

14

Mexico

53

32

15

Philippines

39

20

41

Singapore

25

58

17

China

17

56

27

Israel

19

76

Country

CONCLUSION:

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With data gathered from a sample of 68 software developers in


India, this paper provides an analytical framework to examine the
organization, size and export performance of the Indian software
industry. Organization of the industry has been looked at from the
standpoint of its legal structure as well as its degree of concentration.

1) CBNP

3) DDL

2) VCIL

4) VFIL

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5)

VCIL

6)

ASPL

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A voyage of victory and resounding success


GROWING FROM STRENGTH TO SUPREMACY

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Crane Group has both experience


and expertise, which is hard to match.
Today, it has the size and economics of
scale, which enable it to invest in the most
modern manufacturing facilities to produce
products of the highest standard and
quality.

COMPANY PROFILE:
Company name

: Apex Solutions

Ltd.
Location

Virat

crane

buildings,
NH-5,

At the forefront of IT
vengalayapalem,
Guntur-522005, A.P, India.

No of employees : 1,000 direct and 10,000 indirect employees


Turnover

: 12 crores

Head quarters

: Apex Inc., U.S.A.

Slogan

: A voyage of victory and resounding

success.
Website

: www.craneindia.net

SCENARIO:

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Generating gainful employment to a massive workforce of over


1,000 direct employees and 10,000 indirect employees, Crane Group
is a giant corporate entity with an impressive national presence. As
professionally managed and highly respected corporate citizen, Crane
Group is financially rock solid striding boldly into the new
millennium. Crane Group is confident of its strengths, resources, and
the skills to manage.
Ever alert in keeping pace with the I.T revolution sweeping
across the globe, Crane Group successfully tied up with Apex Inc.,
U.S.A., a world player in Information Technology. APEX Solutions
Limited is a 100% export oriented Company confidently poised to
comprehensively service an international clientele. The focus,
worldwide, on electronic operational modes and technologies has
spurred APEX Solutions Limited to venture into a sphere which
presents unlimited potential for growth on a global scale.
QUALITY - OUR CORE VALUE
At Crane, quality in every form is an established norm. Touching
new heights as the undisputed market leader in the Betel Nut Industry
the phenomenal popularity of Crane is the natural outcome of
uncompromising quality. Confidently gearing to explore fresh
avenues and rich possibilities, the Crane stamp of excellence has
impressed its indelible mark by offering a wide spectrum of winning
products and services.

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Quality conscious to the very core, Crane excels as a distinct


class of its own, achieving high levels of customer approval and total
consumer satisfaction. The pursuit of excellence is an ongoing
process at Crane. Aspiring for its share in the multibillion dollar IT
industry, Crane Group has geared up to cash in on its opportunities.
VISION:
To build a vast brand-oriented empire for the giant
conglomerate... Crane Group.
MISSION:
To convert printing data into electronic data and APEX
Solutions Limited will be one among the largest firms in Andhra
Pradesh to provide employment to more than 300 cutting edge
software professionals.
TECHNOLOGY:
Tapping the infinite resources and opportunities on hand, these
sharp minds are working round the clock to meet the exacting, time
bound demands and targets of APEX's cliente. With the remarkable
success in this arena, Crane Group is venturing into
1. e-Publishing
2. OCR & ICR Conversion
3. Readymade Software
4. Customized Software
5. CAD/CAM applications
6. Geographical Information System applications
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7. Web enabling legacy applications


8. E-Commerce solutions and Data processing
PRODUCTS:
Crane Group is zeroing in on every facet of IT in general and
Internet / E-commerce in particular. With the abundant human
resources of highest quality, right ambience, state-of-the-art
Infrastructure, Apex Solutions Limited has developed readymade,
easily customizable products for
1. Personal Information Management
2. Transportation industry both for Cargo and Passenger services
3. Comprehensive solutions for Medicare Industry
4. Turnkey solutions for Manpower Management, ERP feature
embedded software for construction industry.
PROMOTERS:
Shri Grandhi Subba Rao, the Chairman and founder of the
Crane Group, the man with the Midas touch has carved the fortunes
of the company from the initial spark of inspiration, to the present
multi crore presences, the Crane supremacy is a success born of true
genius. The beginnings were modest but truly significant. What
started as a low key enterprise of manufacturing Betel Nut Powder in
1952, triumphantly emerged from strength to strength, daringly
unfolding a voyage of victory and resounding success.

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His pursuit of excellence, ceaseless toil and persistence against


all odds and challenges has successfully led the company to the
forefront of achievement. Working miracles with his natural business
instincts, he conquered his educational limitations to strive ahead and
single handedly created a colossal business empire. On him rests the
laurels of establishing.
Keeping with the global outlook of Shri G.V.S.L. Kantha Rao,
the man at the forefront of Crane Group boldly forays into the highly
competitive world of Information Technology. Professionally headed
by Shri S. Narendra Kumar and Shri K.R. Parthasarathi the company
has strategies well in place to meet a Rs.12 crore turnover target
initially.
Passionate about growth, compassionate about society
Crane as a leading "National Brand". As its sole creator, he
has nurtured the growth of Crane from birth of the brand to its
emergence today as a market leader. Springing forth from decades of
industry and enterprise is an inspiring challenge called social
commitment and responsibility.
Shri. Grandhi Subba Rao, the founding father always took
societal vision close to his heart. To him it is a vision so significant
that he has made immeasurable contribution towards social welfare
and development. He has generously donated towards social causes

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and a gamut of developmental activities like Community Care and


Temples.

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CHAPTER 3

THEORETICAL FRAME WORK


TRAINING AND DEVELOPMENT:
Training is an art of increasing the knowledge and skills of an
employee for doing a specified job. It helps the trainees acquire new
skills, technical knowledge, problem solving ability etc., it also gives
an awareness of the rules and procedure to guide their behavior there
by improving the performance of employees on present job prepare
them taking up new assignments in future.
Training is an organized procedure by which people learn
knowledge or skills for a definition purpose.
- Dale.s.beach
The act of increasing the knowledge and skills of an employee
for doing a particular job.
Edwin.B.Fillipo
The process of aiding employee to gain effectiveness in their
present and future work.
Richard.P.calhoon
EFFECTIVENESS OF TRAINING:
Training of employees is critical function of Human Resource
Management. Effective training is an attempt to improve current or
future employee performance by increasing an employees ability to
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perform through learning, usually by changing the employees


attitudes or increasing his or her skills and knowledge. Effectiveness
of training helps to remove performance deficiencies in employees.
The deficiency is caused by a lack of ability rather than a lack
of motivation to perform. The deficiency is caused by a lack of ability
rather a lack of motivation to perform. Training effectiveness
contribute to employee stability, employees become efficient
undergoing training. Efficient employees contribute to the growth of
organization. Growth renders stability to the work force.
Effective training makes the employee versatile in operations
and is important are clearly alienated and long term results of
development of a company culture, work ethnic or way of doing
business can be cultivate effectively. Organizations are facing grate
pressure to change these days of facilitate and encourage whole
person development and fulfillment beyond traditional training leads
to effectiveness of training.
Effectiveness of training is all about expressions such as
enabling learning, facilitating meaningful personal development,
helping people to identify and achieve their own personal potential.
Effective training contribute to the participants to expose to the latest
productivity technique and acquaint participants with the basic
approach underlying creative thinking and integrate the application of

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these techniques and helps participants gain insight into their own
behavior patterns.
DEVELOPMENT:
Development is a long-term education process utilizing a
systematic and organized procedure by which trainees can learn
conceptual

and

theoretical

knowledge

for

general

purpose.

Development is future oriented focused on the personal growth of the


employee.
Table 3.1: Distinctions between training and development:Training

S.No

Development

Short term process

Long term process.

2.

Scope is limited.

Scope is vast.

3.

It improves technical skills.

It improves conceptual skills.

4.

It is provided to lower &


Middle level employees.

It is provided to middle &


Top level employees.

5.

It is provided up to certain
time period.

it is provided in continuous
Manner.

OBJECTIVES:
Every organization is Irrespective of nature of operations needs
to provide training to its employees at various stages of their career.
The main objectives of training are

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Improving Employee Performance:When an employee recruited by an organization they might not have
all the skills to carry out their job. Training helps in bridging the gap
between actual and the expected performance of the employees by
enhancing their knowledge and skills.
Updating Employee Skills:It is important for the management to continuously evaluate and adopt
any technological advances that can help the organization function
more efficiency and effectively. Training helps the employees to
update their skills and helps to integrate the technical changes
successfully into the organizational systems and process.
Retaining and motivating:One way to motivate and retain the employees is through a systematic
program of career planning and development. Employees feel cared
for and consequently become more motivated and committed.
Organizational objectives and strategies:The first step in the training process is an organization is the
assessment of its objectives and strategies. The training programs
should be related to the organizational objectives and strategies.
Training need assessment:Need assessment diagnosis present problems and future challenges to
be met through training and development. All training activities must
be related to the specific needs of the organization and the individual
employees.
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Need assessment:There are three levels of needs assessment


Organizational analysis.
Task analysis.
Individual analysis.
Organizational analysis:
Organizational analysis looks at the analysis of the organization
and determines where training is needed and under what conditions it
will be conducted. This analysis involves a study of entire
organization in terms of the entire organization in terms of its
objectives its resources, resources allocation and the utilization.
Growth potential and its environment.
Task analysis:
Task analysis provides data about a job or a group of jobs and
the knowledge, skills, attitude, and abilities needed to achieve
optimum performance. Sources are information to conduct task
analysis is job description, knowledge, skills, attitudes, abilities and
performance standards.
Individual analysis:
Individual analysis analyzes how well the individual employee
is doing the job and determines which employee need training and
what kind. Sources of information to conduct this analysis are
performance evaluation, interview, observation, and questionnaire.
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Establishment of training needs:


Once training needs are assessed, training and development
goals must be established without clearly set goals it is not possible to
design a training and development program and, after it has been
implemented there will be no way of measuring its effectiveness.
Goals must be tangible and measurable.
Designing training and development program:
Every training and development program must address certain
vital issues like participators in the program, trainers, methods and
techniques to be used for training etc.
Conduct of training:
A final consideration is where the training and development
program is to be conducted. Actually the decisions come down to the
following choices.
a) At the job itself.
b) One sight but not on the job ex: a training room in the Company.
c) Off the sight such as a university or a college or a conference
Centre.
Implementation:
Program implementation involves actions on the following
items.
1) Deciding the location and organizing training and other facilities.
2) Scheduling the training program.
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3) Conducting the program.


4) Monitoring the progress of trainees.
Evaluation of the program:
Evaluation helps to determine the results of the training and
development program, evaluation of the training effectiveness is the
process of obtaining information on the effects of a training program
and assessing the value of the training in the light of that information.

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TRAINING PROCESS

Create organization objectives and strategies.

Assessment of training needs

Establishment of training goals

Designing training programme

Implementation of training programme

Evaluation of training process

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AREAS OF TRAINING:
Training enhances the overall performance of an organization
in various ways. Training imparted in one area can benefit the
organization in many other areas.
1)

Company policies and procedures:This is the part of the induction of new employees. The

objective is to orient new employees with the set of rules, procedures,


organization structure, environment and products, which the form has
deal with.
2)

Skill based training:


Employee should provide training to match the skill

requirements of the Job they perform. Such training helps in


improving the employees job effectiveness, skill based training
should also be imparted to enable the employees adapt to technical
changes.
3)

Human relations training:


Human resource training is essential to improve the employees

skills in the areas of self learning, inter personal skills, group


dynamics, perception, leadership, styles, motivation, disciplinary and
grievance redresser.

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EMPLOYEE TRAINING METHODS:


On-The-Job Training

Job
instruction

Coaching

Job
rotation

Committee
assignment

Off-The-Job Training

Class Room
Lecture

Role
plays

Simulation exercise

Case
study

Computer modeling

Programmer instruction

Vestibule
training

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ON-THE-JOB TRAINING (OJT):


On the job training is conducted at the work site and in the
content of the job. The major advantages of this method are the most
effective method as the trainee learns by experience, making his
highly competent. This is suitable for all levels of employees,
workers, supervisors, and executives. This method is also called
learning by doing method. Some on-the-job training methods are job
instruction

training,

coaching,

job

rotation,

and

committee

assignment.
Job Instruction Training:
In this method of training the trainee is given instructions by
the trainee while performing the job on the site and the way doubts of
the trainee are cleared immediately. Normally a trainer/supervisor/coworker acts as the instructor. Demonstration by the trainer and
repeated practice by the trainee, help the trainee to master the job.
However the trainer should be available to clear his doubts and helps
them whenever required.
Coaching:
The trainee is placed under a particular supervisor, who acts as
a couch in training the individual. The coach guides, supervises and
gives the trainee necessary feedback about his performance and offer
suggestions for improvement.

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Job Rotation:
Under this method the trainee moves one to another. The
trainee receives job knowledge and gains experience from his
superior or trainer in each of the different job assignments. Through
this method of training is common in training managers for
management positions.
Committee Assignment:
Under the committee assignments method, a group of
employees are given an actual organizational problem and they asked
to find a solution. The trainees develop their team management skills,
problem solving skills and leadership skills solving the problem as a
group.
OFF-THE-JOB-TRAINING METHODS:
These methods are designed to impart training by supplying
required knowledge and skills of the employees away from the job
and work place. In other words these methods are used away from the
work places. Various techniques of off-the-job training are classroom
lectures, simulation exercise, programmed instructions etc.
Simulation exercise:
In this method the trainee is exposed to an artificial work
situation that closely resembles

the actual work situation. The

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simulation exercises are case study, computer modeling, role-playing,


vestibule training etc.
Case study:
In this method, a real life problem encountered in the
organization is presented to the trainees in the form of a case study.
They asked to analyze the case and present their views and
recommendations for solving the problem. Case study can provide
excellent opportunities for individuals to defend their analytical and
judgmental abilities.
Role playing:
Role-playing is described as a method of human interactions
involving realistic behavior in imaginary satiation. This method
generally focuses on emotional issues rather than actual ones. This
method helps in improving the communication, people management
and relationship- management skills of the trainees.
Computer modeling:
It is a technique where by the dimensions of the job are
program in to the computer working with the computer model allows
direct learning to take place. In this method the trainee gains real time
experience by working on computer.
Vestibule training:
In this method a training centre called vestibule is set up, and
actual job conditions are duplicated or simulated in it. Files and
Page 40

equipment, which are used in actual job performance, are also used in
training.
Expert trainers are appointed to provide training with the help
of equipment and machines, which are identical with those, used at
the work place. This method helps employees gain knowledge about
job situation and also reduced the problem of transferring learning the
job.
Programmed Instructions:
In this method of training the trainee is given a series of
questions after he studies the relevant material required for the
accomplishment of the job.
Class room lectures:
This approach is widely used for helping the employees to
understand the rules, procedures and the policies of the organization
or any amendments there in. the lecture method works effectively if it
is made interesting with the help of audio-visual tools and suitable
demonstration. Giving and taking feedback helps the trainer improve
his own performance and that of the trainee too.
SENSITIVITY TRAINING:
This is a method of changing individual behavior through
unstructured group interactions. The main objective of training is to
develop among the group members an understanding of themselves

Page 41

and of their relationships with others. In this method a group of 10-15


employees assemble in an unstructured manner.
A major limitation of sensitivity training is that is does not
directly deal with the business and financial goals. It also results in a
lot of emotional involvement by the trainees; it may result in
psychological strain or disturbances. Hence it requires an experienced
trainer, preferably psychologists.
Conference:
A meeting of people to discuss a topic of common interest is
referred to as a conference. The conference leader plays a key role in
this method of management development.
Lectures:
A lecture is the simplest technique of presenting and explaining
a series of facts, principles and concepts. The lecturer organizes the
relevant information and presents it to the trainees in the form of the
lecture. It helps to managers acquire knowledge and develop their
conceptual and analytical skills. These are direct means of
communications and can be used effectively for a large number of
people.
BENEFITS TO ORGANIZATION:
It leads to improve profitability and or more positive attitude
towards profit orientation. It improves the job knowledge and skills at
Page 42

all levels of the organization and improves the moral of the work
force.
Helps the people to identify with organizational goals.
Helps to create a better corporate image.
Provides information for future needs in all areas of the
organization.
Aids in organizational development.
Aids in understanding and carrying out organizational policies.
It gives the relation between boss and subordinate.
Learn from the trainee.
Faster euthenics, openness and trust.
Helps prepare guideline for work.
Aids in productivity and our quality of work.
Helps keep cost down in many areas.
Improve labor management relation.
BENEFITS TO INDIVIDUALS:
Helps the individual in making better decision and effective
problem solving.
Through training and development motivational variables of
recognition

achievements,

growth,

responsibility

and

advancement are internalized and operational zed.


Aids in encouraging and achieving self-development and selfconfidence.

Page 43

Helps a person to handle stress, tension, frustration and


conflict.
Provide information for improving leadership, knowledge,
communication skills and attitude.
Increase job satisfaction and recognition.
Moves a person towards personal goals while improving
interactive skills.
Provides the trainee an avenue for growth and to say his/her
own future.
Develop a sense of growth in learning.
Helps a person to develop speaking and listening skills. And
also writing skills when exercises are required.
Helps to eliminate fear in attempting new skills.
PRINICIPLES OF TRAINING:
Motivation:
As the effectiveness of an employee depends on how well he is
motivated by management the effectiveness of learning also depends
on motivation. The training must be related to the desire of the trainee
such as more wages or better job, recognition status promotion etc.
Progress information:
The trainee also wants to learn a new skill without much
difficulty and without handling too much or receiving excessive
information or wrong type of progressive information. So the trainer

Page 44

has to provide, only the required amount of progressive information


specifically to the trainee.
Reinforcement:
The effectiveness of the training in learning new skills or
acquiring new knowledge should be reinforced by means of rewards
and punishment.
Practice:
A trainee should actively participate in the training program in
order to make the learning program an effective one. Continuous and
long practice is highly essential for continuous learning.
Full VS Part:
If the job is complex and requires a little too long to learn, it is
better to teach the job separately and then put the parts together into
an effective complete job.
Individual differences:
Individual training is costly and group training is viable and
advantageous to the organization. So the trainer has to adjust the
training program to the individual abilities and aptitudes.
TOOLS FOR TRAINING:
A variety of tools and equipment are utilized to impact
effective training. These are:

Lectures method, conference, seminars, staff meeting.

Page 45

Role-playing (learned by doing) job rotation (learning by

experience).

Case or project studies and problem solving.

Use of pamphlets, charts, booklet, brochures, and


manual.

Graphs, Picture, Books, Slides, Movie Projects, Tape


Recorders.

Posters, Displays, Notice, Bulletin Boards

Reading Rooms, Libraries for Reference

Page 46

CHAPTER 4

DATA ANALYSIS AND INTERPRETATION

1.

Do you have any training councils or committees in your


organization?
Table 4.1
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

YES

100

100%

NO

0%

100

100%

TOTAL
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the


APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED are containing the training councils
and Committees in their organization. In those 100% of the
employees responded as yes and nobody responded as No.

Page 47

Graph 4.1: Training councils or committees in organization

Page 48

2. Which type of training programs have you undergone?


Table 4.2
Particulars

No of Respondents

Percentage

On the job

24

24%

Off the job

0%

Both

76

76%

Nothing

0%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the majority employees of


the APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED has undergone both on the Job
and off the job training. In those 76% of the employees have
responded as both on the job and off the job training, 24% of the
employees have responded as on the job and nobody responded as
only off the job.

Page 49

Graph 4.2: Type of training programs undergone

Page 50

3. How many training programs have you undergone?


Table 4.3
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

1-2 times

8%

3-5 times

44

44%

6-8 times

8%

Above 8 times

40

40%

Total

100

100%

INTERPRETATION:
From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the
APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED have undergone huge training
programs for Quality extraction. In those 8% of the employees has
undergone 1-2 times,44% of the employees has undergone 3-5
times,8% of the employees has undergone 6-8 times and another 40%
of the employees crossed the 8times.

Page 51

Graph 4.3: No of training programs undergone

Page 52

4. Do the training programs include usage of examples


demonstrations flow - charts and Audio - visual aids?
Table 4.4
Particulars

No of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

8%

Some extent

92

92%

No

0%

Cant say

0%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the


APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED attending the training programs
which include usage of examples demonstrations, flow charts, audio visual aids etc. In those 8% of the employees responded as Yes,92%
of the employees responded as Some extent and no one responded
as No as well as Cant say.

Page 53

Graph 4.4: Training programs include usage of examples,


demonstrations, flow - charts and Audio - visual aids

Page 54

5.

Is your training manager and trainer providing the


right kind of climate to enlarge your innovative ideas
and methods while training period?
Table 4.5
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

Yes

94

94%

Some extent

6%

No

0%

Cant say

0%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the


APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED are accepting that Line manager and
trainer providing the right kind of climate to enlarge their innovative
ideas and methods while training period. In those 94% of the
employees responded as Yes,6% of the employees responded as
Some extent and no one responded as No as well as Cant say.

Page 55

Graph 4.5: Training manager and trainer providing the right


kind of climate to enlarge employees innovative ideas.

Page 56

6.

Is there any interaction or follow-up after attending the


training programs?
Table 4.6
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

Yes

96

96%

Some extent

4%

No

0%

Cant say

0%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table it is clear that the employees of the APEX
SOLUTIONS LIMITED are accepting that there is an interaction and
follow-up after attending the training programs. In those 96% of the
employees responded as Yes,4% of the employees responded as
Some extent and no one responded as No as well as Cant say.

Page 57

Graph 4.6: Interaction or follow-up after attending the training


programs

Page 58

7. The training programs help you to improve in areas like


Table 4.7
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

Awareness & knowledge

10

10%

Learning new techniques

10

10%

Quality of work & productivity

42

42%

All the above

38

38%

Total

100

100%

INTERPRETATION:
From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the
APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED are accepting that the training
programs help them to improve in areas like Awareness & knowledge,
learning new techniques, Quality of work and productivity. In those
10% of the employees responded as Awareness & knowledge, 10%
of the employees responded as Learning new techniques, 42% of
the employees responded as Quality of work & productivity and
38% of the employees responded as All the above.

Page 59

Graph 4.7: Training programs help to improve in areas

Page 60

8.

Do the training programs enhance your performance,


personal growth and development effectively?
Table 4.8
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

Yes

76

76%

Some extent

24

24%

No

0%

Cant say

0%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the


APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED are accepting that the training
programs

enhance

their

performance,

personal

growth

and

development effectively. In those 76% of the employees responded as


Yes, 24% of the employees responded as Some extent and no one
responded as No as well as Cant say.

Page 61

Graph 4.8: Training programs enhance employees performance,


personal growth and development effectively

Page 62

9.

Do the training programs enhance management ability to


understand the employees attitude and behaviors?
Table 4.9
Particulars

No of Respondents

Percentage

Yes

84

84%

Some extent

16

16%

No

0%

Cant say

0%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the


APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED are accepting that the training
programs enhance management ability to understand the employees
attitude and behaviors. In those 84% of the employees responded as
Yes, 16% of the employees responded as Some extent and no one
responded as No as well as Cant say.

Page 63

Graph 4.9: Training programs enhance management ability to


understand the employees attitude and behaviors

Page 64

10. The training program facilitates you in long run or short run?
Table 4.10
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

Short-run

20

20%

Long-run

16

16%

Both

64

64%

Cant say

0%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the APEX
SOLUTIONS LIMITED are accepting that the training programs are
facilitating them both in long run and short run. In those 20% of the
employees responded as Short-run, 16% of the employees
responded as Long run, 64% of the employees responded as both
and no one responded as Cant say.

Page 65

Graph 4.10: Training program facilitates employees in long run


or short run

Page 66

11. Which aspect troubled you very much while training period?
Table 4.11
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

Communication

0%

Timing problem

8%

Lack of co-ordination

0%

No problems

92

92%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that there is no such aspect


troubled the employees of the APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED very
much while training period. In those 8% of the employees responded
as Timing problem, 92% of the employees responded as No
problems and no one responded as Lack of co-ordination
&Communication.

Page 67

Graph 4.11: Aspect troubled employees very much while training


period

Page 68

12.

Do you think the training department is often responsible


for helping the employees to maximize their potentials?
Table 4.12
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

Yes

6%

Some extent

94

94%

No

0%

Cant say

0%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the


APEX

SOLUTIONS

LIMITED

are

accepting

that

training

department is often responsible up to some extent for helping the


employees to maximize their potential. In those 6% of the employees
responded as Yes, 94% of the employees responded as Some
extent and no one responded as No as well as Cant say.

Page 69

Graph 4.12: Training department is often responsible for helping


the employees to maximize their potentials

Page 70

13.

Do the training evaluation is linked to the performance


appraisal?
Table 4.13
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

Yes

78

78%

Some extent

22

22%

No

0%

Cant say

0%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the


APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED are accepting that the training
evaluation is linked to the performance appraisal. In those 78% of the
employees responded as Yes, 22% of the employees responded as
Some extent and no one responded as No as well as Cant say.

Page 71

Graph 4.13: Training evaluation is linked to the performance


appraisal

Page 72

14.

What are the developing programs providing to you in your


organization?
Table 4.14
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

Promotion

36

36%

Job rotation

26

26%

International assignment

0%

All the above

38

38%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the developing programs


providing to the employees of the APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED are
through promotion, job rotation & international assignment. In those
36% of the employees responded as promotion, 26% of the
employees responded as job rotation, 38% of the employees
responded as all the above and no one responded as international
assignment.

Page 73

Graph 4.14: Developing programs providing to employees by


organization

Page 74

15.

What is your opinion about the overall training activities


undertaken by the Training Department?
Table 4.15
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

Excellent

50

50%

Very good

36

36%

Good

14

14%

Average

0%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the overall training


activities undertaken by Training Department of the APEX
SOLUTION are proved as Excellent by their employees. In those
50% of the employees responded as Excellent, 36% of the
employees responded as Very good, 14% of the employees
responded as good and no one responded as average.

Page 75

Graph 4.15:Opinion about the overall training activities


undertaken by the Training Department

Page 76

16.

Do you have any development programs providing to you


in your organization?
Table 16

Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

YES

100

100%

NO

0%

100

100%

TOTAL
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the


APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED are containing the development
programs providing in their organization. In those 100% of the
employees responded as yes and nobody responded as No.

Page 77

Graph 4.16: Development

programs

providing

to

you

in

your organization?

Page 78

17. Which type of development methods have you undergone?


Table 4.17
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

On the job

24

24%

Off the job

0%

Both

76

76%

No thing

0%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the majority employees of


the APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED has undergone both on the Job
and off the job development. In those 76% of the employees have
responded as both on the job and off the job development, 24% of
the employees job.

Page 79

Graph 4.17: Type of development methods undergone

Page 80

18. How many development programs have you undergone?


Table 4.18
Particulars

no of respondents

percentage

1-2 times

8%

3-5 times

44

44%

6-8 times

8%

Above 8 times

40

40%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the


APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED have undergone huge development
programs for Quality extraction. In those 8% of the employees has
undergone 1-2 times,44% of the employees has undergone 3-5
times,8% of the employees has undergone 6-8 times and another 40%
of the employees crossed the 8times.

Page 81

Graph 4.18: no of development programs undergone

Page 82

19.

The development programs help you to improve in areas


like.
Table 4.19

Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

Awareness & knowledge

10

10%

Learning new techniques

10

10%

Quality of work & productivity

42

42%

All the above

38

38%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the employees of the


APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED are accepting that the development
programs help them to improve in areas like Awareness & knowledge,
learning new techniques, Quality of work and productivity. In those
10% of the employees responded as Awareness & knowledge, 10%
of the employees responded as Learning new techniques, 42% of
the employees responded as Quality of work & productivity and
38% of the employees responded as All the above.

Page 83

Graph 4.19: development programs help to improve in areas

Page 84

20.

What is your opinion about the overall development


activities undertaken by the development Department?
Table 4.20
Particulars

No of respondents

Percentage

Excellent

50

50%

Very good

36

36%

Good

14

14%

Average

0%

100

100%

Total
INTERPRETATION:

From the above table, it is clear that the overall development


activities undertaken by development Department of the APEX
SOLUTION are proved as Excellent by their employees. In those
50% of the employees responded as Excellent, 36% of the
employees responded as Very good, 14% of the employees
responded as good and no one responded as average.

Page 85

Graph 4.20: Opinion about the overall development activities


undertaken by the development Department

Page 86

FINDINGS
1. APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED is consisting the training and
councils and committees in their organization. There is an
interaction and follow-up after attending the training programs.
2. The employees are attending the training programs, which include
usage of examples demonstrations, audio - visual aids, flow charts
etc.
3. The employees are accepting that Line manager and trainer
providing the right kind of climate to enlarge their innovative
ideas and methods while training period.
4. The employees are feeling that the training and Development
programs help them to improve in areas like Awareness &
knowledge, Learning new techniques, Quality of work and
productivity.
5. The management is providing fair developing programs to the
employees. The overall development activities undertaken by
Development Department are very good to their employees.

Page 87

SUGGISTIONS
1. At the beginning of employment each and every employees got
training, but employees are not get training, if they

provide

training to these employees also then 100% perfectness is possible


in work place. Quarterly once checks the employees performance
in all departments.
2. Is suggested that training manager must take care about the
employees who told training program is above average and
average they are not get benefits from the training programs.
3. Some employees are not in a position to improve their skills and
knowledge after getting training and development, they have to be
get training and development again or trainer must know their
problem to prevent them.
4. Some employees dissatisfied because of training and development
programs is not conducted based on employee feasibility, through
this they loss best performance from employees.
5. It is suggested that training strategy must accepted by each and
every employee of the organization, some employees are
dissatisfied with the strategy of training, the line manager must
know their problems and dislike points in training strategy.

Page 88

CONCLUSION
After enumerating findings the followings conclusions have
been drawn. By these findings we can say that the APEX
SOLUTIONS LIMITED, GUNTUR is definitely providing better
training process. They are satisfying their employees and their needs.
Management is concentrating and working on those areas, in which
employees are not satisfied. Finally it is better for any organization to
treat that the employees as the asset of their company.
Based on analysis the APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED,
GUNTUR is a very good organization which provides excellent
training to their human assets and also achieving productivity in
quality standards. Employers are always interacting with their
employees. Employees also feeling that it is their own organization.
Employees are utilizing the training programs effectively and
efficiently to improve their performance compared with previous. The
APEX SOLUTIONS LIMITED is in a good position moreover
company has good knowledgeable and skillful employees to
implement new ideas.

Page 89

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Reference Books

Author

Human Resource Management

Garry Dessler

Human Resource Management

P. Subba Rao

Personnel Management

T.V.Rao

Human Resource Management

V.S.P.Rao

Organisational Behaviour

Stephen. P. Robbins

Managing Human Resource

Wayref cascio

Personnel Management

C.B. Memoria

Websites:

www.googlesearch.com
www.craneindia.net

Page 90

QUESTIONNAIRE
Personal Details:
Name

Age

Academic qualification :
Experience

Designation

Department

1.

Do you have any training councils or committees in your


Organization?
a) Yes

2.

3.

4.

b) No

Which type of training programs have you undergone?


a) On the job

b) off-the job

c) Both

d) No thing

How many training programs have you undergone?


a) 1-2 times

b) 3-5 times

c) 6-8 times

d) above 8 times

Do the training programs include usage of examples,


Demonstrations, audio - visual aids, flow charts etc?
a) Yes
c) No

b) Some extent
d) cant say

Page 91

5.

Is your Line manager and trainer providing the right kind of


climate to enlarge your innovative ideas and methods while
training period?

6.

a) Yes

b) Some extent

c) No

d) cant say

Is there any interaction or follow-up after attending the


training programs?
a) Yes
c) No

7.

b) Some extent
d) cant say

The training programs help you to improve in areas


like.
a) Awareness & knowledge

b) Learning new techniques

c) Quality of work & productivity d) All the above


8.

Do the training programs enhance your performance, personal


growth and development effectively?
a) Yes
c) No

9.

b) Some extent
d) cant say

Do the training programs enhance management ability to


Understand the employees attitude and behaviors?
a) Yes

b) Some extent

c) No

d) cant say

Page 92

10.

11.

12.

The training program facilitates you in long-run or short-run?


a) Short-run

b) Long-run

c) Both long-run & short-run

d) cant say

Which aspect troubled you very much while training period?


a) Communication

b) Timing problem

c) Lack of co-ordination

d) No problems.

Do you think training department is often responsible for


helping employees to maximize their potential?

13.

a) Yes

b) Some extent

c) NO

d) Cant say

Do the training evaluation linked to the performance appraisal?


a) Yes
c) No

14.

b) Some extent
d) cant say

What are the developing programs providing to you in your


organization?

15.

a) Promotion

b) Job rotation

c) International assignment

d) All the above

What is your opinion about the overall training activities


Undertaken by Training Department?
a) Excellent
c) Good

b) Very good
d) Average

Page 93

16.

What are the development programs providing to you in


your organization?
a) Yes

17.

Which type of development methods have you undergone?


a) On the job
c) Both

18.

b) NO

b) off-the job
d) No thing

The development programs help you to improve in areas


like.
a) Awareness & knowledge

b) Learning new techniques

c) Quality of work & productivity d) All the above


19.

How many development programs have you undergone?


a) 1-2 times
c) 6-8times

20.

b) 3-5 times
d) above 8 times

What is your opinion about the overall development activities


undertaken by development Department?
a) Excellent
c) Good

b) Very good
d) Average

Page 94