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Ethanol is used as refrigerant as it has no harm to environment, it is a non-toxic substance, moreover, ethanol has
comparatively higher vapor pressure even at low temperature. This innovative system utilizes effectively low-temperature waste
heat sources of temperature between 60 and 95 C along with a coolant at 30 C.

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www.elsevier.com/locate/ijrefrig

chiller: Part I e system description and modelling

B.B. Saha*, I.I. El-Sharkawy, A. Chakraborty, S. Koyama

Interdisciplinary Graduate School of Engineering Sciences, Kyushu University, Kasuga-koen 6-1, Kasuga-shi, Fukuoka 816-8580, Japan

Received 3 April 2006; received in revised form 2 June 2006; accepted 7 August 2006

Available online 16 October 2006

Abstract

This article presents the transient modelling for a two-bed, activated carbon fiber (ACF)eethanol adsorption chiller. This

innovative adsorption chiller employs pitch based ACF of type A-20 as adsorbent which is a fibrous adsorbent having the

advantages of fast adsorption rate, high porosity and ease of handling when compared with granular adsorbents and powdered

adsorbents. Ethanol is used as refrigerant as it has no harm to environment, it is a non-toxic substance, moreover, ethanol has

comparatively higher vapor pressure even at low temperature. This innovative system utilizes effectively low-temperature waste

heat sources of temperature between 60 and 95 C along with a coolant at 30 C. We have found that, regardless of the initial

mass distribution, the ACFeethanol adsorption chiller is able to achieve the same cyclic-steady-state within three cycles or

1890 s.

2006 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

Keywords: Adsorption system; Carbon fibre; Ethanol; Chiller; Design; Modelling

de carbone actifs/ethanol: Partie I e description et

modelisation de la performance

Mots cles : Syste`me a` adsorption ; Fibre de carbone ; Ethanol ; Refroidisseur de liquide ; Conception ; Modelisation

1. Introduction

The severity of the ozone layer destruction problem due

to CFCs, HCFCs or HFCs has been calling for rapid

7833.

E-mail address: bidyutb@cm.kyushu-u.ac.jp (B.B. Saha).

0140-7007/$35.00 2006 Elsevier Ltd and IIR. All rights reserved.

doi:10.1016/j.ijrefrig.2006.08.004

developments in environment friendly air conditioning technologies. Adsorption cooling and heat pump systems have

the advantages of being environmentally benign, having

zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) as well as zero global

warming potential (GWP) due to the use of natural refrigerants or alternative refrigerants of CFCs, HCFCs or HFCs.

The working pairs of adsorption cooling and heat pump

are mainly dominated by silica gelewater, zeoliteewater,

activated carboneammonia, activated carbonemethanol

87

Nomenclature

A

COP

Cp

D

Dso

Ea

h

ksav

M

m

m_

P

Ps

Q

R

Rp

T

tcycle

t

U

w

W

W0

DHst

area (m2)

coefficient of performance (e)

specific heat capacity (J kg1 K1)

exponential constant (K1)

pre-exponential constant (m2 s1)

activation energy (J kg1)

enthalpy (J kg1)

mass transfer coefficient (s1)

mass (kg)

mass (kg)

mass flow rate (kg s1)

pressure (Pa)

saturated pressure (Pa)

power (W)

gas constant (J kg1 K1)

fiber radius (m)

temperature (K)

cycle time (s)

time (s)

overall heat transfer coefficient (W m2 K1)

instantaneous uptake (kg kg1)

equilibrium uptake (kg kg1)

maximum uptake (kg kg1)

isosteric heat of adsorption (J kg1)

and activated carbon fiber (ACF)eammonia pairs. A considerable number of studies have been conducted on adsorption

cooling and heat pump systems using the above mentioned

adsorbenterefrigerant pairs. The followings are some representative examples [1e15], which are furnished in Table 1.

Among the systems shown in Table 1, the utilization of

water and methanol as refrigerant in adsorption systems

makes those possible to be powered by waste heat source

below 100 C. However, the water based adsorption cooling

system requires the development of very low vacuum system

and the uptake of water on porous adsorbent is limited usually

up to 40% of dry adsorbent mass [16]. Methanol has been

used before but reservations exist on its toxicity. On the other

hand, the utilization of ethanol as refrigerant in adsorption

cooling systems has couple of advantages, such as, ethanol

is environmental friendly, non-toxic and it has a relatively

high vapor pressure even at low temperature levels [17]. To

select suitable adsorbent for ethanol adsorption, the porous

characteristics of two silica gels and two pitch type activated

carbon fibers are presented in Table 2 [1]. As can be seen from

Table 2, the ACF of type A-20 has the biggest surface area and

pore volume which is followed by ACF of type A-15 in comparison with other adsorbents. The average pore diameters of

all four adsorbents are similar.

From the above perspective, the present study deals with

the performance investigation of a two-bed, non-regenerative

ACF (A-20)eethanol adsorption chiller. A cycle simulation

cond

dMref

=dt

evap

dMref

=dt

mass flow at evaporator (kg s1)

Subscripts

acf

activated carbon fiber

ads

adsorption

c

critical

chill

chilled water

eff

effective

f

liquid phase

g

gaseous phase

i

adsorption or desorption

in

inlet

j

cooling source or heating source

liq

liquid

o

outlet

v

vapor

w

water

Superscripts

ads

adsorber

bed

sorption heat exchanger

cond

condenser

des

desorption

evap

evaporator

chiller is developed to analyze the cooling capacity and COP

variations by varying heat transfer fluid (hot and cooling

water) inlet temperatures and adsorption/desorption cycle

time. The transient behavior of heat transfer fluids and

chilled water are also examined.

2. Description of the ACFeethanol cooling system

The schematic of the two-bed ACFeethanol cycle is

shown in Fig. 1(a). The cycle consists of four heat exchangers, namely evaporator (evap) e sorption element 1

(SE 1) and condenser (cond) e sorption element 2 (SE2).

The cycle has four modes, Mode A, B, C, and D. In Mode

A as shown in Fig. 1(a), valves V1 and V3 are opened, while

valves V2 and V4 are closed. In this mode, evaporator and

SE 1 is in adsorption process and condenser and SE 2 is in

desorption process. In the adsorptioneevaporation process

which takes place at pressure, Pevap; refrigerant (ethanol)

in evaporator is evaporated at evaporation temperature,

Tevap; and seized heat, Qevap from the chilled water. The

evaporated vapor is adsorbed by activated carbon fiber, at

which cooling water removes the adsorption heat, Qads.

The desorptionecondensation process takes place at pressure Pcond. The desorber (SE 2) is heated up to the desorber

temperature Tdes which is provided by the driving heat

source Qdes. The resulting ethanol vapor is cooled down to

88

Table 1

Developments in adsorption cooling and heat pump systems

Adsorbent/refrigerant pair

System type

Remarks

Source

Silica gelewater

Silica gelewater

Silica gelewater

Non-regenerative system

Non-regenerative system

Multi-stage system

Saha et al. [1]

Saha and Kashiwagi [3,4]

Zeoliteewater

Cascaded cycles

Zeoliteewater

Activated carboneammonia

Activated carboneammonia

Combination of two

independent single

adsorption systems

Regenerative system

Regenerative system

Three-bed system

Multi-bed, dual-mode system

Can operate with regeneration

temperature of 40 C

Heating application; adsorption

heat is 3700 kJ kg1

Locomotive cooling application

Miles and Shelton [8]

Activated carboneammonia

Activated carbonemethanol

Regenerative system

Solid adsorption refrigerator

Activated carbonemethanol

Activated carbonemethanol

by diesel engine waste heat

Cooling applications

Four-bed system

Thermal wave system, required

regeneration temperature is very high

Convective thermal wave system

Solar powered system with

very low efficiency.

Solar refrigeration COP is

between 0.1 and 0.12

System COP is between

0.085 and 0.179

Refrigeration capacity is about

three folds higher than that

of the ACemethanol system.

Topping cycle regeneration

at 280 C and bottoming cycle

regeneration at 150 C

Solar COP is around 0.3

methanol pairs

Zeoliteewater and Activated

carbon fiber Bisofit e

ammonia

Activated carbon fiber

Bisofiteammonia

cycles

Two-bed solar-gas heat pump

which removes condensation heat, Qcond. When the refrigerant concentrations in the adsorber and the desorber are at or

near their equilibrium levels, the cycle is continued by

changing into a short duration (30 s) named pre-heating or

pre-cooling mode (Mode B), where all refrigerant valves remain closed. In Mode B, heat transfer fluids (hot and cooling

water) flows are redirected to ensure pre-heating and precooling process of SE 1 and SE 2, respectively. When the

pressures of desorber and adsorber are nearly equal to the

Table 2

Porous characteristics of silica gels and ACFs

Porous characteristics

Total pore

Adsorbent Adsorbate BET

surface area volume

(m3 kg1)

(m2 kg1)

Silica

gel (3A)

Silica

gel (RD)

ACF

(A-15)

ACF

(A-20)

Average pore

)

diameter (A

N2

0.69 106

N2

0.74 106

N2

1.41 106

N2

1.93 106

Wang et al. [6]

Anyanwu and Ezekwe [10]

Li and Sumathy [11]

Wang et al. [12]

Wang et al. [13]

valve between SE 2 and evaporator, as well as the valve between SE 1 and condenser are opened to flow the refrigerant.

The mode is denoted as Mode C. In Mode C, valves V2 and

V4 are opened, while valves V1 and V3 are closed. In this

mode, the condenser and the SE 1 is in desorption process

and the evaporator and the SE 2 is in adsorption process.

As can be noticed from Fig. 1(b) and Table 3, in Mode C,

all four refrigerant valves operations and the processes of

SE 1 and SE 2 are exactly opposite to those of Mode A. After

the completion of Mode C, pre-heating of SE 2 or pre-cooling

of SE 1 starts, which is opposite of Mode B and known as

Mode D. After Mode D, the adsorption cooling system returns to Mode A. Table 3 shows the state of the refrigerant

valves and the choice of hot or cooling water application.

3. Mathematical modelling

3.1. Adsorption isotherms

The DubinineRadushkevich (DeR) equation is used to

estimate the equilibrium uptake of ACF (A-20)eethanol pair.

The numerical values of W0 and D are evaluated experimentally by El-Sharkawy et al. [18] which are found to be

0.797 kg ethanol/kg ACF and 1.716 106 K2, respectively.

Condenser

(a)

Cooling

water in

Cooling

water out

V3

SE2

SE1

V2 Cooling

water out

Liquid

refrigerant

Hot

water out

Cooling

water in

Hot

water in

Table 3

Operation schedule of refrigerant valves and sorption elements

Cycle

(duration)

Mode A

(600 s)

Mode B

(30 s)

Mode C

(600 s)

Mode D

(30 s)

Valve

Valve

Valve

Valve

SE 1

Open

Closed

Open

Closed

Cooling

water

Hot water

Closed

Closed

Closed

Closed

Hot

water

Cooling

water

Closed

Open

Closed

Open

Hot

water

Cooling

water

Closed

Closed

Closed

Closed

Cooling

water

Hot

water

1

2

3

4

SE 1

V4

89

V1

Evaporator

[20]. It is found that the numerical values of F0 is 11, considering the cylindrical shape of ACF. The surface diffusion Ds

is calculated by using the Arrhenius equation and the numerical values of Dso and Ea are found to be 1.8 1012 m2 s1

and 306.7 103 J kg1, respectively.

Chilled

water in

Chilled

water out

Condenser

(b)

Cooling

water in

Cooling

water out

V2

V3

Cooling

water out

SE2

SE1

Hot

water out

Liquid

refrigerant

V4

V1

2b

where,

2c

Evaporator

Chilled

water out

2a

Ea

Ds Dso exp

RT

Hot

water in

Cooling

water in

vw

ks av W w

vt

Ds

ks av F0 2

Rp

experimental isotherms of ACF (A-20)eethanol and can

be described as [21]:

Chilled

water in

Fig. 1. (a) Schematic diagram of the two-bed ACFeethanol adsorption cycle (Mode A). (b) Schematic diagram of the two-bed

ACFeethanol adsorption cycle (Mode C).

DHst hfg E lnW0 =W1=n aT=Tc b

2d

Table 4

Values adopted in the cycle simulation program

2

Ps

W W0 exp D T ln

P

Symbols

The adsorption rate is estimated by using the well known

LDF equation (Eq. (2a)). The key parameter in the LDF

model is the determination of the overall mass transfer coefficient, ksav. E. Glueckauf, [19] showed that there is a constant

relationship between ksav, and the diffusion time constant,

Ds/R2p. The present authors studied the kinetics of ACF

(A-20)eethanol pair using a thermo-gravimetric analyzer

(TGA) from which the diffusion time constant and consequently, the overall mass transfer coefficient is evaluated

Dso

D

Ea

W0

Rp

Macf

mC

_ p j

_ p chill

mC

MCp bed

eff

MCp cond

eff

MCp evap

eff

bed

UAi

(UA)cond

(UA)evap

Value

Unit

12

1.8 10

1.716 106

306.7 103

0.797

6.5 106

60

6270

2926

86.7 103

(9341 5 cpl,ethanol(T))

(4825 80 cpl,ethanol(T))

2952

15,330

4870

m2 s1

K2

J kg1

kg kg1

m

kg

W K1

W K1

J K1

J K1

J K1

W K1

W K1

W K1

90

E 138 (kJ kg1), Tc 489.15 (K), W0 0.797 (kg ethanol/kg ACF), and n 2.

3.4. Adsorption and desorption energy balance

Using the lumped approach for the adsorption bed, which

comprises the activated carbon fiber, the heat exchanger fins

and tubes, the energy balance equation, is given by:

bed dTibed

dT bed

mCp i-phase i

eff

dt

dt

bed

dwi

fMacf

DHst mC

_ p j Tj;o Tj;in ;

dt

MCp

adsorption/desorption cycle operation, i indicates the adsorption/desorption bed and j defines the cooling/heating

source. The left hand side of the adsorber/desorber energy

balance equation (Eq. (3)) provides the rate of change of

internal energy due to the thermal mass of adsorbent(s),

the refrigerant (ethanol) as well as adsorber/desorber

heat exchanger during adsorption and desorption. The first

term on the right hand side of Eq. (3) represents the release

of adsorption heat during adsorption process or the input of

desorption heat during desorption operation. The second

term on the right hand side of Eq. (3) indicates the total

amount of heat released to the cooling water upon adsorption or provided by the hot water for desorption. For a small

temperature difference across the cooling/heating fluid such

as water, the outlet temperature of the source is sufficiently

accurate to be modeled by the log mean temperature difference (LMTD) method and it is given by:

#

"

UAbed

bed

bed

i

Tj;o Ti Tj;in Ti exp

:

4

_ p j

mC

Hence Eq. (4) expresses the importance of heat transfer parameters, namely heat transfer area, Abed and overall heat

transfer coefficient, Ubed.

3.5. Condenser energy balance

The condenser is a water-cooled shell-tube heat exchanger which liquefies the vapor refrigerant emanating

from the desorber during desorption, delivering the condensed liquid to the evaporator via U tube. The mathematical

modelling of condenser is coupled with the thermodynamic

states of desorption beds and the pressure difference between

the condenser and the evaporator. The energy balance equation for the condenser can be expressed as:

cond dT cond

dwbed

des

MCp eff

f hfg Macf

dt

dt

_ p w Tw;o Tw;in :

mC

Hence the left hand side of Eq. (5) represents the rate of

change of internal energy required by the metallic parts of

heat exchanger tubes due to the temperature variations in

the condenser. On the right hand side, the first term gives

the latent heat of vaporization due to the amount of refrigerant desorbed from the desorption bed and the amount of heat

that the liquid condensate carries away when it leaves the

condenser to the evaporator, and finally the last term represents the total amount of heat released to the cooling water.

In the current design, the condenser heat exchanging tubes

have been chosen to be corrugated, with the enhanced surface inevitably retaining a thin film of condensate on the surface, which ensures that the condenser and the desorber are

always maintained at the refrigerant (ethanol) saturated

vapor pressure. Using log mean temperature difference

approach, the outlet temperature of the condenser heat

exchanging tube is written as:

#

"

UAcond

bed

bed

Tw;o Tads Tw;in Tads exp

:

6

_ p w

mC

The overall energy balance of the evaporator is governed

mainly by the heat and mass interactions between the evaporator and the adsorption bed. The heat released from the

condenser is also taken into account. The energy balance

of the evaporator can be expressed as Eq. (7).

h

evap idT evap

dwbed

ads

MCp eff

fhfg Macf

dt

dt

_ p chill Tchill;o Tchill;in

mC

7

The left hand side of Eq. (7) represents the change of internal

energy due to the sensible heat of the liquid refrigerant and

the metal of heat exchanger tubes in the evaporator. On the

right hand side, the first term gives the latent heat of evaporation for the amount of refrigerant adsorbed, the second

term shows the cooling capacity of the evaporator. The

chilled water outlet temperature is given by:

Tchill;o T evap Tchill;in T evap exp

UAevap

:

_ p w

mC

The overall mass balance of refrigerant (ethanol) is governed by the mass interactions during (i) the switching interval, and (ii) adsorption/desorption operation period. The rate

of change of mass of refrigerant is equal to the amount of

adsorbate adsorbed during adsorption as well as how much

refrigerant is desorbed during desorption. Neglecting the

gaseous phase, the mass balance equation for the cooling

system is expressed by Eq. (9).

Initial temperatures

Tads= 30C

Tdes= 30C

Tevap= 30C

Tcond= 30C

Start

Data storage

Initial uptake

Pevap=f(Tevap)

Pcond=f(Tcond)

Wads =f (Tads,Pevap)

Wdes =f (Tads,Pevap)

Initial values of heat added

and rejected

Qads=0

Qdes=0

Qcond=0

Qevap=0

Initial Conditions at

(time=0)

No

and evaporator

Solving

(1) Energy balance equation

(2) Heat balance equation

For the system

Solving

(3) Mass balance equation

(4) Heat balance equation

If time = 0

Yes

Loop starting from

time = 0 to

time = the end of the

operation cycle time

Calculation of

adsorption kinetics

equations using DIVPAG in IMSL

End

Data output

Ti -Ti-1<0.01

91

Calculation of

adsorption isotherms

Yes

Calculation of

ethanol properties;

(1) latent heat

(2) Saturated pressure

(3) Specific heat

Stop

No

A

bed

dMref

dwads dwbed

Macf

des

dt

dt

dt

Here the symbol f 1 for operation (adsorbent beds

are connected to the evaporator and the condenser for adsorption and desorption, respectively); and f 0 for

switching (no mass transfer occurs between adsorber and

evaporator, and desorber and condenser). The energy balance equations of the major components such as the

solved numerically. The computed values of the key systems variables are constantly updated by numerical integration with time. The calculation procedures

commenced with the initialization of variables, the system

geometries and the adsorption characteristics of adsorbenteadsorbate systems. A series of subroutines are used to

calculate the adsorption isotherms and kinetics. It is emphasized that the coupled ordinary differential equations

for energy and mass balances are solved by an iterative

scheme, employing the fifth order Gears Differentiation

Formulae (GDF) method found in the DIVPAG subroutine

of the IMSL Fortran Developer Studio software. Double

92

Pre-heating

(Tpre-heating)initial=(Tads)final

Pre-cooling

(Tpre-cooling)initial = (Tdes)final

Set the initial values

(taken from the data of the previous

operation)

exchanger

Solving

(1) Energy balance equation

(2) Heat balance equation

For the overall system

Solving

(3) Mass balance equation

(4) Heat balance equation

time = end of the pervious

operation time to

time = the end of the

switching cycle time

Calculation of

adsorption kinetics

Pre-heating

Solving a set of differential

equations using DIVPAG in IMSL

Calculation of

adsorption isotherms

Calculation of

ethanol properties;

(1) Latent heat

(2) Saturated pressure

(3) Specific heat

Pre-cooling

Solving a set of differential

equations using DIVPAG in IMSL

For adsorber/desorber heat

exchanger

Solving

(1) Energy balance equation

(2) Heat balance equation

For the overall system

Solving

(3) Mass balance equation

(4) Heat balance equation

End

Data output

Ti -Ti-1<0.01

Yes

Stop

No

C

Fig. 2. Continued.

Only the initial conditions are specified in the problem,

and the total system is allowed to operate from transient

to cyclic-steady-state conditions. As the cycle is operated

in a batched manner, i.e. streams of hot and cold coolant

flows are being alternated between beds at the end of

each cycle period, the computer code adopts a special

tracking pointer or passing-variable routine to sequence

the computed variables or data from one cycle to another.

The values of the symbols used in the present simulation

computer program is shown in Fig. 2.

Due to the lack of a practical design of ACFeethanol

system, the physical design parameters of the evaporator,

condenser and adsorber/desorber heat exchangers are extracted from Ref. [22], which is a commercially available

single-stage silica gelewater based adsorption cooling system. However, the overall heat transfer coefficient of the

ACFeethanol pair is measured experimentally by the present authors [23] employing a flat plate heat exchanger.

C

93

Set the initial values

(taken from the data of the previous

switching mode)

For adsorber

Solving

(1) Energy balance equation

(2) Heat balance equation

For the overall system

Solving

(3) Mass balance equation

(4) Heat balance equation

time = end of the pervious

switching time to

time = the end of the current

operation mode

Calculation of

adsorption kinetics

equations using DIVPAG in IMSL

End

Calculation of

adsorption isotherms

Calculation of

Ethanol properties;

(1) Latent heat

(2) Saturated pressure

(3) Specific heat

Data output

No

Ti -Ti-1<0.01

Yes

End

Fig. 2. Continued.

4.1. Chiller transient response

Fig. 3(a) shows the chiller response in terms of the

temporal histories for the reactors (adsorber/desorber heat

exchangers), the condenser, and the evaporator by using

the mathematical model presented herein. Hot and cooling

water inlet temperatures are taken as 85 and 30 C, respectively. It can be seen from Fig. 3(a), the ACFeethanol

single-stage adsorption chiller is able to reach from transient

to nearly steady state within three half cycles or 1890 s,

where adsorption/desorption cycle time is taken as 600 s

and switching time is taken as 30 s.

Fig. 3(b) shows the outlet temperature profiles for heat

transfer fluids. The cooling water outlet temperature from

the adsorber after 600 s, which is the rated adsorption/

desorption cycle time, is about 3 C higher than the coolant

the desorber is about 2.7 C lower than the hot water inlet

temperature. During the steady state condition, the cycle

average delivered chilled water temperature is obtained

10.5 C for the rated operating conditions (see Table 5),

where the refrigeration capacity is 12.53 kW.

4.2. Duhring diagram

Fig. 4 depicts the cyclic-steady-state Duhring diagram

simulated from our current mathematical formalism. The

switching time and cycle time were set to be 30 and

600 s, respectively. In Fig. 4, the various modes of a complete cycle are designated by numbers: desorption mode

(1e2), pre-cooling mode (2e3), adsorption mode (3e4)

and pre-heating mode (4e1). It can be observed that during

the cold-to-hot thermal swing of the bed, momentary adsorption takes place at the inception even though heat

94

100

60

40

Inlet cooling water Condenser

Adsorber

Inlet Chilled water

Evaporator

2000

1000

4000

3000

6000

5000

Temperature [C]

80

20

Concentration

0.7

0.6

0.5

0.4

0.3

0.2

2

0.1

0.05

1000

Desorber

100

10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

atio

entr

c

Con

10

ratio

Satu

0.01

90

100

rated conditions.

Temperature [C]

80

60

Condenser cooling water outlet

40

Cooling water inlet

20

Chilled water outlet

100

200

300

400

500

is about 5 C higher than the cooling water inlet temperature, and at the end of desorption the adsorbent temperature

is about 4.5 C lower than the hot water inlet temperature.

This occurs because the sorption element must periodically

switch between adsorption and desorption temperatures

within the relatively short time intervals.

600

5. Conclusions

ACFeethanol adsorption chiller for rated conditions. (b) Outlet

temperature profiles of heat transfer fluids for the ACFeethanol

adsorption chiller for rated conditions.

assumed to be dictated by the isosteres (dashed parallel lines

in Fig. 3). The hot-to-cold thermal swing is also assumed to

be isosteric. The pre-heating/pre-cooling phase is stopped

before the beds are sufficiently heated and cooled so that

they do not reach the pressures in the condenser and evaporator. Consequently, there is a momentary period when the

condensate on the condenser tube bundles is evaporated

and adsorbed by the heated bed. This evaporation maintains

the pressure in the bed and condenser. Similarly, from Fig. 3

it is observed that at the end of the switching phase, there is

a sudden drop in the bed pressure. This causes the adsorbate

in the cool bed to momentarily desorb and condenses into

the evaporator. Another observation from the same figure

innovative ACFeethanol based adsorption chiller. The main

advantage in the ACFeethanol adsorption cycle is its ability

to utilize effectively low-temperature waste heat sources.

Regardless of the initial mass distribution, the ACFe

ethanol adsorption chiller is able to achieve the same

cyclic-steady-state within three half cycles or 1890 s. The

operation modes of the chiller are depicted succinctly on

a Duhring diagram. However, it can be observed from the

Duhring diagram that at the end of the switching phase, there

is a sudden drop in the bed pressure. This causes the adsorbates in the cool bed to momentarily desorb and condense

into the evaporator.

The innovative ACFeethanol adsorption chiller has a significant market potential as it can be used as the bottoming

cycle of existing power generation cycles. From the above

perspectives, the use of unexploited low-temperature waste

heat may offer an attractive possibility for improving energy

efficiency.

Table 5

Rated operating conditions

Hot water inlet

1

Temperature ( C)

Temperature ( C)

Temperature ( C)

85

1.5

30

(1.5 1.5)

14

0.7

1

Adsorption/desorption cycle time: 600 s

Switching time: 30 s

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