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B e l l an d B rad fu te , E i b u rgh ;
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1813.

Faw c e t t , Pri n t e r ,
Ne wc as tl e Stre e t , Lo
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nd n
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w h ic h form s th e

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i n th e in tr o d u c tor y m at te r p re x e d t o t h e
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s y s te m c on t ain e d in t h e
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i t r e m ain s on l y t o g i ve an ac c ou n t o f th e
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The s y s t e m , h e re pr e s e n t e d t o th e p u b
l ie , i s t h at t au gh t b y M VON FE I N
A I G L E ; w h o , b y t h e p u b l i c e x h ib i t io n s
w h i c h h e h as gi ve n o f t h e p ro c ie n c y o f
s om e o f h is
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am i d s t var i o u s o t h e r m a t t e r ,
th e s u b
s t an c e
o f ft e e n o f t h e P r o fe s s o r s l e c
t u re s , o n t h e ap p l ic ati on o f t h e ar t t o
C h r on o l og y G e og r ap hy , H is t o ry L an
u a e S s t e m a t i c Ta bl e s , an d P oe t r
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t e d b e c a u s e t h e s u b j e c t to w h i c h i t r e l a te s
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t re a t ed o f
Th e E d i t or i s n o t a w ar e th a t an y ap o
l ogy i s d u e t o t h e P ro fe s s o r o n a c c o u n t o f
t h is p u b l i c a t i o n
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t e m p l a te d : a n d th e a c c o u n ts w h ic h w e re
t h u s c i r c u l ate d , l i k e mo st t r a d it ion s , w e r e
b y n o m e an s c a l c u l ate d to g ive s atis fac
t o ry or c r e d i tab l e n o tio n s o n th e s u b j e c t
Th e E d i tor a tte n d e d o n e c o u r s e o f
l e c t u r e s an d , a fte r t h e e x am p l e o f s e ve r al
o f h is fr ie n d s , t o o k v e r y c 0 p io u s n o te s :
Fin d i n g , h o w e ve r th at t h e m ate r ial s
wh i c h h e h ad t h u s c o l l e c t e d , w e re s o
c o n fu s e d an d d i s o rd e r l y, as to b e n e ar l y ,
if n o t w ho l l y , u s e l e s s an d b e in g u n w il
l in g th a t t h e tim e h e h ad b e s to w e d o n th e
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i n t e l l i g i b l e th an it w as in it s o rig i n a l s ta t e
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s o f Na t u r a l M e m or
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d
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LO N D
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ON

u g u st , 1 8 1 2

AD VE RT I S E M E NT
TO TH E

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m ate r i a l s an d h as g i ve n an in t r od u c t i on
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s e ve r a l a d d i t i o n s an d i l l u s t rat i o n s c a l c u
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an d t o a c c e l e r a t e t h e p r og r e s s o f t h e s t u
d e n t Am on g t h e ad d i t i o n s m ay b e n am e d
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ac

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t he Pr in c ipal S y s te m s o f Ar t i ~
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LO N D O N ,

J anu ar y ,

1 813

C O NT E NTS

I . NE W A RT O F M E M

O RY

Page

II

55

III

63

63

2 G e n e r al

68

3 P ar i c u l ar G e o graph y
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I I . P RI N C I P A L S Y S
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C o n t i M e gis e ru s A Fe rre ya d e Ve ra
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4 05

xvi

III

NS T A NC E S O F TH
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m o s t e ver y m an w it h reg ar d t o his m e m ory :
an d t h at n o t o nl y conc er n i n g m atter s d ii c u l t to
b e ret ai n e d b u t e ve n co n c er n ing the m o s t or d i
n arv o c c u rre n ce s o f l i fe
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fo rget fu l n ess vario u s arti c e s h ave at di ffere n t
ti m e s been re s orted to Of t h ese t h e t op ic a l
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t h e p r i n c ip al ex pedie n t for assi s ting the


Fo r in
m e m o r y i s deri ved fro m as s oci ati o n
st an c e w h e n I s e e a h o u se I n at u r al l y rec ol lect
t he i n h ab it ants ; t h eir m anner o f l i fe an d t h e in
The sig h t of a
t e rc o u rse I h ave had w it h t h e m
b ook p r o m pts t h e m e m ory o f its c on tents an d
th e pl e as u r e or pro t I h ave r e c e i ved fro m th e
per u s al o f it A vie w o f the se a m ay s u ggest th e
ide a o f a s to r m an d th e p ai n fu l re c o l l e ctio n o f
th e l o ss o f p r opert y or o f t h e l i fe o f a fr iend
b y s h ip w rec k Th e ac t t h e n o f a iding re c o l
l e ct io n b y ass o ci ation I S to conn ec t t h o u gh t s re
m o te o r abstr act w it h ot h ers m o re o b vio u s an d
fam i li ar t h at the re c u rrence o f t h e l atter m ay
b r ing al ong w it h i t t h e m e m o ry o f t h e fo r m er
T h u s the si gh t o f m y r ing w h ic h I c annot m i s s
to o b s er ve re m inds m e o f the acti o n to su gge t
t he r e m e m br an c e of w hic h I m oved i t fro m on e
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t h e s o u ndin g o f th e cl o ck p r o m pts t h e re c o l le c
tion o f t h e b u s m e s s I h ad resol ve d to per fo r m
A gl i m pse o f t h e rst wo r ds o f
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th e t h ing s w e w is h to r e m e m ber w it h t he i m m e
di ate o bj ects o f o u r s enses th at o ffe r t h e m sel ves
d ail y to o u r attentio n b u t p artic u l arl y w it h t h e
obje c ts o f ou r sig h t t h e m ost vigoro u s an d l i vel y
of al l ou r se ns e s an d o f w hi c h the o bj e c t s are
,
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p er hap s m ore n u m ero u s t h an t h o s e o f al l ou r


ot h er senses pu t togeth er
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or
pe rh aps c an be
van ces w h ic h h ave be e n
e m pl oy ed to h el p rec o l lec ti o n It is th e gro u nd
w o r k o f the fam o u s artici al m e m o r y o f S I M O
N I D E S a l y ri c p o et o f t h e i sl and o f C eos on e
o f th e Cy cl ad es w h o o u ris h ed i n t h e sixty rs t
Ol y m pi ad abo u t ve h u ndred an d t h irty ve
y e ar s be fore th e bi r t h o f C hr ist an d [w h o ] is c c
l e b rate d b y C I C E R O an d Q U i N C T i L I A N B o t h
t h e s e au t h o r s r el ate t h e fo l l o w ing m y t h o l ogic al
i nciden t o n th e o cc asi o n w h ic h s u ggested t h e
i n vention S i m o nides w as e m pl oy ed b y S c o p as
a ric h T h ess a l i an
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s o de am o u nt ing t o h al f t h e p o e m i n pr aise o f
C as t o r an d Po l l u x
S i m o n ides so n fo u n d an
avenge r o f t h e ins u l t
H e w as i m m edi atel y s u m
m o u ed fr o m t h e c o m p an y b y t w o y o u ng m e n on
h o rseb ack s u pp o sed to be C ast o r an d Pol l u x i n
di sg u ise w ho appe ar ed t o p r o tect t h eir fav o u r i te
po e t ; an d w ho as s o o n as th e y h ad s aved S i m o
n i d e s , m ad e
the ro o f fal l o n S c op as an d his
,

'

I N T R O D U C TI O N

c o m p an y br u ising t h e m s o to de at h th at n o t a
l ine am ent o f th e m co u l d be k n o w n S i m o nides
b y recoll e c ting t h e m anner i n w h ic h t h e y s at at
t abl e w as e n abl ed t o disting u is h t h e m an d to
del iver th e m to th ei r fr iends for b u ri al Th e aid
w h ic h t h e re c o l l e c tion o f t h e poe t r ecei ved o n
th is occ asi o n is s aid t o h ave s u ggested t h e ide a
o f an artici al m e m o ry
T h e p r incipl e o f th e sc h e m e o f S i m o nides
is t o tr ans fer a t rain o f ide as t h e ar c h et y pes o f
w h i c h are n o t t h e obj e cts o f sense and are
t h ere fo r e o f di f c u l t rec o l lecti o n t o an o th er
trai n w h ic h w e c ann o t m iss to r ec o l l ec t bec au se
t h e arc h etypes are n o t o nl y o bjects o f sense b u t
objects o f sigh t w it h w h ic h ar c h ety pe s w e are
pe rfec tl y fam il i ar; o r whic h m ay be pl aced ac
S u ppose t h en S i m o
t u al l y be fo re o u r e y es
nide s w ere to c o m m it tb m e m o ry a d i sc o u r se
c o nsisting o f spec u l ations c o nce r ning g o vern
m ent n an ces n av al affai r s o r w isd o m n o ne
o f t h e ar c h et y pes o f u h ic h c o u l d b e m ade o bjects
at t h e ti m e o f del i ver y ; an d
o f sense a t l e as t
to assist his rec o l lection h e w e r e to c o nnec t t h e
series o f ide as in th at disco u r se w it h a series o f
objec ts w h ic h h e c ou l d ei th er pl ace in s igh t o r
w it h w h ic h h e w as s o fam il i a r t h at h e c o u l d n o t
fail to recol lec t t h e m ; h e w o u l d p r o c e e d i n t h e
f o l l o w ing m anner H e w o u l d take a h o u se for
i n stance eithe r the o n e in w h ic h h e m i gh t del i
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N E W A RT

MEMORY

or

per fe ctl y acq u aint e d H e w o u l d


begin at s o m e xed p o in t o f t h at h o u se s u ppos e
th e r ig h t s ide o f th e d oo r an d h e w o u l d pro c e e d
ro u nd it i n a circ u l ar l ine til l he ar r ived at t h e
p o int fro m w h ic h h e set o u t H e w o u l d di vi d e
t h e circ u m ferenc e o f th e h o u se i nto as m an v
p arts as t h ere w ere di fferent topics o r p ar a
g raph s in th e di s co u r s e H e w o u l d d i st i ng u i s h
e ac h p ar ag r ap h b y so m e s y m b o l o f t h e s u bjec t i t
c ont ained ; th at on go vern m ent b y t h e s y m bol
o f a c ro w n o r a sceptre ; t h at o n n an c es
by
t h e sy m b o l o f so m e c u rrent coin ; th at o n n aval
aff ai r s b y t h e g u re o f a s h ip ; t h at o n w isd o m
b y th e gu re o f t he g o ddess w ho presided o ver
i t H e w o u l d ei th e r act u al l y t ra ns fer o r s u p
p o se t rans ferred th ese sy m b o ls t o t h e di ffe r ent
c o m p ar t m ent s o f t h e h o u se an d t h en al l h e had
t o do
in o r de r t o r e c o l lec t t h e s u bject o f an y
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Th e
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m e m o ry b y t h is c o ntri van ce e asil y rec al l e d t h e
di s c ou rs e Th e or at o r eit h er s aw or c o u l d no t
fai l t o re m e m ber the co m p art m en t s bec au se h e
w as per fec tl y fam
ili ar w it h t h e m N eit h er c o u ld
he fo r get t h e sy m b o l s o f e ac h p ar agr ap h bec au s e
t h e y w e re no m or e t h an h ierogl y p h i c al p aintin gs
o f the se nse
I n the pl ac e o f a h o u se w e m ay as s u m e
ac c or d i n
g to Qu in c til ian , a p u b l i c b u il d i n g, the
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h ave b e e n pro m u l g ated fro m the t h irteent h to the


eig h teent h cent ur y We sh al l h c re brie y rec a
p itu l ate t h e n am e s o f t he p r in c ip a l w r i te r s on t h e
r e ferring o u r re aders to anoth er p ar t o f
s u bj e ct
t hi s vol u m e fo r an ac co u n t o f t h e di fferent sys
te m s
T h at l u m i n ary o f s ci e n c e Ray m u n d Lu l ly
b orn i n 1 2 3 6 see m s to h ave been t h e r s t m o
d ern who bro u g h t th e art o f m e m ory i n t o not ic e
a fter it h ad l ai n dor m an t for s o m a n y age s
Th i s
art w as ter m e d t r a n sc e n d e n t a l an d di s tin u i sh e d
g
b y h is n am e
I n th e f t e e n th c e n t u r y m ne m onics se e m to
h ave o c c u pied t h e attention o f P u bl ic z u s P r iis
P e te r of Col og n e an d P e t e r of Raoe n n a w ho
su c ce s si vel y p u bl i s h ed sy s te m s o f l o c al an d s m
y
b o l ic al m e m o ry
I n t h e y e a r 1 5 8 3 Rom be r c h p u bl is h e d his
C on g e s tor iu m Ar t i c i os ce ll I e m or icc wh ic h c on
t ains a ve ry c o m pl ete vie w o f h is predeces s ors
l ab ou r s w it h m an y i m port ant additions G r a
t ar o/i an i t ali an p hy si ci an w as the nex t w riter
on t h is s u bj ect w h o i n 1 5 5 5 p u t fort h a tr e a
tise d e m e m oria r ep a r a n d a e tc
Th is w as
transl ated i n to Engl is h b y W il l i am Fu l wo d
u nder t h e title o f
t h e C ast e l o f M e m o r ie an d
a fte r w ard s rendered int o Fr en c h b y S t e p h en C ope
T h e tre atise o f G ratar ol i cont ains m u c h c u rio u s
m atte r
The w or ks o f Sp ang e n be rg Rosse l iu s B r u n o,
.

'

I N T R O D U C T I ON
Al be r t, P o rta, M a r q oti,

11

others

an d

pp e ar

e d ab o u t t h e cl o s e o f t h e s ixte e n th c e n tu ry b ut
th e y c o n t ained n oth ing ver y m ateri al l y n e w o n
t h e m ne m o ni c ar t
T he se ve n te e n th cent u ry w as re m ar k abl e for
t h e n u m ber an d variety o f m n e m on ist ic w o r ks
w h ic h iss u ed fro m t h e pre s ses o f t h e c o n tin e n t
Engl an d al so had h er sh ar e in t h i s h o n o u r an d
p ro d u c e d on e or t wo b o o k s w ort hy Of e x am i n a
tion The s y s te m o f S c he n c ke l o c c u pied the
gre at es t shar e o f atte n t i o n i n Fr an c e an d G e r
m an y S c he n c ke l w as fo l lo w ed by Al st e d B r u te
Rac e l l in an d Nau l z us B ru x al s o w rote an
es say u pon t h e art o f for get fu l n e ss an d g ave
n u m e ro u s r u l e s for acq u irin g p e r fe c tio n in t hi s
u s e fu l s c ie n c e
T h e p r incip al w ork p u bl ish ed in E ng l an d on
the s u bj ec t o f t h e l oc al m e m o ry a ppe are d in
1 6 1 8 u n d er t h e tit l e o f M n e m on i c a ; s ive ar s
Re m ii z isc e n d i e tc b y J o h n Wil lis ; an d was tr an s
l ate d i n
b y o n e S ow e rs b y a bo o k s e l le r
T h is c u rio u s an d r ar e vo l u m e is repl ete w it h in
for m atio n r e s pe c tin g~m n e m on ic s an d disco u r s e s
c oncerni n g eve ry p ai tic u l ar w h ic h re
at l arg e
q u ire s t h e att e n tio n Of t h e s t u dent
I n th e y e ar 1 65 1 H e n r y H e r ds on w ho s ty l e s
h i m s e l f a P ro fe s sor b y Pu bl i c Au th ority in the
U ni ver si t y o f C am bri d ge p u bl is h e d his Ars
,

'

M n emon ic a, sive H

e rds on us

'

B r u xz a tus,

e tc

in

M E MO RY

N E W ART

12

Lati n

an d

En gl is h

It

is

m erel y

r ep u b l i c atio n

o f p art o f B i u x s S im on id e s Re d ivivu s
T h e m ne m o n i c al e s s ay s p u b l is h ed on th e c on
w e re pri ncip al l y b y
t in e n t fro m 1 6 20 to
Az e ve d o C a r bo n e l C u ir ot D a n n hawe r B e l ot
s ever al an o n y m o u s s ste m s
a n d B r a n c ac c io
y
Er
w ere pu t f6 rth al s o d u ri n g t h i s perio d
har d t s Ar s M e m or i ze appe ared i n 1 71 5 an d
M orhqf an d Fa the r Feyj oo h ave b o t h dis s erta
tions expre s sl y u po n t h e su bj e c t t h e o n e i n his
P oly histor an d the ot h e r in his C ar tas E ru d itas

u r i osas
C
y

th e ti m e o f Fe yjo o ( 1 78 1 ) to 1 8 06
( i f w e except a G er m an transl ation o f S c h e n c ke l
b y K l iib e r) t h e l oc al an d s y m b o l ic a l m e m or y
In t h e
s ee m s t o h ave l ain c o m pl e tel y d o r m an t
P hi l osop hic al M ag az in e for D e c e m ber 1 8 06
t h e r e i s t h e fo l l o w ing notice
A n e w br an c h o f science is be gu n to b e stu
died in Ge r m an y I t is t h e scie n c e c al led b y the
We
antients m ne m on i c a o r t h e art o f m e m or y
nd in H e io d o tu s t h at i t w as c are fu l l y t au gh t
w h ence i t w as tr an s
an d pr ac ti s e d in Egy pt
pl ante d i nto Gre e ce T h i s h i s tori an attrib u t e s
t h e i n venti o n o f i t to S i m o n ide s ; b u t t h is opi
D io n is r e fu ted in a d i ss e rt atio n p u bl ishe d b y M
M o r ge n s tern o f D o r p at u pon m n e nion ic a H e
t h e r e asserts t h at t h is s cie n c e is m ore i nti m ate l y
c o nn e c t e d w it h the E y pti an h i e ro l y p h i c s than
g
g
Fro m

I N T R O DU C T I O N

13

er al l y th o u gh t , an d that t h i s c o n n e c tion
H o w e ve r the c ase
m ay h el p to expl ai n t h e m
m ay b e t h is s in gu l ar art so l o n g n e gl e c ted h as
re appe are d in G e r m an y w ith s o m e e cl at M
Are tin w ho m ay b e ac c o u nte d t h e restor e r Of it,
has rec e ntl y had M Kae stii e r a c lergy m an , as
his p u pil w h o m he has per m itt e d to te ac h h is
n e w d o c trine at Le ipz ic ; at the sam e tim e e x ac t
in g a pro m i s e fro m h im n ot to s u ff er his p u pil s
to w rite do w n h is lec t u re s M Kae s tn e r travel s
ab o u t l ike D r G al l
Ac c or d i n g to a b oo k w ritte n it is sai d b y
a c h il d o f t w e l ve ye ar s o f age , an d m e n tio n e d in
t h e Le ipz ic c atal o gu e fo r the l as t S ept e m b e r
fai r m n e m on ic a is a tr u e s c ie n c e an d m ay b e
t au gh t b y m e an s o f s e ve n t e e n d i ff ere n t r u l e s an d
w h i c h w il l gi ve a m e m ory to i n d i vid u al s o f e ve ry

is

e
n
g

a e

G R E G O R VO N FE I N
A I G L E an ati ve o f B ade n vi s ite d Paris an d
d el i vered Le c tu re s o n h is
Ne w S y s te m o f
M n e m on ic s an d M eth odic s
I n the Phil oso
h
i
c al M a az in e for J u n e
t
h
ere
is
h
e
t
g
p
fo ll o w in g extrac t fro m a l e tte r w ritte n b y M
P I G H T E L at Par i s to a frie n d in Londo n
ving s o m e ac c o u n t o f M VO N FE i NA I G LE s
i
g
exh ibitio n s t h e re
I n M arc h 1 8 07, M

Vol

xxv iii

p 92
.

N E W A RT O F M E M O RY

14

Pari s , 2 d M arc h ,

8 07

D u rin g m y re s ide n ce i n t h is m etr o p o lis I


h e ard a gre at de al o f a n e w m eth od o f m n e m o
o r o f a m et h od to as s is t an d x o u r m e
n i ue
q
m ory i n ve n t e d b y G r e gor d e Fe in aigl e
No t
w it h s t an din g t h e s i m pl icity w it h w h ic h h e an
I c ou l d n ot
n ou n c e d h is l e ct u res in t h e p apers
d e term i n e m y sel f to be c o m e a p u pil o f h is as I
t h o u g h t to n d a q u ac k or m o u nteb ank an d to
b e l au g h ed at b y m y fri e n ds for h avin g th r o wn
m
c
as h in s u c h a fool i s h m anner
P er
aw a
y y
haps I s h o u l d h e s it ate to t h is m o m ent ab o u t t h e
u til it y o f t h is n e w i n ve n ted m et h o d t o as s ist ou r
n at u r al m e m ory had I n o t h ad t h e pl e as u re o f
d i n ing at h is e xcel le n c y s t h e C o u n t o f M etter
t h e Au s tri an am b ass ador who fo l l o w ed
n ic h
w ith al l h is s ecre t ar ies t h e w h ol e co u rse o f 16c
t u re s : th e y al l sp o k e ve ry adv ant ag e o u sl y o f i t
l i ke w i s e s e ver al ot h er pers o n s o f t h e rst r an k I
m e t t h ere : i n c o n s eq u e n c e o f t h i s I w as i nse r te d
i n to t h e l i s t o f p u pil s an d I fol lo w at t h is m o
Al l I c an tel l you ab o u t
m e n t t h e l e c t u re s
t h i s m et h od is : i t is a very si m pl e one an d e asy
ad a ted to al l age s an d s exe s : al l
t o be l e arned
p
di f c u l ties in s u c h s ciences as requ ire an e xtraor
d in ary g o o d m e m or y for inst an c e t h e n am es
an d e poc h s in h ist o r y are at o nc e o verco m e an d
ob vi ate d Th ere is n ot one br an c h o f s c ien c e t o
I t is e asy
whic h t h i s m e t h o d c an n o t b e appl ied
,

I NTRO D U CTI O N

I5

to be perceived that s u c h an i n ve n tio n c an n o t


p ass w ith o u t s o m e c ri tiqu e an d eve n sar c as ms
i n the p u bl ic prints : s o m e o f t h e m w ere very
inj u ri o u s an d pl au s ibl e eno u g h to m isl e ad the
p u bl ic w ho k no w ing n o th ing o f th e m eth o d
are al w ay s m o re re ad y to co n d e m n t h an t o assist
M r Fe in aigl e to an s w er al l t h ese criti cs at
o n ce adopted a m e th o d n ot l e s s p u b l i c for Pari s
th an the pu bl ic p apers b u t l e s s p u bl i c for th e
r e s t o f Eu rope : h e g ave th e 2 2 d o f l ast m o n t h
in
a p u bl i c ex h ibitio n to abo u t 2000 S pect at o rs
w h ic h h e d id n o t appe ar at al l o nl y abo u t 1 2
o r 1 5 o f his p u pil s : e ac h o f t h e m m ade s u c h an
appl ic ati o n o f t h e m et ho d as h is sit u ati o n in l i fe
requ ired T h e principal p art s w ere t h e fo l l o w
ing : h istory abo u t n am es an d y e ars ; ge o grap h y
w it h r espec t to l ongit u d e l atit u de n u m ber o f
in h abit ants sq u are m iles 8t c 8Lc ; gram m ar
i n vario u s l ang u ages ab o u t di ff eren t editi o ns o f
t h e sam e w o rk ; p andec ts t h eir di visi o n an d
titl e o f e ac h b o o k titl e 8Lc ; di ff erent sy ste m s
o f b o t an y
p o et ry arit h m etic 8Lc 8L0 At l as t
one desired t h e co m p an y to gi ve h im o n e t h o u
s and w o rds w ith o u t an y connec tion w h ats oe ver
an d w i t h o u t
nu m eri c order ; fo r in s t ance th e
w o r d a s tr on om e r fo r N o 62 ; wood fo r NO
1 8 8 ; l ove ly fo r N o
3 70 ; dy n as t y for N o

2 3 5 D avid for NO 90 8 w Sac ti l l al l the


,

16

N E W A RT o r M E M O RY

n u m b e rs

w e re

l l e d

n o t w rths tan d in

o r d e r,
or

he

on e

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an d

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be

pe at e d th e whol e
he ard t he s e w ord s , w ithou t
an d

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) in t h e

um e r i c al

o rd e r

yo u w hat w o rd w as gi ve n agai n s t an y
n u m b e r,
or w h at n u m b e r an y o n e w ord

tol d

is

til l m ore s t ri ki n g b u t c e rtai n l y


l i ke w i se m ore d i f c u l t to re t ai n as m any n u m
b e rs h o w e v e r gre at t he y m ay b e
Fo r w ords
an d n u m b e r s I c ou l d ve n t u re m se l f w ith t he
y
re
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whi c h is d on e in l e ss t han te n m i n u t e s I c ou l d
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M Fe in aigl e is ab ou t to vi s it En gl an d
It

te s ti m on y of M Fic hte l m ay b e ad d e d
that of th e c e l e b rat e d Fr e n c h as tro n o m e r M
I have w i t n e ss e d the
LA L A N D E w ho says
e xt raord i n ary e ffe c t s
r
o d u c e d o n th e m e m o ry
p
o n e o f h is
b y the m e t h o d o f M d e Fe in aigl e
h
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o
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have i n se rt e d 24 0 d at e s from an ti e n t an d m o d e rn
h i st o ry, an d M d e Fe in aigl e s S c h o l ars re pe a t
To th e

N E W ART

18

or

M EM

O RY

s c e n d ng

at

or,

th e

l owe r

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s to r ,
y

gu l ar l y

as c e n d n g .

An y o t he r pe rm an e n t an d fam il i ar c lass o f o h

j
t han

e c ts

w ill , in ge n e ral , an s we r the pu r po s e b e tte r


the roo m s o f a h ou se
I was m yse l f e d u

c ate d

in

the v c n

i i ity

of

O xford s t re e t ,

an d

the

that s t re e t s ou t h an d n or th
C har l e s s t re e t S oh o s q u are an d
D e an s t re e t C hap e l s tre e t an d
s o o n to Par k l an e an d d o w n on the o t he r s i d e
t o Rathb o n e pl ac e an d H an w ay yard ) are the
h
e rm an e n t an d fam ili ar se t o f o bj e c t s
ic h I
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m ake u se o f fo r m y o w n pu rpo se o f s u c c e s s i v e
assoc i ati o n
T he c ou n ti e s in En gl an d the ki n g
d o m s an d th e c o u n t ri e s t hro u gh o u t th e w or l d
the vill age s an d O t he r o bj e c t s o n a gre at ro ad
o r the s t re e t s o f a c it
are all w e ll s u it e d t o t h i s
y
b u s i n e s s o f ass oc i ati on
an d e it he r o f t h e m m ay
b e t ake n in d ie re n tl y b y v ari o u s pe rso n s ac c o rd
in g to t he i r ac q u ai n t an c e w it h t he m The gre at e r
th e vari e ty o f i d e as c on n e c t e d w it h t hi s s e t o f
ass oc ia tin
o bj e c ts , wh i c h m ay b e c al l e d t he
g
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o w e r o f re c o l l e c ti o n
p
I f I d o n o t h az ard a c harge o f e go ti s m I
that b y t hi s
as ill u s t rati ve fac t s
s h al l m e n ti on
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l
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t
i
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-

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ODUC

NT R

TI

ON

19

h pe r fe c ti on , that I c o u l d for ye ars aft e r


w ard s s pe c i fy the n u m b e r o f the b o o k o n he ar i n g

w ith
t he

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e ate d b ac kw ar d s an d fo r ward s fro m fty t o an
p

an d

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o f the
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hal f an ho u r s c o n ti n u an c e
M VO N FE I N A I G LE vi s ite d En gl an d so m e
ti m e in the e ar ly par t o f 1 8 1 1 In o r d e r to e xhi
b it a d e t ail o f h is pro gre s se s in t hi s c o u n t ry w e
hav e m ad e s o m e e xt rac ts fro m the Pe r i o d i c al
Wo rks an d Pu b l i c Pape rs w hic h gave an ac c o u n t
o f his var i o u s e xp e r im e n ts
but

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Vo n Fe in aigl e

pu b l i c e xpe ri
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T he M an age r s

q u e n c e of the appl i
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Th e

of

t he

I n s tit u ti on

of

c o n se

Ge n

Mag

vol . l xxxi. par

t1

20

N E W A RT

h i b iti o n

M EM

or

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v e ral hu n d re d Lad i e s an d G e n tl e m e n w ho w e re
as t o n i sh e d an d d e l i gh t e d w it h t he
r e s u lt o f th e
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u n de r M r
Fe in aigl e s c are b u t t w o o r t h re e
d ays b e fo re : he h ad o n e o f th e gi rl s b u t an ho u r
a n d a hal f ; an d th e
l o n ge s t t u iti o n th at an y o f
t h e m h ad re c e iv e d w as b u t fo u r ho u rs an d a
hal f 0 n e o f th e m re pe at e d G o l d s m it h s H e r
m i t b ac kward an d fo r w ard an d s t at e d th e s t an z a
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the l i n e
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M r Fi n c he r o f t he i n s tit u ti o n
n am e d t o h im
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y
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o n M r Fe in aigl e s s ys t e m t o ge t h e r w it h th e rs t
art o f B ris s o n s
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t i ty in the re te n ti on O f the tab l e s of au v


o t h e r s c i e n c e a fac t w h i c h w as c on rm e d b
y
s e v e ral G e n tl e m e n
p re s e n t w ho h av e att e n d e d
t h e pri vat e c o u rs e s o f the Pro fe ss or T he e xa
m in ation s w e re c arr i e d o n b y M r D i s n e y C hai r
m an o f the Lit e rary an d S c i e n ti c C o m mitt e e ;
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2
6
ai l e
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r e pe at e d the e xp e r i m e n t at Live rp ool w h e re th e
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M ayo r se l e c t e d from the d i ffe re n t c hari ty
s c ho o l s o f the t o wn
c h il d re n u po n wh o m th e
e x e ri m e n t m i h t b e m ad e
T he e xh i b iti on t o o k
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e ro u s as s e m b l
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m
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hil d re n h ad b e e n pu t u n d e r M r Fe in aigl e s t u i
ti on b u t thre e d ays b e fo re , tw o b oys an d tw o

than
tw o ho u rs i n s t ru c ti on ; n e it he r O f t he g i r l s c o u l d
m ake o r r e ad a gu re w h e n rs t p re s e n t e d to
h im
T he e xam i n ati o n s ( w hi c h w e re c arri e d on
by the Re v J o n at han B ro o ke s ) w e re p re c i s e l y
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s am e n at u re as t h o se at the Ro yal I n s ti
t u tio n ; an d th e r e s u l t s we re e q u al l y s atis fac

t ory
O n the 6 th O f Ap ril 1 8 1 2 the e ffe c t s o f M
VO N FE I N A i G LE s sys te m we re e xe m p l i e d at

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ar t O f M r
e d o f th e B o w e r
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o r d e r d e s i re d
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m e n t io n e d s h e d e t e r m i n e d t h e s t an z a t h e l i n e
an d th e
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ac e Of th e l in e , in w h i c h i t w as t o b e
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,

o c c u re

3
s w e re

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al

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ot

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.

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e Of

ac c o u n

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( 15

d e c l e n s io n s ,

f adj e c t iv e s ,
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re

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well

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N T RO D U C T I

ON

23

d pass i ve , w it h o u t any pre vi o u s


kn o w l e d ge o f th at l an gu age
4 M i ss S S ( o f th e s am e age w it h th e
re c e d i n g
u il ) an s w e re d t o th e d e c l e n si on s an d
p
p p

b oth

ac

ti ve

an

ti o n s

c on u ga

l in e d

ve rb s

the

ro

o se

G re e k Lan g u age ,

f t he

an d c o n u

se e n a

a e

se

d to h e r

G re e k c h arac t e r

Pr o fe s so r
Th e

v e ral

re

an d

de

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an

Th i s pu p i l h ad n e v e r
til l pu t u n d e r th e c are of

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on e hou r e a c h

r e c e ive d

by t he
on l , o
y f

l e sson s

ve

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l
ai n e d t he
p
phys i c al m a
the m ati c al an d c h e m i c al c h arac t e rs o f m i n e ral s
aft e r H au
y s sys t e m ass i gn i n g t h e s vs te m atic al
o rd e r o f a n
c h arac t e r wh at e v e r
y
p r o p o s e d t o h im
an d s h o w i n
m
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i
n w h at m an n e r an
n
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ral o u h t
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y
g
t o b e e xam i n e d an d t rie d t o asc e r t ai n its n at u re
T hi s pu pi l r e c e iv e d o n l y t w o h o u rs i n s t r u c ti on
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N E W ART O F M E M O RY

24
9

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13

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17

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ve in in u te s, an d th e n r e pe at e d t h e m forw ard s
'

an d

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m an y 8 3 2 5
.

9 3 SC
.

e
.

af e r w ard s

o c c u r re

d e c l are d ho w

d in the

s e r e s,

an d

l ti ve s it u ati o n o f e ac h gu re
I n c o n s e q u e n c e o f the d i sappo i n t m e n t Of
m an y O f th e Pro pr i e t o rs an d S u b s c ri b e rs w h o
c o u l d n ot o b t ai n ad m it tan c e i n t o
the Le c t u re
Ro o m o n the 6 th i n s t an t th e ab ove e xpe ri m e n ts
w e re re p e at e d o n We d n e s d ay e ve n i n g l as t t o a
c ro w d e d au d it or
O
n
t his e ve n in g the fo l l ow
y
t
in g add iti on al e vi d e n c e s o f the u tili ty and u n i
f
ve r s al it
O
M
F
e
i
n aigl e s
Sys t e m we re ad
y
th e

re a

d uc e d

'

Ne w

26

A RT

Of th e

an d

pu p il

a s

i fo l l o w i n g

th e

l
y l a b u s , in w h i c h the

N AI G L E d i s t r i b u t e d
n a u re

O RY

M EM

or

s x

e xam i n a i o n

n o e s,

w as

hte d

st

l
an ati on s
p

or e x

Obje c ts o f h is Ne w Sys te m
w e re su bj o i n e d
an d M e t h o d i c s

Of

th e

of

M n e m oni c s

Sys te m at ic Ta b l e s

m e th o
d

ff e c t u al for

that

is

q u i ri n g th e
s an
e r fec t kn ow l e d ge o f sys t e m ati c al tab l e s
i
p
Ob je c t o f h i ghe r val u e an d gre at e r i m po r t an c e
th an at rs t i t m igh t appe ar H o w O ft e n are we
u on
ar ti c u l ar
att e n d i n g c o u rs e s o f l e c t u re s
p
p
s c i e nc e s w it ho u t b e i n g ab l e to fo r m a c l e ar i d e a
o f th e w ho l e
o r to gi v e o u rs e l ve s an ac c o u n t o f
W
h
e n b y th e m e an s h e re
w h a w e are l e arn i n g
t
r e c o m m e n d e d w e ar e e n ab l e d t o kn o w p re vi o u s l y
th e gr e at d ivi s i on s an d s u b d ivi s i o n s Of a sys t e m
it is n o t d i f c u l t to r e fe r to th os e xe d po i n t s al l
to s e c u re o u r kn o w l e dge
o u r i d e as an d at o n c e
al re ad y att ai n e d an d t o ac c e l e r at e o u r p ro gre ss
A sys t e m ac q u i re d b y t h i s m e
in th e s c i e n c e
tho d is n o t a d ry an d s t e r il e se r i e s o f wo rd s ; it
is a w e l l arran ge d c l ass i c ati on o f re al kn ow
l edge We l e arn in l i ke m an n e r al l the s ys t e m s
w
h
e ve r ; h ow e ve r c o m l i c at e d
t
sc i e n c e
a
o f an
y
p
th e y m ay ap pe ar
2 La n g u age s
Th e l e arn i n g a n d t e ac h i n g
e s vs
o f l an gu age s are n o t o n l
ac il it at e d b
t
h
f
y
y
t e m Of M n e m on i c s b u t ac q u ire m ore l i gh t an d
m ore so l i d ity t han e ve r th e y w e re thou gh t sus
at

o n c e s pe e

dy

an d e

ac

'

27

r N r RO D u c r r O N .
'

c e

e Of
b
l
t
i
p

It

is

al l

fac t w e l l kn own t o

my

'

l an gu age w hat e v e r
l e arn t in a s i n gl e h ou r,
It c an
al l
t he c o nj u gati o n s in an o the r
an d
e as il y b e c o n c e iv e d t hat al l th e r e s t m ay b e ac
q u i re d w it h the s am e fac il ity : b u t t h is is n o t
al l t he ad v ant age o f m y s ys t e m : an o m al i e s i r re
u l ar itie s o f v e rb s an d s i m il ar d i ffi c u l ti e s w h ic h
g
h av e b e e n h ith e r t o the t o rm e n t o f th e s c h o l ars
b e c o m e b y th i s sys t e m t h e m o s t p l e as i n g an d
M y pu
m o s t i n s t ru c ti ve par t o f th e l an gu age
il
h
s ar e
c o n vi n c e d b
t
e m o s t s a ti s fac t o ry e x
y
p
e rie n c e
at
t
h
t
m
i
b
e l e arn e d in t h e
r
a
m
a
r
s
o
p
g
l an gu age n ot the l an gu age in th e grarn n rar ; an d
w he n t h e t ru e w ay is o n c e kn o w n i t b e c o m e s
d e l i gh t fu l t o t he m t o go o n w ith e ase an d p ro m p
t itu d e b y t h e m s e l ve s fro m o n e l an gu age t o an o
the r
3 P r ose a n d Poe try Whe n w e kn o w p i e c e s
o e tr
n su c h
ros e o r o f
i
e rfe c ti o n t hat w e
of
y
p
p
p
e as u r e to an
are ab l e t o an s w e r at
l
i
l
d
s
n
e
w
or
p
y
g
i t is n ot t o b e i m agi n e d t hat in l e arn in g th e m w e
h av e to x o n e w o r d aft e r an o the r ; b u t w hat
e v e r w e c o m m it t o o u r m e m o r
i
s t h e re in s u c h
y
an o r d e r t h at w e are s u re t o n d i t a ai n w h e n
g
e ve r w e m a
The m att e r an d the
y w i sh f r i t
d i c ti on are n e c e s s ari l y d is ti n gu i sh e d an d e ve ry
t h i n g t re at e d aft e r its o w n n atu re an d we are
th e re fore s u re n e ithe r to om it an y thi ng t hat is

l
i
s , t h at , al m o s t in
p p
th e d e c l e n s i o n s m ay b e
u

an y

'

28

N E W ART o r M E M O RY

d by whic h it is to b e e x
re s s e d
Pe rson s w h o c ou l d n e ve r b e fore ge t b y
p
h e ar t e ith e r pro s e o r po e t ry h ave b y a sh or t
p rac ti c e Of t hi s m e t ho d ac q u i re d the gre at e s t
r e ad i n e s s an d fac il it
y
4 G e og r ap hy
Thi s p ar t o f ge ography
h as o n l y b e e n l e arn e d b y m y c o m m o n m an n e r Of
xi n g i t) th e m e m ory p rop e r n am e s in ge n e ral
an d t hat O f n o ti n
h
t
e ar it h m e ti c al g u re s w h e r
g
e ve r w e
m e e t t he m
The t ru e sys t e m o f ge o
h
an o n e
Of m
j
t
t
ra h
i
h
o
f
m
o
re
s
t
e
O
b
e
c
g p y
y
l e c t u re s ; an d b y th i s n e w sys t e m the s t u dy ac
q u i re s a d e gre e o f fac ility an d th e s c i e n c e it s e l f
o f w h i c h it w as n e v e r
a d e gr e e o f p e r fe c ti o n
an d ye t w rth ou t w h ic h it
th o u gh t s u s c e p ti b l e
e s se n t ia l l
h
u h t to b e
a
t
i
t
o
w
c an ne v e r b e
y
g
Tho se w ho w ou l d t h i n k i t n e e d l e ss o r o f n o u s e
t o kn o w th e s it u ati o n Of e v e ry r e m ar kab l e p o i nt:
o f the g l o b e b y d e gr e e s o f l o n gi t u d e an d l atit u d e
Have t o c on s i d e r if w itho u t th e s e d e gre e s ge o
g raphy i t s e l f o r an y ge ograph i c al c h ar t c o u l d
e ve r e xi s t
an d if n o t th e
s u re l
n o t m ai n
c
an
y
y
t ai n th at wh at is e sse n ti al to ge ography it s e l f m ay
b e n e gl e c t e d in th e s t u dy Of ge o graphy
This
rfe c ti o n is n o t o n l
iv
e
n t o the s c i e n c e b y m y
e
p
y g
sys t e m b u t is al s o att ai n e d w it h gre at e r fac ility
to b e

id

sa

n or an

o
w
r
y

"

'

ci

gt

T his r e fe rs t o th e l on i

tie s re pe ate d

b y t h e p u pi l

u de

an d

l ati t ude

of

th e

f ty

NT RO D U C

T I ON .

99

t i ty th an e v e n th e fo rm e r i m pe rfe c t
kn ow l e d ge c o u l d b e ac q u i re d b y an y o th e r m e th od
T he s am e p ri n c i p l e s are appl iab l e
w h at e ve r
w i th e q u al e ff i c ac y t o al l tha s u b s i d i ary par t s o f
an d
i t is
a p e r fe c t ge o graph i c al kn ow l e d ge
sh ow n h ow t o x in th e m e m o ry, fo r i n s tan c e
th e g o v e rn m e n t th e e xt e n t th e po pu l at i o n an d
th e m il i t ary po w e r th e pr o d u c t s the c om m e rc e ,
Of
th e n ran u fac t u re s t h e ar t s an d s c i e n c e s 8C c
Thos e w h o are ac q u ai n t e d w ith the
e v e ry s t at e
r i n c i l e s o f the
re s e n t arran ge m e n t c an n o t b u t
p
p
p
f e e l h o w m u c h e as i e r i t m u s t b e tO c o m pare
a c c o rd i n
g to t h i s pl an o n e ki n gd om wit h an o the r
b y s rm pl e m e m o ry than aft e r an y th e r p l an
p
w it h al l t he ass i s t an c e o f b o o ks an d s yst e m ati c
t ab l e s
5 C hron o l ogy
What is d o n e w ith re gard
t o the ki n gs o f En gl an d m ay b e d o n e w it h an y
c h ro n o l o gic al
s e r i e s o f s o ve re i n s ; an d t h o u h
g
g
s u c h a s e r i e s p re se n t e d n o t h i n
m o re t han w hat
m ay b e c on s i de re d as g re at e po c h s o f hi s t o ry,
e v e n O f t ho s e t he
re s e n t s s t e m o ff e rs a
t
r
e
a
e
r
p
y
g
n u m b e r t h an
an y o th e r s s t e m
o f c h on ol o
y
gy
an d xe s t h e m m o re e as il
y th an it h as e ve r b e e n
o ss i b l e t o d o b y al l t h o se
i
n e n i o u s h i s t or i c al
p
g
t ab l e s w h i c h h ave b e e n i n v e n t e d to ass i s t the
m e m o ry in th i s i n t e re s ti n g s t u d y
B u t th e hi gh
e st
e r fe c ti o n Of hi s t o ri c al kn o w l e d e is c er t ai n l
p
g
y
t o kn o w the who l e h i s t o r , n o t o n l
t
a
b
r
e
y
y y g
an d

cer a n

N E W A RT

30

O F M E M O R Y.

b u t ye ar b y ve ar, an d fac t b y fac t ; an d


e r fe c ti o n n o o t he r sys t e m h as e ve r b e e n
p
t o affo rd

e p oc h s,

t hi s
ab l e

ti on

'

M u l tip l ic a tion
of

c on s s

gre at e r

m u lti pl i c a

gu re s in
as w e ll as in th e
th e
m u l ti pl i c an d
o n l y b y m e m ory w it h o u t w r iti n g an
t
i
h
n
y
g m ay
t
c e r t ai n l y in m an y c ase s b e d e s i rab l e
o r of
r
e
a
g
an d is at l e as t a c e r t ai n
u ti lity
t
t
ro
o
f
h
a
th e
p
re se n t m e th o d r e ac h
r i n c i p l e s o f th e
v
e
er
p
p
y
w he re an d that to its m e an s n o t h i n g is t o o d if
c u l t o r to o c o m p l i c ate d
I t is u n d o u b t e dl y o f
the h i ghe s t i m po rt an c e to b e ab l e t o x in o u r
m i n d s th e n u m b e rs in ge n e ral
S t ati s ti c ge o
h
m
e m ati c s
i
n s ho r t
i
t
ra h
h
s to r
a
al m o s t
g p y
y
e v e ry s c i e n c e is fu l l o f n u m e r ic al gu re s
M ul
t ip l ic atio n t ab l e s s q u are an d c u b e n u m b e rs l o g a
e
a n d al l th e m at h e m a
r ith m s al g e b rai c fo r m u l a

ti c s c an b e s u b m itte d t o th o s e ru l e s
S i n c e th e p e ri o d o f M VO N FE I N A I G L E S
t hi s c o u n t ry he has b e e n d e l iv e r i n g a
ar r iv al i n
v ar i e ty o f c ou r se s o f ft e e n o r s i xt e e n l e c t u re s
e ac h fo r w hi c h t h e c h arge o f ve g u i n e as h as
b e e n m ad ; b u t th e p u pil is at l i b e r ty to att e n d
sh o u l d h e
a s e c o n d ti m e
an y par ti c u l ar l e c t u re
n o t s u i c ic n t l y c o m pr e he n d it at the rs t h e ar i n g
M Vo n Fe in aigl e has n o t c o n n e d h is vi s its to
Ed i n b u rgh G l asgo w Liv e r
th e m e t ro p o li s :
i
n th e su m m e r s e aso n b e e n
h
av e
e tc e tc
o ol
,
p
s u c c e ss i ve l y, the t he at re o f his e xe rti o n s
,

i ti n g
m u l ti p l i e r

To m ake

n u m b e r of

'

C H AP

t
i
tt
t
t
l
S
t
.
p
iB

TH

m e m ory m ay b e c om pare d to
A m
s t ore d w ith m e rc h an d i s e

h ou se *

w are

t h o d i c al
ar ran ge m e n t o f th e c on t e n t s o f su c h a r e o s it ory
p
e n ab l e s its o w n e r t o n d an
ar ti c l e th a t h e m a
y
y
r e q u i re
w ith th e u t m os t r e ad i n e ss
\Vith a
g e n e ral kn o w l e d ge o f t h e c o n t e n t s o f a l i b rary an d
o f th e m an n e r in w h i c h t he b o o ks ar e d i s t ri b u t e d
e v e n w he n ab s e n t fr o m th e s o t
a pe r s o n m ay
p
d e t e rm i n e w it h c e r t ain ty t h e s it u ati o n o f an
y

e d al l is ts
ar ti c u l ar
b
o o ks l
hi
sa s
p
y Mr
.

M e m or y i s ,
fo r t h e

n ar r o w

man y i d e as
n e c e s s a ry

at an o

l T he w e

ll

of

m in d

vi

m an

s or e h ou se

b e in g

n ot

an d c o n e

ou r

i d e as ;

of

h a vi n g

c ap ab e

m p l a i on

of

at on c e ,

i t w as

po s i o r y t o l ay u p h os e i d e as , w h ic h
Look on the H u m an
i t m i gh m ak e u se of

t o h ave

t h e t im

i t w e re , t h e

unde r

a re

i p 111
k n ow n a n e c d o

n d e rs tan d ing ,

t o th e

as

v ol .

Gr an d D uke

of

te

of

Tu s c an y

M AG LI AB EC
C

os mo

III

l ib i n
w i ll s u di c i

H I,
.

rar a

N E W A RT

32

AD D I S O N ,

M E M O RY

or

th e

rs t n am i n

p
g o f an e m
f
amil ,
e r o r w il l i m m e d i at e l y t e l l yo u hi s age
y
p
l i fe T o re m e m b e r wh e re h e e n t e rs in the
an d
ar t o f the
s u c c e s s i o n t h e y o n l y c on s i d e r in w h at p
c ab i n e t h e l i e s ; an d b y ru n n i n g o v e r in t h e i r
th o u gh ts s u c h a par ti c u l ar d raw e r wil l giv e yo u
re m arkabl e
ar t s o f h is
an ac c o u n t o f al l the
p

I f o u r i d e as w e re arran ge d w ith e q u al
r e i gn
m e th o d an d o rd e r th e m i nd wo u l d t u rn to the m ,
w it h th e l i ke fac il ity
S e n s i b l e o bj e c t s hav e a po w e rfu l e ff ec t in r e
i d e as w i th w hi c h it w as
c al l i n g to th e m i n d the
c u ie d w h e n t h o s e i d e as w e re p re s e n t e d
Th u s
p
th e s i gh t o f an y r e m arkab l e s c e n e s in th e c o u rs e
o f a s e c on d j o u rn e y w il l fr e q u e n tl y r e m i n d a
er
p
s on o f the s u bj e c t o f w hi c h h e w as t h i n ki n g o r
t al ki n g wh e n h e l as t t rave l l e d th at r o ad o r to
of M r
ad o p t t h e e l e gan t l an g u age
Pl ac e s an d t hi n gs w h i c h h ave an as s o c i ati o n
u

on

tl y ill t at d c o m thi fac t T h G d D ke


ld p c nr a
h av i g
k d M gl iab e c hi w h th e h e
h
i it i
b o k th t w
pl i d
p ti l l y
i mp
ib l
f
th e i b t o i th e w o l d th at is i th e
G
d S ig i
l i b y at C t t i p l
d i th
e th h
k o t h s c on d h e l f
th
igh t h a d i d e as
en

as

e,

ne

no

on

r an

c ou

e re

on s an

ra r

n or s

s c ar c e

c u ar

er

go i n
D ia ogu e

e,

ro

n o, s r,

an

e r

se

21 , 22, 1 2m o

u p on

th e

u s e fu n e s s o f an c i e n

M e d al s, pp

1 726 .

t Es s ay s , p 1 2

j t

ar

or

oo

sub e c

as

r an

y ou

oss

e an

us r

se e a s o

For

S pe c

tat or

v e ry
,

No

p re
.

tty i l l ustrat ion

41 7

of

t h is

as

n e

e se n
r
p

sys e

to th e

sc

w ART

In

he m e

of

th i s

O RY

M EM

or

re s

ec

t it
,

is

an a o ou s
g

M n e m on i c s prac ti se d b y th e

i t is he r e app l i e d m u c h m o r e e xt e n ~
S ive l y an d ad v an t age ou s l y t h an i t w as b y t h e m
A ro o m h avi n g ge n e r al l y fo u r w all s th e m os t
i n t o fo u r s i d e s an d e ac h
ob vi o u s d ivi s i o n o f i t is
w al l o r s i d e m ay b e s u b d ivi d e d i n to p an rie l s o r
c o m ar t m e n t s
em
i
l
n
ti
e
n
t
s
s
t
A
c
r
n
h
e
a
c
o
d
t
p
y
gy
d ivi d e d a W al l i n t o ve s pac e s
T hu s su ppo s e
th e l e tt e r M t o b e r e re se n t e d o n a w al l as
p
an

ti e n ts

but

u nde r

Fi v e

ac e s

p
m arke d b y th e
the

ro o m

ar e

th u s

gu re s

a ne

1 , 2,

e tc

i n i m agi n ati on ,

w as ,

in

the

pl ac e s
Ev e ry w al l o f
d ivi d e d in thi s

th i s

m an n e r ;

an

r oo m s as

w e re

p l an w as appl i e d t o as m an y
fo u n d n e c e s s ary t o th e e x t e n t o f

h p arti c u l ar s c he m e
l arl y d ivi d e d i n t o fo u r

e ac

v e ry
si de s
e

ro o
-

m b e ing

an d

v e ry

im i
s i de

ivi de d i n t o ve c o m part m e n t s Th u s
an y i d e a w h i c h
h
ad
t
i
ac c o rd i n
h
s m e th o d
t
o
g
b e e n as so c i at e d in th e m i n d w i th the fo r ty e i gh th
c o m art m e n t w o u l d b e
h
rd c o m
l
h
e
t
i
a
e
d
n
c
i
t
p
p
h
rd r o o m
artm e n t o f t he s e c on d wal l
t
i
i
n
h
e
t
p
b e ing

su b d

P RI N C I P L E S .

B ut

as fe w

c om

t m e n ts

ar

c ou

ld

35

be

ob a n e d o n

t i

h w al l b y th e s e m e an s , th e c al c u l ati o n o f hi gh
n u m b e rs w ou l d
b e e xc e e d i n g l y d i f c u l t
To

e ac

re

h w al l m igh t b e d i vi d e d
c o m ar t m e n t s, t h u s :
p

m e dy th i s d e fe c

in t o

n n e or

te n

e ac

w al l b e d i vi d e d

i n t o n i n e par t s the re w il l
I n o rd e r to
b e 3 6 c o m par t m e n t s in e v e ry r o o m
as c e r t ai n th e s it u ati o n o f an y p arti c u l ar n u m b e r
i t is to b e c o n s i d e re d in re l ati o n to the t o t al n u m
b e r o f t he s u b d ivi s i o n s
Fo r e xam p l e if the
r e q u ire d ; ac c o rd i n
s i t u ati o n o f n u m b e r 4 8 b e
g
t o the l as t m e n ti o n e d d ivi s i o n o f th e r o o m s i t is
b
e fo u n d b y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e pr o p o r ti o n w h i c h
o
t
,
t h at n u m b e r b e ars to 3 6 the t o t a l n u m b e r o f t he
c o m par t m e n t s in t h i s arran ge m e n t
I f t he n u m
b e r in q u e s ti o n b e l e s s th an t hi s t o t al th e pl ac e
thu s 1 2 b e i n g
i n q u i re d aft e r w il l b e o b vi o u s
w it h i n th e n u m b e r 3 6 m u s t o f n e c e s s ity b e in
th e r s t r o o m
b e i n g ab o v e 9 it is e q u al l y c l e ar
t hat i t c an n o t b e o n the rs t w al l ; an d b e i n g l e s s
t han 1 8 i t m u st n e c e s s aril y b e o n s om e part o f
th e s e c o n d w al l
an d as it e xc e e d s th e n u m b e r o f
the rs t w al l b y 3 , i t fo l l o w s , o f c ou rs e t hat its
If

36

M E MO RY

N E W A RT o r

l
ac e
p

m u s t b e in th e

e n t o f th e
m
t
p
I f the n u m b e r in q u e s ti o n b e h i gh e r
s e c o n d w al l
th an the n u m b e r o f the c o m par t m e n t s in o n e
its p l ac e w il l b e re ad il y fo u n d b y d ivi d i n g
r oo m
T h u s s u pp os e 4 8 to b e the
i t b y th at n u m b e r
n u m b e r w h o s e p l ac e is re q u i re d

t h i rd

c om

ar

e
3

As

48

in th e

e xc e e

rs t

d s 3 6, w e kn o w t hat

r oo m ,

'

the 1

is th e re fo re

it

c an n o

h an ge d

t be
i n to

i i
s h o w s i t t o b e in
T h e re b e i n g n i n e
th e t we l ft h c o m par t m e n t
th i s r e m ai n d e r o r
c o m par t m e n t s o n e ve ry w al l
n u m b e r o f th e c o m p ar t m e n t is d ivi d e d b y 9 for
No w as
t h e p u rp os e o f as c e r t ai n i n g th e w al l
th e d ivi so r is c on t ai n e d m or e t h an o n c e b u t n o t
t w i c e in th e d ivi d e n d i t fo l l o w s th at th e c om
art m e n t s o u gh t m u s t b e o n the s e c o n d w al l ; th e
p
T hi s
r e m ai n d e r giv e s the s p e c i c c o m par t m e n t
th e n sho w s t hat 4 8 is in th e t h i rd
o p e r ati o n
ar t m e n t
o n t h e s e c o n d w al l
i
n t he s e c o n d
c om
p
T hi s was th e p l an ad o p t e d b y the an ti e n ts
room
w h e n t h e y d ivi d e d t h e i r r o o m s i n t o par t s ; b u t
b e i n g b o t h c o m pl i c at e d an d d i f c u l t i t h as b e e n
r e j e c t e d in th e
p re s e n t sys t e m an d an o t he r s c he m e
h as b e e n i n t ro d u c e d in its pl ac e w h i c h is m o re
s i m l e in its c on s t ru c ti o n l e ss d i f c u l t in its a
p
pp l i
c ati on an d m u c h m ore e xt e n s i ve in its
o we rs
p
2;

an d

th e

frac

ti on

re m a n n g ,
.

We

Ri N C

rLE s

ai n th e m od e o f
l
p
p
d i vid i n g a ro o m ac c ord i n g to the Ne w Sy s te m qf
M e m ory an d to d e ve l op th e p ri n c i p l e s o f the
It is h owe ve r n e c e ssary to p re m i se that
ar t
th e pu pil m u s t n ot atte m pt to o m u c h at rs t b u t
ac u i s iti on o f
s h ou l d proc e e d grad u al l y i n the
q
this s ys t e m ; fo r h is u l ti m at e s u c c e s s in it w il l
re atl y d e p e n d u po n a pe rfe c t kn o w l e d ge o f th e
g
*
As in m athe m ati c s n o p rob l e m
rs t pri n c i pl e s
c an b e d e m o n s t rat e d w ithoii t u n d e rs tan d i n g al l
the pre c e d i n g d e m ons t rati o n s so e ve ry ad van c e
in th i s art m u st b e groun d e d on the fu l l p osse s
s i on o f al l the an t e c e d e n t d oc t ri n e s
We shal l d i vi d e a wal l in the fo l l owin g man n e r :

hal l

n ow

ro c e e

d to

37

ex

The se
in th e

u su al

arran g e d

are

m an n e r o f w riti n g ;

m e m b e ri n g

th e i r

l e ft

f ro m
an d

to

i ght,

for the m ore

it u ati on i t w il l b e
fou n d that if t wo l i n e s b e d rawn d i agon al l y fro m
the fou r C orn e rs o f the gu re , t he y w i l l i n t e rs e c t
e as

il y

gu re s

re

4
*

t am

As su m e n d u s
u r an i m o,

q u ae
t am m o d i c a,

ta
ge da

me n
au

pau l at im , u t p au c a pri m u m c om p l e c
re d d i d e l i t e r p oss i n t : m ox
pe r i n c r e

u su s

u su , e

u t on e rari

e xe rc

se

i tat i on e mn l t a

ab or

ll e

n on

s e n t iat

c on t in e n d a e s t
,

t t

q u a:
Qu2;n c t I ns t .

q u i d e m m ax im a e x par e m e m or ia c on s a
Or at. l ib. X. Om an , "
r oa n I I p 253. Ed B ipon t, 1 784

NEW

38

M EM OR

or

n ow

T he re
( S e e Pl at e I g
a s i n gl e w al l d iv id e d i n t o n i n e s q u are s or;

o dd n u m b e rs .

l l the

is

A RT

t m e n t s the s e w e shal l n am e p l ac e s an d
s e c on d
l
ac e , th i r d
l
e
th e rs t p l ac e
a
c
p
p

c o m p ar
s ay ,
e tc

e tc

T he

thre e

s am e

re

m ode

fou r w al l s

d i vi d e d

i n to

n ne

are

l
p ac es

w ith th e

th i s r o om b y t hese
o b t ai n e d e ac h b e i n g

m ai n i n g w al l s in

m e an s ,

rsu e d
u
p

m ust b e

In

o rd e r

to

nd

th e

thi s ro o m we s ho u l d n at u ral l y say


f ou r ti m e s n i n e w i l l b e 3 6 an d sho u l d o f c o u rs e
c o n c l u d e t h at 3 6 w o u l d b e ih t he l as t p l ac e o f
th e l as t s i d e or fo u r th w al l o f the r oo m : b u t th i s
c al c u l ati on i s e r ron e o u s ; 6 m u s t e ve r b e in the
w h i c h w il l b e t h at o c c u pi e d b y
s am e s it u ati o n
th e p o i n t in th e fo ll o w i n g gu re

n u mb e r

3 6 in

'

The pl ac e o c c u pi e d by th e n u mb e r 6, in al l the
fou r wal l s , wou l d b e t hu s d e si gn at e d

NE W ART

40

FI RS T
S e c on d

o r M EM OR

R OOM
Wal l

1/

Fou r t h Wa l l

As

c en

The

l
pp y

oo r o f the

s e c on d r oom

l l on

th e w a
t he

u s,

i gh th ;

so

su

a s e c on d r o o m

b e fo re
th e

n ot

n u m b e rs ,

f t h wa l l
e

w il l

ro o m

on e

an d

n u mb e r

the

the se c on d

on e

5 0 w as

n
o
p

1 00 w il l b e

ro o m

m u s t b e pr o vi d e d .
the

i th ;

s x

on

u s,

th e

su f

is d e n o m i n at e d th e

l e ft,
th at

th ;
b e hin d

s e ve n

the

n u mb e r

the

w it h

us

th e

ou r r

i gh t

i th ;

n n

i e l i ng
on

the w a

of

the

ll

the

an d as

the

rs t

i l ing of

c e

41

P RI N C I P L E s.

S EC OND

S e ve n t h

R OO M .
Wal l

.
7

f bl
.

09

Nin th Wal l

I 1 00

l tn g

f m
e n ge rs o f t he h a n d t hu s : I
h
t
u
l
I
p
w as m ad e b y h o l d i n g u p the
ve

I
thu m b an d li ttl e ng e r W i th th e e th e r n gprs
g

l
form in g nh e
iV
d own t h u s
f
s s w as m ad e b y e r e c ti n g au o th e r nge r and go n
i
t u s VI and VII ,
ti n n in g the for m e r p os iti o n ; h
o r i gi n a e d

N u m b e rs , prob ab l y,

hol di ng

ro

mf

ef

l
j

F oor

or

f h

E3

W al l
i

N E W ART o r M EM O RY

42

VI II

an d

nge r

thus

VI I I I, in

e ac h

ti m e

m aki n g

the s am e

te n

way, b y ad d i n g a
was fo rm e d fro m t wo ve s,

T he

l e arn e r shou l d no w e xe rc i se h i m se l f in
n d i n g th e s it u ati o n o f the d i ff e re n t n u m b e rs in
th e t w o r o o m s
Whe re for e xam p l e are 9 9 ,
4 7 3 5 2 1 6 2 8 2 99 e tc
T he r oom m u s t b e
rs t asc e rt ai n e d ; as to t h i s th e re c an b e n o d if
f
s 5 0is the l e ss e r n u m b e r in the rs t
c ul t
r
o
a
y
al l the n u m b e rs e xc e e d i n
roo m
g 5 0 an d as far
as 1 00 wi ll b e fo u n d in the s e c on d r oo m
H avi n g fou n d th e r oo m the l e ft h an d gu re
w il l d e n o t e th e aria
an d t he r i gh t h an d gu r e
w il l s ho w the p l ac e ; th us 2 9 is in the rst
an d n i n t h
r o o m s e c o n d w al l
p l ac e ; 4 7 fou r t h
w al l s e ve n th p l ac e ; b y c u tti n g o ff the l e ft han d
gu re the n u m e r i c al orde r o f the w al l is g i ve n ,
ac q u ai n t s u s w it h the
an d t he r e m ai n i n g gu re
l
ac e
p
I n ord e r to r e m e m b e r a se ri e s o f wor d s th e y
s e ve ra l s u are s, or p l ac e s
an d
are pu t in th e
q
th e re c o l l e c t io n o f t he m is as s i s t e d b y asso
c iatin g s o m e i d e a o f r e l ati on b e t w e e n th e o bj e c t s
n d b y e xpe
an d t he ir s i t u ati on ; an d , as w e
that what e ve r is l u d i c ro u s, is c al c u l at e d
ri e n c e
t o m ake a s t ro n g im p re ssw n u p on th e m i n d ,
th e m o re r i d i c u l ou s the ass o c i ati on th e b e tt e r
B e in g p rovi d e d w ith two r o om s, w e w il l t ake
the oor of the rst room, an d p l ac e som e
.

P RI NC I PLE S .

4S

thi ng in e ac h of the n i ne s q u are s I n il l u s t ra


tion o f th i s e xpe ri m e n t, se n s ib l e obj e c t s w il l b e
s the ass o c i ation o f id e as b e t we e n the m
e
n
a
v
i
g
and the p l ac e s is m os t st r i ki n g
.

Appl e
5

Sh ip

P ip e

T an k ar d

B oa

ap

Tre e

t he s e i m age s m u s t b e c on n e c t e d
the n b e al m os t i m po ss i b l e
an d it w ill
th e ord e r in wh i c h t he y are ar ran ge d

T he i de as

t oge t he r

4:

of

'

t o fo rge t

'

l
h
e
t
e
s e c on d a m on ke
,
pp
y;
thi s m on ke y t ake s the appl e , e ats , an d o ffe rs it
t o the m an w h o is in th e th i rd p l ac e ; th e m an

The

is

rs t

an

is

j u s t go i n g to e m b ark on a l on g voyage an d
for t hi s p u r po se a s hip w il l b e in t h e f o u r t h p l ac e ;
v e s his
b u t h e w il l s m o ke his pip e b e fore h e l e a
n ati ve c o u n t ry p ip e is in the ft h p l ac e an d
w he n h e h as n i she d s m oki n g h e c al l s fo r h is
n i ht c a
h
c h w il l b e fo u n d in the
w
i
s ixt h
p
g
p l ac e ; b e fore he re ti re s to re s t he w i she s for
an o t h e r tan kard o f al e ; tan kard o c c u i e s the
p
s e ve n th
ac e
I
n th e
m
n
l
o
i
t
i
rn
h
e
n
h
w
s m an
p
g
awakes
a b oat is r e ad
t
y o c on ve y h im t o the
shi
h
i
s
b
i
s
n the e i hth
t
i
a
t
l
o
ac e ; a t re e
;
p
p
g

3 fou n d in th e n in th
a
l
l
l
a
c
i
h
e
e
s
b
t
a
p
,

N E W A RT or

M E M ORY

t re e an d m u s t gro w b y the w at e r s i de ;
v e ry i d e n ti c al b an k fro m w h i c h the man
o n t he
Aii y d i e re n t obj e c t s
th e boat
e in b ar ks i n
m ay b e t ake n p ro m i s c u o u sl y an d the c o n ne c
ti o n m ad e b e t we e n t he m at th e m o m e n t as
o r fan c y b i d s
c h an c e
Th e c hi e f u s e o f th i s
e xam l e is to i n d u c e a hab it o f xi n g c e rt ai n o h
p
a re u l ar o rd e r
t
h
at w e
a
al w a s
e c ts i n
m
y
g
y
j
Fo r t h is p u rpo s e th e
kn o w w h e r e t o n d th e m
h
m
s e l f i n th e n u m e r i c al
i
u i l s h o u l d e x erc i se
p p
an d b e e n ab l e d
s it u ati o n o f th e d i ff e r e n t o bj e c t s
t o d e t e r m i n e i t q u i c kl y
T he o o r an d t h e w al l s are l o c a l i ti e s on
w h i c h the gu re s an d w o r d s m u s t b e arran ged
in the s e v e r al p l ac e s o r s q u re s in the o r d e r
a
ab o ve
d e s c ri b e d
We re a s e ri e s of t we nty s ir;
gu re s to b e t ake n for i n s t anc e the fo l l o wi n g :
W il l o w

Or
f

t thu s :

a s e r e s of c o n s on an s

l l m

( Ful l

man y

the r

g m
l

ge m

se rie s o f

r s r n

of

p u re s

tr

ay , s_
e re n e

re s
o r c o n s on an t s
u
it
g
y
w o u l d b e fo u n d ve ry d i f c u l t to re m e m be r the m

The gu re s, an d the l e tt e rs, are m e re l y sigiis Of


o r an

x
,

'

45

P RI N C I P LE S .

il y b e xe d in the me m ory ;
T he e l e
the u n d e rs t an d i n g havi n g n o e xe rc i s e
m e n t s o f w ord s m u s t t he re fo re , b e so u gh t for
D R G RE Y c han ge d gure s i n t o l e tt e rs an d
b u t th e s e w o rd s c ou l d n o t b e
thu s m ad e w o rd s
xe d in the m e m ory w ith ou t c on s t an t re pe ti
ff
e re n t
d
an d
l
i
t
h
e
i
a
s t re n u ou s
ati on ;
ti o n
c
pp
W o r d s r e q u i re d t o b e re m e m b e re d in h is M e m o
r ia Te c hn i c a b e i n g al m o s t e q u al l y b u r th e n s o m e
w ith the fac t s an d d ate s w h i c h t he y w e re i n t e n d
h
e m ode
e d to i m r i n t u o n th e m e m o ry
T
p
p
o f c h an gin g gu re s i n t o l e tt e rs w as kn o w n l on
g
b e fo re t he t im e o f D r G re y
The s u b s tit u ti on
o f l e tt e rs for gu re s w as p rac ti se d b y m os t an ti
e n t n ati o n s; in t h e H e b re w an d G re e k l an gu age s
th e re are n o ari th m e ti c al s i gn s b u t the l e tt e rs o f
th e a l ph ab e t are u s e d in t he i r p l ac e
S ho p
ke e pe rs an d o t h e rs
fro m an e ar l y p e ri o d h ad
ki g t h
t ic l e w hic h
b e e n in the hab it o f m
th e y h ad to s e l l , w i th c e r tai n l e tt e rs as a rb it rary
s mb o l s
f
o r the pr i c e s in
y
po u n d s sh il l i n gs an d
s

i gn s

an d c an n o

e as

'

ar

ar

enc e

We
or

n ow

m o re

to

take
th e

th e c

se r e s

5 , 6 , 7, 8 , 9 , 0 ;

tt ac h

an d a

o n so n an s ,
of

gu re s

on e

1 , 2, 3 , 4:

gu re h avi n g its ap
r 0 riat e c o n s o n an t
The
p p
( Se e Pl at e 1 g
c o n s o nan ts o n l
y are re s o rt e d to fo r the y c o m
p ose , l i ke the s ke l e t on o f th e hu m an b o dy, the
e ac

46

N E W ART o r M E M O R

r nc

ipal p art s ; th e

m e n ts

vowe s

b u t the

are

l i ga

T he

l e tte rs appropri at e d to the gu re s are n ot


m e re l y ar b it rary b u t are ad ap t e d as n e arl y as
o ss i b l e to t he fo r m of the u re s
p
g
l i ke the gu re 1 is a pe rpe n d i c u l ar o r
d o w n s t ro ke an d d i ff e rs o n l fr o m i t in t he ad
y
d iti o n o f th e s m al l h o r i z o n t al l i n e d raw n ac ro ss
th e u ppe r p ar t o f it ; t is m ore l i ke th e u re 1
g
,
t han a n y o t h e r c o n s on an t if
e r ha s
we e x
p
p
de p t the l e tt e r Z An ad d iti o n al re as o n fo r as
s i gn i n g the l e tt e r t to l is
t hat it o c c u rs i n the
w o rd u n i t
72
is the appro pr i at e l e tt e r to r e p re s e n t Q
t he re are tw o d o w n s t ro ke s in it
m fu rn i sh e s u s w it h t h re e d o wn s t ro ke s i t
w il l t he n gi ve th e i d e a o f
if w e p l ac e a 3
t h u s 09 i t w il l affo rd a t o l e rab l e o u tli n e o f t he
l e tte r m
r
is to re p re se nt 4 : 7 w h e n w r itt e n ( S e e
,

'

D
to

r.

G re y

gu re s

l ow i n g

in

ho

ass ign e

t v ow l
d o
fe c tl y ar b i t ra y h as

d bo h

m an n e r p e r

e s

an

n s on an

t h e f ol ~

sc a e

e re a an d

tan d

for 1 ,

e an d

d for 2,

'

z an d

t for 3 ,

e tc .

N E W ART o r M E M O RY

48

i n t o b e e hives, an d if on e b e pl ac e d
the re w il l b e a t o l e rabl y ac c u ~
u p o n th e o th e r
r at e i d e a o f th e u re 8
n
t
h
I
e w o rd b e e hive
g
ar e ob t ai n e d 6 h a ; an d to m a
y b e add e d , for
c on ve r e d

i t I S c om

ou n d e

o f an .

The

gu re 9 is n o t u n l i ke a p ip e an d
as a p i pe is s e l d o m u se d w ith ou t a
f
m
k
e
o
s
o
u
p
issu i n g fro m i t w e have the p an d f in t he se two
w o rd s ; the y ar e i n se parab l y c on n e c t e d an d c an
n ot e as il y b e fo rgo tt e n
s x z
The 0 b e i n g a r ou n d b o dy it m ay
b e c o m pare d to a whe e l or gri n d e r in a m il l ; th i s
w h e e l w he n in s w i ft ro t ati o n gi ve s ou t a h i s s i ng
s ou n d , and the h i ss i n g c on son an t s s x z , are at
x is for m e d fro m tw o h al f
t ac he d to the c i phe r
c ir c l e s ; an d z is th e rs t l e tt e r o f th e w ord z e r o
The s e l e tte rs, an d the gu re s wh i c h th e y are
in t e n d e d to re pre s e n t , shou l d b e i m pre ss e d s t ron g
l y u p o n th e m e m ory as the l e tt e rs m u s t b e c on
ve r t e d i n t o w ord s, b y the i n t r od u c ti o n o f vowe l s
p,

P RI N C I P L E S .

The two

49

t re pre s e n ti n g two gu re s
m u s t b e c on v e rt e d i n to a w ord to w h i c h sh o u l d
b e af xe d s o m e s t ri ki n g i d e a ; an d th e i m age s
t oge the r T he obj e c t s
re pre se n t e d
c o n n e c te d
w he n s e l e c t e d e ac h b e in g a w o r d m u s t b e
b
e gi n n i n g w ith
l
arran e d in the d i ff e re n t
ac es
g
p
se
to the rs t
the fl oo r
an d
p ro c e e d i n g
an d th i rd
w al l s
e tc
I n m aki n g the se
c on d
w o rd s i t is n e c e ssary th at th e tw o c o n s o n an t s re
qu i re d sho u l d b e the tw o rst in the w o rd ; if
t he re b e m ore th an tw o it is of n o i m p o r t an c e
as the t wo rs t on l
n ot
il
l
It
il
l
b
e e d fu l
w
e
n
w
y
b e d i f c u l t to m ake a pe rfe c t gu re from the ske
l e t on we have ju s t se e n
c on son an s

Fl oor

B aT

the

Fi rst Room

M ou S e

Ne e D l e M u T t on
Tn B

8 03 1

Firs t Wal l (f the First Room


P n D d in g

N E w A RT o r

50

is se e n

yi n g afte r a m ou se ; w hi c h s he l
t e r s i t se l f n u d e r a c ap s t u c k f u l l of n e e dl e s
The re is s o m e m u t t on fe r d i n n e r an d a r ol l t o
e at w it h it
T he Pu b an d s oap s how th at i t is
wash i n g d ay ; th e s e r v an t s pl ayi n g w it h th e c hi l
d r e n an d t he i r d ol l h av e forgo
tt e n to b o i l the
A ha t

c a b ba

e an d t he

p d d ing
u

As

r o

p e n satio n
'

l arg e b ottl e o f r am i s p ro d u c
B y t his m e th o d i t w il l b e e asy t o c om m i t
ed
t o m e m o ry a l o n g s e ri e s o f gu re
t o r e p e at
the m b ac kward s o r fo rw ards to n am e the rs t
f ou r th fth e i gh t h e tc o r to s ay h o w m any
f o u rs v e s dro u gh t s e tc a re c o n t ai n e d in the
s e ri e s
T he c on v e r ti n g o f gu re s i n t o l e tt e rs an d
m aki n g s e n s e b y the i n t ro d u c ti on o f v o w e l s w i l l
f
b e fo u n d appl ic ab l e to m an y o f the pu rp o se s o
I f w e pu rc h as e an y arti c l e s an d
c o m m o n l i fe
th
u e o r w e i h t o f the m
m
w o u l d re m e m b
g
i t is
an d t h u s pre ve n t frau d in t he s h o p ke e p e r
o n l y n e c e s s ary to c han e th e g u r e s i n t o a w o r d
o r w o rd s an d c o n n e c t t he m w it h s o m e s t r an ge o r
l u d ic ro n s ide a S h o u l d w e b u y
yard s o f c l o th ,
m u s li n e tc i t is e asy to s ay t hat a m an b ro u gh t
fo r

th i s l o s s

'

'

'

'

e r

e as

h o m e th e
if S Ol b s
in g

t he

d iate l y

l ut h ,

of c
c

and

he e s e ,

he e se

T he

:1

the

m e as u re is gi ve n t o

'

m ouse

w ou

ld

"

had b e e n gn aw
the w e i gh t i m m e

t hat

fi x

n u m b e r of a

us

hac kn e y

c oac h, o r o f

5)

PR I N C I P LE S .

ho u s e , may b e p re s e rv e d in the s am e m an n e r
The pu rpo se s in d o m e s ti c l i fe t o w hi c h t hi s sys
a

are
a l m os t i n n it e
l
i
a nd n e e d
c ab l e
pp
n o fu r the r s pe c i c ati o n
e al re ad y l e arn e d t o d i vi d e a r oom i n t o
We h av
to s u b d ivi d e t h e s e
art s as th e oo r an d w all s
p
i n t o p l ac es
to c ha n ge gu re s i nt o l e tt e rs ~ an d
t o for m w o rds ; a n d b y t he s e m e an s to r e m e m b e r
I t w o ul d b e a
o r o f t hin gs
se r ie s o f g u re s
m at e ri a l ad v an t age t o u s to h av e s o m e xe d o r
fo r i ns t anc e t ho s e
c e r t ai n r o o m s : w e m ay t ake
w i t h w h i c h w e are b e s t ac q u ai n t e d an d x th e
di ff e re n t p l ac e s u pon the v ar i o u s ar ti c l e s o f fur
What
n itur e as a c h ai r a c he s t o f d raw e rs e t c
we ha v e l e arne d h ithe r to is n ot s uf c i e n t : as
e t an i n t e l l e c t u al o rd e r o n l y h as b e e n o b t ai n e d ;
y
n u m b e r s h ave b e e n l o c al is e d
b u t t h e re is s ti l l a
d e c ie n c y th e r e a l i tie s are w anti n g
I f the re ade r has p rac ti se d o u r i n st r c t io n s in

te m

is

'

'

a roo m

in w h ic h h e is
his

t m e d to

ac c u s o

en

th e

h
ti
e
t
i s r oom sh ou l d
a
d
m
n
p
h av e b e e n h u n g w ith p i c t u re s e ngravi ngs o r
an s
o r o rn am e n t e d with b u s ts
l
he w i l l
e tc
p
h av e b e e n v e ry m at e r i al l y as s i s t e d in th e re m e m
b ran c e o f his p l a c e s o r l o c al iti e s
We c an afte r
a l ittl e
pr ac ti c e as c e r t ai n th e o rd e r o f d i ff e re n t
th i n gs p l ac e d in a ro o m w h i c h w e hav e l o n g fre
u e n te d
T he t ran s iti on is s l ight b u t the im
q

ar

g re a e r

of

52

n e

w A RT
be

w il l

re s s on

or

ME

e r m an e n
p

M O RY
Le t

l l

us

the

q u are s o r p l ac e s w i th so m e pi c t u re s o f o u r own
d raw i n g : t he t w o r o o m s n il l b e th e n fu rn i sh e d
an d it w il l b e as e asy to re m e m b e r th e s ym b o l s,
o r hie ro l
} ph i e s as t o r e m e m b e r t he s it u ati o n o r
ac e o f an y p i c t u re
r ar ti c l e o f fu rn it u re in a
l
o
p
ro o m
I n s te ad o f havi n g a c arp e t o n the fl o or
W e c an s u p p o s e t ha t th e o o r is i n l ai d o r c on
T h i s w il l a l l o w u s t o pu t
s tr u c t e d o f m o s ai c
sym b o l s t h e re
T he o u tl i n e s o f t h e sym b o l s are i n t e n d e d to
th e v ar i o u s
as ac c u rat e l y as p o s s ib l e
r e p r e se n t
gu re s in th e t u o r o o m s s o that t he y m ay
b e p e rm an e n tl y xe d in the m e m o ry
( S e
Pl at e s II a n d I I I ) An d he re w e d i sm i s s th e
n
a ge n e ral hi n t
ivi
t
h
a
t
u pil fo r a s e as o n
g
g
p
i t wil l b e ad vi sab l e t o m ake h i m s e l f p e rfe c t
s it u ati o n s o f the d i ff e re n t
il
i
h
e
t
ar w ith
f
m
a
T
y
b f
h e th i n ks o f l o o ki ng in t o th e
sy m b l
U n t il a k n o w l e d ge o f the se
c hapt e r
n e xt
n o f u r t he r
rog re s s c an
Sym b o l s b e ob t ai n e d
p
I t is at l e as t i n d i s
b e m ad e in th e sys t e m
e n s ab l y n e c e s s ary t h at th e pu pil sh ou l d an s w e r
p
w i t h fac il ity to an y q u e s ti on s pu t t o him re spe c t
i n g th e rst roo m c on t ai n i n g fty sym b o l s ; th e
s e c on d r o om m a b e ac u i re d at l e i s u re
y
q
s

o re

54

N E W ART

or

M EM

O RY

a tmn u
P igmal ion

54
55

56
57
'

76 G ar d e n e r

tr
Ne p tu n e
T i l e tt or Pe n e l ope
Fl e t
G i t r P l ay e
C o j e

5 2 J u pi
53

60 S

t ll
i

63 T e m p

6 4 Fam e

87 H

e of

G l or y

te

67 M u

ns

e r y , or

e r.

l gh t i n g

88 B

ul

89 H

e rc u e s.

92 H

tal

aw k e r ,

or

le e

9 4 Lim e T r e e
-

For t un e

9 5 S h e ph e r d
96 C

9 9 Ave n u e

74 Th re sh e r.
.

1 00

J u st i c e

c e

9 8 T rOp l i y

S por sm an

Lib e r y

ap of

9 7 S ol om on

e n au r .

Gard e n En gin e

as s .

u s.

93 G o d e n F

u rn .

73 Pe d l ar

tt
S at
C
t

M au sole u m

9 0 B ur n i n g G

r.

S c oe vol a

6 8 M e r c u ry

we r

un

T an

s.

75

66 Te n

72

a
e on

re

ab r io e

86 B

70 L o

Ac

84 C

6 5 S c h oo m as

t
ti

j
t

l l

83

C ym b a P ay e r
8 2 T r o an H ors e

8 5 E u ro pa

B agpipe s

Ap o th e c ary

81

6 2 Ph oe n i x

71

80

n u r r.

69

79 D ir e c ion P os

r.

78 P agan P r ie s

5 8 Or ph e u s
5 9 S ams on

61

77 M ow e r s

C H AP I I
.

@brnn e l ogy

TH

il
p

p
xe d al l th e

is , b y t h i s ti m e , s u ppo s e d to h ave
sym b o l s in the rs t ro o m , an d to b e

t e l l re ad il y the rs t s e ve th t hi r
t i e th fo rty n i n t h e tc an d al s o t o s ay w h at p l ac e
is o c c u p i e d b y M i d as S i syph u s e t c
I n m aki n g
th e ap p l ic a t ion to c h ron o l ogy w e sh al l c o n n e
o u rs e lv e s to th e s u c c e s s i o n o f t h e ki n s o f E N G
g
L A N D s i n c e th e c o n q u e s t
1
W i L Li A M T H E C O N Q U E R O R A w o rd
m u s t b e n ow m ad e fro m W il l i am
th e rs t h al f
an d t o t h i s is add e d l ow
tr
ail is t ake n
b y w hi c h
w il l ow is ob t ai n e d ; t h i s e n ab l e s u s t o r e m e m b e r
l Vil l ia m
The w il l o w is xe d u p on th e To we r
e h av e
l
u r rs t s ym b o l
w
t
B
e
o
h
a
b
e n We l
f
o
l iam I b u t an o t he r c i rc u m s t an c e re m ai n s ; h e
l

e n ab e

d to

'

'

w as th
re
u

w ard

on
p

c on

we

h an g

v al o u r an d the
wil l ow t re e
The

of

th e

u e r or
,

s om e

c ro w n

d ate is

l a u re l

the

q u e st
n
:
n
e
t
a
w
ti
g
y

of c on

56

A RT

NE W

O RY

M EM

or

is d e ad ; in the w o rd d e a d ,
1 000 b e i n g u nd e rs t oo d
are d , d for 6 6 ; t he
,
*
t hrou gh the w ho l e s e r i e s
we

s ay

the

l au re l

W I LL I A M RU FU S
T he re m u s t b e t wo wil l o ws
2

is pu t in t o

Lati n
H

st

Th e re is

Y I
t o ss i n g
.

en e d

li e n

on e

h
e
ro u n d
t
p
g

by

i ng

of

( t oss)

the

pon
.

is

th e r e

l ookin g g l ass is ve ry
a w at c h
p l ac e d b e fo re

T he

EN.

'

m uc h

th e m e an

re

E NR

S T E PH

d ( bag )

m ou n t a i n
4

a re

d , w e p re s e r v e
w o r d Ru fu s

m aki n g the b ag

'

t he s wan ; the s w an

t he

W I L LI AM I I
o n e o n e ac h s i d e o f
or

l ass ; t h i s is ( t im e l y) Th e w o rd s t if e n e d
w il l r e c al t o the m i nd th e n am e o f S tep he n
A ( tay l or) s itti n g u po n the
5 H E N RY I I
t hron e w ith t wo li e n s on e u n d e r e ac h a rm
6 RI C H A R D I
T hi s w as t h e f i r s t r ic h
th e g

the

m an ,

hor n

rs t r i c h m an

of

J OH

l
en
i
s b e fo re him
p
ty

b l y, p il fe r e d fro m
b e e n a ( th ief )

ro b a

h e m u s t h av e

l
e
p

T he

t h e r pe o ~

The g l a ss b l owe r

n am e

w as

J ohn

As

th i

t he

r e ad e r

l i ati

s ap
p

on ,

we

wi l

ll

sh a

nd

at

e re n

m e re y

t in g th e d iff
t i m ge s
gi v s t he d at e i n a pare n t h c sis

c on n e c

r vi e w o f
a
t
a
u
a
b
0
l
6
_
,
p
'

e xp l ain

in c

the

l osin g the

m an n e r

of

w or d wh ic h

RO N O LO G Y

l on g

th e

l II

EN R

he n s ; h e p u t s

in

one

m o u th , t he h e n s

are

e ac

s o n e ar

th e

or

j u s t r e c e iv e d

h as

e ars ,

M id as

57

to

re s e n

an

e ar ,

e ac

m an w ith

d
o

t o f th r e e
in h is

one

th e r t h e y
,

l m os t ( u n ite d )
To x the n am e o f Ed w ar d
9 ED W A RD I
w e c o n ve r t th e v e rb t o wa r d t h a t is t o w at c h
i n t o a s u b s t an tiv e an d s ay h e re is o n e war d
g u ard o r s o l d i e r w at e ri n g Nar c issu s o r th e
owe r w ith an ( e n g in e )
1 0 ED W A R D I I
T he re are two w ard s o r
ard s b e hi n d G ol ia t h e ac h in a ( m as k)
u
g
Th re e s o l d ie rs as gu ar d s
l l
ED W A R D I l l
b e t w e e n the P i l l a rs of H e rc u l e s p l ayi n g w ith a
ar e a

( m on key )
12

RI C

II

H A RD

m an , w h o m e e t s D

s e c on d r c

Th i s is th e

h
i
s ha n d i n t o
p
g

t he l i on s m ou th ; D av id is m o c kin g at th e l i o n s
s t re n g t h
m oc k )
H E N RY I V W e t ake a ( m ay) , pu t
a vid

u t t in

f ou r

he ns in

i t an d p l ac e i t o n th e py r a m id
D iog e n e s h as ve he n s in
l 4 H E N RY V
his l an t e rn ; t he y are v e ry n o i sy an d t ro u b l e
,

s om e

15
t or,

is

E NR

v e ry

( r u n n in g )
16

Y VI

m uc h

A e sc u l ap iu s ,

se r

ED W ARD I V

th e

d oc

d b y s ix he n s, w h i c h

an n oye

ro u n d t h e

or

en

are

e re

are

fou r

so

l d i e rs

O RY

N E W A RT o r M E M

58

t aki n g

aw ay

RI C

1 8,

e r e s,

tw o

w o rd w il l b e

are

tt i n g

th e s am e

of

he r i n

o r t he c ar e n e r .
p

p ol l o

II I
ki n gs

H A RD

As t he se

an d

V Ar c him e de s

E D W A RD

l 7

oo r

d at e ,

on e

i t H e re are ve
u a rds
g
pre pari n g to r ob th e ihir d r ic h m an ;
Ap ol l o is l o o ki n g o n an d am u s i n g t h e m w it h a
t u n e o n his l yre ; in the m e an wh il e , Ar c him e d e s,
o r the c ar e n t e r v o c i fe r at e s
p
1 9 H E N R Y VI I
Rob in son C r u soe is se e n
to s ho o t s e ve n he n s in a ( r e b e l l i on )
2 0 H E N RY VI I I
The re is a P e ac oc k
w ith e ig ht he n s in h e r n e s t ; th e y are yo u n g an d
c an n o t s e ak t he
are ( l is in )
p
y
p g
E D W A RD VI
We have he re th e vau l t
e r o r r i d e r ; o n e m an is a s u f c i e n t w e i gh t fo r a
h o rse ; b u t o u r h o rs e m u s t c arry s e ve n
T h e re
are s ix
u a r ds o r w ar d s u on t h i s h o rs e b e sid e s
p
g
th e vau l t e r w h o ar e al l s c ram b l in g fo r a p i e c e o f
su

i c ie n t

to

( l ar k)
2 2 IV
I A RY
.

w h e re

th at

the re

is

T he re m u s t b e
a c oc

the to w n m ay b e
.

E LI Z A B

ishin g a

re

P e g a su s

i gn t hat
,

so m e

is

v e ry

d
t
n
a
e
i
l
l
i
u
m
)
(

Th i s

que e n

re

j o i c i ngs
oss ib l e
p

had

he is ( a l l owe d )

to

so
r

ide

o u r
u

on

As t he b i s
t he

ET H

it

kg ht ;

'

23

are

d i n p ronu n c ia ion , t he
t he d a e

n o t s ou n d e

l e tt e rs w hic h give

r,

d, t ,

N E W A RT O F M E M O RY

.
.

m
D
O

Z
O
U

"
H
E
B

S
O

Q
Z
H

Z
Q
O

m
C

E
M

N
E

m
(

H
U
D

H
O

Z
O

m
U

N
E
H
h

m
<
a

m
<
h

C H AP I I I
.

@ engraphy

IN

l
i
ti
n of
a
o
c
pp
G e ography t hi s sc i e n c e
th e fo l l o w i n g h e ad s ;
n e ra l G e o gr aphy
S tati s ti c s
th e

Art

th e

w il l b e

of

M e m ory

c o n srd e re

Pri n c ipl e s

to

u n de r

Ge

Parti c u l ar G e o graphy

Sec t 1
.

P r in c ip l e s

u ati on o f
it
p
c iti e s t o w n s s e as c o n ti n e n t s e tc
o n th e g l o b e ;
b u t w e w rl l s u ppo se t hat n o th i n g o f t h i s ki n d h as
e ve r b e e n fab ri c at e d ; t hat t h e re are n o c h ar t s :
if w e w i s h t o as c e r t ai n th e re l ativ e s it u ati o n o f
an y
pl ac e s th e m e an s m u s t b e i n v e n t e d t o ao
c o m pl is h w h at is r e q u i re d
b e g i n n i n g w ith th e
rs t pri n c i pl e s \Vhe n e ve r the m e m o ry is to b e
t re ate d w ith w e s ho u l d e m pl oy the po w e rs o f
re ason
T he c h art s m u s t b e d rawn in o u r i n t e l
l e c t an d we sh o u l d pro c e e d s t e p b y s t e p ; w hat
is w an ti n g in th e m e m or , w il l b e s u
l
i
e
d
b
y
y
pp

G e ograph i c al

h art s

re

re s e n

r e as on .

th e

64

N E W ART

The

e ar

th

b e ing

M EM

o r

rou n d

O RY

b o dy

is

it

re

ro-a

d b y a g l o b e ; b u t as b o th s i d e s o f t hi s gl o b e
c an n o t b e s e e n at t he s am e ti m e , i t m u s t b e d i

se n e

vid e d

i n to h e m i s phe re s o r hal v e s : t he re w il l the n


b e an e as t e r n an d a w e s t e rn o r a n or th e rn an d a
s ou th e r n h e m i s p he re
S u p pos e a c i rc l e t o b e d e s c ri b e d an d a p o i n t
ac e d w i th i n i t ; t h e s it u ati o n o f t h i s
o in t m u st
l
p
p
b e d e t e rm i n e d w it h re l ati o n t o s o m e o th e r part
o f th e
c i rc l e
I f a h o ri z on t al l i n e b e d raw n
ac r o ss the c i r c l e an d d i vi d e i t e q u al l
y th e l in e
appe ars t o u s s t rai h t ; b u t c an n o t in r e al ity
be
g
s o b e c au se i t is h al f th e c i rc u m fe r e n c e o f a g l o b e
A p e rp e n d i c u l ar l i n e is th e n d raw n an d t he
h e m i s ph e re is d iv id e d in t o fo u r e q u al q u ar te rs :
e ac h q u ar te r c o n t ai n i n g 9 0 o r o n e fo u r t h of
e ve r c i rc l e c o n t ai n i n
e Pl at e I
S
e
(
y
g
g
Th e ho ri z o n t al l i n e m u s t b e t ake n for the e q u at or
T he q u art e r the n in w h i c h the d o t o r p o i n t ap
nes
e ars s h o u l d b e d i vi d e d b
b
u t as t h i s
l
i
0
9
y
p
w o u l d c om p l e t e l y c o n c e al the s u rfac e o f the
d i agram an d o b lit e rate the l ittl e p oi n t i ts e l f we
w il l d ivi d e it i n t o 9 p art s
( S e e Pl at e I g
T he p o i n t is n o w e vi d e n tl y w it hi n th e rs t
s t ri pe o r l i n e an d if t he s e l i n e s b e n am e d l a d d e rs,
,

T he

e ar

th

is ,

b u t i t w ou l d b e
ge n e ral i l

as e

ne e

l u s tration

v e ry on e

l e ss

k n ow s ,

l t
p ar t i c u l ars

an ob a e s ph e roi d ,

t o d e sc e n d t o

in

GE

O G RAP H Y

65

i
h
b
u
t
i
t
s it u a
i
t

rs t l ad d e r
s
s
o
n
t
e
y
ti o n is n o w o n l y h al f d e t e rm i n e d T he se l ad de rs
a re d ivi d e d i n t o s t e s ; an d e ac h h as n i n e s t e s
p
p
T hi s w i l l b e e ffe c t e d b y d raw i n g 8 h or i z o n t al
l i n e s ac ro ss thos e al re ady m ad e ( S e e Pl at e I
g
T he p o i n t is s til l o n the rs t l ad d e r
b u t o n w h at s t ep
I t is on the s i xth s t ep
T w o ro o m s s hou l d b e p ro vi d e d w ith fou r w al l s
i n e ac h ; in th e u pp e r r o o m is t o b e p l ac e d th e
an d th e s ou th e rn is t o b e
n o rt h e rn h e m i s ph e r e
su
os e d u n d e r t h e n o r t h e rn in th e l o w e r roo m
pp
W e w il l b e gi n w ith th e n orthe n i he m i sphe re d i
vid in g it i nt o fo u r e q u al
part s o r q u art e r s ; t ran s
f e rri n g o n e q u ar t e r t o th e rs t w al l
( S e e Pl ate
I g
T he fo rm e r d i vi s i o n o f a wal l was thus
sha

ll

we

sa

il l not h ow e ve r b e m ore d i i c u l t to re
m e m b e r n i n e gu re s in o n e l in e th an in t hre e
T he o o r o f t he u ppe r ro o m in w h i c h w e s t an d
is the e q u at or ; u po n t h i s w e r e c ko n the l on gi
t u de Fro m the po l e to th e e q u at or the re are
"
b u t w e o n l y p l ac e 6 0 on th e w al l th e re
m ain i n g 3 0 b e i n g xe d in the c i e l i n
I n e ac h
g
o f t h e s e s q u are s t he re are 1 0 o f l on it u d e
,
g
, an d
1 0 o f l atit u de
It

66

N E W ART o r

M E M O RY

The ho ri z on t al
an d

l i n e s are paral l e l s o f l ati tu d e ,


e r e n d i c u l ar l i n e s are m e r i d i an s o r c ir
p p

the

c e s of

T he

l on g itu d e
s e r e s of

wal l s in th e

rs t

roo m

w il l b e

as

fol l ows

re fe rr n g

U po n

to th e gl o b e ,

h e m i s ph e re ,

it

w il l b e fou n d

th o f t he e q u ato r,
h as b e e n t ran s fe rre d i n t o th e rs t o r u p pe r r oo m ;
th e sou th e rn h e m i s ph e re b e i n g re s e rve d fo r th e
r oom b e n e ath
B e fo re w e p ro c e e d fu rthe r th e m e r id ia n m u s t
T his in En gl i s h c h ar t s is t ake n fr o m
b e xe d
Lo n d o n o r m o r e c b rre c tl y fro m G re e n w i c h
c o u n ti n g t he l on git u d e e as t an d w e s t fr o m t hat
h e i r m e ri d i an in
l
re n c h p l ac e
t
F
h
e
T
ac e
p
Pa ri s b u t th e y m ark al so in t he i r m aps the 1011
f rom w h i c h i s l an d al l the
e rro
F
u d e fr o m
i
t
g
th e irs ; b y
o th e r E u r o pe an n ati o n s c o m m e n c e
t he se m e an s th e l o n gi t u d e w h i c h is l ai d d o w n o n
an d
a fo re i gn m ap is c o m pr e h e n s i b l e b y t h e m
th e Pari si an m o d e is e as il y u n d e rst o od b y an y
th at

th e wh o

le

n or

(38

N EW

ART O F M E M

O RY

it u at e d ? we kn ow th at s ou th l atit u d e m u s t b e
in the l o w e r ro o m an d t h at 3 6 b e i n g m o re than
3 0 m u s t b e o n t h e 4 th l ad d e r s t e p
For the
l o n g it u d e as i n th e fore go i n g e xam pl e w e c u t
432 4 is m o re t han 3 2 0 t he re
o ff th e u n it
fo re it m u s t b e o n t he 3 3 rd l ad d e r ; t he s e t w o
gu re s are n o w ad d e d t oge the r the p ro d u c t 6
an d b
iv
c ou n ti n
e s th e s i t u ati o n o n t h e w al l
y
g
g
fro m 3 to 6 3 4 5 6 w e ge t 4 wh i c h is the
T hi s e v e n t t h e re fo re t o o k
n u m b e r o f th e w al l
l
ac e n e ar th e m ou t h o f th e Rio d e l a P l at a ; o n
p
th e 4 th w al l 6 th l add er an d 4 th s t e p o f the
s o u t he rn ro om
is

Se c t

G e n e r a l G e o r a h
g p y

We are n ow p ro vid e d w i th a ge o graph i c al n e t


w ith w hi c h al l th e d iffe re n t pl ac e s m ay b e t ake n
W h at w e h av e
f ro m th e s m al l e s t t o the l arge s t
l e arn e d in the c o m m o n w ay o n gl o b e s is s o on
e
n
n
c ti n
m
e d ia t o
o
n
o
c
tt
t
i
n
e
e
b
h
e
r
e
n
o
g
fo rg
g
b ri n g th e d iff e re n t C o u n t ri e s to o u r r e c ol l e c t i on
S u pp o s i n g w e are l o o ki n g at a gl ob e an d w e x
we c an n o t s e e i t s an t i
o u r e ye s u p o n E n gl an d
e
d
r
c ti on
n
e
o
i
n
n
n
l
i
e
e
o
s
a
b
e
c
n
l
e
s
c
a
od e s ; p
y
p
o f th e w or l d
a
m
i
a
n
h
e
n
h
o
w
s
w
e
s
n
e
e
h
C
h
T
p
re i n th e
e
a
w
e
r
?
n
c
o
r
s
u
i
n
a
u
u
t
h
s ai d
w y p
p
d
n
a
e
c
e
n
r
h
e
t
i
s
t
t
r
h
t
e
e
e
v
e
r
c
w
f
a
n
c e n re
I
,
y
,

69

G E O G RAP H Y.

is

whe re

The whol e

i
fe re n c e is e q u al l y d is t an t fro m u s w h e re v e r w e
T he f o u r q u art e rs o f the n o r th e rn
m ay b e
h e m i s phe re b e in g arran ge d o n th e fo u r w al l s
wh e n we are in t he r o o m w e c an in an i n s t an t
s e e e ve ry p ar t o f t h e h e m i s ph e re
( S e e Pl at e
the c e n tre

e ve ry

c rc u m

I V)
.

O n the

O c e an
Afr i c a

w al l w il l b e

rs t

the w h o
an d

O n th e

As i a

On the

No r t he rn
AJ n e r ic a

ll

w il l b e fo u n d th e

wa

an d a

Pac i c O c e an

E u ro pe

t
o f th e Atl an ti c
p
ar t o f
an d a gre at
p
ar

s e c on d

d e r o f As i a,

of

le

l arge

or
ro
p p

ti on

of

re

t he

m ai n

No r th

t hi r d wa

is

Pac i c

an d

l l the re

O c e an ,

a c on
a

ti n u an c e o f the
ar t o f No r t h
p

On th e f ou r th w al l the re is the re m ai n d e r o f
No r t h Am e ri c a, par t o f S o u th Am e r i c a, the

We s t I n d i e s an d a gre at
p ar t o f t he Atl an ti c o r gre at We s t e rn O c e an
Thi s c o m p l e t e s t he n o rthe rn h e m i s p he re an d
o c c u i e s th e rs t o r U
e r ro o m
p
pp
I n the s e c on d o r l owe r r oom ( s e e P l at e V )
o n th e rs t w al l
w e h av e a p ar t o f the S o u th e rn
Atl an ti c O c e an part o f Afr i c a an d the I n d i an
Am e ri c an I s l an d s

or

'

( ) c e an
The
of

th e

an

d by

s e c on

d w al l is

I n d i an O c e an
Ne w H ol l an d
.

i
i
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70

N E W ART

The thir d
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M EM O RY

the

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S o u the rn Pac i c

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I s l an ds
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.

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Ame ri c a

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th e rn Ro o m the
wh o l e C on ti n e n t o f Eu rope an d As i a th e g re at e r
r t o f Afric a
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Am e r i c a the As i ati c I s l an d s, Po l yn e s i a an d
Au s t ral as i a
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l ad d e r i n t o n i n e s t e ps givi n g the l atit ud e
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N EW A RT

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M E M O RY .

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e r i d i an
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for the rs t m
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an d the ou tl i n e o f the l an d d e sc r i b e d in
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76

N E W ART O F M E M O RY

r st wal l ,

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t w it h a s e ri e s o f gu re s
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Th e
ru n u p th e s i d e s ar e the d e g re e s o f l ati t u d e
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77

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The d i s t an c e fro m l in e to l i n e is 6 0 m i n u t e s o n e
4 5 ;
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En gl an d is ge n e rall y d ivi d e d i n t o C i r
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to b e

'

78

NEW

ART

M E M O RY.

or

C i r c u its in
I

IV

II

VI

VI I I

VI I

3
4

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H

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om e

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1

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C o rn w al l
S o m e rse ts hi re D e von sh i re
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1 1 1 E as t
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sh i re
ham sh i re
I V We st B e rksh ire O xfo rdsh i re G l ou c e s
t e rsh ire Wo rc e s t e rs h i re M on mou t hshi re H e re
II

S o u th

f o rd s h ire , S hro pshire


31

M id l an d

North amptonshi re , Ru tl an d

N E W ART o r m n mo n v

80

Whe n thi s is d o n e i t m u s t b e
r e m e m b e re d t h at t h e n u m e r ic al o rd e r o f the C ir
t e d by the d i ff e re n t c o l ou rs T he
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W he n the c o u n ti e s are n u m b e re d t he pu pi l
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m u s t c o u n t u pw ard s
t he
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l o we s t
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I I I o f C hare n t e I V o f Lake Le m an VC e n t ra l
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81

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ve c o o u rs

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th e

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th e art s e t c
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d iate l y

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w h i c h re pre s e n t s 4 , wi l l b y its fo ur s q uare gu re ,
4

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s x

I n th e

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l t abl e m ay b e p l ac e d e ve ry
it is n e c e ssar to kn ow re spe c ting
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s ta t s t ic a

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ar

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G E O G RAP H Y.

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ti

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s

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1

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c
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for

e ac

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35

h an gi n g

v e ry ye ar ;

t ho u san d s an d h u n d re d s m u s t t he re fo re b e
re s e r v e d
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o m itt e d
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p
o u l ati on for En gl an d w i l l b e the n u m b e r 1
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i
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n l an d c o n t ai n s 1 6 m il
ars o f H e rc u l e s
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tan t
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w ord ; t d w i l l b e the c o n s o n an t s giv in g the n u m
b e r ; it m ay b e s ai d t he n t hat t he re i s a Toad
c raw l i n g u p th e p il l ars of H e rc u le s
I f a c ou n t ry b e r e
2 Natu ra l P r od u c ts
m arkab l e fo r the e xc e l l e n c e o f i ts h o rse s a ru d e
an i m al
m ay b e d rawn in the
o f t hi s
o u tl i n e
I f it
s q u are b e l o n g i n g t o th e n at u ral p r o d u c ts
sa l t m i n e s
a b arr e l o r b as ke t
c o n t ai n e xt e n s iv e
o f s al t m ay b e p l ac e d b y t he h o rs e ; if g o o d
w i n e t w o b o ttl e s o f w i n e s ho u l d b e ail d e d ; i r on
m ay b e re p re s e n t e d b y b a rs an d s he e p b y an
h o rs e
as w it h t h e
o u tl i n e
To c o n n e c t t he s e
n arr ativ e
s ho u l d
c i rc u m s t an c e s t o ge th e r
so m e
b e i n v e n t e d th e m o r e i m pro b ab l e an d l u d i c ro u s
The h orse b e i n g pre s s e d by h u n ge r,
th e b e tt e r
e at s the s al t
b u t b e c o m i n g t hi rs ty in c o u s e
the

'

Ac c or din g to the

last Popu lation Re t urn s

86

N E W ART

ue n c e

i ro n

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p pro pri at e s q u are s a re
o r r u de
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o f the
o bj e c t o r
s e m b l an c e
t o b e r e m e m b e re d
s t an c e
Thi s m o d e
c i rc u m
wil l ass i s t the m e m o ry ve ry m at e ri al l y an d e x
c it e a gr e at e r d e gre e o f att e n ti on t h an th e m e r e
id e a w h i c h is pre se n t e d to the m i n d b y re ad i n g
T he s t at e o f the m il i
3 M il itary P owe r
tary forc e in ti m e o f pe ac e as w e l l as o f w ar
m u s t b e c o n s i d e re d w ith t he d ivi s i on s i n t o ar ti l
l e ry c aval ry an d i n fan t ry ; o r an y o t he r ar
r an ge me n t m ay b e m ad e w h i c h the n at u re o f t he
m il it ary fo rc e in an y parti c u l ar c o u n t ry m ay
d e m an d
The s q u are m ay b e thu s d i vi d e d :
s an c e

ti n g

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it

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d e v o u r t he s he e p

c ou rs e o f o u r re ad n ,
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t e n s o f ye ars, o r
d e c e n n i al s ; an d hu n d re d s or c e n t u ri e s
As the
d i vi s i on i n t o ro o m s al re ady n o ti c e d w il l b e h e re
r e s o r t e d to w e c u t o ff the rs t se r i e s o f u n i t s
an d c al l t he m
l
h
h
are rej e c te d
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s
i
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t e e n th
1 524,

s tr i

ro o m

es

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th e

an d
,

fte e n t h

se c on d

r oo m ,

ac e ,
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l
p
t h e r oo m o f u n it s an d

i i
gu re s
w ou l d b e s e v e n
an d
s i x th
l
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p
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s t ri pe

re m a n n g

l
e
1
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p
e igh t h
s t ri e
p

e xam

89

8 7 is in 0
e

ro o m ,

or

i ghth s t ri pe an d
a c hoi c e
c ol l e e

v e n th pl ac e Whe n w e vi e w
ti o n o f pi c t u re s s o m e i m p re s s i o n s o f th e e xc e l
l e n c e o f a p arti c u l ar pi c t u re an d o f its s it u ati o n
in the r o o m o r gal l e ry are ge n e ral l y xe d in the
T he re m e m b ran c e o f o n e p i c t u re w il l
m in d
s it u at io n
o f an o t h e r
an d
i n t hi s
s u gge s t t h e
m an n e r i t w il l n o t b e d i f c u l t t o x t he p l ac e s
o f th e m o r e c o n s pi c u o u s p ai n t in gs : an d if t he re
ar e m an y r o o m s
the par ti c u l ar r o o m m av b e
I n s t e ad o f a ro o m b e i n g l l e d
d i s ti n gu i s he d
w ith p i c t u res i t is e asy t o i m agi n e that i t is o c
n t hi s
i
c u i e d b y th e e v e n t s o f a w ho l e c e n t u ry
p
se

l l th e ye ars , re d u c e d
A ro o m is n o w t ake n w it h

r o o m ar e a

to

l o c a l i t ie s

l l s (s e e
Pl at e I g 7 ) e ac h o f inc h is d ivi d e d i n t o
th re e s t ripe s an d e ac h s t ripe in to n in e c o m par t
m e n t s o r q u are s as w e hav e in so m e i n s t a n c e s
d on e o n o u r w al l s
Eac h o f t h e s e s t ri pe s is n o w a te n ; an d b e fo re
th e rs t te n t he re i s O s t ri pe
is pl ac e d
\t l l l C ll
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t hre e

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se c on d

is t h e
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b e r 1 00 m u s t b e p l ac e d o n the c i e l i n g
o f th e se c on d roo m , w hi c h s hou l d b e d ivi d e d in
th e

num

s am e

Th i s

w ay

nu m be r

wi l l

a so

s e rve as

i n s c ri p ti on to d e s ign at e the ro o m
As it w il l b e n e e d fu l to ap pro pri at e a r oo m to
e ac h c e n t u r
h
e re w il l b e oc c as i o n for a s e ri e s
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an

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is

th e

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in

h u n d re d s ; an d t h ose b e fo re 1 00
the p re c e d i n g o r 0 r oom
The re
.

ity fo r a t e n th ro o m
th i s i n c on ve n i e n c e i t w i l l b e e asy to
n ow a n e c e s s

t he h ou s e

is

d ou bl e hou se

f u rn i she d w ith

ro om s

B u t w he n c e ,
r o om s

w it h
th e se

rs t,
to

to

the

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it

su

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fo r 2 000 ye ars

w il l

be

that
sh al l b e

se
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pp

aske

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so

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b e pro c u re d ? Eve ry on e is fam ili ar


o wn
h
o u se
a ar t m e n t s in h is
Al l
p
.

r oo m s
s e ve n

h oose

m ust

t h,

be

f o u rt h ,

r o om s

t u re s , fu rn it u re ,

em
e tc

wh i c h
or s o m e

o ed
l
p y

an d

an d

n am e

d,

it w il l b e b e tt e r

ppl i e d w it h p ic
o t he r r e m arkab l e o h

are s u

E
ac h
i
c h n u m b e r s m ay b e xe d
j
r oo m w il l b e d i s ti n gu i she d b y o n e o f th e sym
b ol s
T he rs t ro o m w il l have the t ow e r o f
B ab e l pain t e d upon it ; an d to x thi s m ore
e c ts , u pon

wh

92
an y o

the r

s im

il ar q u al ity

Wil l ia m Ruf u s
y

or

N E W A RT

e ar

h e w il l ,

1 08 7 ;
roo m ,

s am e

w ho

the

on

M E M O nY

The

as c e n

s e c on d

ki n g is

d e d th e t hro n e in the

b e pl ac e d in the
e i gh t h s t ri p e , an d s e v e n t h

o f c o u rs e ,

l
an d t he w ho l e
ac e
o f th e
p
b et w e e n t hi s an d the fo rm e r
Wil li am th e C o n q u e ro r
,

t i pe s

s r

m ay b e

l
p ac e s
d e vo t e d to
an d

C ha r l e m ag n e ,
th e ye ar 8 00,
of

t he

M i d as

Eg b e r t ,

is ,

i gh th
With

or

an y

w h o w as

l ly

n a u ra

r o o m ,

pl ac e d

th e

of

an o

th e

on

room

may

C har l e m agn e
kin g

E m p e ro r in

c ro w n e d

i l in g

c e

b e l o n gi n g to

be

ge d
c ou n tr
h
w
os e
y

th e r

arran

i gn w as c oe v al w ith t hat o f C harl e m agn e


Whe n the pre s e n t hi s t o ri c al arran ge m e n t has
b ec o m e fam il i ar i t w il l b e pro pe r t o take a
she e t o f
pape r for e ve ry c e n t u ry fo rm i n g a ro o m
an d m aki n
g the p ro p e r d iv is i o n s o f th re e w al l s
an d a oo r
as ab o ve
d e s c ri b e d
A p ar ti c u l ar
fac t m ay be t h e n pu t u p o n p ap e r b y s ke t c h i n g a
b y gu re s o f
r u d e o u tl i n e
o f t h e c i r c u m s t an c e s
an i m at e o r i n an i m at e b e i n gs ; t h i s t ho u gh i t m ay
l
r in t
h
a pe ar to s o m e
u n n e c e ss ar
i
l
i
m
t
e
w
p
y
p
d i ff e re n t fac t s u po n the m e m o ry m o re fo rc i b l y
th an the u s u al m o d e o f c o m m itti n g t he m to
w ri t i n g
T hi s w i l l b e s u f c i e n tl y e xe m p l i e d by
the fo l l o wi n g hi e ro l
i
h
c
y
g p
re

'

93

H I S TO RY.

thus e xpl ai n e d A c on ve n ti on was e n


t e re d i n t o in Egypt b e t we e n G e n e r a l K l e b er
o n th e par t o f th e Fr e n c h an d the G r an d Viz ie r ,
ar t o f t he
S
u b l i m e Po r t e
o n th e
wh i c h w as
p
ab i n e t
ro v e d b y th e
C
of
a
Lo n d o n
The
pp
s t rai gh t l i n e w it h the c re sc e n t on its t o p d e n o t e s
t h e G ran d Vi z i e r b y its s u pe ri o r h e i gh t t o the
e r e n d i c u l ar l i n e w h i c h is t o r e re s e n t G e n e ral
p p
p
K l e b e r ; the l i n e d raw n t hro u gh th e c e n t re o f
t h i s l i n e fo rm i n g 2 ac u te an g e l s is in t e n d e d fo r
T o d e n o t e the c o n v e n ti o n
th e G e n e ral s s w o rd
t w o l i n e s a re d r aw n w h i c h m e e t t oge th e r in th e
an d r e re s e n t th e s h aki n g o f h an d s
or a
c e n t re
p
T he c o n v e n ti on was form e d in Egyp t
m e e ti n g
T he C ab i n e t
wh i c h is s i gn i e d b y a pyram i d
o f Lo n d o n is ty i e d b y t he o u tl i n e o f a c ab i n e t
p
o n th e r i gh t o f th e d i agram
the h e ad o f a sh i p
p l ac e d in the s q u are d e n o t e s Lo n do n as it is
fre q u e n t e d m ore t han any othe r por t b y sh i ps
It

is

'

t?
N E W Ar

94
I t is

o r M E M ORY .

h
at e ac h d i vi s i on w il l
t
pp
b e c o m e m o re d ii c u l t in p r opo r ti o n as i t is ll e d
w it h e ve n t s
T he re v e rse i n d e e d w il l b e th e
I t is a m u c h gre at e r l ab o r to re tai n a fe w
c as e
fac t s s c att e re d t hro ugh ou t the d i ff e re n t s q u are s ,
than i t is to re m e m b e r a m u lti p l i c i ty o f the m
e ac h b e i n g arran e d in o r d e r
I f w e t ake a fe w
g
in su l at e d fac t s t h e re c an b e b u t l ittl e c o n n e xi on
b e t w e e n t he m
b u t w he n t h e re is a m u l ti p li c ity
o f e v e n t s d i s o s e d in ord e r
b y ass o c i ati n g th e m
p
t oge th e r the on e ass i s t s the re m e m b ran c e o f the
o th e r
an d a s t r o ng c on n e c ti n g c h ai n is fo r m e d
t h e l i n ks o f w h i c h c an s c arc e l y b e b ro ke n
T he
fac il ity o f c o m m itti n g t h e s e fac t s t o m e m ory is
I n s e l e c ti n g the
in c re as e d b y t h e i r n u m b e r
f ac t s we sh ou l d b e c are fu l to t ake th e s i m p l e
fac t s ; an d n o t to m i s t ake t h e i r c o n n e c ti n g c ir
c u m s t an c e s o r c on s e u e n c e s fo r th e fac t s t he m
q
s e l ve s
I t m ay b e as ke d ; p e rh ap s is th e re n o t C e c a
?
s i on fo r a d i ff e r e n t r o o m fo r e ve r
y c o u n t ry C e r
t ain l y n o t
T he h i s t o ry o f o n e c ou n t ry m u s t
n e v e r b e se arat e d fro m t h e h i s t o r
o f an o th e r
p
y
c ou n tr
We c an s c arc e l y s pe ak o f an e ve n t o f
y
ve ry g re at
l
iti
l
i
m
o r t an c e w h i c h h as h ap
c
a
o
p
p
e n e d in E n l an d
it
t
i
h
n vo l vi n g the h i s t o ry
u
w
o
p
g
o f m os t o f th e
Eu ro p e an S tat e s o f th e Eas t
I n d i e s e tc e tc T he po l iti c al i n t e re s t s o f on e
c ou n t r
h
m
h
os e o f
l
t
l
it
it
t
are
a
o
d
s
a
s
u
e
n
a
w
w
y
y
n ot

to

be

Su

o se d

96

n e

Pl at e

an d o n

t u rie s ,

w ART

the

re

o r M EM OR

re s e n ts

left

B irth o f C hri s t

th e se rie s of c e n

thi s se ri e s are p l ac e d the


fro m the c re ati o n to the

of

t h at h appe n e d

e ve n s

i gn to e ac h ye ar its
e ars are s o
l

rs t
ro e r
ac e ; b u t th e
0
0
0
8
y
p p p
b arre n o f e v e n t s t hat it w o u l d b e u s e l e s s t o d o
s o ; an d t he d if c u l t
o f r e m e m b r an c e w o u l d b e
y
e n han c e d b th e
au c i t
f
d
at e s w o r thy o f b e i n g
o
y
y
p
e
c o m m itt e d t o m e m or
W
o u gh t n o t t o t ake
y
I t is o n l y
ro o m s whe r e t he re is h othin g t o x
t ru e se r i e s o f fac ts ; the
n e c e s s ary t o kn o w t h e
h
e ars m u s t b e
u t i n t o w o rd s
T
re are b ut
e
p
y
In
f o u r ye ars b e fore th e fou r th o u san d t h ye ar
th e se th e C re ati o n an d t he b i rt h o f C ai n an d
Ab e l are th e p r i n c i p al e v e n t s Fro m 4 000 to
1 000 t he re are n o t m ore t h an th i r ty p ri n c i p al
fac t s
I f th e r e w e re 3 00 n o t m o re than t h re e
r oo m s w o u l d b e r e q u i re d
T he p e ri o d wh i c h
in c l u d e s th e h i s t o r i e s o f G re e c e an d Ro m e w il l
p ro d u c e a g reat e r nu m b e r o f fac t s ; an d t h e re
w il l b e m o re c e r t ai n ty as t o th e d at e s
From
th e b u il d i n g o f Ro m e th e n to t he B i rt h o f C hri s t,
the re w il l b e oc c as i on for s e ve n ro om s ( Se e
P l at e 1 g
The s e re m arks w il l s u f c e fo r the an ti e n t an d
m o d e rn h i s t o ry fo r the an t e d il u vi an an d po s t
d il u vi an pe r i o d s
We m ay ho w e v e r w i sh to
re m e m b e r n ot on l y the
ri nc ip al f ac t s in ge n e ral
p
wou ld b e

It

'

e as
y

to

ass

H I ST

b u t to

h i st ory,

enc

O RY

h ai n

97

an

x th e

e e ti n g
in c i d e n t s

the m o m e n t t h os e
i i
pass i n g
w h i c h i n t e re s t am u se o r i n s t r u c t u s
T he

t re asu re o f the p ast is n o t th e on l y


sac re d

s u b s t an ti al s h ad o w
w hi c h w il l b e r e g i s t e r e d
We shal l b e e n ab l e d to
in o u r i d e al r e p o s i t ory
an d th u s hav e an o r d e r l
arran ge f u tu r e e ve n ts
y
d is pos iti o n o f e v e ry c i rc u m s t an c e o f b u s i n e ss o r
l
e as u r e
i
n wh i c h w e m a b e e n a e d
i
I
n
t
h
s
g g
p
y
t hos e
re po sit o ry m ay b e p l ac e d p as s i n g e ve n t s
a l r e ad y e n t o m b e d in t he grav e o f ti m e an d t h os e
w h i c h are ye t to s e e k th e s am e s e p u l c h re
Ou r
i d e a l a l m an a c ]: w il l e n ab l e u s n o t o n l y to r e g i s
t e r appo i n t m e n t s b u t to e n r o l the p aym e n t o f
T o the
b i ll s an d o th e r m e rc an til e c o n c e rn s
d ia r is t it w il l b e a n e ve rfail in g s ou rc e o f pro ta
b l e is t ru c tio n an d am u se m e n t
T o x the e v e n t s o f a w h o l e ye ar m o re p l ac e s
Ou r ye ar is d ivi d e d i n t o m o n ths ,
are r e q u i re d
We e ks an d d ays ; and i n t o fo u r s e as o n s Ev e ry
has fo u r s i d e s
E v e ry s e as o n c on t ai n s
roo m
an d e ac h
w al l c o n t ai n s t h re e
m o n ths
th re e
T he m on ths are
s t r i pe s
( S e e P l at e I g
t hi rd fo u rt h an d s o o n ;
n am e d rs t se c o n d
are th e d ays o f t he m o n t h
an d
o n e ac h s t ri pe
c on s e q u e n tl y a s u f c i e n t n u m b e r o f s q u are s o r
f
ac ts an d e ve n t s m a
l
i
n w hi c h t h e
ac e s
b
p
y e
arran e d
o re m e m b e r the rs t
T
s
o
n
d
e
c
an d
g
t hi rd m on ths, the gu re s m ay b e c han ge d i n to
v s ons of

'

'

N E W A RT o r

98

l e tt e rs,

an d

th e

l e tt e rs

M EM

in o

O RY:

w o r d s , if

n e c e ss ar

q u ire d to c om m it to m e m ory s o m e
b l e c i rc u m s t an c e w h i c h happe n e d o n th e
r e m arka
Q5 th of J u n e w e sh o u l d t ake the gu re s
th d ay ) an d c h an e th e m i n t o
s i xt h m o n th
2
5
g
(
l e tt e r s t he se w ou l d b e d a Z o f t hi s w e m i gh t
m ake D an ie l o r an y o th e r w o r d that Wou l d
ass o c i at e b e tt e r w ith th e n at u re o f th e e ve n t
If
it be
( J u n e 8 th) w e m i gh t s ay d 1) ( cl ove )
an d c o n n e c t i t w it h the l e ad i n g fe at u re o f the
e ve n t
Th e ad v an t age o f r e so rti n g t o sym b o l s fo r
th e re pre s e n tati o n o f s e n s i b l e o bj e c t s h as al
i n s i s te d u po n : it m u s t h o w e ve r
r e ady b e e n
b e re pe at e d t h at the r u d e o u tli n e o f an y o n e
if d raw n u pon th e pape r w il l c o n t ri
obj e c t
b u t e m ore e ss e n ti al l y t o i m pri n t th e c i rc u m
t han wh o l e p age s o f
s t an c e u po n the m e m ory
l ab o u re d d e s c ri p ti on an d m i n u t e d e t ail T he
Egyp ti an h i e ro gl yph i c s w e re form e d in t his
w ay an d th e ke y t o the i r i n t e rpre t ati o n ( th e
c om b i n ati o n o f th e d i ffe re n t i m age s ) w as a s ac re d
T he sym b o l s
t ru s t re pos it e d w ith th e pri e s ts
w h i c h m ay b e fo r m e d w il l s e rv e the p u r p o s e o f
fo r w e m ay b e w e l l ass u re d tha t
s e c r e t w riti n g
th e y w il l b e as u n i n te l li gi b l e to e ve ry o n e b u t
as
th e pri e s t wri ti n g was, t o the
o u rs e l ve s
c u l u s o f Egypt
r
m
a
n
u
g
p qf
If

it

be

re

1 00

n e

as ?

M EM

or

O RY

re n de re d an e xpe d

iti o u s an d u n l ab ori ou s t ask, it


B u t i t m ay
w ou l d b e p re s u m p t u o u s t o e xpe c t
b e re as o n ab l y ho pe d that in the pro gre s s i ve im
n e w m e th o d s
r ove m e n t o f h u m an e x e ri e n c e
p
p
in t hi s as w e l l
o f i n s t ru c ti o n m ay b e i n t ro d u c e d
as in o th e r s c i e n c e s w hic h m ay a ffo r d a dd iti o n al
f ac iliti e s to l e arn i n g an d c l e ar aw ay m an y o b s t a
c l e s to i m p ro ve m e n t Wh i c h form e r age s w e re
u n ab l e t o re m o ve
I t is q u it e o b vi ou s th at th e d i f c u l ty in ac
u ir i n g a fo re i gn l an gu age c o n s i s t s i n the c on sti
q
t u t i on al d if e r e n c e o f o u r n a tiv e t o n gue an d t hat
I f the g ram m ati c al
w hic h w e p ro p o s e t o l e arn
ro e rt i e s o f t h e t wo l an gu age s w e r e s i m il ar the
p p
m e r e o b t ai n i n g o f a c op ia ve r b or u m w ou l d b e
B u t h ow
an u n d e r t aki n g o f n o g re at d i f c u l ty
c on s i d e rab l e a l a b ou r i t is t o o b tai n a pe rfe c t
kn o w l e dge e ve n o f the ge n de rs an d d e c l e n s i on s
o f n o u n s, th e c o nj u ati o n s o f ve r b s
an d o t he r
g
m att e r s w h i c h are th e v e ry i n it ial s o f l an g u age ,
an y o n e w ho has had the l e as t e x e ri e n c e o f the
p
d r u d ge ry o f t e ac h i n g c an w e l l t e s ti fy
It w ou l d s e e m t he n t hat o n e o f the m os t
e xt e n s i ve fac i liti e s w h i c h c an b e affo rd e d in t h i s
m att e r is t o p o i n t o u t the af n iti e s o f d i ff e re n t
l an gu age s to sys te ma tise as far as c an b e the i r
s i m il ar iti e s ; an d w he re it i s
ac ti c ab l e t o tr ac e
r
p
an d n o tify the ir var i anc e s
In o th er w ords ,
.

1 01

LANG U AG E .

if the

ex

re ss on

p
u n ive r sa l i t i e s

l l owe d,

m ay b e

to

hi b it the

ex

l an gu age
S o m e th i n g o f t h i s n at u re w il l b e att e m pt e d in
l t is i n se rt e d b e c au s e it
th e p re s e n t c h ap t e r
ar t o f M
o n Fe in aigl e s in
a
V
c o n s tit u t e s
p
s tr u c tio n s ; a n d b e c aus e t h e Ed it o r h o p e s t hat ,
i t w il l b e fo u n d to c o n t ai n s o m e u se fu l m att e r
B u t h e d o e s n o t m e an t o d e l u d e th e re ade r i n t o
an e x e c t a ti o n t hat h e w il l b e h e re p ro vi d e d w ith
p
a s or t o f t ali s m an i c ke y w h i c h s hal l e n ab l e h im
w it h o u t l ab o r an d w it ho u t l oss o f ti m e to u n
l oc k the j an u a l in g u a r u m I n d e e d that ( what
e ve r So m e i n t e r e s t e d e n t h u s i as ts m ay p re t e n d ) is
w h at n o i n t e l li ge n t re ad e r w o u l d e xp e c t n or
an y h o n e s t m an v e n t u re t o p ro m i se
Al l t hat
w il l b e h e re att e m p t e d w il l b e t o e xh i b it s o m e
o f t h e m o s t i m o r t an t s i m il ar iti e s o f d i ff e re n t
p
l an gu age s to sh o w t hat n o t w i thst an d i n g in d ivi
d u al p e c u l i ar iti e s t he y s t il l r e t ai n s t ro n g m arks
o f affi n ity in m an
y e s s e n t ial p art i c u l ars
of

Fac ie s

Ne c

tams u

di

ve

n on o m n i b u s u n a,

gn a e m d e c e t e ss e s or oru m
o u di e t I 2 v 1 3

r sa

An d , to b ri n g the
to

of e r

one

som e

l an gu age

As

we

are

m atte r m o r e ho m e to prac ti c e ,

ru e s ,

m ay b e

u is it io n o f an o

i t
li
u s e fu l l
a
e
d
y pp

t he r
a b ou t t o

b y th e

of

ass s an c e

w hi c h

to the

ac

i de r s om e

c on s

of

the u n i

N E W ART

1 02

o er
r
p p

ve rs a

O RY

l an gu age it

of

ti e s

OF M E M

m ay

n ot ,

t h o u gh t i m pro pe r to e n t e r o n
s u b j e c t w ith a s l i gh t s ke t c h o f th e o r i gi n o f
be

h aps ,

age
u
g

ep

th e

lan

e c t.

We

S ke tc k of

t he

Orig in

La n gu ag e

i n fo rm e d b y S c ri pt u re th at wh e n
th e b u il d in g o f B ab e l w as b e gu n ab o u t e igh t e e n
h u n d r e d ye ars aft e r th e fal l th e w ho l e e ar th was
An d h ad n o m i rac u l ou s i n t e r
o f on e sp e e c h
i
s
r o b ab l e
i
t
t
h
a
t
s om e
o s iti o n t ake n p l ac e
p
p
t rac e s of i t w o u l d h av e re m ain e d in e v e ry Ian
h
or
o u gh
i
n so l on
F
t
o t h i s d ay
t
age
u
g a
g
b e e n c h an ge d
m an y w o r d s m u s t h av e
ti m e
m an y i n t ro d u c e d an d m any f o rgo tte n i n e ve ry
c o u n t ry ye t m e n b e i n g al l o f th e s am e fam il y
an d al l d e rivi n g t he i r s pe e c h fro m the o n l y o n e
m
r e s u m e d t h at s o m e
ay b e
i
iti
i
t
ve t o n gu e
r
m
p
p
o f the o ri gi n al w or ds w o u l d s ti l l h av e b e e n in
t hr o u gho u t th e w h ol e e ar th : e v e n as in al l
u se
s o m e G re e k
t he m o d e r n l an gu age s o f Eu rop e
an d a
e at d e al o f Lat i n
r
13
an d so m e H e b re w
g
B u t Pr o v id e n c e t h o u gh t t to
s ti l l d i s c e rn i b l e
r e ve n t t hi s ; an d b y c o n fo u n d i n g th e l an gu ge
p
a
t o e s t ab l i sh in the
o f th e b u il d e rs o f B ab e l
w orl d a v ar i e ty o f pr i m iti ve t o n gu e s
ar e

a:

==

Langu age s

a re

a
s

a:

i t he r Prim iti ve
.

or

D e rive d

N E W ART

Th i s is the g e n e ral

or M

EM O RY

i i

ti n g the or i
n o f t h e d i v e rs ity o f Lan g u age s ; b u t it is n o t
i
g
D R P RI E S T L E Y *
an u nc o n t ro v e r t e d d oc t r i n e
h as argu e d u po n t hi s po i n t in t he fo l l o w i n g m an
o p n on

re s pe c

'

The

l an gu age is ge n e
h ave t ake n its r i s e fr o m the
r al l y b e l i e v e d t o
b u il d i n g o f B a b e ] an d t o h av e b e e n b ro u gh t
ab o u t b y t he i n t e rp o s i ti o n o f th e D ivi n e B e i n
g;
b u t i t is n o i m pi e ty t o s u pp o s e t h at t h i s ( agr e e
ab l e
to m os t o t he r O pe rat io n s o f t he D e ity)
m i gh t h av e b e e n b ro u gh t ab o u t b y n at u ral m e an s
T he po s s ib il ity o f t his n at u ral d e vrat io n s e e m s
t o b e d e d u c e d fro m t he fo l l o w i n g c o n s i d e ra
ti o n s
Fi r st
The pri m it ive l an gu age
or t hat
m il y o f t he
w hi c h w as s po ke n b y the rs t fa
h u m an rac e m u s t h ave b e e n ve ry s c an ty an d
in s u f c i e n t fo r t he pu rpos e s o f t he i r d e s c e n d an ts
i n t he i r gro w i n g ac q uai n t an c e w it h the w o rl d
No t b e i n g xe d b y t he prac ti c e
S e c on d ly
w
o u l d b e v e ry l i ab l e t o v ar iat io n
i
t
riti n
of w
g
T/z i r d ly
S u ppo s in g the p r i m itiv e l an gu age
t o h av e ha d fe w i n fl e c t i o n s ( b e c au se fe w w o u l d
h av e b e e n s u f c ie n t ) it w o u l d e as il y ad m it an y
i n e c t io n s w hi c h c han c e o r d e s ig n m igh t s u g
pre s e n

d iv e rs ity

of

Le c t ure

on

the

The ory of Language , p

287, an d

se q .

La n e u m s

ge nt

to the fou n de rs

th e i r

io n s

an d

c o ns e

f dia

The s e

s u c c e s so rs .

w ou l d

e nt

w or d s ,

th u s

w ha

are

lle d

c a

ru e s

the

or

to

in e c tio ns

d itf e re n t

d iffe re n t

an d

famil i e s ,

di ff e re n t

q u e n t l y in tr odu c e

of

1 05

c on s tru c

of

yn t ax

ve ry s ta m in a

of

l an gu age s w ou l d b e fo rm e d i n d e pe n d e n tl y o f
on e an o t he r an d ad m it o f al l p o ss i b l e vari e ti e s
C o n s i d e r i n g i n t o w h at d i ffe r e n t
Fou r t/z ly
c l i m at e s m an k i n d w e r e d i sp e rs e d fu rn i s h e d w ith
t he b are r u d i m e n t s o f th e ar t o f s p e e c h i n t o
w h at d i ffe r e n t w ays o f l ivi n g t h e y fe l l an d ho w
l on g t he y c o n ti n u e d w i t ho u t the art o f w riti n g ,
f
t
i
xe d ) it
h
i
o ut w h ic h n o l an gu age c an b e
w
(
s e e m s t o b e n o w o nd e r t hat l an gu age s sh o u l d b e
s o d iff e re n t as t he y ar e ; b o t h w it h r e s pe c t t o t he
w ith the f u n d am e n t al s o f
r u l e s o f i n e c ti o n
e nd u
h
i
c h de
am m ar
on
t
m
nd
h
w
r
h
e
a
t
e
p
g
p
w o rd s o f w h ic h t he y c o n s is t
T he d iffi c u l ty w h i c h s o m e al l e ge th e re is
in c o n c e iv in g h o w l an gu ag e s s h o u l d ari s e in t he
w o r l d s o v e ry d i ffe re n t n o t o n l y in th e w o r d s
b u t i n t h e m an n e r o f u s i n g t h e m s e e m s t o a r i s e
w h o l l y fr o m th e s u ppo it io n t h at t he p ri m i t i v e
l an gu age w as c 0 pio u r e gu l ar an d pe r fe c t in al l
i ts p ar t s : the d i ffi c u l t y o f c han gi n g s u c h a l an
e is al l o w e d
e he n d e d
u
a
h
e
f
t
a
r
i
s
b
u
ac
t
t
g g
pp
is m u c h e as i e r ac c o u n t e d fo r u p on the pre s e n t
hypo th s is
To t he se argu m e n t s i t m ay b e add e d t hat
,

1 06

N E W A RT

M EM O RY

or

h
o r o u hl a
c
t
g
y
q ti ain te d with the pre
p
the p
s e n t s t a te o f m ankind
ro d i i o u s d iv e rs it
g
y of
h u m an m an n e rs an d c u st o ms may pr ob ab l y ap
e ar a l m o s t as d ii e u l t t o b e a c c o u n t e d for
as
p
ive rs ty o f l an gu age s o n ly
t he
d
The l at e D R G G RE G O RY h as o b se rv e d
o n t h i s subj e c t
t hat i t is i m po ss i b l e t O s ay what
w as t he n at u r e o f th e c o n fu s i o n o f l an gtiage at
B a b e l w h e t h e r i t c o n s i s t e d in th e i n ve n ti o n o f
n e w t e rms
o r in t h e i m
ro e r u s e o f th e o l d
p p
T he m i rac l e at Ba b e l h e ad d s m i gh t be o n l y
a t e m po rary c o n fu s io n f s u ffi c i e n t t o s e t as i d e
t hat u s e l e s s an d ab s u r d u n d e rtaki n g : a n d i t is
m o re n at u ral to s o ppo s e t h at th e c o n s e q u e n t
d i sp e rs io n o f m an ki n d w as t he e ff e c t o f di s s e n
ti o n s o c c asio n e d b y h av in g m i s u n d e rs to o d e ac h
o t he r
t han t hat the y c o u l d n o t l iv e t o ge the r b e
c au s e t h e
y d id n o t al l c o n ti n u e t o s p e ak the s am e
l an g u age
1 1 T he o r i gi n o f a lp ha b e tic a l w ri ti n g is ih
v o l v e d in as m u c h d o u b t as that o f the C l l VB I Sl ty
to

e rso n

'

'

'

j t

t t i a t
m a ks
i
i t ic i m f M
B y
t wh
f m d by
e al l y
i
hi
f A i t M y t h l gy t h t
al y i
ot
i
w
t
h
m
e
t
l
s ig i
l
l ip
d th t c
y
q
a y al t
t io i th e l a g g b t a f il o i c apac i ty
i
l ab i l tt an c e wh ic h soon afte r th e ir se parat ion
T h is

s c on i r

c on e c

e ra

th e y

s s o

an

re c ove re

er

d.

nc

o o

o n se

en

an

D R G REG O RY

a c r

es

as

u re ,

ua

an
,

re

as n

ra c

u re

ue n

no e
,

s a es

1 08

n e

b il ity that

so

wART

or

i m po rt an t

M E M O RY.

fac t w ou l d have b e e n

itt e d b y the s ac re d his to r i an ? T he re ar e va


r io us o t h e r argu m e nt s in t h i s m a tt e r, b u t t he s e
f o rm th e h i n ge o f t he d i s pu t e ; an d we s hal l c l o s e
th i s s u bj e c t w ith a ve ry s at is fac t or y o b s e rvati o n
w ho r e m arks t h at the i m pe r
o f D r Pri e s tl e y
fe c tio n s o f al l al pha b e ts th e H e b r e w b y n o
m e an s e xc e pt e d s e e ms t o argu e t h e m n o t to
h ave b e e n t he pro d u c t of d ivi n e s kil l b ut the
o f ac c id e n t an d
r esu l t of s u c h a c o n c u r re n c e
l
i
and
a
d
m
ro v e m e n t as al l h um an art s
u
a
r
g
p
w ha t w e c al l i n v e n t io n s e w e th e ir b i rt h t o
For
C e r t ai n l y th e al ph ab e t s i n u se b e ar n o m ar ks o f
th e re gu l arity an d p e r fe c ti on o f t he wo rks o f n a
t u re
th e m o re w e c on si d e r t h e l a tt e r th e m o r e
re aso n w e se e t o ad m i re t h e i r b e au ty j us t pr o
an d c on se q ue n t t n e ss to an s w e r t he ir
o r ti o n s
p
th e m o re w e e xam i ne
r e s pe c t iv e e n d s ; w h e re as
th e fo rm e r t he m o re d e fe c t s s u pe r u it ie s and
im pe rfe c ti o n s o f al l ki n d s w e d i s c o v e r i n t he m
B e s i de s had th e re e ve r b e e n a d ivi n e al phab e t
it wo u l d c e r t ai n l y h av e e s t ab l i she d i ts e l f in the
w o rl d b y its m an i fe s t e xc e l l e n c e par ti c u l ar l y as,
u p on th i s s u
o si ti on m an ki n d w e re i n c a ab l e of
pp
p
d e vi s in g o n e t he m se l ve s
I
B u t w hat e ve r m ay b e the o ri g i n o f a l
a be ti c a l w r i tin
h
it
i
s c e r t ai n t hat al l al pha
p
g
b e t s are m o re o r l e s s d e fe c ti ve
In t he o r
th ogra h o f m ode rn l an u a e s, in
ar, i t
ar
ti
u
l
c
p
p y
g g
om

'

1 09

LA N G U A G E .

i n c on ve n i e n c e a has Be e n t rul y
g
*
o b se rve d
that the pro n u n c i ati on d o e s n o t c or
b
u t t h at th e s am e l e t
r e s o n d w ith th e w r iti ng
p
t e rs hav e d iff e re n t s o u n d s an d the s am e s o un d s
ar e o ft e n r e re se n t e d b y d i ff e re n t l e tt e rs
s
om e
p
l e tte rs al so ac c ord i n g to th e pro n u n c i ati o n are
in o th e rs l e tt e rs are
su pe r u ou s in s o m e w o r d s
T hi s is c h i e y a m ark o f t h e i r d e ri va
w an ti n g
ti o n fro m o t he r l an gu age s : s i n c e in m any o f
th os e d i ff e re n c e s th e s p e l l i n g l e an s to th e an
Th u s
t ie n ts w he n th e p ro n u n c i ati on is m od e rn

is

re at

( p ) in the

the

it

b ut

hows

O the r
in th e

w o rd s,
s am e

v
p
an d I h av e

to

re se r e

Se c t 3
.

the w o rd

of

of

w o rd s

c o n rary,

wh i c h
'

are

r o n ou n c e

d i s ti n c ti o n in

a u n ive r sa l

l ph ab e t s
WI L K I N S

th e

OP

th e

m an n e r ,
a

ro no u n c e

d;

fro m

th e

s am e

d i ff e re n tly , t o p re s e r v e a d is
as a ir , heir
h air , har e , e tc

Ac c azm t of

i g

BI SH

n ot

e ak n

are

as

l le d
n tl
y

pe

d d i ff e r

g;

rea

d;

r e ad .

o rm n

All

on

is

S om e

s pe

in

r e c e ip t

d e r iv ati on

lle d
w riti n g

are

i n c ti on

th e

Lati n

o in
i
p

re c i

s ou n d

w o rd

Pr ie s

t
s t owar d s
p

s om e

a tte m

C ha r ac t e r

t t

e x an

w ith

tl e y s Le c t u re s on

or

are

gre at

Alp ha be t
c

h arge d

by

i rre gu l ariti e s,

Lan gu age , p 43
.

N E W A RT O F M E M O RY .

1 10
w ith

r e s pe c

gu re
As
p

e tc

b o t h to

ord e r,

or d e r

it

re d u c e

s on an s are n o t

n a u re s

G re e k

re c e

de n c e

w i l l b e ar

l phab e t

he , in ar ti c ial ,

appe ars, s ays

re c ar o u s, an d c o n fu se

of

p owe r,

to th e

or d e r

n u m b e r,

d,

as the vo w e s an d C on

d in t o
an d

Of

c asse s ,

s u b se

th i s

w h i c h is

w ith

ue nc e

su c h

th e i r

as

im p e rfe c ti o n

on e o f

the

th e

l e as t d e fe o
t i ve is far fro m b e i n g fre e : fo r i n s t an c e , the
G re e ks sh ou l d h ave s e parat e d the c on s on an ts
f ro m th e vo w e l s ; afte r the vow e l s t he y shou l d
h ave p l ac e d th e d i ph tho n gs an d the n the c on
in fac t the ord e r is s o p e r
s on an ts ; whe re as
ve r t e d , th at w e n d th e o th e ft e e n t h l e tt e r in
th e o rd e r o f t he al phab e t an d the w o r l on g 0
th e tw e n ty fo u r th an d l as t : the s the fth an d
the n th e s e ve n th l e tt e r
With re spe c t to n u m be r the y are b oth re d un
d an t an d d e c i e n t ; re d u n d an t b y al l o tti n g the
as in th e Lati n 6
sam e s ou n d to s e ve r al l e tt e rs
an d k f and p it ; o r b y r e c ko n i n g d o u b l e l e tt e rs
am o n g th e s i m p l e e l e m e n t s o f s p e e c h as in the
the Lati n q o r c u x or e x, an d
G re e k 5 an d
The y are d e c ie n t in m an y
c on s o n an t
th e
of
ar ti c u l arl y w ith r e gard to vo w e l s
re s pe c t s
p
w h i c h s e ve n o r e i gh t ki n d s are c o m m on l y u s e d
th ou gh the Lati n al phab e t t ake s n oti c e on l y o f
ve
Add to t hi s, that the d i ff e re nc e am ong
a

1 12

N E W A RT

or M EM OR

var o u s an d u n c e r a n ,

is ye t s u ffi c i e n tl y i rre
s o m e hav e e n d e avou re d

t i

an d

the s e re fo rm e rs
to ac c o m m od at e o r th o graphy b e tt e r t o the pro
n u n c iatio n
w i tho u t c on s i d e r i n g t h at th i s is to
m e as u re b y a shad o w ; t o t ake t h at fo r a m o d e l
o r s t an d ar d
w h i c h is c h an g i n g w hil e th e y ap pl y
it
O the rs l e ss ab s u rd l y i n d e e d b u t w ith e q u al
u n l i ke l i ho o d o f s u c c e s s
h ave e n d e avo u re d t o
o r ti o n
h
e rs
r
o
t
e
n
u
m
b
e
r
o
f
l
e
tt
to t h at o f
p p
s ou n d s
that e ve ry s ou n d m ay have its o wn c ha
r ac te r an d e ve ry c harac t e r a s i n g l e s ou n d
S uc h
w o u l d b e t he o r th ogra hy o f a n e w l an gu age to
p
b e fo rm e d b y a syn od o f g fam m arian s u po n p ri n
c r le s o f sc ie n c e
B u t w h o c an ho
e to
re vail
p
p
p
o n n ati o n s t o c h an ge t he i r p rac ti c e
an d m ake al l
t h e o l d b o o ks u se l e ss P o r w h at ad va n t age w ou l d
a n e w o r th o ra hy
o c u re e q u iv al e n t to th e c on ;
r
g p
p
fu s i o n an d pe r p l e xity o f s u c h an alt e rati on
O n e o f th e rs t w h o pr o p o se d a s c h e m e o f
re gu l ar o r t ho g ra phy w as S I R T H O M A S S M I T H
S e c r e t ary o f S t a te to Q u e e n Eli z ab e t h a m an o f
r e al l e arn i n
r ac ti s e d in
an d m u c h
ram m ati c al
g
p
g
*
d i s q u i s iti o n s
Aft e r him an o t he r m o d e o f
g u l ar :

of

I n th e p r e fa

r om vvh
c

a on of

hi s

to D

re r

rt

J oh n s on
x:

p hy

r r
_

t r es,

o ve ve r ,

rrd c rs

i d

po ss i

l he

bl e

En g ish D i c ion ary


r

to

{ m e n m ay b e
wn t of p r ope r
,4

e s tri

bit

this an d

1 13

L AN G U AG E .

d b y D R G I LL, the c e l e

Pau l s S c h o o l in Lo n d on
of S t

o ff e re

writi n g w as

b rate d M as t e r

D r G il l w as fo l l o w e d b y C H A RLE S B U T L E R,
a m an w h o d id n o t w an t an un d e rs t an d i n g w h i c h
.

m i gh t h ave

q u al i e d him for b e tte r e m p l oym e n t


H e s e e m s to h av e b e e n m ore san gu i n e t han his
re d e c e s s ors
f
or he
ri n t e d his b o ok ac c ord i n g
p
p

to

h is

o w n sc

I n the

he m e

i
Of C H A RLE S I
the re was a
ve ry
re val e n t i n c l i n ati o n to c han e the or tho
g
p
i
r
a
h
a
n
t
h
e
r
b
o
k
s
n
as
e
ar
s
a
m
o
o
o
;
g p y
g
pp
su c h e d iti o n s o f th e vr o rks o f M il t on as we re
b
l
i
s he d b
h
i
m
l
f
t
h
e s e re form e rs e ve r
u
s
e
f
O
y
y
p
m an had h is o w n s c he m e ; b u t t he y agre e d in
on e ge n e ral d e s i gn Of ac c o m m o d ati n g the l e tte rs
to the pron u n c i ati o n b y e j e c ti n g su c h as th e y
t hou gh t s ope ru o u s S o m e o f the m wou l d have
wr itt e n t he s e l i n e s t hu s
t me

Al l the

ll th b e par
T h an th is o f Ed
S ha

en

er

th
l

far h ap p ie r p ac e
an d far h ap i e r d ais
p

ad is,

e n,

O P W I L K I N S aft e rw ard s in his gre at


w ork o f t he ph il o so phi c al l an gu age pro po se d
w i tho u t e xpe c ti n g t o b e fo l l o w e d a re gu l ar o r
t l ro graphy
b y w h i c h th e Lo rd s praye r is to b e
wri tt e n t h u s :
BISH

Ya r Fad he r l rs its h
d hyi
er

n am ,

th as i t

d hi

art

c in gd yrn c

is in hve n ,

tc

in hve n , l ral l o e d b i

ym , d hy

L3

il l

b i dyn in

1 14

N E W A RT o r M E M O R

e re

DR J
.

OH

N S O N h as

c o se

d h is

ac c ou n t,

sh a

l l e n de avou r to c o m pl e te b y n o
ti c i n g som e o t he r ph il o s o ph i c al s pe c u l ati on s o f a
s i m il ar n at u r e t hat have b e e n s u b m i tt e d t o th e
B
u t we
sh al l rs t
re se n t t he
d
er
ub l i c
re
a
p
p
isho p W i l ki ns
w ith a m ore d e t ail e d ac c o rg tt o f l
pl an o f a u n iv e r sal a n d phi l os oph i c al l an gu age
T hi s ac c ou n t w e shal l g i ve i n an e xt rac t fro m
D u P RI E S T L E Y S Le c t u re s on th e T he ory O f
Lan gu age b e c au se it c o n t ai n s th e m os t c l e ar
h
at c an
o s si b l
e
t
b
an d c o n c i se e x o s iti o n o f it
p
y
p
en
i
v
g
H avi n g in the fi rs t pl ac e , w ith pro d i gi ou s
l ab ou r an d e xac t n e s s d i s t ri b u t e d al l th i n gs
t o w h i c h n am e s are g ive n i n t o c l ass e s ; u n de r
for ty ge n u s e s o r ge n e ral he ad s ( so m e o f w h i c h
h o w e v e r are su b o rd i n at e to o th e rs) he ass i gn s a
s h o r t an d s i m p l e c harac t e r t o e ac h o f th e s e fo r t y
a d e n it e v ar i ati o n o f th e c har ac t e r t o
e n u se s
g
an d a fu r t h e r
e ac h d i ff e re n c e u n d e r t he ge n u s e s
e tc
B y t hi s m e an s
vari ati o n fo r e ac h s pe c i e s
th e c h ar ac t e rs r e pre s e n ti n g al l t h i n gs t hat hav e
n am e s h av e t he s am e an al o gi e s w it h o n e an o th e r
t h at t he t h i n gs t h e m s e l v e s hav e
C h arac t e rs b e i n g pro vi d e d for th e n am e s o f
th i n gs th e g ram m at ic al d i s ti n c ti o n s o f w or ds
are d e n o t e d
n u m b e rs t e n se s p e r s ons voic e s e tc

w hi c h w e

by

som e

In

e n d age

to the c h arac te r

pp
thi s m an n e r m ay we b e fu rn i sh e d with
a

an

N E W A RT

1 16
as
as

an y o

we l l

ME

or

M ORY

the r

as

pe opl e ; whe re b y, in c on ve rsati on


in w r iti n g, t he y m i gh t m ake the m se l ve s

p e r fe c tl y u n d e rs t oo d b y o n e an o t he r
The e l e m e n t s o f t hi s c harac t e r an d
.

fe w,

an d

the

l angu age
t he m s o

i ti on of
e asy
that the D o c t o r ( Wil ki n s ) says he has n o
d ou b t t hat a pe rso n o f a go o d c apac ity an d m e
m o ry m ay in o n e m o n th s s pac e att ai n to a
d
re ad i n e s s o f e x re ss i n
a
oo
h
i
i
t
h
i
s
m
n
d
s
w
g
g
p
y
e it h e r in the c harac t e r or l an u a e
g g
AS th e n am e s o f i n d ivi d u al s c an n o t b e c o m
r e he n d e d in t ab l e s O f ge n u se s an d t he i r d i ff e r
p
the D o c tort Wil kin s ) h at h c o n t ri ve d an
e nc e s
A LP H A B ET o f al l the s i m pl e ar ti c u l ati on s O f t he
h u m an v o i c e ; to w h i c h he h at h as si gn e d two
to b e u s e d at pl e as u re : the
s e t s o f c h arac t e rs
the o t he r
o n e c o n s i s t s o f s ho r t an d p l ai n s t roke s
is a ki n d o f d e l i n e ati o n o f th e po s iti o n o f the

o rgan s in fo rm i ng th e ar ti c u l ati o n s
Thi s pl an D r Pri e s tl e y c o n s i d e r s the m os t
r ati on al o f al l the p l an s o f a u n i ve rs al an d phi
An d he ad d s whe n e ve r
l o s o phic al l an gu age
th i s n ob l e proj e c t is re s u m e d i t se e m s to b e im
h
t
an
O p l OC GB d u pon a b e tt e r p l an
ss i b l e
t
o
p
th i s T he pr i n c i pal t hi n g t hat is w an tin g to the
e r fe c ti o n o f i t is a m o r e pe rfe c t d i s t r i b u ti on o f
p
thi n gs i n to c l asse s t han pe rhaps the pre se n t
s t at e o f kno w l e d ge c an e n ab l e u s t o m ake
are

so

c om b n a

'

LA N G U AG E

[ 17

M r LO D W I C K , in the Phil osoPhic al Tr ans

ard s an u n i ve rsal
a c t i on s
i
v
s
sa
t
o
w
n
e
s
a
E
g
y
.

Al phab e t

H is p l an was t o c on t ai n an
o f al l s u c h s i n gl e s o u n d s , as are

e n ume

ti on
u s e d in
l
an u age : b y m e an s o f wh i c h
e o l e sh o ul d
an
y
g
p p
b e ab l e to pro n o n n c e t ru l y an d r e ad il y an y l an
gu age ; to d e s c r i b e the pro nu n c i ati on o f an y
l an gu age that shal l b e pron ou n c e d in th e i r h e ar
ing s o as o the rs ac c u s t o m e d to th i s l an gu age ,
t h o ugh the y had n e ve r he ard th e l an gu age pro
n ou n c e d
s hal l at rs t b e ab l e t ru l y t o pro n o u n c e
i t an d l as tl y thi s c h arac t e r w as to s e rve to
p e rp e t u at e the s o u n d s o f an y l an gu age what
ra

e ve r .

T he

ti on

m o de

of

c on s ru c

r e form e d

of

an d a

h
l
i
l
n g,
as al so o c c u p i e d
p
c e l e b rat e d Ph il os o ph e r, D r

th e a e n

tt ti on o f that
FRA N K L I N
H is pl an
.

c e l l an e o u s

l phab e t,

a ne w a

m ay b e

In

w orks d

'

th is

se e n

al

in his m is

h
ab e t h e
p

h as

vi d e th at n o l e tt e r s ho u l d have
t wo so u n ds an d e v e ry so u n d s h o u l d b e r e pr e
s e n te d b
It is to b e ob s e rve d
y a d i s t in c t l e tt e r
h
( e s ays ) t h at i n al l the l e tt e rs v o we l s an d c o n
s o n an t s
w he r e ve r t he y are m e t w ith o r in w hat
e v e r c o m an
e
h
e
r s ou n d is al w a s the
a
m
t
i
s
p y
y

tt e mp t e d

to p ro
,

Vol
1

'

Vol i i p
.

xv i .

3 57

p 1 26
.

d Lon d
.

1 8 06

N E W A RT

OF

M EM

O RY

I t is al so i n te n de d t hat the re b e n o sup e ru ou s


l e tte rs u s e d in s pe l li n g ; i e n o l e tte r that is n ot
soun de d ; a
n d th i s al hab e t
b
s ix n e w l e t t e rs ,
p
y
v
ro
i de s t hat t he re b e n o d i s ti n c t s ou n ds in the
p
l an gu age wi thou t l e tte rs to e xpre ss th e m As
to t he d i ffe re n c e b e t w e e n shor t an d l on
vow e l s
g
i t is n at u ral l y e xpre sse d by a s i ngl e v owe l w he re
s ho r t ; a d o u b l e o n e
wh e re l on g : as for m e n d
w ri te m e n d ; b u t for r e m ain e d ,
w r ite r e
m e e n d ; for d id write d id , b u t for d e e d w rit e
,

'

d iz d ,

'

e tc

In

th i s al phab e t c is o m i tt e d as u n n e c e ssary ;
k s uppl yi n g its hard s ou n d an d s the s o ft ; It
al so s u
l
i
l
l
l
f
an d w it h an 3
e
s
e
h
e
w
t
e
ac
o
z
pp
p
add e d
the pl ac e o f x : q an d :2? are t he re fore
o m itt e d
The vo we l u b e i n g s o u n d e d as 00,
,

T he y , whe re u se d
as a d i h
s i m p l y, is su
h
e
r
e
l
i
W
n
d
ed b
a
i
p
y ,
pp
thon g, b y t wo vo we l s : that l e tt e r is the re fo re
o m i tt e d as u se l e ss
T he jo d , j , is al so o m itt e d ,
m ake s the

an u n n e c e ssary.

its

s ou n d

b e in g

su

l
i
ed
pp

by

a new

l e tt e r,

wh i c h

the r pu rp o s e s
T he ph il oso phi c al c o n s t ru c ti on o f the al phab e t
m ay b e b e s t s e e n in t he fo l l o w i n g ac c ou n t w ri t
te n b y h i m s e l f, an d e n titl e d
s e rve s o

w ART

1 20

n e

c arr e d o n

b e t we e n the

e n s on ,
h
p

f orm e r

th i s

on

D oc t or

sub e c

j t
u til it
y

th e

u rge s

e n d e avo u rs

M iss S te

in w hi c h

the

he m e ,

an d

his

of

an d

an d

the

an sw e r

to

O RY

o r M EM

sc

ti
on s
j

ob e c

r a se

w
e
agal n st it
.

Mr

th or,
vati on
r e gu l ar
au

NO AH W E B S T E R

the r Am e ri c an
m o d e rate in n o

an o

has p ro pos e d a m ore


t o re n d e r o u r o r th ogra hy
p

an d e asy

s u i c ie n tl y

T he

o m ss o n o f

i i

ll

su

u ou s

er

or

i l e nt

T h u s br e ad , he ad , g ive , b r e ast , bu il t,
m e an t, r e a l m , f r i e n d , w ou l d b e spe l t , b r e d ,
h e d , g in , b r e s t, bil t, m e n t , r e l m , f r e n d

l e tte rs

tit u ti o n o f a c harac te r t hat h as a


c e r t ai n d e n it e s ou n d for o n e t hat is m or e vague
T hu s m e an n e a r sp e ak,
an d i n d e t e rm i n at e
w o u l d b e c o m e m e e n n e e r sp e e k
r ie ve
z e al
g
h
T
u s ke y s ho u l d b e w r itte n ke e ;
r e e ve
z eel
g
2

su b s

l au gh l af ; d aug ht e r , d awt e r ; b l ood , bl u d ;


c ha r ac t e r , ka r a c t e r ; c hor u s, Ic ar u s, e tc
,

3
ad d

A t ri ing al t e ra t i on in

iti o n

s ou n d s,

of

i t

o n

w itho u t th e

Mr Wse
.

'

a c

h arac t e r,

the

or

w o u l d d i s ti n gu i sh d i ffe r e n t
su b s

t t

sr s n s a e s,

ti tu ti on

t h at t h e

of

ne w c

ha

t or am i d t al l
pr i v t e ac t all y c
D oc

h is

th e m pl oym n t p u b l ic a d
m
l
i
a D i c t io ary on t h i s c h m e of r e f rm an d p r oc u r e d
d
p
t yp e s t o b e c as t for prin t in g i t B u t i t n e v e r w as
p r in t e d
e

r e

s,

LANG U AG E .
rac te r

Thus

1 21

l l st roke

ac ross

t he

A po i n t

ove r

sm a

a ve ry

w ou l d d i s ti n gu i sh it s tw o

s ou n ds

a vo w e

m i gh t

ll

an s w e r

the

ur

d if

of

ose s

p p
d i ph tho n g

l e tt e rs An d fo r the
on l e t th e
two l e tte rs b e u n it e d b y a s m al l s t ro ke or b oth
e n grav e n o n the s am e
p i e c e o f m e t al w it h the
l e ft han d l i n e o f the w u n it e d to the 0
T he s e w it h a fe w o the r i n c o n s i d e rab l e al t e ra
ti on s M r We b s t e r th i n ks
w ou l d an s we r e v e ry
u r os e
an d re n d e r the or t h o ra h
i
tl
e
u
f
c
n
s
p p
g p y
y
c o rre c t an d
The o n l y o th e r s c h e m e o f re form ati on we shal l
n o ti c e is t h at p u t fo r t h b y M r E L P H I N S T O N
We s hal l t ran s c ri b e the rs t p aragraph of h is
fe re n t

Evve ry

o d dhe r .

t u r al

l )

ru e

iz

tung

ooe vve r

o v an n y

in d e pe n d an t

s e e ks

d he

e vve r

0v

l l o gy

an a

m u s t d he r fo re

t un g

h om e ; n o r w il d he se e ke r s e e k in vai n
d ic c ion d he n haz n o l aws , b u t he r o wn
an d

c on se

q u e n tl y in

he r l ivvin g p rac ti c e ; hav an n y


an y l awl e s n e s , b e e n p re e r ab ly

o d d he r

m or e

c an an n y

o d dh e r

; dhan

l an gu age

ad o

ar my n ac o n ,

re

d
h
e
t
p

l aw s ,

or

No

o v an y

d he ho al po l l ity

tat ion s o th e En gl i h La g age


t Propri e ty asc e r t ain e d in h e r Pic tur e

D isse r

ov

Ye t,

m uc h

ar d e

s ys e

it at

nd

I n gl i sh

in he r p ic t u rage ,

o r n at

p 3 91
.

ov

1 22

N E W ART

or

for

su c

a n o ddhe r n ac on :
a

i
d i s ti n c t n ac i on

re l ,

S ec t

or

o r an e c c oe

M E M O RY.

h ad op t e r w e r

l an gu age

; war b u t

m ore
m on

P r op ose d P hil osop hic al

Alp habe t as app l ie d

m e n t Qf the
i n g e n e r al

no

to

Ar ran g e
Lan g u ag e

The

o rd in ar

arran ge

in g thu s d e fe c ti ve

an d

me nt

of

the

l phab e t

be

h
l
i
03 0 h ic al , w e s h al l
p
p
h
o f d i s o si n
t
e l e tt e rs ,
g
p

un

h
e r m ode
t
p
wh i c h w e shal l e n d e av ou r to j u s ti fy b y as s i gn i n g
a r e as on fo r al l o tti n g t o e ac h l e tt e r the p ar ti c u l ar
l
ac e w h i c h i t o c c u p i e s
e s h al l e xh i b it o u r
W
p
al phab e t the n , in t h i s form
ropose

an o

Ac ordin g

l e tt e rs are d is
tri b u t e d i n t o fo u r c o l u m n s, e ac h c o l u m n c on
t ai n i n g ve l e tt e rs
Th i s arran ge m e n t is n o t an
arb it rary o ne
b u t is m ad e u pon pri n c i pl e s of
ph il osophi c al p ropri e ty
to

th i s

sc

he m e ,

th e

-v

NEW ART o r M EM O RY

1 24:

i tic al P r on ou n c i n g D ic tion ary

hib i tin g

d e t ai l e d

o f th e vo we s,

b e fo re

i
d i ffe r i n g

Afte r

g i

fo rm ati on

V e w o f th e or an c

n ot

e x~

m at e r i al l y fro m

t hat

h e re m arks t hat in t h i s vi e w we
t t
n d th at a e an d o are the o n l y s i m pl e o r pu re
vo w e l s : t h at i is a d i h th o n
an d t ha t u is a
p
g
s e m i c o n s o n an t
I f w e w e re i n c l i n e d ( he adds)
t o c o n t r i ve a s c al e fo r m e asu ri n g th e b re ad t h o r
n arro w n e s s o r, as o t he rs t e r m i t th e o pe n n e s s o r
c l o s e n e ss o f the v o we l
w e m i gh t b e gi n w ith e

op e n
as h l r El h in s to n c al l s i t
an d w h i c h h e
p
an n o u n c e s t o b e
th e c l os e s t o f al l t he vo c al
o w e rs
I
n th e
n c i ati o n o f t his l e tt e r, w e
r
on
u
p
p
n d the ap e rt u re o f the m o u t h e xt e n d e d o n e ac h
the l i ps al m o s t c l o s e d
s ou n d
side
an d t h e
is s u i n g h ori z on t al l y
The s l e n de r a in waste
o e n s th e m o u t h a l ittl e w i d e r
n
a the r
h
e
a
i
T
p
f
o e n s the m o u t h s til l m ore
w ith o u t c o n t rac ti n g
p
s a e d,

th e

T he G e rm an

c o rn e rs .

card ], n o t

h e ard in

p e n s th e m ou t h w i d e r t h an th e fo rm e r a,
b u t c o n t r ac t s th e c o rn e rs o f th e m o u th, s o as t o
on

ly

a,

m ake t h e
w h il e th e

pe r t u re

O pe n s

pp

ro ac

th e m o u

t rac ts

th e c o r n e rs s o as t o

d am ,

n e are r

i l

to

a c rc e

th s til l

m o re ,

m ake

it

t he

an d c o n a
os r ot an

i
c t u r e o f th e l e tt e r it s o u n d s
p
C o n s on an t s are d ivi d e d i n t o d i ff e re n t c l ass e s
ac c o rd i n
f
ro m
n ati o n
t
t
h
e
t
t
e
i
i
t
o
r
n
o
s
e
a
o
f
h
r
o
g
th os e o rgan s o f s pe e c h whi c h are c h i e fl y e m
p l oye d in form i n g t h e m The d isti n c ti on wh i c h we
.

LA NG U AG E

32 5

t is that wh i c h d i vi de s the m i n t o
l ab i al s gu tt u ral s d e n t al s an d p al at al s ; as th e y
are form e d b
t
h
l
i
t
h
at
h
e t e e th
or
t
e
s
t
h
e
ro
y
p
th e pal at e
or
in o the r w o rd s b e c au s e the
b re ath in p as s i n g fro m the l u n gs is i n t e r c e pt e d
in t ho s e se at s or p l ac e s o r at l e as t is ve ry s t ron gl y
c o m re sse d t h e r e
p
I n th e s e c o n d c o l u m n are the c on son an ts b,
f ; in 0
B i s a l ab i al : i t is form e d b y i n t e rc e p ti n g the
p assage o f the b re at h th ro u gh th e m ou th b y
c l os i n g t he l i s
p
F m ay b e r e p re s e n t e d b y p h
P h o c c u rs
c hi e
i
n w o r d s d e r iv e d fro m th e
eek
r
n
d
a
G
y
w ritt e n in t hat l an gu age (I)
The It al i an s,
in s u c h w ord s w rite f ; th u s w h il e w e adhe ri n g
s t ri c tl y t o d e r i vati on w r it e
l
hi
os o he r t he y w r it e
p
p
s

hal l

ad op

'

l os qfo

P is

l ab i al form e d ( l i ke b) b y c l os i n g the
l i ps ; b u t in a l e ss fo rc i b l e m an n e r The Ara
b i an s ( s ays M r Wal li s) h ave n o t t hi s l e tt e r b u t
s u b s tit u t e for i t e it h e r B e o r P he
T he il lit e rat e
J e w s in th i s c ou n t ry u s u al l y c o n fou n d b an d p
in t he i r pro n u n c i ati on u s i n g th e o n e fo r th e o t he r
a

Eu n d e m
ve

te r e s

l im

(p k)

c on r m an t
,

a d hi b e r i

c e rn im u s
.

h ab u is s e

ac

f in s c r ip t ion e s

lt

in q u i b u s a e ru m pr o al t e r o p r om is c u e

u t p hi d e l i s
ro
s
M id d l e t o n d c
e
l
i
d

La t Li ter Pr on D is c
.

s on am

'

1 26

wu m

n e

or

M E M ORY

V is a l ab i al : i t is for m e d b y a tou c h of the


I t is i n de e d , th e
U p pe r t e e th an d th e u n d e r l ip
at f , to w h i c h l e tt e r i t b e ars th e s am e r e l ati on
T h e Arab i an s an d Pe rs i an s h ave
as p d oe s t o b
n o t t h i s s ou n d ; an d Wal l i s is o f o p i n i o n t h at th e
En gl i sh S axo n s e ithe r h ad i t n o t o r w r o t e i t b y
h
e sa s
f
n o u c o n s o n an t , an d
o r t he y u s e d
;
y
f
t h e y w ro t e m an y w o r d s w ith f , as th e En gl i sh
d id aft e r th e m fo r s o m e age s w h i c h are n ow
w ritt e n w ith v, as w e l l as t h o s e wh i c h are n o w
i
e tc
h
h
ar e
i
as
h
o
n
w
c
e
w r itt e n w ith f
,
gf
qf
h e a ve n
An d Pr i s c i an ao
n o w w r it te n g ive
kn ow l e dge s t h at th e Lati n s for m e rl y p ro n ou n c e d
h
h
it
h
h
e
s am e
s ou n d
w
it
i
t
w
c h aft e r wards
w
f
the v c on s o n an t w as pr on ou n c e d
I n the t h i rd c o l u m n , are c g g x
C an d g are b o th gu tt u ral s ; c h as the s ou n d
.

o f s an d

It ; g

of

As th e

an d

s ou n d o f

k is

l l y giv e n t o c t h e re is gre at r e aso n fo r s u p


os i n g t h at t h i s w as its o ri gi n a l
I n the
p
l e ss fre q u e n t s ou n d o f c the gu tt u ral b e c o m e s a
h iss i n g s ou n d
T he h ard s o u n ds o f e an d g ( ka,
ge ) are p ro d u c e d b y a s t r o ke in th e t hro at an d
s th e
are c o n s e q u e n tl y gu tt u ral s :
i
o n l y w e ak
g
s o u n d o f t c h, as in c hu r c h ; c h is a gu tt u ral as
p i rat e d
u su a

W all is
for

c :

ob se r

fo r t h e

K al c nd ce

v e s t hat th
,

Roman s

wro

La i n It w as f or m e r y
e in d iff e re n y C al e n d ce

tl

u se

an d

1 28

N E W AM

o r M EM O R

t on gu e T he G re e ks s o m e ti m e s w ro t e th i s
t e r w it h an as pi rati o n an d w e fo l l o w t he i r
am l e in r h e t or ic
r h t hm
e tc
p
y
S is a h i s si n g pal at al an d is for m e d in
.

m an n e r

as z

ex

s am e

le t

the

ac e d b e t w e e n th e h i h e s t vow e l s
l
p
g
an d th e w e ake s t c o n s o n an t s
W e shal l s u bj o i n the fo l l o w i n g t ab u l ar Vi e w
o f th e p o w e r s an d q u al iti e s o f t h e c o n s o n an t s ,
ac c o r d i n g t o t h i s s vs te m

an d v are

La b i al s

G u t t u r al s

l ab ial w i h a g u t tu r al w i h a w e ak
a w e ak ou c h t h e s ou n d o f l c , t al
a w e ak
ou c h
a

l ab i l

gu tt u ral , w e ak a d e n t a
r ate d
a s t r on g ou c h s o u n d of c he
as pi ra e d
a

wi h

l ab i

l w i th
ch
g t

p al a

tr

on g

a ab ia
s r on

t a]

w e ak pa a
t a]

de n

t a]

a t h e s tron gsou n d a s ron g

ou

of c .

la

pa

t al

den

tt

l ab ia w i h a gu u ra as a h iss in g d e n
a w c ak t o u c h , p ira t e d , w i t h a t al
b u t as p i ra e d , h iss in g s ou n d
i t is t h e w e ak
s ou n d of
ph
a

1 29

LANG U AG E.

As in the

thi s c hapte r we have n o


ti c e d the s c he m e s o f d i ffe re n t au tho rs o n this
s u bj e c t i t m ay b e as w e l l to i n s e r t h e re t he fo l
l ow i n g t ab l e s o f the c o n so n an t s ; e xt rac te d from
D r \Val li s, M r Wal ke r, an d M r Elphins ton
c ou rs e o f

( I Fro m D r
.

Syn ops is

of

Mu

Lab ial
Li p

or

th e

Le tt e rs

l f M te

l f Vow l
e

l f M te

Lo w i n g

M u te

t
l t

P al a in e
Pa a e

tt

or

l or

G u u ra
T h roa

al f

Vo w e l

a s igh

M u te
H

lf M t

u e

G
a s igh

G rammatic a Ang l ic ana, p 35


.

NE W ART

1 39
of

th e c

o n s on an s,

it is

r ad c a

M EM ORY .

or

c u r ou s

to

ob s e rve on

how

i l pri n c i pl e s the al m os t i n n ite vari e ty


ati o n in l an gu a e d e e n d s
It
i
it
s
h
o f c om b i n
w
g
p
s om e d e gre e o f w o n d e r w e p e rc e i ve t h at the
s l i gh t e s t as pi rati on the al m os t i n se n s i b l e in e xion
o f n e ar l y s i m il ar s o u n d s o ft e n ge n e r ate th e m os t
I n t hi s Vi e w
d i ffe re nt an d O pp o s it e me an i n gs
as in e v e ry o t h e r
w e n d u n i form ity
o f n at u re
The s i n gl e at,
an d v ar i e ty v e ry c o n s pi c u ou s
s e e m s to o e rat e
at rs t i m pri n t e d o n t h e c h ao s
p
o n l an gu age s ; w h i c h fro m th e s i m p l i c ity an d
an d th e e x t e n t an d
au c i ty o f t h e i r p r i n c i pl e s
p
o w e r o f t h e i r c om b i n ati o n s p ro ve th e go o d n e s s ,
p
W i sd o m an d o m n i po t e n c e o f the i r o ri gi n
T hi s an al o gi c al ass o c i ati o n o f s o u n d s is n o t
b u t u s e fu l : i t giv e s u s a c o m pre
o n l y c u ri o u s
h e n s ive vi e w o f the p o w e rs o f th e l e tt e rs : an d ,
fro m the s m al l n u m b e r that are rad i c al l y d i ffe r
e nt
e n a b l e s u s to s e e t he r u l e s o n u hic h t h e i r
Vari e ti e s d e pe n d : i t d i s c o ve rs to u s the ge n i u s
an d p r o pe n s i ti e s o f s e v e ral l an gu age s an d d ia
l e c t s ; an d w he n au tho rity is s i l e n t, e nab l e s us to

d e c i de agre e ab ly to an al ogy
fe w

'

'

'

1 33

L AN G U A G E .

S e c t 5 ~ T}2e d e r iva ti on
.

shown

to

c on sis t ,

l
i
m
l
i
p y
p

l e t t e rs

c e r ta in

Fr e n c h fr om Latin,

r nc

ac c or d in

2n

to

c han e

th e

g
e s ta bl is he d

r u l es ,

Whe n tw o d iif e re n t n ati on s h ave an i n te r


c ou rs e to e t he r e ith e r b y m e ans o f war o r c o m
g
m e rc e an atte m pt is m ad e o n b o t h s i d e s to re n
d e r the l an gu age o f e ac h m u t u all y u n d e rs t oo d
Fo r e xam pl e Fran c e w as o n c e c on q u e re d b y
T he Fre n c h p e o p l e w e re
th e
Ro m an s
of
s u bj e c t t o th e l aw s o f t he i r c on q u e ro rs ,
c o u rs e
an d if t he y had an y c o m pl ai n t s to p re fe r b e fo re
t he c o u rt s w e re o f n e c e ss ity c o m pe l l e d to make
t he m in Lati n
T he pe o pl e in ac q u i ri n g th i s l an gu age d id
to gram m ars ;
the y had h e ard a
n o t re s o r t
en
iv
t
art c u l ar n am e
o a
arti c u l ar o bj e c t,
g
p i
p
e tc
an d
had c on
an o t he r n am e t o an o t h e r
t
s t an t l y s e e n t he o bj e c t s c h arac t e r i s e d b
h
e se
y
T he Fre n c h h ad he ard the Ro m ans
n am e s
m e n ti o n a b r id e w h i c h t he y c al l e d p on e ; t he
y
he ard t he m s pe ak o f t he e xpe n s e o f a b r i d ge ,
( p on tis) o f go i n g to a b r i d ge (p on ti) o f d e s t roy
in g t h i s b ri d ge (p on i e m ) o f go i n g far fro m i t
( pon te ) o f m o re b r i d ge s ( p on i e s p on tiu m p on
t ib u s e tc )
T h e c o m m o n pe o pl e s e e i n g s u c h
t e r m i n at io n s affi xe d to e ac h w o rd an d n o t c ari n g
t o u n de rst an d o r re m e m b e r t he m , reje c te d the m
,

1 34
o

N E W A RT

"
t

on c e ,

ou t ,

an d

p
S pam ard s

re se r

or

vi n g

The

I tal i an s

te rm i n at io n s
d e c l e n s i o n s w e re
,

in m an y

om

the

of

Fre n c h p on te
fo l l o w e d the

itte d ;

w or d

T he

e xam

l
pe

Lati n , fo rm e d the

whi c h , in

O RY

bo dy

the

form i n g th e
an d

M EM

an

in

th i s l as t
fro m Lat i n

as

the r d e r iv ativ e s
e
h
e l l ativ e s
t
l as t vo w e l on l y w as c han ge d
a
pp
an d a g re at p ar t o f th e o r i g i n al w o rd r e m ai n e d
What IS d on e iii adj e c tiv e s an d s u b s t an tiv e s al so
t ake s pl ac e in ve r bs
I n La tin th e v e rb s have the i r i n n itiv e m oo d s
t e rm i n ate d in r e ; o n c e pre c e d e d b y a o n c e b y
as
It has b e e n
e an d o n c e b y
that the c o n s on an ts are w e ak s t ro n g
o b s e rv e d
Al l n ati o n s u se d the
an d h i s s i n g
as pi rat e d
l e tt e rs o f th e al phab e t b u t th e y c h an ge d the
en
u s o f th e i r
i
ro n u n c i ati o n ac c o rd i n g t o th e
g
p
e l an gu a e o f o n e
eo
T
h
r e s e c tiv e c o u n t r i e s
g
p
p
l
e ab o u n d s w ith w e ak l e tt e rs o t he rs w i th s t ron g
p
h i s s i n g o r gu tt e ral l e tt e rs e tc
T he Lati n w ord f r a te r w he n c han ge d i n t o
Fre n c h has the l e tt e r a w e ake n e d an d i t b e

h
d
ee
R
e
o m an a is
t
r e re :
as in
o
m
e
s
e
c
p
f
t ake n aw ay an d the w e ake r l e tt e r e is s u b s ti
ate r
c he r e ;
m e r : c h arc
t u te d as in m are
,
p
s i t is th e ge n i u s o f t he
A
e r e ; c ate n a c ha i n e
p
Fre n c h l an gu age t o s ho rt e n t he i r v e rb s the
Lat in i n n iti ve a r e b e c om e s e r ; as in am are
a im e r
I n the thir d c onj u gati on the n al e on l y
w or d ,

so

1 36

b ut

A RT

N EW
re

Thi s

u l a te d .

M EM

o r

oir c an

on

O RY

l y s t and

fo r t he

i n n it i v e m o o d ; i t is in s te ad of c a l r e : i f the
in n i t i v e m o o d b e n o t fo u n d re gu l arl y the fu t u re
As 7 is i n d i sp e n s ab l e w e m u s t
c an n o t b e giv e n
h
e Lati n w o r d c a l m is m ad e
T
ar t w it h th e l
p
b u t in pro n o u n c i n g t h i s w i nd
c ha l k in En gl i s h
the Zis o pe n e d an d th e pro n u n c i ati o n b e c o m e
l
h
h
h
e
n
n
s
a
l
s
c
a
n
i
t
6
t
o
c
n Fr e n c h
i
h
w
)
(
g g
c a l m be c om e s c ha u x ; i n t he Lati n w o r d a l t er
th e Zis O pe n e d an d a l te r is c o n ve r te d in t o a u t r e ;
s al t are i n t o s aa t r e
Fro m th e Lati n p u l ve r e th e Fre n c h in n itc
wo u l d h e p u l ve r y b u t th e l is re so l v e d i n t o e a
and o is c h an ge d i n t o d ; t h us p u l v e r e b e c o m e s
I
n oaa d r e
t he I m u st
c in d r e
oa d r e ; ci n e re
p
b e re j e c te d an d d a s u ppl i e d ; th us val r e vaa
I n t he fu t u re the Fre n c h d o n o t say as in Lati n
I wil l d o
b u t I have t o d o ; t he y
o r En gl i sh
take the pre s e nt o f wooir ad d i t to th e i n n itiv e
va u d r a s,
an d t h u s for m th e f ut u r e vau d r ai
I n the p re
( toad s a ; w e c ann o t s ay c ou l e ra i
d d ; the e is r e
in Lati n th e r e is a
se nt te ns e
and as the l an d t c an n o t st an d t o ge th e r
e c te d
j
I is ope n e d as b e fo re an d w e i m m e d iat e l y h ave

va u t .

It

has b e e n sh o w n

m o od s
c

o f th e

i n to er r e
l as t c o nj u gati ons

h an ge d

an d

Lati n
,

a r e ad y,

e n d ng
,

t r,
are

in

in

that

t he

ar e ,

e re ,

i n n i ti ve

'

Fre n c h

b o t h m ad e b y

ir e ,

The

are

rs t
r e j e c ti n g

1 37

L A NG U A G E .

n al

the

in

gat o n

fo r m e d ,
no

Aft e r w ard s

or

c on u

Fr e n c h l an gu age s

an d
,

o ir .

is fo r m e d fro m

e rs on

t oge t he r

fo u r th

I f t h e Lati n
ar e

nd

i t has b e e n s h o w n ho w th i s is
t hat i t is n o t a n e w c o nj ugati o n for

oi r

an d

te n s e

we

it w il l b e

e as

are

c om

h
r
ov e
ow
p

to

t he r an d ho w
v e ry m at e ri al l y th e s t u dy o f t he Lati n an d Fre n c h
w il l fac ilit at e th e ac q u i s iti o n o f o t he r l an gu age s
T ho se w h o are ac q u ain t e d w it h the Lati n l an
gu age kn o w t h at m u s is th e t e rm i n ati o n o f t he
rs t pe r so n pl u ral s o that fro m a r e w e ge t
m uch

one

is d e riv e d fro m

the

fr o m

a m as ,

e re ,

rs t pe rs o n
vou e l m ust

l
u ral
p

in Fre n c h b e

be

itt e d

om

T he Fre n c h w o rd s
tro u n c e

d in

n al it
,

s ou n d

wr

it e

m i t s , fro m ir e ,

th e

an d se ts

t ma s .

q u i re d t h e
w il l b e giv e n
re

an n e r

n on , n om , n om s ,

s am e

I f t he

al

l pro ~
w h e n m is

are

; fo r

is p ro n o u n c e d as n , w h i c h h as a n as al
m , t h e n , is n o m o re n e c e s s ary, fo r if w e

ac c o rd n g

t o th e

p ro n un c i ati on

i t w ou l d

be

71 0223 .

v e rb d a n e r fo r e xa m p e the in n i
tiv e t e r m in ati on e r is c han ge d in t o 071 3 an d w e
he s e c o n d p e rs on in Lati n is
h av e d a n son s
kn o w n b y th e t e r m in at io n t is a t is e t is it is ;
th e s am e pr i n c i pl e t h at d i re c t e d th e Fr e n c h t o
i
e rs o n
s h o r t e n t h e fo r m e r
n d u c e s t he m t o
p
pu r
s u e th e sa m e m e t h o d h e re
T he i is t ake n aw ay
n h ic h h as t he s am e so u n d as
an d
an d ts is l e f t
In

th e

N3

N E W A RT o r M E M O R

138

m ay b e

su

ed b ,
l
i
p
y
p

T he w or d is w ritt e n

s
o n u n c i ati o n , an d fro m d am e r
i
t
r
g
p
is pro d u c e d d an s e z
The Lati n t e r m i n ati o n e a t

ac c or d n

to

in Fr e n c h, b u t is m u t e ;
d an se n t ( d e n se ) as if t he r e w e re n o e a t

is

ti n u e d

c on

t he y

s ay

I n the

ne x

t t e n se

p as t ti m e
fo r t he

t he

d an c e d y e ste r d ay : agai n
l
ur al th e r e is on s, b u t t hi s
p

o c c u rs

rs t

; we

pe rs o n

w ou l d d e n o t e

th e

e n s e ; to d i s ti n u i s h
t
t
t
h
t
h
e r e for e
e im
g
p
f
r o m t he
re s e n t
t
e n se
e r fe ct
an d to s h o w
p
p
that it is pas t t is p l ac e d b e fo re 0223 as i on s ;
an d t hi s is a l w ays fo u n d in t he i m e r fe c t in al l
p
I n th e s e c o n d pe rs o n pre se n t
c o nj u gati o n s
the re is e z ; t o de n o t e t he im p e rfe c t i m u s t b e
add e d
as te z
Fo r the t hi rd pe rso n e a t w it h
t h e i b e fo r e it i e n t ; b u t t h i s re q u i re s s o m e l i t
is p l ac e d b e fore the
t l e ad d it i o n ; 0 t h e re f o r e
Th i s t e n s e t he n is d an
i an d o ie n t i fo rm e d

re se n

d a rz si e z , d a rz soie n t

s on s,

are sha l t

The fu t u re ,

thi n g
t ake n

d an c e , w il l

an d

t he

m ore t han

q u i re
w h o l e i n n it i v e

t e rm i n at i o n

the

ons

re

is

w e h ave d a rz se r , d a rz s e r on s , d a n se r e z
se r on

to

Fro m

d an c e

On t

Th i s f u t u r e

wou l d da n c e ;

'

2 th e

d a rr se r ion s ,
ad d e d ,
'

o b ta n e

th u s ,

d a nc e

c om e s

If

t he
r

al s o

Loars

dd e d ;
,

d an
,

d a n s e r oz rrt ,
'

,
'

an d

thu s

i n n it iv e d a ns e r
has an i m pe rfe c t I
t he i m pe rfe c t b e i ng

d a /rs e r i on s b e

w o rd

is he re

the

ign fo r
d a zrs e r iez

som e

it w il l be

are

l ys e d
fo u n d: t he ir
an a

N E W A RT o r M E M

1 40

O RY

vi d e n tl y de r iv e d fro m th e Lati n p /ac e r e :


t o c o n v e r t t h i s w o rd i n t o Fre n c h, it m u s t b e c u r
t ail e d an d th e rs t s t e p t o w ard s t hi s w i l l b e to
l e av e o u t th e 6 b e fo re the
t h e r e w i l l t he n b e
u t as c an d 7 c an n o t c o m b i n e t o e t h e r
l
b
ac r e
g
p
th e 0 m u s t b e
an d th e 7 I S ab s o l u t e l y n e c e s s ary
d is pe ns e d w it h ; t he a b e i n g c han ge d i n t o t h e
w h i c h fo r m s p l a ir e
To for m
s o ft e r s o u n d a i
t he d i ff e re n t pe rs o n s an d t e n se s i t re m ai n s o n l y
t o rej e c t the n al e an d ad d the p ro pe r t e r m i n a
ti o n s
T he Fr e n c h v e rb c on n oit r e is d e riv e d fro m th e
We w il l n ow c o n s i d e r th e
Lati n c og n os c e r e
vari o u s c h an ge s w h i c h t ake p l ac e d u r i ng the p r o
I n the w o r d c on n oisse u r s
c e ss o f d e ri v at i on
w h i c h is al s o d e r iv e d fro m c og n os c e r e t he s o is
an d t h e 0 is s h o r t e n e d i n t o oi
c h an ge d i n t o 3 3
th e n h av e c og n oisse r e ; b u t as the re
oiss : w e
c an n o t b e a d o u b l e 6 th e rs t is t ake n aw ay b e
c au s e the l a tt e r is w an t e d fo r th e i n fi n itiv e t e r
m i n ati on ; th e w o rd b e c o m e s t h e n c og n ois sr e :
i t m u s t be
th e 7 b e in g t o o w e ak b y i t s e l f
s t re n g th e n e d b y a d o r t ; a t is pre fe rre d ; th e

n
o
n
a
n
d
t
h
e
i
o
s
at
i
t
l
l
t
e
d
d
o
b
3
s
n
h
a
e
u
c
i
s
g
g
l as t c on n oitr e is o b t ain e d
I n th e f u t u r e t h e r is re t ain e d ; as c om t oi tr a i
e tc
b u t in o the r te n se s the r is
c o rm oi t r as

t
e c orm ois
u c on
t
t
i
i
l
s
r
n
o
a
s
i
i
n
n
e
d
o
c ha g
g
j
v e rb

is

'

'

LA N G U A G E

An o t he r
In

Lati n ,

t he

ti m e s

e xam

an

d t he

is

re e c

tc

is

0 sof e n e

j te d
In

om

itt e d

e u,

as

in

in t o

p
an d

b ut

'

w he n
sho r

the

s;

m om

i n to

an d

c ou l e u r

t he y

an

th e

an s

on

e tc

i n n itiv e

w o rd

d,

as ,

m om s ,

is

in

han ge d

I n th e

s am e

m an n e r ,

d ol or

th e re

are

t wo

t he n e d an d c on v e r t e d
d o l or
d ou l e u r ; c o l or
,

c om e s

d ou l ou r e u x

w o rd d e be r e is to b e

I) m u s t b e

se c on d 9

as

t i on

d fr o m d ol or os as

t he

ir

t e rm i n a

l on g i t

t oo
.

th e

m o u r ai tu m ou r as ,

add e

is

fro m m or z r z ,

s re n g

are

en

is

To fo rm

t ake n

s om e

; fo r th e fu t u re ,

the

re se n ,

Whe n t he Lati n
Fre n c h,

on

w e h ave

Lati n

an d

on

i n to

in e u rs ,

the

o s,

i m u st be

th e

as

i n n itiv e

th e

fo r

IS

b u t ge n e ral l y m or i

n al

m ow ir , t he
'

m ay b e fo u n d in m ou r ir

l
e
p

t he re

m or ir i,

J4 1

h an ge d

i n to

1)

sough

t in

( d e ve r e , )

j t e d it b e c o m e s d e vr e
b u t as the v an d r c an n o t c o m b i n e t o ge t he r th e
t e rm i n ati o n r e is c han ge d i n t o oir d e voir T hi s
ve rb t h e n is n o t re u l ar
e u l at e d
I
t
b
u
t
r
i
s
g
g
i m poss i b l e to ob t ai n th e fu t u re fr o m d e voir as
i t is i rre gu l ar an d m u s t b e de r iv e d fro m th e re
I n the pre s e n t the r is re
gu l ar v e rb d e vr e
e c te d an d i t b e c o m e s d e vs ; b u t as v an d 3 c an n o t
j
s t an d t o ge t he r an d as s is the
e rs o n al c harac t e r
p
i t m u s t re m ai n an d the v b e o m itt e d ; th e w ord
(1 63 is t he n l e ft b u t as t he c is t oo w e ak i t m u s t
b e s t re n gt he n e d b y c h an gi n g i t i n t o
w e h av e
d oi t
W he n in
the n d ois y e d ois t u cl ots
b e i ng

re e c

'

'

th e

s o re

A RT

NE W

1 42

l
u ral t he re
p
d,

t ain e d

an

tw o

are

yl l ab l e s , the

d e ve z ,

d e von s,

O RY

O F M EM

d o ioe n t ,

is

re

oh

are

ti
ns
h
i
o
T
s
g
m ay b e e as il y d o n e b y o b s e rvi n g w h i c h o f th e
vo w e l s a e
i pre c e d e s the pe rs o n al t e rm i n a
ti on s r e m r e z r e n t T he Lat in c o nj u gati o n s
m av b e l e arn e d in the s am e w ay
I n t h e ve rb
al l e r
w e d o n o t in th e p re s e n t t e n s e s ay j a l l e
b u t j e c a fs ; th e r e fs is n o t th e n d e r iv e d fro m
al l e r
I t t ake s
b u t fro m th e G e r m an we n d e n
r t o f t he
a
e
se
n
f
m
n e v e rb
an
d
h
e
e
t
r
ro
o
t
r
p
p
m ain d e r fro m an o t he r
Whe n the Lati n v e rb
[ whe r e is to b e c o n ve r t e d i n t o Fre n c h the b is
c h an e d i n t o
an d fra me
is fo r m e d ; t he l a
g
n ot b e i n
o m itt e d
it
i
as
s o u n d e d in Fre n c h
s
g
( we r e ; the r s t e is re j e c t e d
an d the r e b e i n g
c han e d i n t o air w e h av e a voir
g
I n th e p re s e n t the oir w o u l d b e s a vs ; b u t
0 an d s n o t c o m b i n i n
t
t
h
e 1) m u s t b e
e
h
e
r
t
o
g
g
o m itt e d
an d t he a is s o ft e n e d i n t o a i m aki n g
m s ; th e s n o t b e i n g pr on o u n c e d it is t he r e fo re
d ro p pe d ; w e h av e t he n a i j a i : th e fu t u re
c o m e s fr o m th e i n n iti ve
c ar e ; th e 0 b e i n g re
s o l v e d i n t o 11 ; as a vr a i au r a i
a z t i as a u r a
T he se c on d pe rson s i n gu l ar al u ays t ake s 8 fo r its
c h arac t e r
d e b e s d ois
as in Lat in 4 1 a 66 84 as
T he thir d pe rs o n h as t fro m the Lati n b u t as
th is l e tt e r w as n o t pro n o u n c e d in so m e c as e s it
It

re

m ai n s

on

ly

to

x t he

c on u

'

'

N E W A RT

1 44

v o l u ti on

o r re

e tc

is

e tc

O RY

; whe e l fro m

ti m e

of

O F M EM

ar

m ) to

r ol l ,

Th e pre xin g o f the l e tt e r s to G re e k w ords


r i n c i l e that pe r vad e s the La t in t on gu e ; as
p
p

thu s
in sp e rn o, to d e spi s e , fr o m a r s gvn, th e he e l
th e p r i m ary s e n s e o f sp e r n o is , t o pu t the h e e l
u

prin c ipl e is s al i o, i n sil io, ia


fr o m d ammi t
The Fr e n c h ge n e

on the

on

s am e

l t t ake n
ral l y d r o p the
su

at

tt u ral s e ithe r

u
g

an

i n v ariab l e

wa te r , is fro m

or

h e n c e w e sho u l d b e j u s ti
an al o y in s a i n , t hat c an ,
g
y g

th e e n d o f w o rd s ;

e d by

in the m i dd l e

aq u a ,

an

se n t

fro m

s in

u l u s.

T he I tal ia n s ge n e r al l y d ro p th e l iqu id 1 agre e


ab l
y to t h i s c u s t o m o f the l an gu age , a m e is
d e riv e d fro m u m e n , a s t re am , an d p ian o fro m
l
an u s ,
p
w o rd s
s

as

th e

I n G e r m an , m o s t

l
ai n
p
wh i c h hav e
a

r
c a te r

was e r ,

on of
ti
p
t hat r u n s t h ro u gh

an d

mor e ,

We
c e

lle n t

in En g li sh , are u se d
; b e ss e r , b e t te r ; e s, i t

va r ,

772

as c e r a n n g

E s s ay

'

ru e s

t i i

an

d ma
or
j
s hal l c o n c l u d e

an

i n t o f o r v is a p ri n c i p l e
t he We l s h t o n gu e ; t hu s 06
a re b u t t he
Lati n w o rd s m e ,

c o rr u

r oe r ,

t hose
w it h an

of

en
iv
g

w he n

t ow a

rd a

thi s

se c

ti on

i th

so m e e x

by M R

fo r

an

El i g l is h w or d is d e ri ve d

P r ac ic al En g ish G r am m ar , p

LANG U A G E .

Lati n ,

rom

an d

1 45

ho w it m ay b e m ad e Lati n

aga n .

are

M os t En gl i sh w ord s, e n di n g in m e , or cy ,
d e r i ve d fro m Lati n w o rd s in t in ; Te mp e

C l e m e n tia ; Te mp e r an c e , C l e m e n cy
2 Wo rd s in i on , in En gli sh, are m ad e Lati ti
b y c as ting aw ay as ; as, Qu e stion , Qae sti o Re
ra n tia ,

Re l ig io
3 Wo rd s e nd i n g in ty are m ad e Lati n b y
i
n t o t as ; as
ib
ert
c h an gin g t
r tas ;
i
b
L
e
L
y
y
l ig ion ,

C hari ty , C har i tas

Word s

end ing

in

Lati n , b y c h an gi n g

t ud e

i n to

are

For titud e , Forti

tu de ; G r ati tu d e , G r atitu d o,

Adje c ti ve s ,

m os t par t b e c o m e
as Rig id , Rig id us

Wo rd s

wh i c h

d e r i ve d from the
e tc

in d , d o fo r the

e nd

Lati n , b y the

ad d

iti on

P u t r i d , P u t r id u s ,

e n d ng

in t,

n,

or r ,

e tc

o f us

b e t we e n t wo

Lati n b y c han gi n g the l as t vo we l


i n t o us ; as , M u te , M ut us ; Obsc u re , Obson
m s ; Obsc e n e , Obsc n n u s, e tc
7 M os t w drds e n d i n g in n t are mad e Lati n ,
b y c han gin g n t i n t o u s ; as Late nty Lat e n s ;

vowe s

b e c om e

Vig i l an t Vig i l an s
,

M an y w ord s

e tc

e n d ng

in

al ,

b y the

is Be c om e Lati n ; as Libe r al ,
S u bstan tial , S u bst an t ial is

of

add

i ti on

Libe ral ia;

1 46

N E W A RT o r M E M O RY

6 M od e o
f l e arn ing the C onju gation:
a Lan u a e
an d D e c l e n s ion s o
f
g g

S e c t.

In

Lati n

th e

i n n itiv e a r e e r e i r e are th e
t e rm i n at i on s o f th e pr i m ary c o nj u gati o n s the re
are t w o m ore in Er e w h i c h are s e c o n d ary
T he
rs t p e rs on S i n gu l ar is g iv e n b y the t e rm i n ati on
,

d e l e o fro m d e l e r e ; an d i a a u d z o fr o m
; b u t w e d o n o t s ay am ao fro m a m ar e ,

o, as e o
a u d ie r e

but

amo :

the

of

th e

a an d o are

t wo

is m e rge d in the

l an gu age

; fo r

l i n gu al vow e l I n
l i n gu al an d the n
u e n tl y h ave
q
.

am are

0 ac c o r d n g

l ab i al

co
a

d e pe n d an t

to th e

c an n o

l ;
ge n i u s

vo w e s

re c e

p
is

de

t he re
rs t a
l ab i al vowe l , we c on se
an d

i0

d e l e r e au d ire l amb e re f uge re

d e l e o au d io 1amb o fu gio

am o

The pre t e rpe rfe c t t e n se is t e r m i n at e d b y 05, as


amavi d e l e n i au d ivi, e xc e p t in the s e c o n d ary
'

j
ti
w h i c h o n l y c han ge the o o f th e pre

b
u io
Z
a
m
i
i n t o i as l am bo
se n t t e n se
f g

c on u ga o n s

ug i .

is kn ow n b y the t e rm i n ati on tu m,
l am bitu m
a m a t u m d e l e t u m au d it u m

Th e
as,

S up n e

i
t
um
g

gu ar o

The pe rs o n al

),

am o

har ac t e rs

( am ab am) ,

'

are

in the

am as -

s in

am ab as,

1 48

n e

The
kn own

w ART

M EM O RY

p t e rpl u pe rfe c t o f th e i n d i c ati ve is


b y th e t e r m i n ati on ve ram , e tc
e xc e t
p
re

w h e n the p re t e r pe rfe c

in whi c h

or

c as e

it

is

c r am .

visse m ,

s u b u n c i ve I S

is fo rm e d

or

T he

i m pl y with i,
s a m e t e n s e in the

i sse m :

a mave ram +

a m am ss e m 5 d e l e oe ram d e l e viss e m

'

] eg isse m

T h e f u t u re
am o an d

I n th e

in d i c ative is fo rm e d b y 60 in
an d b
i
n
d
n
l
m
o
a
u
i
o
a
a
b
m
y
f g

of

d e l e o,

su b u n c

th e

m oo d, the fu t ure

ti ve

is form e d fro m the p re t e rpe rfe c t


th e ad d iti on o f e r o t hrou gh ou t ;
u m ane r o

be r o

Z
eg e re m

d e l s bo d e l e ve ro

t e rm in ati on
in d i c at ive by
as

am a bo

Z
am
am bam Z

T h e fo l l o win g

t ab l e s

of

the

Latin

l -s
c on uga

d e c l e n si o ns m ay b e c om m itt e d to ni e
m o ry, b y p l ac i n g t he m o n a w all , a m an tl e
e c e , a d oor , e tc
n s of
i
i
it
ti
s
h
e
s
u
a
o
n
re
e
r
v
t
p
g
p
tion s

an d

t h e m oo d s,

in the tab l e s

t e n se s,
.

an d

d e c l e n sion s

as

d e sc ri b e d

N E W A RT

52

\Vh o

tiv e
e art h :
na

t d
W h at

c re a e
.

t
p
c an n o t

re se n e

c ae l u m

d to

G od

c re a e

d id he
et

us

M EM

on

our

d D 6 21 3 is the
? the h e aven

c re a e

t e r ra m

O RY

n om

an d

the

i l l i m m e d i at e l y

be

c aa/e s t ia l

t e r r e s tr ia l

an d

v e t h e m e an i n g o f th e se w ord s
an d t he n al 922 w il l p o m t o u t t o u s t h at t h e y are
in th e ac c u s at iv e c as e I n t h i s m an n e r w e sh ou l d
a es
n d t he n re ad
a
r o c e e d fo r t w o o r t h re e
p g
p
th e m fo r t h re e o r fo u r ti m e s m o re til l w e c an
t ran s l at e w ith t o l e rab l e fac il ity We d o n ot
b u t m e re l y
c o n su l t g ram m ars t o l e ar n t he r u l e s
I n th e
t o s o l v e an y d i ffi c u l ty t h at m ay o c c u r
h
e g r am m ar is l e arn e d in th e l an
re s e n t m o d e
t
p
i
n th e
ram m ar
age
an d n o t th e l an gu age
u
g
g
Eve ry ru l e is an ab s t rac ti o n an d c an n o t b e u n
d e rs to od w it ho u t an e xam pl e
I n s t e ad o f l o ng
l e arn e xam p l e s an d t he s e sh ou l d b e
r u l e s we
xe d u pon the w all s o f a ro o m in pro pe r o rd e r
T h e s t ri ki n g an al o gy b e t w e e n m an y m o d e rn l an
t
h
e n t fac ilit
u
a
e
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y
g
s e v e ral l an g u a e s
at t h e
s am e
e
ti
m
m u st b e
g
e vi d e n t t o e v e ry o n e
T h is is par ti c u l arl y the
c as e w it h the En l i s h
G e r m an Lati n Fre n c h,
g
I t al i an , o pan ish, an d Portu gu e z e l an gu age s
i
fa l

to g i

C H

AP VI
.

pstnnattc Wahl t s

TH

t
ti c Tab l e s is pe c n
l iarl y im po r t an t t o th e s t u d e n t in any b ran c h o f
"
wh e t h e r i t b e b o t an y z o o l ogy c h e m i s
s c ie n c e
an d
the m o d e o f xi n g
try, m i n e ral o gy e t c
the se t ab l e s in the m e m o ry m u s t b e d e e m e d o f
ve ry gre at u se t o al l w h o are c o n c e rn e d in s u c h
Th
e a
c ati o n o f t h i s ar t t o s u c h
l
i
u rsu it s
pp
p
t ab l e s w il l b e sh o w n in th e fol l ow i n g M in e ral o
al T ab l e o f H A Ii Y
i
c
g
Th e c h arac t e rs o f M i n e r al s are o f t hre e ki n ds ,
E

kn o wl e d ge

o f sys e ma

-o

C he m ic al

P hy sic a l , G e om e tr ic a l ,

an d

G
r
a
r
ca
t
m
i
m
s
s
a
b
abp

G ENERAL

S P EC

I FI C

G RAVI T Y ,

d ro s tat ic b al an c e
2

O H ES I O N

C
1

of

Nic h o l son )
.

I n S ol id s is p r ove d
By f ric t ion w it h
I
.

i Yie l d in g
ii

ac c ord in

Not yie l d in g

Fil e

t
o
t
h
e
H
g
y

1 54

M EM O RY

N E W ART O I

Physi c al

harac te rs ,

II

t in u e d

c on

B y r u b b in g t he

n e ra

t he r

again s

t
m in e ral

t he an gu ar

lt

i i B rittl e

mi

r s of an o
a
p

S te e l

t o b e b roke n

l in g

i G iv in g Fire

No t giv in g Fire
V B y e xion

hamm e r

ru m b

i ii C

By

on e

i D if c

I V.

par t s of

an gu ar

B y Pe rc u ss ion wit h

111.

p re s su re .
i S im pl y Fl e xib l e
ii El as t ic

or

t le

m D uc i

i v Soft
1

I n its

Liq u i d s ( yie l d in g w it h t he
I

By

n ot

m o is

t e n in g it

I M PRE S S I O N
I

B y Tas te
a
t

S al t

U P

ii As t rin ge n t

i ii S w e e t is h
i v Pu n ge n t
c

vi

B itt e r

U r in ou s

(As fo u n d b y the

u id

l igh t e s t pre ssu re )

B y m ois te n in g t he h an d

PART I C U LAR

11

II

g im b ib e d
of T rac t ion

By the fo rc e

own n a u re .

avin

2 H
VI

O N T H E TO NG U E

se n se s .
.

1 56

w A RT

n e

Physi c al

OE u s u on r

h arac te rs , c on t inu e d

22

f t he St reak

o ou rs O

S im il ar

2 D is s im il ar
.

o ou rs o f

S im il ar

the Powd e r.

ii i C

D iss imil ar

(Prod u c in g Lu s tre )
i B ril l ian t

ii D u l l

i ii G re asy

w Sil ky

Pe ar l y

M e t al l ic

vi

Ps e u d o M e t al li c

vii

II.

By

Refr ac tion

r an s are n c
T
(
p
y)
.

Limpid

2 Tr an spare nt b u t c ol ou re d .
.

3 . Tr an s l u c id

qu e

4 . Opa
II]

B y P hosp hor e sc e n c s

i By h e at in g
i i B y r u b b in g
.

6 ELE C
.

I.

T RI C I T

P ass ive
'

i t By
1
.

c omm u n

By

i c ati on

r u b b in g.

Vit re ou s

Re sin ou s

Physic al

Y S T E M AT I C

harac t e rs,

c on

T AB LE S .

ti nu e d

i ii By he at in g
(Vit re ou s

1 57

on on e sid e , an d re s nou s

the o

on

Ac tive
i Vitre ou s

the r )
.

II.

Re s in ou s

i ii

Ne ithe r vitre ous

7 M AG NET I S M
.

P ol ar

II.

FORM
.

ai ters .

El e me n t ary

S e c on d ary

II.

s.

D ET ERM I NAB LE
1.

I ND ET ERM I NAB LE
By

I.
11

rou n din

g
S t riat e d an d

II I.

nor re s inou s.

I I daw netrirat
1

the

rou gh .

Am orphou s b od ie s,
irre gu l ar form

I M I T AT I VE

su rfac e s and an e s.
g

i(

b od i e s

B od ie s form e d b y c on c r e t ion
I I Pse u d om orph o u s b od ie s ,
i
(

of an

hav e

as s u m e d

su c

as

t he form o f an o he r b od

for whi c h th e y
P

e.

are su b s

tit u te d )
.

y,

N E W A RT

1 58

G e om e t ric al

II

or

harac t e rs ,

c on

M EM

O RY

t in ue d

STRU C TU RE

LAM I NA T E D

LA M ELLAT E D

S T RAT I FO RM

FO LI AT E D

5 FI B E O U S
.

4 W it h paral l e l

Wit h rad iate d

ii

6 G RAN U LAT E D
.

7 C
.

b re s

O M P AC T

b re s

ELLU L AR.

FRAC TU RE,
1

O NS
1 Lon git u d i n al
I I Tran s v e rse
I I I I n d e t e rmi nat e

D I REC

TI

VARI ET I ES

I.
II

on c

III

I V.
y

II

hoid al

S m oo t h

Rou gh

S c al y

Ar t ic u l at e d

IRE
BY F

1.

WI T H
I.
II

S TRAW .

Fu s i b il it y

The

I II.

The

l t of Fusion
Re d u c ti on of me t al li c

re s u

Sub stanc e s,

1 60

N EW ART O F M E M O RY

m ay b e the b e tt e r

e n ab e

tic u l ar d ivi s i o n

the

H
we

t ake the rs t

s on o f

n e ar

c ohe si on ,

if w e

the para

h an d,

an d

rs t d i vi
to x th i s in

th e

y,

h arac t e rs ,

fou r wal l s,

l e ft

ra vi t

an d

ba l an c e is p l ac e d o n the tOp o f the


th e c i e l i n g
The n e xt d ivi si o n is
.

e n d Of

wh at p re se rve s th e

t rm

T h e re i s

are

o n ou r

w h i c h is p t b y the
u

ask

re se n

re m e m b e r

w h i c h is

th e ge n e ra
a

d to

t ab l e
w h i c h t h e re

wi th sp e c i

m i n ds

wal l ,

in

av n g a r oom

c om m e n c e

our

Of

t t

s a e,

n ow

who l e

th e an s we r w

o c c as o n

ill

ba l an c e ;

th e

w al l in its

be

c o e si on .

a, w h i c h is
h
p

fo r

a so

l
ac e d agai n s t th e l o we r p ar t Of th e w al l ; u p on
p
w h i c h the s o l i d s m u s t b e pu t ; c ohe s i o n in so l i ds
is p rove d in s ix d i ffe re n t w ays
I n o ne c orn e r o f
the S Opha a l e is p l ac e d w h i c h w il l c al l to
m i n d th e rs t m o d e fri c ti on w it h a l e ; in an o
th e r c o rn e r s o m e m i n e rai s of an an gu l ar s h ape ;
an d t h u s w e m u s t p ro c e e d to x th e six d ie re n t
d i vi s i on s
The s u b d i vi s i on s w il l b e e as il y re
m e m b e re d if c on n e c t e d in so m e w ay w ith the
h
s
e rm an e n tl
i
t
ri n c i al o u tl i n e s
h
c h are
u
w
y
p
p
p
xe d
H avi n g l l e d o n e w al l w ith the ge n e ral
h
arti c u l ar
h
i
al C h arac t e rs O f m i n e ral s
t
e
s
c
p
p y
T he p ar
c h arac t e rs are n e x t to b e c o n s i d e re d
tic u l ar phys i c al c harac t e rs o f m i n e ral s are kn o w n ,
I b y t as t e 2 b y ad he s i o n
An o th e r w al l is n o w
o n th i s
n e e d fu l
in w h i c h th e re m ay b e a d oor
d oor a ton gu e is p l ac e d as the e m b l e m Of t aste ;
.

Y S T EM AT I C

the d o or b e i n g d ivi d e d
the

rs t

is fo u n d

s ix c o m

i n to

a c u be

1 61

T A B LE S .

of

sa

l t, to

ar

t m e n ts

in

c on ve y th e

i d e a o f s al i n e ; o n the s e c o n d a s t r in g for
in t he t h i rd s om e s we e tm e a ts for
as t r i n ge n t ;
s w e e ti s h ; in t h e fo u r t h a kn
e for sh arp w h i c h
if
m ay c u t th e s t ri n g I n th e s e c on d c o m par t m e n t ;
b it te r in the ft h d ivi s i on w i ll c om e i m m e d i at e l y
u n d e r s w e e ti s h ; an d c an n o t fail t o b e r e m e m
b e re d b y the c on t ras t Wh i c h it pre se n t s ; u r in ous
is in the sixt h an d l as t d ivi s i on an d w il l n e e d n o
I n t h i s w ay m u s t th e pu pi l pro c e e d
sym b o l
w it h th e r e m ai n i n g d ivi s i o n s o f th e tab l e xin g
e ac h u on
an O bj e c t
an d
c o n n e c ti n
p
g som e
s t r i ki n
g C i rc u m st an c e w it h the O bj e c t , th at w il l
aff or d a
e
r
m
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n
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t i d e a of the syste m whi c h he
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ki n d s o f c ti on ; an d
i t is t h u s al l i m age s
c o m ar i s o n s
ar ti c u l arl y
al l u s i on s
an d gu re s
p
p
t hose whi c h pe rs on i fy m o ral s u bj e c t s c on c u r in
ad orn i n g s u c h a s t ru c t u r e
W he n the s e i m age s
are re d u c e d i n t o ve rse
t h e e ar is d e l i gh t e d to a
h i gh d e gre e an d th e m i n d i n s e n s i b l y r e pe at s
t he m Whil e t he e ye re ad s t he m Th i s is par ti
h ar
c u l arl y th e c ase w it h r hym e
C ad e n c e
m on y an d e s pe c i al l y rhym e affo rd th e gre at e s t
ass i s t an c e t o t h e
m e m o ry th at art c an i n ve n t ;
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c ti o n s t h at s tr i ke
o
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as s i s t in e n ravi n
o u r s e n se s
g
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W he n a h i s t o ri c al n arrativ e is r e l at e d in p r ose ,
th e fac t s o n l y a re s t at e d in a l ai n re g u l ar o rd e r,
p
w itho u t an y m i n u t e d e s c ri pti o n o f t he d ie re n t
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1 64.

Ne w A RT

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or

l y b e n e e d fu l to c o u n t the l i n e s or w ord s if it
b e re q u ire d t o d e t e r m i n e the n u m e ri c al s it u ati on
o f an y l i n e o r w o rd
It w il l n o t b e d ic u l t to app l y the se p ri n c i
l
e s t o t he re e titi o n o f
oe t r
A
i
l
il
l
s
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p
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p p
on

-a

Ed win

An g e l in a

an d

tl

T u rn , ge n e h e rm i of the d a e ,
An d gu i d e m y on e y w ay
T o w h e r e y o u ap e r c h e e r s t h e a

W i h h os i ab e r a

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a

t l

e c t,

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m u s t he re

re

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v le

t he

i m agi n e that

Towe r

we

se e

B a be Z
,

an d

t u rn i n g rou n d w it h i n c o n c e iv ab l e rapi d ity ; a


An
ve ry l arge t ap e r is p l ac e d u p o n h is he ad
e l in a is w al ki n g b y th e t o w e r an d c al l i n g o u t
g
l o u d l y to th e h e rm i t to gtad e he r l o n e ly w ay
th e t ap e r c an n o t fail t o s u gge s t th e r e m ai n d e r o f
the s t an z a
I n a po e m that is n ot d ivi d e d i n t o s t an z as w e
m u s t t ake 4 6 8 o r 1 0 l i n e s, p re se rvi n g th e
an d x th e m u o n a s m b o l
S
e
c o n n e c ti o n
y
p
ve ral s m al l pie c e s o f po e t ry m ay b e r e ad il y i m
r i n t e d u po n t he m e m o ry b y p l ac i n g t h e m u p on
p
o f the w al l o f a ro om
th e pi c t u re s o r fu rn it u re
T hou gh
w i t h w h i c h w e m ay b e ac q u ai n t e d
th e sym b ol s are n ot he re ac t ual l y re s orte d to ,
.

'

the

fo r

s am e ,

i
t
ure s
c
p
r oom s

As

l in e

whic h

is pu rs u e d , is pre c i se l y
are
th e
sym b o l s ,
b ut

t h at
what

t the pr i n c i pl e

1 65

AN D P ao s a .

r o xr a r
'

of o u r

the w a s

ll

i m agi n ary

?
fu rth e r

i ll u st rati on

of

the m o d e

of c om

m itti n g po e t ry to m e m o ry, w e shal l g i ve th e fo l


l owi n g e xam p l e s fro m Nol egar, as q u ote d b y
00,

in his C

a r tas

Er u dz tas
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*
.

Fi rs t Exam pl e .
Fe n ix D ivin e
D

u mi l d e ,

tan b e l l as

Al C ie l o

al as

y p iad os a
te en s al z as

D i vi n e P h oe n ix,

Wi t h

'

su c

t l

h b e au if u win gs,

u m b e an d

T h ou

r ais e s t

M e r c if u
to H

e a en.

The Phwn ix in the rs t ve rs e

Nol e gar)

s ays

c am e n t o f
a

p p

th e

c ro w n ,

l on gi n g

m u s t b e pl ac e d
s

h
e re f r
p

or

ti ara

th e

on
or

t he

t hi s s t an z a,
rs t pre d i

i gh t h an d an d a
an y o t h e r t h i n
b
e
g
r

C hu rc h , m u s t b e pu t o n i ts h e ad ;
c an n o t ap l y an y o t he r m at e ri al o b
p

to the

b e c au se w e

T om i
.

t Th is w il
r oom .

on

of

l an sw e r to the s t pl ac e
r

i n t he

rs t

ll of a

wa

1 66

ec

N E W ART O F M E M ORY .

t, t o

re

en
e
s
r
p

Word

the

fl e c ti on

D ivin e ; w may

the s e i m age s ,
an d s ay, w hy h as a Phoe n i x, th e Pap al C ro wn
a D ivin e
o n its h e ad ? It is a D ivin e P h oe n ix
Phoe n ix
The n th e s e c on d pre d i c am e n t o f the
l e ft han d shal l b e t ake n for th e se c on d ve rse , an d
m ay b e p l ac e d
a d r u m w ith a s ti c k t o b e at i t
the re ; th e s ti c k m ay e xp l ai n the wo rd [d c ] w it h
99 3
I i m agi n e th at th e d ru m m e r b e i n g
re ady t o b e at i t , s ays [d c ] with an d the d ru m
l
d
t
a
n
u
n
h
i
t
h
e
a
e
l
ac
e
I
o
s
s
u
c
w
m
,
[ ]
p u t tw o
p
b e au ti fu l w om e n s itti n g b y the dru m m e r who
sh ou l d h ave
t w o w in gs lyi n g at h is fe e t ; an d
spe aki n g o f the s e c on d pr e d i c am e n t [ wou l d say,
D e tan b e iias a l as ( w it h su ch b e au ti fu l w i n gs )
On th e th i rd pre d i c am e n t O pp os ite the rs t o n
the r i gh t I w o u l d pu t a w o m an kn e e l i n g an d
s o l i c iti n g the
ar don o f a
oor m an c on d e m n e d
p
p
t o b an i shm e n t
w h o s h ou l d b e t h e r e w it h a
c hai n
an d b y t h i s i m a e I w ou l d re C al to m i n d
g
the w ord s o f the t h i rd ve rs e H u m il d e 3/ p i a d osa
h
( u m b l e an d m e rc i fu l ) On the fo u rth pre d i c a
m e n t I w o u l d pl ac e a p i e c e o f c arp e t ( a om br a)
if
o r an y t h i n g w h os e n am e b e gi n s w it h al
[to ] an d
I w o u l d o n l y u se thi s syl l ab l e to whi c h I Wo u l d
s aw th e t e s t e r o f a b e d an d w o u l d sa ( a l c ie l o)
y
t o he ave n ; an d fo r th e w ord t/z ou r a ise s t [ w ou l d
p u t a Pr i e s t r ai s i n g the H os t to w ho m the C u
r at e ( a u d an te
) shou l d h o l d Som e sal t, sayi n g
y
the n

m ake

a re

or

t wo o n

1 68

N E W ART o r M E M

O RY

i
e c e s o f ti m b e r w it h s o m e til e s , taki n
p
g
t he se fo r the who l e o f the ro o f o f a hou se whi c h
c on s i s t s o f ti m b e r an d til e s ; an d fo r ( a t r i bu t os)
I w o u l d p l ac e t wo t r i b u t ary Pri n c e s
att ri b u t e s
w ith an i m age o f the l e tt e r ( A) o n th e h e ad o f o n e ,
w ho m u s t b e go i n g to c o l l e c t t r i b u t e s o r t axe s
th e b e tt e r ; b e c au se
an d if h is n am e b e An d re w
th e ( A) m i gh t b e p l ac e d as a n i mag e o f th e n am e
The n su ppos i n g ou r food to b e d e p e n d e n t on th e
c o l l e c ti o n o f the take s i t w ou l d b e e asy t o t e
r e m e m b e r t h at An d re w w as b ri n g i n g s o m e o t tr i
b u te s b y the l e tt e r ( A) ; n ow at th e fe e t o f th i s
I w ou l d p l ac e an al e m b i c o f Qu i n t
c o l l e c tor
or a D is til l e r
w ith a gl ass fu l l o f wa
e sse n c e s
t e r ( Qu in te sse n c e al re ady d rawn ) w ho sh ou l d
m i n d n o t to b re ak it wi th his fe e t ; an d c l ose to
th e gl ass I w o u l d pl ac e a sma l l s tic k o r the
m ad e o f i r on t hat we may
s ti c k of a d ru m m e r
re m e m b e r i t is n o t t o b e b ro ke n ; b e c au s e i t
m i gh t b e u se d as w e h av e al re ady s ai d for an
m e an i n g ( d c tn) of thy
I n t hi s
ab e c e d ari o
I shal l re m e m b e r
m an n e r w h e n e ve r I w rit e
that I have th i s ve rse at m y ri gh t han d ; P ongan ,
or

thre e

M e d ia, y G obie r n o an d o n m y
l e ft, the o the r ; Los al tos atr i bu tos, de tu Es
S e n or ,

el

s e n c ia .

Whe n P rose is to b e C o m m itte d to m e m ory,


o r c h apt e r, sho u l d b e
th e parti c u l ar passage
re ad ove r c are fu ll y two or t hre e
time s, an d
,

PO E

T RY

A ND

1 69

P 11 0 3 13 .
i

h avi n g

l t

se e c e d

the

it w il l b e n e c e ss ary

i
p

r nc

ipal im age s

or ob e c s,

j t

ti

to fo rm

by

a n arr a ve

c om

t he m w ith the d i ff e re n t sym b o l s We


ro
an d
sh o u l d t ake a fe w l i n e s o n l y at a ti m e
p
c e e d grad u a l l y i n xin g the var i ou s o bj e c t s pre
s e n t e d to u s
T o re m e m be r the p ri n c i pal po i n t s in a S e rm on
w h ic h is r e gu l ar l y d i vi d e d i n t o part s , i t is o nl y
n e e dfu l to t ake t he d i ff e re n t he ad s o r titl e s as
t h e y are gi ve n a
n d ar ran e t he m on th e c i e l i n
g
g
O f th e c h u rc h o r c h a e l
l
ac i n
s
o m e o n the
p
g
p
c o rn i c e
an d o th e rs in var i ou s
art s
i
n r e gu l ar
p
*
o rd e r
Or a s o r t o f i m agi n ary tre e m ay b e s u p
o se d s ri n i n
m
h
e c e n t re
i
l
i
n
f
ro
t
o
f
t
h
e
c
e
p
g g
g
p
an d th e
pro o fs an d il l u s t rati on s add u c e d b y the

b i n in g

p re ac h e r, m ay b e s u sp e n d e d o n its b ranc h e s
Thi s m e t h o d w il l b e re n d e re d m o re e ffe c t u al ,

if

ym b o l

of

A pl an

s om e w h a

M a D U G A LD

th e

ide a

he

t o h is , i s m e n i on e d b y

t ol d of a y ou n g w o m an , i n

t ve d

c on r i

w h ic h

t io

n,

sh e

h e ad s

a tm e n t s of t h e

th at w h

as

ll c te d

en

ob s e r

ve
t ti

ry

ng

of

r o o f of

Ph il os ophy

ve s

l ow

I ha

ran k of

t he

th e

xi n g

e ,

h u rc h

s aw

c om par

the

he r

in

roo f,

tm e t

n s

w ho

se rm ons

d is c ou r s e ,
c

b e en

l if

t o m e m ory th e

s h e af e rw ar d s

th e or d e r i n w h ic h i t s

p ose d of, s h e r e c o
h ad ob s e r e d i n

t o h e ar , b y

ac c us om e d

c om p r

m an n e r
e

w as

of c om m i

d u r in g th e d iff e r e n

fe re n t

c o

m e t h od

f or

as

an a ogou s

S TE W A RT , w h o

for m e d ,

at e n e
on

d if

su c

h a

or r e

w e re d is

ll e c t e d t h m e th od w h ic h th pre ac he r
t at in g h is bj c t El e me nts of the

t he H

re

u man

su

M in d , p 456
.

70

J u s ti c e
e ve r,

w A RT

n e

is

of

a r

or

s c a e s,

ME
e tc

M O RY
e tc

Thi s, how

n ot

M r S t e w ar t ,

of

e ak n

the

i t

re n
g
d e re d to au o rator, o r p u bl ic sp e a ke r , b y th e to pi
c al m e m o ry, in r e c o l l e c ti n g the
l
an an d arran e
g
p
m e n t o f his d i sc ou rs e , c o n s i d e rs th e ac c o u n ts
.

ass s an c e

f
an s
b
a
iv
e
n
i
t
h
e
n
i
e
n
t
r
h
e
t
r
i
c
i
a
s
un
o
o
b
t
a
t
g
y
d au tl y s ati s fac to ry an d m ake s t he fo l l o w i n g pe r
S u ppos e
tin e n t O b s e r v ati o n s o n th e su bj e c t
( s ays thi s au t ho r) th at I w e re to x in m y m e
m o ry the d i ffe r e n t apar t m e n t s in s om e v e ry l arge
b u il d i n g an d t hat I h ad ac c u s t o m e d m ys e l f t o
t h i n k o f t he s e apar t m e n ts a l ways in th e s am e in
v ari ab l e o r d e r
S u ppos e far the r t h at in p re
ari n
i
l
se l f fo r a
b
i
d
i
rs e
n whic h I
m
u
sc
o
c
u
g y
p
p
h ad o c c as i o n t o t re at o f a g re at v ari e ty o f par ti
,

c u l ars ,

o rd e r

w as

ro

an x i o u s
ose

d to

x i n m y m e m or y, th e
Obse rv e in the c o m m u n ic a
to

p
ti o u o f m y id e as I t is e vi d e n t, t ha t b v a pro pe r
d s , an d b y c o n
d ivi s io n o f m y s u bj e c t i n t o h e a
.

ti
c u l ar a ar t m e n t
p
p
g
o u l d e as i l
m
se l f
v
n
e
n
i
I
i
i
w
t
h
c
d
b
o
c
h
o
c
(
g
y
y
y
as s t u d
t o b e s itti n g in t he apar t m e n t w h il e I w
y
in g t he par t o f m y d i sc o u rs e I m e an t to c o n n e c t
n e c t in

e ac

h he ad

it

w h

ar

The

h ap

e r an

v e r se of

t e x t m y b o xe d
h ie rogl yph ic an d
h i t

th e

n o a
b y c h an gin g th e n u m b e r o f e ac
fo rmin g an assoc iat ion b e t w e e n the t w o

e s

on

N E W A RT o n M E M O R Y .

1 72

ar l iam e n t , m ay al l prac ti s e t h i s m e t hod


P
o
f
w ith s u c c e s s The ap pl i c ati o n o f t h e s e pri n c i pl e s
.

w il l
c han

a so

an

re n

c on c e rns of

de r

t he

l i fe

e ss e n

m an
.

ti al

se r

vi c e

t o th e m e r

b usin e ss, in the

var ou s

C H AP

V III

arithmetic
TH

l i c ati on o f M n e m on i c s to arith m e ti c
w as e n ti re l y o m itt e d in the fo rm e r e d iti o n o f t h i s
w o r k b e c au s e the e d it o r d id n o t c on c e iv e at th at
ti m e t hat the sys t e m c o u l d b e re n d e re d s u f c i
An xio u s
e n tl y i n t e l li gi b l e t o th e ge n e ral re ade r
h o we v e r t o m ake th i s e d iti o n as c o m pl e t e as
h
e h as g i ve n fai t h fu l l y th e s u b s t an c e o f
o ss i b l e
p
hl r Fe in aigl e s Le c t u re o n Arit h m e ti c w ithou t
As t hi s Le c t u re h as
an y att e m p t at i l l u s t r ati o n

u
a
e
d
i
n
a
re
c
t
l
d
e
t
il
e
n
t
e
e
e
n
ac
r
a
c
u
l
b
y
p b ic ation
i t is e xt rac t e d from t hat w o rk b u t w i tho u t an y
o f th e re p or t e r s c o m m e n t ari e s an d o b se r v ati o n s
We h av e n o w to s e e h o w o u r m e tho d s w i l l
o Ar ithm e ti c
l
a
t
y
pp
I n thi s s u bj e c t w e t hi n k w e have , o r m ay have
fo r e v e ry parti c u l ar pro po s iti on
e vi d e n c e
B ut
l e t u s t h i n k a l ittl e ; in m an y c ase s w e h ave c e r
E app

ross

Examin at ion

of

Fe inaigl e

Ari thme t ic

N E W ART

74

b u t is

t ai n ty :

t i ty an d

c era n

For i ns t an c e

th i n g ?

M EM

or

we

O RY

i de n c e
that 6

ev

kn o w

th e

m u l ti pl i e d

b y 6 g i ve s 3 6 th i s is c e rt ai n ; b u t is i t
Al l we c an s ay is that w e have l e arn e d
w h e re

Is

the

i de n c e that
that 6 X 6 is

i d en t

ev

so

9
.

b ut

6 X 6 g i ve s j u s t 3 6 B
3 6, yo u an sw e r that

ev

Whe n you s ay
it is t hre e t e n s

s am e

its ; b u t s e e w e thi s ?
H ow are we c o n vi n c e d th at it is j u s t 3 6 an d n o
o th e r n u m b e r ?
I t is o n l y in ou r m ac h i n e b u t
h o w i t c o m e s w e kn ow n o t
We hav e the se
rod u c t s
p
gi ve n u s in o u r m u l ti p l i c ati o n t ab l e s ,
w h i c h w e all kn o w h o w d ifiic n l t it is fo r c h il d re n
t o l e arn ; n ay m an y gro w n p e rso n s c an n o t l e arn
it b e c au s e i t is fo u n d e d o n l y u po n the p oor n a
t u ral m e m o ry u po n w h i c h w e c an n e ve r d e pe n d
We m ake it o n l y a n obj e c t o f m e m o ry i n s t e ad o f
re s e n ti n g i t t o t he i n t e l l e c t an d we h av e n o e vi
p
d e n c e b e c au s e w e w an t the rs t e vi d e n c e
To
n d t he rs t e vi de n c e w e m u s t c on s i d e r the
re s t he m s e l v e s
L
e t u s s e e t h e n w hat is in the
u
g
gu re s : w e hav e
an d

s x

un

1 0 2 0 3 0 4 0 5 O 60
1 00, 8L0
1 000, &

What

c om e s

h i gh e r

un

th e

1 ;

No ; i t

it

now

Is

it

10?

m u s t t he re fore b e

w h at
.

7O 8 0 9 0

ft e r 9

is 20

an d

'

c om e s

Thus we

No ; 1 0 is a
pl ac e d b e fore

t e r 1 0 ? I s it 1 1 ?
nd t hose n ati on s did
af

N E W A RT o r M E M O RY

1 76

ihat t wo hal ve s are


e q u al to o n e ; an d t h at t w o hal ve s an d o n e are
I n the s am e m an n e r I have
e q u al to o n e t w o
f o r t h re e a c i rc l e d i vi d e d i n t o thre e s e c t ors ;
that thre e t h i rd s are
an d th e c h il d s e e s at o n c e
e q u al to o n e ; an d t h at t he h al f o f 3 t h i rd s is o n e
h al f ; and t hat th re e t hi rd s an d t w o h al v e s an d
on e are e q u al t o th re e An d s o o n fo r the h i ghe r
an d

th e

hi l d

at

se e s

on c e

n u m b e rs

il d s e e s at o n c e the p ro porti on s
b e t w e e n th e frac ti on s : t h o s e t h i n gs w h i c h are
m o s t d i f c u l t to b e l e ar n e d b y th e c o m m o n w ay
are h e r e t he r s t t o b e ac q u i r e d b e c au se t h e y go
I f I s ay giv e m e o n e
w ith the rs t c on c e p ti on
h al f o f thre e th i rd s o r o n e t hi rd o f o n e hal f o r
o r o n e t h i r d t o ge t he r wit h
o n e h al f o f o n e t h i rd
h e giv e s m e t h e m a t o n c e
o n e h al f o f o n e t h i rd
b e c a u s e h e has a c le ar c on c e pti o n o f t h e i r m e an
I giv e n o t t h e s e t h i n gs to t he c h il d , he
in g
m u s t gi ve t h e m t o m e ; a n d i t is w o n d e rfu l w h at
c al c u l ati o n s m an y c h il d re n w il l m ake w he n t h e y
g o o n W i t h t h e i r r e aso n ; b u t al l t h i s is g o n e
w he n t h e y b e gi n w i t h th e u su al m e t h o d s b e
an d c o m m on l
c au s e e vi d e n c e is t ake n aw ay
y we
n d t h at th e m ore i n s t ru c ti o n t he y re c e iv e the
d i f c u l ty is t he gre at e r
B u t in o u r m e t h od t he y
ro c e e d w it h
l
e as u re
b
e c au se the y c o n ti n u e t o
p
p
h av e e v i d e n c e ; an d I w i l l e n gage th at an y c h i l d
in stru c te d in t hi s m e thod, wou l d in on e for t n i gh t
Thu s the

ch

A RI T H M E T I C

1 77

l ti on s o f w hi c h yo u have n o i de a
S o t ru e is t h is t hat if w e w e re t o u n kn o w al l t hat
w e hav e l e arn e d an d b e gi n fro m the fou n d ati o n ,
i t w o u l d b e b e tt e r
We c an go o n w it h the s am e pri n c i pl e s to
M at he m ati c s ; in the m w e h ave th re e t hin gs
w e i gh t m e as u r e an d n u m b e r
b u t al l are re d u
c i b l e to n u m b e r
I f we n o w r e pre s e n t o u r s u c c e ss i on o f
u n it s t h u s an d d i vi d e t e n i n t o t w o h al v e s
f
as w e have s e e n t h at t h i s is n e c e s s ar
or
y
I f I as k w hat
r e pr e s e n ti ng t w o in o n e
is 6 t o 8 o r g iv e m e o n e h al f o f e i gh t
t he c h il d n d s
an d o n e f0u rt h o f e i gh t
w hi c h is s o m e t im e s th e s o l u ti on
th i s at o n c e
l f 8 go o n t o Add i
o f a d i ffi c u l t p ro b l e m
t i on an d as k w hat is 7 an d 8 ? th e c h il d s e e s
a n d t hat
at o n c e t hat 7 is e q u al t o 5 an d 2
8 is e q u al t o 5 an d 3 ; s o t ha t 7 an d 8 are
o r o n e t e n an d ve
e q u al t o t w o v e s an d ve
,
I n t h e s am e m a n n e r 6 a n d 6 are o n e
o r ft e e n
l

pe rfor m c a c u a

te n

an

d tw o , 8

d 8

are o n e

iti o n is

te n

an

d s ix , St e Si c
.

t l y d e m o n s t rat e d
th u s ; an d s u b t rac t i o n is as e v id e n t
Le t u s go o n t he n t M u l ti pl i c a ti on S ay that
w e as k ho w m u c h is e i gh t t ake n s ix ti m e s th e
an s w e r m u s t b e in t e ns an d u n it s
t he c h i l d se e s
t hat
8 is e q u al to 5 an d 3 ,
a n d 6 is e q u al to 5 an d l
so

t h at

an

we

s e e a dd

c e r ain

N E W A RT o r M E M

1 78

An d

O RY

m u l ti pl yi n g th e se he has

T hu s
w hat

e ve r

it

is in

n u m be r

m us

t be

25
c ons

nd 5
ppo r t to 1 0 a

ra

i de re d

by 1 5
5

3
48

B ut l e t

We

if thi s is

u s se e

h av e

i ly

c e rta n

fo u r d o t s , w h i c h
fou r,

an d a b o

ve

the

e s e i h t fo r
i
v
g
g

I n th e

s am e

w e h ave 6

or

te n s
u ni t s t hat
,

ab o ve

th e

are

n o t n ou r

d o t s al so ,

an d

te ns ;

b e l ow b

b o ve I) w e hav e

tw o ; tw o m u

l ti p li e d

t hat w e have
m an n e r 7 m u l ti p l i e d b y 9
an d on e m u l ti l i e d b
3
y
p
un

it s

so

is 6 3

an d 0

by fou r
48

N E W ART o r M E M O RY .

1 80

ad d

if w e

th

is

D i vi d e 54 b y 9

to

6, we h ave 9

the

uo

ti e n t

S u b t rac ti n g th e 9 from 1 0, an d add i n g th e


m ain d e r t o 5 , we h ave 6 th e q u o ti e n t

re

an d s o on .

so

An d in

c as e s

c on a n t he

t i

w he re th e d i vi d e n d

d e vis or,

as

doe s

n o t e xac

tl y

in

we n d b y m u l ti pl i c ati o n , th at 8 m u l ti pl i e d b y 9
i
ve s 72 , w e h av e t h e n 4 o ve r, w h i c h is c ou se
g
n i n th s
tl
4
y
q
T hu s in e v e ry c as e w e h ave al w ays th e an sw e r
H e re al so w e
t o th e n e are s t w h o l e n u m b e r
h av e n o n e e d o f the m u l ti p l i c ati o n t ab l e w h i c h,
is s o d i ffi c u l t to l e arn as the
as I s aid b e fo re
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d aye t i m e n o r u pon the n o d d l e o f


n o r u p o n t o m u tc h fu l n e s o f m e at e :
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u s e d at the h o u rs o r tym e o f s t u dy
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.

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1 96

PR I N C I P A L S Y ST EM S

t m c t io n ,

w h e i b y t he

m th e

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on e

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t h e m to o b s e ru e a
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e u e n as i f t h e s e
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the hy n d e r fe e t e an d th e tayl e fo r t h i s o r d e r n a
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1 07

i g n o m an 1 3 i g n oran t o f the s i tu at i on
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,

se e n

1 98

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R I N C IP A L S Y ST EM S

or

v e n as m an y o r t we l v e foo t e an d t h e re m ay b e
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t h e m e m o rye w ith an e l e gan t Or ati o n o r a s w e e te
a s i t is h e re t o fo r e d ec l are d
s o n ge
fo r p l e asu re
is th e s au c e o f t hyn ge s the foo d e o f l o v e the
th e n ou rys hyn ge o f th e
u i c ke n i n g o f th e w yt
q

aff e c ti on an d th e s t re n g t h o f th e IvI e m o r e
y
Th e S o u l e al s o m u s t b e pu rge d fro m
t

p
T hi s
u

an

Ep il og u e

th e

d
y e

ore sa

'

t l z z ng e s

A H

e rb e s o c al e

A RT I FI C I A L M E M
e u il

thin ge s ,

th in ge s

we m u s

faythfu l l

p
an d

C hri s t e s

ran

us

kn o w l e d ge ,

with go o d

al l

h is s pyryte

for

h o n o r,

Am e n

On th e b ac k

of

t he r

w ys e

J e su s

an d

gl o rye

an d

of

Lo rd

our

l au d

G o d w it h

of

t o w ho m s w yth the fa

s ake ,

of

h u m b l y d e s i re

to

r aye r

h o ly gh os t b e
e u e r an d e u e r

l e av e

l l e d

it m av b e

t hat

2 05

An d
d om e

O RY

the

for

l as t l e af M e m ory t ake th
w ith th e fo l l o w i n g ad m o

th e

h e r d i sc i p l e s

n itio n .

M e mor ie

s ay e th.

l l

T o h im t ha w ou d m e g ad y gain e
T h e s e h re e p re c e p s s h al l n o t b e

'

v ain e

Th e

ti

Th e

t hi

Th e

se c on d

In

go o d an d f o rm e d rac e ,
t h i r d e , i s o f te n t o r e p e a

rs

ll to v d ta d
g th at h d o t h t ak e i
s

we

e rs

i s th e

h an d

s am e

t o p l ac e

o rd e r

Th e

th at h e w l d t fo g
Ad ioy i g t t is c as t l l t
g
t v e r t ue c om s e i t b l g
G
T he

th i

n n

ou

ng

re a

no

s ron

e at .

on

A Fre n c h t ran sl ati o n o f G rataro l i s Tre ati s e s


on the M e m o ry an d on Phys iog n o u i y is e xt a n t ;

fo l l o w i n g is

the

titl e as g i ve n b y D E B U RE,
an d it is re m arkab l e t h at t hi s is t he on l
y b oo k
w h i c h he has ad m itt e d u n d e r t he he ad o f Na t u
r a l an d Ar ti c i al M e m ory
th e

206

16

P RI

NC I PA L S

D is c ou r s

Y S TEM S

or

bl e s d e s m ay e n s p ou r
e t au m e n t e r l a m e m oi r e
,
g

n o ta

c on s e r ve r

T r a i te d e l a P /iy s ion om i e
J ug e m e n t d e l a n a tu r e d e s [z om

a ve c

ou

an

tir e

m es

d es

tr a i ts

da

v is a

et

e,

g
a u tr e s
ar t ie s d a
c or s ; tr ad
p
p
L ati n cl e G u ill G r a t ar ol , p a r
E s t i e m i e C op e
Ly on , 1 5 8 6
.

Of th i s
s in

in

u l ie r ,

b o ok D e B u re

e t ass e z r e c ke r c h
.

g
h is D ie t B ib l iog
.

p e a c omm z m

ci l or i i n a l La tin
g
et

An d C

A I L LE A U

P e ti t Tr ait s in gu l ie r

On p r ef

P e t it Tr ait

s a s,
y

e re

c e t te

Trad u c tion

W I LLI A M G RAT A RO LI w as b orn at B e rga


m o in It al y i n th e ye ar 1 5 1 0 H e w as e d u c at e d
at Pad u a w he re he t o o k the d e gre e o f D o c t o r
ft e rward s b e c am e Pro fe s s o r o f
o f Ph s i c
an d a
y
an d g ai n e d c on s i d e rab l e d is
th e s am e sc i e n c e
ti n c ti on B ut havi n g e m b rac e d the C al vi n i s ti c
d oc t ri n e s o n t he pe rs u as i o n o f Pe t e r Ve r m il li he
e d fro m It al y t hrou gh fe ar o f the i n q u i s iti o n
an d re ti re d to M arpu rg whe re h e t au gh t m e d i c i n e
for a ye ar H e w as h o we v e r c o m p e l l e d o l e ave
th at p l ac e al s o an d re pai re d t o B as l e in the
h ope o f a b e tte r fo r t u n e an d w he re in fac t h e
t au gh t an d prac ti se d his pro fe ss i on w it h s u c c e s s
u n ti l h I ay 1 5 6 2 w h e n he d i e d at the age 0 f 5 2
H e was aut hor o f a gre at n u m b e r o f wo rks so m
'

208
this
t he

P RI

l
b
i
c
p

l
e t t e r s, in whic h
f

n e c e ssa r
as LI FE
y

a l m os t as

17

oa n n

Sp an g e n be rg ,

is

Th i s is

seu

ars se c u n

e rd

a u t or e

e rd

Ar tis M e m or ia
c e n ti a

1 5 70

Sp

O RY

Wite be rg
.

M EM

Ar t i c i os aa M e m or ice l i be l l as
J

18

S or

wou l d d e se r ve d ivin e hon ors in

a c c ou n t,

re

N C I P AL S Y S T E M

us
i
o
t
p

Re m in is

d a , A n t/l or e J oh

Fr a n c of

1 6 03

is

i n t e n de d
ri n c i al l y for tyr o s I n th e e at
I
t
u n fo l d s
b
y
p
p
q u e s ti on an d an s w e r the p ri n c i p l e s o f fo rm e r
writ e rs on th e s ub j e c t an d is e q u al l y re m arkab l e
f or p e rs p i c u ity an d b re vi ty
T hi s s m al l t rac t is
i n c l u d e d in the G az op hy lac iu m Ar tis M e m or ice
u b l i sh e d in 1 6 1 0 u n d e r th e titl e O f Er ote m a ta
p
d e Ar te M e m or ize se a Re min isc e n t ice e tc
a ve ry u s e fu

an d

m an u al ,
.

19

osm i

c ios ce

20 J
.

Ros s e l ii

Bl e m or iae
B

o r d an a

T he s au r u s Ar ti

Ve n e t

ru no

P ar is ,

dc

um

1 582

1 5 74

hr is I d e a r u m ,

Ar ti c i o s az M e m or zke L i be l l as Au
a ts on o Otr on i c n s i
th or e T h om a I V
'

21

ART I FI C I AL M E M

f m is

1 583

2 09

JU S

s tu d ios o

U tr i u s q u e

'

O RY

No

Th i s m an u sc r i p t is

in the S l oa n e

3 73 1

l l e c ti o n pre s e r v e d in th e B riti sh M u s e u m It
is d ivi d e d i n t o ft e e n c h apt e rs
t he titl e s o f
w hi c h are
C

Au to r is P r ol og om e n on c l f e thod u s , 2 D e
M e m or ia e t Re m in is c e n tia
3 De fe
.

m or i a

Na t u r a l i

D e Ar t f c iosa Me m o

D e D up l ic i l oc or u m g e n e r e 6 D e
Leg i b u s Io c o m m
8
7 D e I m ag iu i b u s

r ia

D e I m ag i n e
i

p os i n g

c om

i m ag in e s

1 1

i s imp /z c i

9 D

'

re

at

he n a

I m ag in e

d e b e dn t

e ss e

'

De C

Qa d fe s

10

re

12

D e Ve r

b o w m m e m ori a

p ra xi
n z om t z vw e t o b e c t or u m va r ie t a t e
j
13

i me

art s

U ti l i t a te l oc a l is m e m or ie
a r t is ac

ih

i
i
t
i
on e
q
u s

15

14

De

D e Iz zgju s

j t s ( says M r
Wat so n ) as a s t o n e a t re e a s h a b i rd an d a
h o rs e I t ake s o m e s pac i o u s w al l w e l l kn o w n to
in t he rs t I
m e an d m ake ve g re at d ivi s i on s
s e c on d
a w i n dow
s e e a d o o r ; in the
; in the
t hi rd a c he s t ; in th e fou rth an iro n b o o k ; in
t h e ft h a l arge c rac k o r ssu re
T he s t o n e
m u s t b e l arge e n o u gh t o l l u p t he w ho l e d oo r
w ay ; th e t re e h as t ake n roo t, an d al m os t c on
I

to

re

me mb e r
,

ve

ob e c

'

P RI

2 10

NC

I P AL S

Y S T EM S

or

w i n d o w b y its b ran c he s

sh is l y
in
i
n th e c h e s t ; th e b i rd is s e i z i n
h
i
d
e i ro n
h
t
g
g
h o o k w it h h is b e ak, an d is e n d e avo u ri n g to t e ar i t
c e al s the

t he

fro m the w al l

ho rs e h as pu t h is tail i n to t he
an d is xe d t he re
B y th e s e m e an s , the

s su re ,

j t

th e

the i r

i l s it u ati on are p e rm a
n e n tl y r e m e m b e re d : o t he r d ivi s i o n s o f a w al l
an d t h e o t he r i n t o 1 00
ar e g i ve n : o n e i n t o 3 9
rs t is re c ko n e d b y e i ght s
c o m p ar t m e n t s ; th e
an d th e l att e r b y t e n s
The c on n e c t ion o f t he d i ff e re n t im age s is c o n
w in g
an d t he
fol l o
s id e r e d o f gre at i m por t an c e
i ll us t rati o n is g i ve n
I f I w i s h to re m e m b e r
e s th e au t ho r ) a m an
n
u
h
e
n
ti
c
o
a
ors
a s t on e
(
a ho g
an d a t re e
I m u s t s ay t hat the
a re
m an n d s a hor se an d s e i z e s i t b y th e t ai l ; the
h orse is b iti n g a l arge s t on e fro m w hi c h re is
e l i c it e d b
e
t
e
e th
o f th e
an i mal ; t hi s

re
t
h
y
b u rn s a hog w hi c h h ad ap pro ac he d to o n e ar th e
h o rse ; th e h o g m ad w it h pai n ru n s agai n s t th e
t r e e an d o v e rt hro ws i t
ANT H O N Y W 0 0 1) in his Athe n a: Oxon ian

a b rd s s o m e
i n fo rm ati on re s pe c ti n g t h i s
s e sf
au t h o r
T H O M AS Wa T s O N a Lon d on e r b orn , d id
n ot in Lo i c
s e n d s om e t i m e in t h i s U n i ve rsity
g
p

o b e c s , an d

n u me r c a

3*

Vol 1
.

c ol .

26 2, 263

9 12

25

Y S TE M S

P RI N C I P A L S

A r s R e m i n is c e n d i J o a n

P or tw N e ap o l i t an s,
Po r t a,

l i ke

th e

or

B ap t is te

Ne ap

tho r s a

1 6 02

l re ady n o ti c e d t re at s
of p l a c e s an d i m age s ; h e a l s o ad v i s e s t he
u il
p p
t o c o m m it poe t ry to m e m o ry b y fo r m i n
i
d
e al
g
r e pre s e n t ati o n s o f th e l an gu age
t
an d
l
ae m
h
em
p
g
i n o rd e r
H e e xc h an ge s gu re s fo r sy m b o l s
an d re p re s e n t s a c i h e r fo r a g l o b e ; l b a kn ife ;
p
y
2 b y a s i c kl e ; 3 by a h o w ; 4 b y a c ho ppe r ; 5
b v a s e r pe n t ; 8 b y a pai r o f S pe c t ac l e s ; 9 b y a
e tc
c ro s i e r
e tc
Le tt e rs are al s o r e pre s e n t e d
b y sy m b o l s an d t w o al ph ab e t s are g iv e n ; in
t he o n e
t h e l e t t e rs are fo r m e d fro m v ari o u s o h
e c ts ; an d in th e o t h e r
f
r o m d i ff e re n t
o s iti on s
j
p
au

of

th e

h u m an b o dy

O H N B A P T I S T P e a r s w as a Ne apo l i t an
h
h
w
o ac q u i re d c e l e b r it b
e n tl e m an
g
y y is ap pl i
c ati o n t o p o l i t e lit e r at u re an d t h e s c i e n c e s e s e
p
c ial l y t h o s e o f m at h e m ati c s
m e d i c i n e a n d i i atu
H e o ft e n h e l d at his h o u se m e e t
r al h i s t o ry
i n gs o f l ite rati w he n t he y d i s c u ss e d the c hi
m e r i c al se c re t s o f m agi c
T he C o u r t o f Ro m e
h
u rs u e d b
t
i
l
ittl
a
r i s e d o f th e o bj e c t
s
e
ac
a
y
p
pp
d e m y proh i b it e d him fro m ho l d i n g its m e e ti n gs
Po r ta t he n c u l tiv ate d th e M u se s an d c o m p o s e d
se v e ral tr age d i e s an d c o m e d i e s
wh i c h we re re
s u c c e ss
H is ho u se w as al
c e ive d w it h s o m e
w ays the re t reat o f m e n o f l e tte rs , an d o f fore ign
J

O RY

A RT I FI C I A L M E M
e rs,

in

wh o

1 5 1 5,

age

d 70 ye ars

Po r t a fo r th e
H is
2

d the m e rit

ad m re

w o r ks

i n v e n ti o n
l

are ,

A T re ati se

Lit te r ar u m

of

are

to

O b s c u ra

Nat u ral lVI agic

on

n ot is

die d

i n d e b te d

am e ra

Phys i o gn o m y

on

We

A Tre ati se

Po r t a

of

t he

2 13

De

oc c u l t is

t re ati s e o n the art o f c o n


c e al in g o u r t ho u h t s in w ri ti n
o r o f d i sc o v e r
g
g
i n g t h o s e o f o t h e rs
4 P hy t og n om on ic a s e u
a

M e t/z od u s c og n osc e n d i

t as

c u u sc u m

u e rc i.

al ab n

n is c e n

i n sp e c t ion e

'

t z w, p e r l o c a ,

e
r n o t as e t
p

t as ,

Fr an c

u r as

oti P ol z s t i n e n s is

Ar te Re m i

i m ag in e s ,

et

ac

i n m an ibu s pos i

1 6 02

'

T ke ol og i D

'

vir e s a bd i

D e D is til l a ti on i bu s

M a ra

26 F H ie r on y m i
.

ex

i m age s are the b asi s o f M ara o ti s


b u t i n s t e ad o f p u tti n g t h e im age s u po n
sys t e m
t h e y are pl ac e d in d i ffe re n t
th e w al l s o f a ho u s e
b
art s o f t he han d s
o t h o n th e b ac k an d i n the
p
h
al m o f the han d
B
t
i s m o d e a hi gh n u m b e r
y
p
h
l
i
s
t
rac t
ac e s an d i m age s is o b t ai n e d
T
of
p
w as re p ri n t e d in 1 6 1 0 in the G az ap by l ac i u m
Pl ac e s

an d

Ar t is M e m or ies

D ic

H is

art.

Por ta

P R I NC I PAL

27

'

sy sr n

ms

or

Sp e c im z n a d u o Ar t is M e m or ia?
'

L u te ti m P a r z s z or u m ;

ki bi ta

P a r is

ew

1 6 07

t rac t w e hav e n o t s e e n b u t su s pe c t that


it c o n t ai n s an ac c o u n t o f S c he n c ke l s e xpe ri m e n t s
in M n e m on ic s at Pari s o f w h o se syst e m s om e
ac c o u n t w i l l b e fou n d i n th e n e xt ar ti c l e
Thi s

28

S e iz e n e lt e l ii M e th od u s

L z n g a a i n tr a

Arg e n t
29

d oc e n d a ,

6 m e n se s

1 6 09

L a ti n a

de

G a z op fzy ia c i n m A r tis M e m or iee ; in

t
r z s o m n i a e t s in
m
n o d u o bn s l so
a
q
g
~

ea

ad a

u ae

s ol n ta m l t uj u s
'

t i on e m in s e r m n n t ,

L am be r t u m S c /z e n c ke l z u m

as s vz a m

u sc u l a

a c c e ss e r u n

es

; q

u or u m

2 I I ie r on y m i

t r ia c z

'

Ar te JlI e m or iaz

e ad e m
o

g
r e c o n d i t a l e a be n

J on Sp
.

e rd

A r tgc ia l is l i a c te n n s

ad

Au s

ar
oti
a

s e a,

de

/m c

oa n n is

Arg e n t

3 0 S e iz e n e l re l in s d e te c t as

1 610

[Ve rn o m a

oc c u l ta t a

m a l t z s q u a m d z u d e s id e r a ta :
'

'

ta r , p e r

ni

c o

ac

'

n un c

2 16

P RI N C I P A L

S c he n c ke l

is

Y ST EM S

or

l y w ith o u t an y i n t ro
du c t io n The tw o l as t t re ati s e s are pe rfe c tl y
u e l e s s t o t h e u n i n iti at e d
o n ac c o u n t o f the a rb i
t rary s i g n s an d m arks e m pl oye d in t he m
No
e
ri n t o f No 3 0 w i th th e ad d iti o n o f a
3 1 is a r
p
key w h i c h e xp l ai n s th e arb it rary s i gn s u se d in the
w o rk It al s o c o n t ai n s a d e d i c ati on t o the l e arn e d
M e i b o m i as an d an ad dre s s to t he r e ad e r Thi s
c o n s e q u e n tl y is t he m os t u se fu l e d iti on fo r p rac
ti c al p u rpo s e s No 3 1 is a t re atis e by M a r
t in S om m e r , a c o n t e m po rary an d d e l e g at e o f

n
l
I
t
i
s
r
e
i
t
e
d
i
n
o
t
h
e
r
N
2
S c he n c ke
9
;
p
G a z op hy l a c iu m an d form s a par t o f the i n t ro
d u c t io n t o th at w o rk
s

s e

on

LA M
b o rn

B E RT ,

or

Lamp re c ht S a

B o i s l e D u c , in 1 5 4 7, w as

at

ac ad e

h is

th e

ap o the c ary an d phi l o l ogi s t

an

at

c o u rs e

ic a

Lyo n s

N C K E L,
z

so n

of

w e n t t hro u gh

an d

o o ne ,
g

t e ac he r o f rhe to ri c
n as ti c s
m
a
a ri s
r
t
t
P
n
e
roso d , an d
A
w
gy
y
p
p
n ot fo r e tti n
as the
M ali n e s an d Ro u e n
g
g
c u s t o m o f the age re q u i re d
t o c l ai m h is titl e to
b y w riti n g Lati n ve rse s
s c h o l arsh i p
Fro m
an

af e r w ar d s

b e c am e

of

t
t

T h e G az aphy l ac iu m , h ow e

ain s

ra c

Fe b

; m ore

ts
.

a re

1 8 1 0,

is

r,

v al uabl e on ac c

oun

tte a d th e tl n e e t c ts w hi c h i t c
ri gi al e d i t i
s of t h
p t i l ly a the
m e l y a e Se e M t hly M g az i e for
e xt
f or som e p ar t f t hi s ac c ou n t

th e p r e f a

ve

o ry

ma

r,

ar

c u ar

re

ra

I-

on

on

on

n ,

ART I FI C I A L M E M O RY

t h e se

h o we ve r, he

tion ate t o
ve rie s

that

ac

n o c e e br

q u i re d

w h i c h w as

2 17

re are

in the M n e m on i c Art

ity prop or
on his d i sc o

The m o re

ffe c

t e the s e d i sc o v e r i e s he t ra v e l l e d
th ro u gh the Ne the rl an d s G e rm an y an d Fran c e ;
w he re h is m e th o d w as i m pe d e d b y th e gr e at
an d t r an s m itt e d fro m o n e u n i ve rs ity to an o th e r
Appl au s e fo l l o w e d e v e ry w he re at his he e l s
Pr i n c e s an d n ob l e s e c c l e s ias t i c s an d l aym e n ,
al i ke t o o k s ou n d i n s o f h is d e t h ; an d S e h m
g
p
c ke l b ro u gh t h i m s e l f t h r o u gh e ve r ord e al t o the
y
as t o n i sh m e n t an d ad m
i rati on o f h is iu dge s The
r e c t o r o f th e S o r b on n e
m ir g p re vi
at
o n e l y m ad e t ri al o f his m e r it s pe r m i t t e d h im to
t e ac h h is s c i e n c e at th e u n i ve rs ity ; an d M a il l on ,
M ait re d e s Re q u te s havin g d o n e the s am e gave
h im an e xc l us iv e p rivil e ge for p rac ti s i n g M n e
m on i e s t hr o u gh o u t th e Fre n c h d o rn in ion s
H is
au d itOrs w e re ; h o w e ve r
ro h i b i t e d fro m c o m
p
m u n ic atin g t his ar t to o t he rs u n d e r a s e ve re
As his ti m e n o w b e c am e to o p re c i ou s
p e nal t y
to ad m i t o f h is m aki n g c i rc u it s h e d e l e gat e d t h i s
b ran c h o f his pat e n t to t h e l i c e n ti ate M a r t in
S om m e r an d i n v e st e d him w ith a re gu l ar d i pl o ~
m a as his p l e n i po t e n ti ary fo r c i rc u l ati n g his art
h
rou h
G
e
r m an y
t
u n d e r c e rt ai n s ti u l ati o n s
g
p
Franc e It al y S pai n an d the n e i ghb o u ri n g c ou n
t ri e s S o m m e r n ow rs t pu b li she d a Lati n t re a
ti se on thi s s u bj e c t wh i c h he d i spe rse d in e ve ry
tu al l y t o pro paga

P RI N C I P AL S Y S T E M S

218

l
ac e he vi s it e d [ No
p
h i m s e l f as c o m m i s s i o n e d
s t ru c t the w h o l e w o r l d
A l awye r ( s ays he )

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o r

an n ou n c e s

b y S c h e n c ke l ,

in

to

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m o re to

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has

b y the

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i t

as s s an c e

M n e m on i c s , m ay s tam p the m s o s t ro n gl y
his m e m ory, t hat h e w il l kn o w in w hat w i se
my

an s w e r

e ac h

h o u r, w ith

j ust

as

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l ie n t

in

o rd e r,

an y

m u c h p re c i s i on ,

as

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at

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if he h ad b u t

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l y h ave the e v i d e n c e an d re as on i n gs o f his


ar t
at h is n ge rs e n d s b u t al l the gr ou n d s
o wn
p y
an d r e fu t ati on s o f his an t ago n i s t al s o ! Le t a m an
i
n t o a l i b rar
an d re ad o n e b o o k aft e r an o
o
g
y
the r ye t Shal l he b e ab l e to w rite d o wn e v e ry
s e n t e n c e o f what h e h as re ad m an
y d ays aft e r at
hom e
The pro c i e n t in t hi s s c i e n c e c an d i c t at e
m att e rs o f the m o s t oppos it e n at u re to t e n or
th i r ty w rit e rs al te rn ate l y
Aft e r fo u r w e e ks
e xe rc i s e
h e w i l l b e ab l e to c l as s t w e n ty ve
thou san d d i sarran ge d p or t rait s w it hi n the s ayi n g
at e rn os t e r a e
an d he w il l d o t h i s te n
of a
y
p
ti m e s a d ay w ithou t e xt rao rd i n ary e xe r ti on an d
w ith m o re p re c i s i on than an o th e r w h o I s Ign o
r an t o f the art, c an d o i t in a w ho l e ye ar !
He
w il l n o l o n ge r s t an d in n e e d o f a l i b rary for re
T hi s c o u rse o f s t u dy m ay b e c o m
f e r ri n g t o
rac ti c e
l
e te d in
n in e
a s
an h ou r s
d
a
n
d
y
p
p
d ail y w il l b e s u f c i e n t : b rrt, whe n the ru l e s are

n ot on

P RI N C I P A L

20

ti m e in s il e n c e
b e gi n n i n g to e n d

he

'

an y o r d e r

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s e n e n c e s,

s e n e n c e s , a n d an s we r e

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o f th i s

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S c he n c ke l b e i n g aske d to r a

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tw i c e ,

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25

pe a

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d th e who l e , from

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of

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m e d i c i n e ve n d e r w he n

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an o

n u m be r e d

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i de re d fo r a sho rt
t i me re pe at e d t he w h o l e fr o m b e gi n n i n g t o e n d
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en
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d o u b l e t he n u m b e r Of w or d s s o m e o f the l it e r a ti
re l i e d
t hat h e h ad gi ve n s u f c i e n t p ro of Of his
p
ab il iti e s
an d t hat t he y h ad n o d ou b t h e w o u l d
,
50

c on s

A R T I FI C I A L M E M O R Y

221

bl e to rep e at m an y m ore w o r d s b y the sam e


A l e ar n ed au di t o r expresse d h is regre t
m et h od
t o S c he n c ke l
th at h e w as n o t al l o w ed to repe at
s e n t e n c e s an d a Iz z m d r e d wor d s b e i n
f
ll
y
t
u
f
g
y
pe rs u aded t h at h e w as c ap abl e o f gre ater th ings
S c he n c ke l h aving p resented to h is au dit o r y
t wo l m n d r e d senten ces i n w h ic h a p u pi l o f his
t aken ft o m th e l ast m eeting had been exerci s ed
t oget h er w it h the 4 0 sent e n ces th en gi ve n t h e
p u pil o n an y n u m be r being asked repe ated th e
app r o p r i ate sentence an d v ic e r e r sa t o t h e asto
m o re especi al l y at the
n is h m e n t o f al l present
u n c o nne c ted m an n er in h ic h t h e n u m ber s w e re
pr o po s ed ; as 2 3 5 Q7 9 2 40 I QS 1 9 1 8 4 3
T h is s am e p u pi l
2 1 76 3 6 7 etc etc
o ffered to t h e asse m bl y 2 50 w ritten w ords w h ic h
h e had l e arned b y s o m e t u itio n fr o m S c h e n c ke l
T o th e s e 2 5 0 w ords
an d b y h is o w n appl ic ati o n
an d in a s h o r t ti m e the
w ere added 5 0 oth ers
p u pil an s w ered to th e w h o l e 3 00 i n t h e s am e
m anner as h ad bee n done b e fore b y t h e pro fess o r
h i m sel f I n repe ating th e sentences t h e p u pi l ,
once o r t w i ce d id n o t g i ve t he w o r ds r eg u l arl y :

w h en t h i s w as inti m ated to him h e i m m edi ate


l y corre cted h i m sel f an d rep e ated the w ord s in
t h e ir appropri ate or d er
On th e fo l l o win g d ay t h e l st o f Oc to b e r s i m il ar
e xperi m e n ts w er e trie d gr e atl y to t h e sati s fac ti o n
o f al l pre se n t ; an d, in c o n se q u e n c e , S c he n c ke l
be

2%

R I N C I PA L S Y S T E M S

or

c e i ve d ( w it h o u t as kin g for i t) a c e rti c ate o f ap


pr o b atio n u n d er h an d an d se al fr o m a l e ar ned
p h ys i c i an an d so m e pro fe s s ors T h i s certic ate
t h at th e depone n t s
c o n cl u d es b y obser ving

th at
w ere pre s ent at t h e di ffere n t ex am i n ations
th e re w as n o t a po s sibili ty o f fr au d o r c ol l u si o n
t h at t h e y t h o u g h t i t b u t ju s tic e t h u s u n s o l i c ited
t o expre s s t h eir approb ation an d to b e ar w it
n e s s t o t h e tr u t h o f t h e facts s tated in t h e do c u ~
m en t
T h e s t u d e n t , d e s titu te o f or al instr u c tion c an
n o t e xpec t to re ap m u c h bene t fr o m a pe r u sal
o f S c he n c ke l s s y ste m in t h e G az ap /ty l a c iz tm or
in S c he n c ke l z u s d e te c tu s : h e m ig h t as w el l s e e k
f o r a k no w l ed ge o f h i n e m o n ic s b y g az in g at
t h e h ier o gl y p h i c s o f an Egy pti an o belisk I t is
prett y e viden t th at th i s G az op izy l a c i u m w as
d e s igned l y i n t e n ded as a l ab y ri n t h al s erie s : t h e
au t h or indeed c l o s e s h is l ab o r s b y c o n fe s si n
g
th at th e w o rk was to b e e n tr u s ted on l y to his
an d re ferrin g for fu rt h er el u cid atio n to
s c h ol ar s
or al pre cept s The Very b asi s o f h is art i s c on
c e al e d bene at h a j u m bl e o f s i gn s an d ab bre vi a
t i ons : t h u s s e c t 9 d a s e ct 9 9 ; vi de li c e t,
l o c u s i m ago or d o l oc o ru m , m e m ori a l o c i ; im a
A
n d fu rt h e r
i
n s e tti n g fort h t he m os t
i
e
s
n
g
i m portan t poi n ts h e am u s e s h i m se l f b y e vin c
in g a m u l tit u d e of ji n gli ng, an d u n i n t e l li gi b l e
Wor ds
re

'

'

2 24

R I N C I PA L S Y ST E M S

as u r e m u n i

Pt u

.
.

P Om u i t e gal apo
R b oi t is o tc pe ra

Ad i

de t

I o i t at o s c

s al e

id os

asn n gy c o .

e s u l n ge on ai r t e

a q u as .

af n c

M ph

igol i

as u c

is yh o

e su n am i .

6 f al l e t s e

e pa t e m .

Or :

r o i t ar os

7 l a m t on i

Ph

e s n c i s yh p o

am e n os c u e

Pr

ve

l ai d os

d n ac a

4 as n l u ga i n a r d o

d i n p o is i s e u i d o
c p g al o t i os ip e s

van l n s

t f o i t at i c a

e m u b re u i .

e m u t ae on u i d as

d n ro

e s i x at o an s i
y

b ae r c c

am u ir at o e n u l on i.

s at n e m is e

hti

asu ru ase

Ve

Sy

o r

rpo

ve l as ir u c e s o.

e x il ac u

9 d u n r oc a
.

as n l u n n as

l
O

e s orp o

e x e rn or a

e s u l uc n c o.

asn t al i

Rh Lac ir os
.

e t h e re

Re l iq u a s tu d iosu s Lec tor f ac il e

c ol l ig e t .

C LAVI C VLA

Le ge n d u m h ae b rai c o m o

2 . P I im a

vl t i m a

ne e

4 S i in
.

6.

l i te ra su n t ot iosae

te rae

t t

Q u ad ran gu l u s, q u a
am q uat c m ar iu m s ign i c at
e st

s i n gu l ae s in gu l are m n u m e

ge m i n a tae , pl u ra l e m
e n u s , c as n s , m o d us
,

fac il e

p r irn a r e gn l a l oc u m n on ha
u m i l l a s y ll ab a : e e m l u m s i t
p

pI im u m i n an
asu l u ga i n ar d o a u as : h oc
q

oc c a rat ,

se d

vox n um e

5 Li

in d i c t i on ib n s d i u e rs is

vo c ab u l o

b e t,
in

t iam

c ol l igu n tu r.

r am

d e n ot an t,

c ae d e m

te mpu s 8: al ia attrib u ta e x se nsu

AR T I FI

C I A L M EM O R Y

Li te r a

Voc al m l u m

l)
c

Ars

s ig n i c an t .

N N u m e ru s
P P al a t i u m
R Re p e t i t io
S Fu n d am e n t u m
T T h e sau r u s
.

rd

C u b ic u l um

f S p ac i n m

V Vol u n t ar iu m

g I m ago

A d i Ad i un c t u m

r te
P r
a
D or u m

h Pa
i

C i C i ta t i o

D i e t D i c t at i o

so n

D i n D i u i s io

D om u s

t l

E p E p i s o a.
LG Logi ons
.

m Ex e r c i t i u m
.

n.

An gu l u s

M ph M e taph ys ic ns

o.

M e m o ri a

Or Or at io

p Form s
.

Ph P h y s i c u s
P r P on o m e n
.

Se de s

rax is

r.

a.

Loc n s

La

I m ago

Low :

Rh Rh e t or i c a
Ru R u d im e n t a

S yn t ax is
Ve Ve rb u m
1 C ad e l a C e re s
Sy

T e rr a

Re c e p t ac ul u m

x.

y O s iu m
.

11 .

r
P r o o d ia
Lat us
s

t . I m age

S e n t e n t ia

5
1

Vln a

C ygn u s

3 T r ian gu l n s
.

A Ar ith m e t i c ns

4 Q u ad r an gu l u l

C C as tr u m

5 M an ti s

D is in c io

t ra
G Gr Gr m m atic a
I I m gi r i

F Fe n e s
.

K C
.

na

as

on n e xu m

S te ll a
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C al ix
3'

10

C o rn u

Anul

u s,

R e m e x C irc u l u s
,

26

PR

I N C I PA L S Y S T E M S

or

T h e w o r k o f S c he n c ke l is a si n g u l ar pro d uc
tion H is d e vel op m e n t o f t h e art doe s n o t c o n
ne it sel f to m ec h an ic al i de as al o ne
I t se ts
th e tec h ni c al sy m b o l ic al , an d l og i c al fac u lties o f
t h e m e m o ry in eq u al activi ty ; an d req u ire s t h at
its p o w e r s s h o u l d be at once i ngeni o u s an d per
Its ac q u ire m ent is fo u nded on the asso
c e tive
p
c iatio n o f ide as : no r d o es i t fai l to c al l wit an d
i m agin ati o n in aid o f n at u r al m e m o ry S o m
m er s C o m pendi u m co n sisti n g o f ei gh t s e c t i o n s,
w as p r i nted for th e u s e o f h is au ditor s
After
h is dep artu r e per m i s sio n is gi ve n to his s c h ol ars
to co m m u nic ate t h eir m n e m on is tic d o u bt s, o h
s e rvat io n s
an d disco veri e s
to e ac h ot h er ; b u t
n o on e c an b e presen t w ith o u t l eg al i z ing h i m se l f
pre vi o u s l y as o n e o f t h e I n i t i ated by presc r ib e d
sign s : an d h e who fail s in t h i s is ex cl u ded as a
pro fan er
As S c he n c ke l s w or k besides being a l iter ary
c u riosi ty
had o f l ate y e ar s be c o m e extre m el y
r are D r K l ibe r i n 1 804 p u bl is h ed a G er
m an tr ansl ati o n o f i t e n titl ed
C omp e n d iu m
d e r IV
I n e m on z k e tc or
C omp e n d i u m q
ne
'

'

m on ie s,

or

qf

s e ve n t e e n t

t he

an d

w ith

t he

rt
h

M S om m e r
.

p r ef ac e

E r l an g e n

M e m ory ,

the

beg in n in g

by L S c he n c ke l ,
Tr an sl a te d f r om the La t in ,
c e n t u ry ,

a n d r e m ar ks,

1 80

at

by

K tii be r,

228

r an

R I N C I PA L S Y S T E M S
t a hn l z s

A n t /l or e

'

t)

A d am o B
et M ed
.

ex

r u asi o
'

c ut

r e ss ae ,

Sp r oas i l e s io D

a c c e ss i t

ej

u sd e m

m n e m on i c u s

L aps

or

oc t

n om e n c a t or

au t

hor is

16 10

th e Sim on id e s Re divivu s
H e r d son in th e
w as rep r inted at L e y d en b y H
y e ar 1 65 1 u nder t h e titl e o f Ars M n e m on ic a,

A gre at p art

s ive

e r d son u s

e el

B r u xia tu s ;

B r u xu s H

e r d so

ppended a t re ati s e in En g
l is h b y H e r d so n o n t h e s am e s u bjec t th e W h ol e
o f w h ic h m ay b e see n at N os
an d 5 3
After t h e titl e o f No 3 7 t h ere is a w ood w u t
v er y tol e r abl
n e arl y t h e si z e o f t h e p age
y e xe
I t rep r esents a tr ee l o ad ed w it h fr u i t
c u te d
a
t m an m o u n ted o n a l ad der pl u c ki n g the fr u it;
an d a v e n er ab le g u r e
a b oy i n a go c art
( we
s u pp o se t h e m a is t e r ) l o o kin
ver y atte n ti vel
g
y at
g
t h e b oy U nder n e at h t h e C u t are t h e fo l l o w in g
ve r s es
T o th i s

n ia tus .

w as

S c al a
H

vir o

oe

c u rr u s

pu er o, q u ad

m e mor ativa prce st at i n

s c ip i o Ac e s tce
ar t e

Locu s

tre ated t h e s u bjec t i n a ve ry c o m p re


he n s ive m anne r, an d h as s ubj o i n e d a c o m pl e t e
n om e n c l a t or n z n e m on ic us
H e al s o d i r e c te d h is
attentio n to an art on w h i c h m u c h le s s h as bee n
w ritte n
the a n obti viom s, or art of f org e t/hit
B ru x

h as

ARTI FI C I A L M EM O RY

229

for t h e ac q u isiti o n o f w h ic h ver y fu l l an d


Were t h i s art
m in u te di r ec ti o ns are gi ven
el i m i n ated o u t o f t h e t h ic k fog in w h ic h i t is
en vel o ped m any a c andid ate w o u l d be fo u nd fo r
t h e s we e t ob l iviou s m n tid ote In th is ( s ay s t h e
g r e at m o r al ist ) w e al l r ese m b le o n e an o th e r ; the
h er o an d th e s age are l ike vu lg ar m o rt al s o ver
b u rdened by th e w eigh t o f l i fe ; al l sh rink fr o m
rec o llection an d al l w is h fo r an a r t of f ar ge t

n e ss ,

B e fo re w e

t h is i nteresting art
th e f l l o w ing je u d e sp mt w il l be g iven fr o m o n e

o f t h e d ail y
e rs f
as it dese r ves to be resc u e d
p p
fr o m th e U u al o bl iv i o n o f su c h r ep o sit o r ie s I t
w as w r itt e n
lect u re s
n th e O U
l Ol ]
o f som e
d elive r ed
M n m o n i cs in t he C i ty o f D u bl in
S Y L L A n u s f t h Pu bl ic EXpe rn n e n ts o n
t h e n e w s y st m o f d n t i m n e m on ic s to t h e per
fe c t io n atio n o f ll tC l t h e C h ev al ie r d e Sa n s S ou
e e m r has de vo ted t h e l ast ft y ye ar s o f a l o ng l i fe
fu l l y veri fying fr o m t h e t o ns h e has enc o u ntere d
an d s u r m o u nted in t he p u rs u i t
t h e assertio n of
POP
take l e ave

of

'

a n

us

E,

O f al l t h e

1 is

su e

l e ss on s t au gh t t o m o r t al s ye t

t he hard e s t

s c i e nc

to

FO RG ET .

M o rn in g C h r on ic l e for Nov 21 ,
.

1 8 1 2.

P RI N C I P A L

2 30

Y S T EM S

E X P E RI IV
I E NT

OF

The C he va l ie r w i l l

prod u c e be fore t h e c o m
an
ne o
t
h
o
f e M e m be rs j u s t ret u r n ed to Par
p y
l iatn e n t an d w ho m h e s h al l h ave instr u cted n ot
n hou r ; h e w il l present to h im
on e
u ar te r o
a
f
q
fty o f th ose C on stit u e n ts w it h w h o m b u t a
w eek since h e w as on t h e m o s t fam ili ar ter m s
w h e nto t h e ast o nis h m e n t o f al l pre s e n t it w il l b e
fo u n d t h at h e does n o t re m e m ber th e face o f o n e
o f t h e m nor ret ai n s t h e sl ig h tes t re m e m bran c e
o f th e p l e dg e s h e g ave or t h e p r om is e s he u ttered,
n ot w it h s t andi n g t h e u t m o st e ffort s o f t h e abo ve
m e ntio n ed fty pr om ise e s to re c al t h e m to h is re
c ol le c tio n
,

E X PE R I M E N T

II

The C h e val ier w il l

pr e s ent to the c o m p any


o f de m u re aspe c t an d
an e l derl y Wido w Lady
s e d ate appe ar an c e ; s h e s h al l h ave a s m el l i n g
b ottl e i n o n e h an d an d a w h ite h an dkerc h ie f in
th e o t h er w h i c h s h e s h al l r e s p ec ti vel y appl y to
h e r n os e an d eyes an d ex h ibit e ver y o th er ac c u s
to m e d s y m pt o m o f grie f w h en b y vi r t u e o f ten
m in u tes i n u e nce o f t h e an ti m n e m o n ic sy s te m
s h e s h al l fu rl h er ag o f s o r r o w pock et h er bottl e
o f d i sc on s ol ati o n d an ce a favo n rite Iris h jig b o x
t h e e ars o f h er se ve n c h il dren b y h er rs t h u s
b an d an d l o u dl y de c l are t h e i m po ssi b il i ty o f
,

3 2

PR I N C I PAL S YSTE M S

or

i n vite s an y on e o f t h e s ai d re s pect abl e c h ar ac t e r s


to his ex h ibition ac c o m p anie d b y s e vn o r eig h t
o f h is m os t r ef r ac tory f a m ily he ar e rs an d he
e ng ages
t h at after b u t te n m i n u te s instr u cti on
t h e y s h al l l iste n n ot m erel y c o m p o s edl y b u t
w it h s om e thin g l i ke c u riosity to t h e m ost thr e ad
b ar e t ales l au g h ih al l t h e p r op e r pl ace s an d
ex h ibi t e very oth er sy m pto m o f b ei n g e n tert ai n e d
an d gr atied
,

EXP
5

E R I M E NT

A ve n er abl e Pl u r al i s t

h al l b e bro u g h t for
war d fo r ex am in atio n an d s h al l b e as k e d W h at
o m ises h e m ade at h is ordi n ati o n P
r
o r wh e t h er
p
h e m ade an y i w h i c h o f h is thr e e l ivings h e l ast
fro m w h at w el l kno w n au th o r h e tr an
visited
s c r ibed h is l ast ser m o n i w it h h o w m any pers o n s
am ong s t h is se ver al ock s h e w as ac q u ainte d ?
N ot one o f w h ic h i nterrog atorie s h e sh al l be abl e
to ans wer
s

EXPERI M ENT
Che va l i e r

VI

i l l next present t o t h e p u b
l ic a Lad y o f c o l d aff ec ti o n s an d m orbid vanity
i noc u l ated w it h th e l o ve o f t h e g r e at p o ssessed
o f a l itt le s m ar tness w h ic h t h e s u pe r ci al m ig h t
m ist ake fo r w it a n d deepl y ve r sed i n w hat is
te r med kn o w ledge o f th e w o r l d S h e s h al l in
e arl y l i fe h ave gi ven t h e m o st u neq u i vo c a l p ro
Th e

A RT I FI C I A L M E MORY

233

npr ac tise d h e art


t h at t ru s ted h er w it h al l th e u nl i m ited c r ed u l it y
o f c o n d in g l o ve p l edge s s h al l h ave been m u t u
al iz e d
and t h o s e s o l e m n ass u r ances recipr o c ate d
w h ic h i ndissol u bl y b ind t h e faith fu l an d c an o n l y
be v i o l ated b y th e u np r i ncipl ed y et by t h e in
u e n c e o f t h is m i r ac u l o u s science s h e s h al l fo r
get h e r v o w s deny h e r att ac h m ent an d n al l y
m ar r y an o t h e r pers o n ; an d w he n t h e p ar t ies af ter
w ar ds m eet n o feel ing s h al l arise in h e r m ind
b u t a kind o f an kwar d u tte r nor in h is b u t the
m o s t c onte m pt u o u s indi ff e r ence
m i se

of

ffec ti o n s

he r

to

an

E X PE R I M E N T

VI I

e m inent Law ye r s h al l al s o be pr o d u ced


in te s tim o n v o f t h is w o nde r fu l a rt w h o u il l be
fo u nd to be p r o o f even ag ain t a Ref r e s he r and
t h is is s u pposed I I itlr on e i /l u st r io u s e xc ep t io n
to be th e 71 8 p l u s u l t r a o f a n t i m n e m on ic in
I f ci rc u m st ances d id n o t irn pe rio u s ly
u e n c e
prevent t h e C h ev al ie r c o u l d p ro d u ce t h is Exa l t e d
I n d ivid u al an d t ri u m ph antl y displ ay him as o n e
o f t h e sing u l ar prod ig ies o f t h e a n t i m n e m o n i c
s y s te m I t is asse r ted b y a cel eb r ated c r a n iosc o
al l
r
at e a r l
i
st
D
r
G
t
h
i
e n d s hip s m ake t he
y
p
f
deepest i m p r essi o n u p o n t he h u m an b r ain an d
are w it h t h e g r e a test d ri c n l t v e ffa ced t h a t t he y
l inger t h ere t h e l ast an d m o st ten ac io u s i n m ates
w h e n o t h e r re c ol l e c tions h ave been w e akened b
y
x3
An

234

P RI

N C I PA L S Y

in

or ab s o rb e d

y e ars ,

se

STEM S

l sh n e s s

or

t ri u m ph

To

v e r a rad i c at e d fe e l i n g l i ke th i s w as re se rve d fo r
th at s c i e n c e u h ic h c an pe rvad e the c o tt age as
w e l l as the pal ac e
an d
w h il e i t s t e e p s t he
s an t s m i n d in b al m
e
a
n e q u al l y
p
y fo rge t fu l n e s s c a
r e l ie v e
t he P r in c e fro m the pan gs o f re m in is
'

c enc e

The C he va l ie r

sa n s

S ou ve n i r havi n g t h u s

far d e v e l o pe d h is pl an , w il l n o t fo r th e pre s e n t
e n t e r i n t o fu r t he r d e t ail s
To the I r ish Na t ion ,
.

O RG I V E h e b e gs
l e av e parti c u l arl y to re c o m m e n d his sys t e m w h i c h
w il l al s o e n ab l e t h e m to F O RG E T t h e i r m an ifo l d
w ron gs an d i nj u ri e s an d o n l y t o r e m e m b e r t h at
r os e r ou s
a n u n it e d
are e v e r a ha
an d a
p
ppy
p
e o l e ; t h at t o Re l i iou s a n d P ol it ic a l o in ion s
p
p p
g
i
w
f
e is h to
r e e d om s h o u l d b e g iv e n
er ec t
p f
f
b e h appy at h o m e o r fo r m i d ab l e ab ro ad ; t h at al l
i rr it ati n g re t ro spe c t s s ho u l d m e rge in t he l ove of
c ou n t ry an d t h at o u r e n d e av o u rs s h o u l d z e al o u s
l y an d e xc l u s iv e l y b e d ire c t e d t o t he Ref or m o f
i n te r n al ab u s e s an d the e xte n s ion o f pu b l i c l i b e r
ty t h at s o t h e gl o r i o u s fab ri c o f o u r C o n s tit u ti o n
m ay b e e n ab l e d to r e s i s t the aggre s s i o n to wh i c h
i t is e xpo s e d an d to s u rviv e the s t o r m w hi c h has

m ad e s l i ip m e k o f o t he r G o v e rn m e n ts
w ho s e

harac t e r i s ti c

it

is

to

38

Fr

M ar t R a ve l l in z Ar s M
Fr an c 1 6 1 7

e m

'

or ia

236

39

P RI

N C I P A L SY S T EM S a s

U t r iu s q u e C

m aj or is

os m i ,

M e tap hy s i c a

i n i n gor is

T e r h n z c a H is t o r i a

Fl at d d 2 t om
,

161

A fe w
w o rk
sys te

1 62 1

a es

p g

il i c e t,

et

au c

R obe r t o

t or e

f ol Op e n h
.

et

et

Fr a n c

th i s

of

d e v o t e d to

are

sc

P hy s i c a

'

an e xp an a

f M ne m on i c s

an d

c u r ous

ti o n

T his

se

of

ex

e n s ve
p

th e

em s

au

thor s

to b e

an

tte m pt to c o m b i n e th e Ars M agna o f Lu l l y


w it h the l o c al m e m o ry o f th e an ti e n t s as i m pro v
S o m e c u ri o u s
e d b v th e m o d e r n m e m o ris ts
an d t he r
w oo d c u ts ac c o m pany the d e s c r i p ti o n
e
m an y e xt re m e l y s i n gu l ar
o n o t h e r s u bj e c t s
are
h
w
o rk
w
i
c h are
i
n te l l i i b l e
ri n t s I n t hi s r a r e
g
p

T he po rtr ait al on e o f Fl u d d
o n l y t o an ad e p t
h
as b e e n val u e d at
re xe d t o the rs t vo l n m e
p

'

ou r

u in e as

RO B E RT FL U D D

Fl u d d

Lat in , d c
Tho m as
z ab e
e ar

th

uc

1 5 74 ,

o r as

t ihus, w as th e
,

Tr e asu re r

w as b o rn

he

an d

w as

at

of

tyl e d

h i m s e l f in

s e c o n d so n

War

of

S ir

to

Q ue e n El i

M il gate in K e n t , in the

d u c at e d

at

S t J oh n
.

l e ge O xford H e w as a v e ry vo l u m i n o u s au tho r
i n h is s e c t d i vi n g i n to th e far the s t pro fu n d iti e s
an d m o s t m ys t e r i ou s o b s c u ri ti e s o f th e Rosyc ru c ian
h
il
o s o hy an d b l e n d i n g in a m os t e x trao rd i
p
p
n ary m an n e r d i vi n ity, c h e m i s t ry, n at u ral phil oso
.

A RT I FI C I AL M E M

O RY

23 7

H e w as m ad e D oc t or
phy, an d m e t aphys i c s
P hys i c in 1 6 05 , an d d i e d 1 6 3 7
.

of

Ap s i n is e

40

r ia

l i he r

s in

1 618

Rh e to r is

d e ZlI e rn o

l a tz n e

u l a r is

Fe d

ve r t i z ,

m um

41

'

nun c

ZlI or e Z
l

ri

P ar is ,

I n aes t im a hil is Ar tis M e m or an d i T he

s au r a s ,

va r i is o t i m is u e a u t h o
p
q

e a:

d ep r o mp t u s ,

r i bu s

Ii o ,

Rh e t o

oc

S a be r d

P a r is

Nau l iu s h as

ab

A d a m o Na u
S

et

1 6 18

T h e ol

e ll
an d
w
il
ed
a
u s e fu l
p
arr an ge d d i g e s t o f th e d i ff r e n t au t h ors w h o h ave
w r itt e n o n t h i s s u bj e c t an d h as d e vo t e d a c h ap
te r t re ati n g o f th e ap pl i c ati o n o f the ar t to
e ac h o f t he
fo l l o w i n g p e rs o n s d ivi n e s c on
fe ss ors l awye rs l i n gu i s t s rh e t o r i c i an s as trol o
e o m e t ri c i an s
e rs
k
i
n s
ri n c e s
au d n ob l e
g
g
g
p
t rav e l l e rs
c om

42

M n e m on i c a
di

et

i n t r e s l ihr o s

d e M e m or i a

l i be l l as :
ri

bu s ,

A rs Re m in is c e n

u r is a r t s n a t u r ce

h a u s ta ,
n on

s ve

n a tu r a

li

on t i

hu s
ac

b
n
a
v
e
d
j

d o c t is s i m o r u n t op e
am
n zu m
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c ol l e c t u s
r
j p

e r ar iis

se d ul o

q f
d ig e s t a ,
ue

23 8

P RI

N C I P AL

i n l a c e m e d i ta

L an d

16 1 8

Y S TEM S

au

or

th or e J oh an

Wi l

t re ati se d e M e m or ia n atu r al i f oae n d a


w as r e pr i n t e d at Fr an kfo r t in th e ye ar 1 6 78
w it h ve o th e r t rac t s in an o c t av o v o l u m e e n
titl e d Va r ior u m d e Ar te M e m or ia Tr a c tatu s
S e e T he w h ol e wo rk w as t ran s l at e d b y Le on ar d
S orr e r s by a b o o kse l l e r
a t the T u rn s til e
n e ar
Ne w m ar ke t in Lin c o l n s l n n Fi e l ds an d pri n te d
in th e ye ar
w it h th e fo l l o w in g tit le
T he

43

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in to

h
s i c al t r e a
p y
t i s e of c h c r i s hin i g n a tu r a l M e mo ry ;
d i l ige n t ly c o l l e c te d ou t of ( l i ve r s
thr e e

bo oks

l e a rn e d m e n
l Vi l l is

L an d

atc

1 66 1

w r i tin g s

he l ou r

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As t hi s b o o k h as b e c o m e

r are

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d e v e l o pe s

i
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p
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b e m o re c o pio u s t h an u s u al
The w o rt hy t ran s l at o r s e e m s t o hav e b e e n a
m an o f v e ry u n ass u m i n g m an n e rs
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2 40

in th e p re fac e , h avi n g c o m pare d


h is Art o f M e m o ry t o a n e w bor n i nf a n t, b e

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o r T ab l e
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This c o n s rs te t h o f t wo
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vO th
m ory w i t h No t
y t h i n gs ; he r e in i t is n o t
t o b e e x pe c t e d t h t e ac h p a t ic u l ar w or d o f e v e ry
s e n t e n c e b e r e t ai n d ; b u t o n e l y th at t h e ge n e ral
At a l l t im e s w he n a
s e n c e b e fa t e n e d in m in d
m an is a b o u t to c o m m it an y t h i n g in c u s t o d y to
h is M e m ory rs t l e t h i m s t udy to d ro w n al l u n
t hat he m ay pe r
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the re fo re a m an m u s t pre pare h i m se l f d il ige n tly,
c

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A RT I F I C I A L
it e the
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M EM

O RY

24 1

h is i m agi n ati on , t h at he
an d i m r i n t o c c u rre n t
p

t hi n gs in his m e m o ry Le ad d o t h fac il y re c e i ve
i m pre ss i on b e c au se i t is t e n ac i o u s wh i c h Qu ic k~
s i l ve r c an n o t ad m it b
y re as o n o f its Fl u xi bi l ity :
I n l i ke m an n e r e e ti n g i n c o n s t an t m i n d s c o n ti n u
al l y h u rr i e d i n t o n e w 8Ls tran ge c o git ati o n s is far
fro m gat he ri n g fru it b y any t h i n g he ard
T he
m e t ho d o f a s pe e c h is c h i e y to b e o b se r v e d re
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th e pe rfe c t M e tho d o f a Spe e c h d o th m u c h c on
d u c e to re m e m b e r the w ho l e ; o r if the C on t e x
t u re the re of b e in arti c ial i m pe rfe c t an d u n sa
t is fac to ry c o m pre h e n d i n g m arry th in gs fo rc i b l y
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D ep osition is whe n w e re c o l l e c t t hi n gs c om
m itte d t o m e m o ry; an d havi n g t ran s c ri b e d o r
t ran s ac t e d the m , d i sc harge ou r m e m ori e s of the m ,
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are to b e
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d e po s it e d i m m e d i ate l y afte r s l e e p t hat the m i n d
h e n o l on ge r b u rthe n e d than is c o n ve n i e n t an d
Y

24 2

P R I NC I P A L S

th at t hi n gs

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u

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m e t h i n g c h arge d h appe n to b e
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so

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ll it

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l l e d Re voc at ion an d is an
c e r t ai n Ru l e s t e ac h e t h th e i n v e s ti at io n o f t h i n s
g
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th i n gs c o m m i tt e d to m i n d is n o t u n l i ke e xpu n g
i n g wr iti n g o u t o f T ab l e B o o ks : I f t h e re fore
t h e re b e an y Ar t o f Ob l i vi on ( as s o m e ai rm ) i t
S o m u c h in
m ay b e p ro pe r l y r e fe rre d h it he r
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th e t hird
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an d th e
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t
m
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pp
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i t m ay b e w o rth h is l ab o u r to re pe at
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c a

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P RI

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th u s t ran s l at e d b y M r
S owe rsb y for the b e n e fit o f th e En g l i s h re ad e r
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The se Ve rse s ( c ravi n g t he Re ad e rs par d o n


the r u gge d n e ss ) c o n t ai n t w e n ty t w o Q u e s ti ons

i n ve n t re t ai n as al so to re c all
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T he m o s t

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C H AP

Rep osito r ie s
TH

Art

of

M e m ory

wh

ic h

we h ow

t re at

co n si s t e th o f I d e as a nd pl ac e s h e re i n w e
w il l rs t han d l e t h e Rep osi tion of I d e a s an d
aft e r w ard t h e i r D e p os it ion
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of

re m e

m b re d ,

d i s po se d in
b e fo re

are

t i

c er a n

I d isc e n d

po n M e m ory b y I de a s ,
p l ac e s o f a Rep os it ory ; b u t

h arge d

t o th e m an n e r o f
Y 3

Rep os ition i t
,

r n I N C I r A I. s r s r a m s o r

24 6

is n e c e ssary fo r b e tt e r
p

an ati o n
l
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to s pe ak o f

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P l a c e s , an d I d e a s in d i s ti n c t c h ap te rs
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the w all s , in b re ad th s ix yard s , an d in he i gh t s e ve n

su

the re o f at l e ad e d ab o v e an d
arge tt e d u n d e rn e ath l yi n g who l l y o pe n t o vi e w ,
p
w i t ho u t an y w al l o n t h at s i d e s u ppo s e d n e xt u s :
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M arb l e e v e n an d v ar i e gat e d w ith a party c o l ou r
e d b o rd e r
w h i c h S tag e is t o b e e xt e n d e d o ve r
th e wh o l e l e n gt h an d b re ad th o f th e b u il d i ng
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t hat is the o ppos it e wal l 8L two
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oyn ts b e
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m id d l e o f t he M a r bl e S t ag e t hre e
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ro o f

th e

Q48

P RI N C I P A L

b Y S T EM

S OF
,

a n r rr rc u r. M E M

O RY

24 9

l e n gth o f the
e d i c e
a
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t he l e ft han d It is d
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C H AP

II

Of P l a c e s

A P l ac e ( as
spac e

in

The re
t ory

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is

t o o u r c on sid e ra on )

ti

Rep osit ory


are

on e

ly

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an d

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ac e s in
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2 50

t wo

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ch

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or

p osi t ory d e te r m in atie d

re

as

id b y the p i t o r an d g r oove
Th at p la c e 1 8 s ai d t o b t he fo r m e r wh ic h
is o n the r ig h t h an d o f t h e r ep osit ory t h at
nd
t h e l att e r ; t at p ar t
w h i c h is o n t he l e ft h a
h
i s s ai d t o b e o n the r i g h t h an d
o f t he r ep os i to r
y
f a m an
w h ic h is o pp o s i t e t o t h e l e ft h an d o
s ta n d i n g ag ai ns t t h e m i d dl e
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p
y
t h at o n the l e ft hand w h ic h is app os it e to the
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T h u s in t he s c he m e e xh i b i t e d in th e fo rm e r
c h apt e r the l e tte rs g i n 0 d e m o n s t rat e the
Oppo s it e w al l o f the r ig h t h an d part or r s t
pl ac e or r oom o f th e r ep os itory an d the l e tt e rs
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so
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a o r e sa

'

'

s, r ,

li , f ,

t he s ta e o f the s am e
g

C H AP

III

Of I d e a s in g e n e r a l

AN i d e a is

p re se n t ati o n o f
t h i n g s to b e r e m e m b r e d fram e d b y a s t ro n g
i m agi n ati on b y h e lp w he i e o f the m i n d e b y re
e xion c al l e t h to m e m or y t o g e th e r w ith th e id e a
t h e t h i n g re p re s e n t e d
I d e a s are t o b e ve s t e d
a

i ibl e

re

v s

2 52

R I NC I P A L

wr iting s, gl o ry

c ll e n c y
n al l y, e v e ry

an d e x e

t o e n g r avi n gs ;

s or

svs rnM
'

of

wor km an s hip ,

id e a m u s t

h av e
s u c h il l u s t rati o n as m ay r e n d e r i t m o s t n o tab l e
an d s e e m
an d c o n s p i c u ou s
riu c i al ly c o h e re n t
p
p
t o i ts n at u re
B u t b e fore I p ro c e e d fu rt h e r i t is e xp e d i e n t
t o t ak e i n t o c o n s i d e rat i o n the c o m m o n af e c tion
t h e i r sp e c ie s s h all s u cc e e d aft e r in a
o f i d e as
m o re p ro pe r p l ac e
T he c o m m n ej e c tion s o f id e a s are t h re e
o
,

i
t
u
an
t
q

si t ion , an d c ol ou r .
o
p

CH AP I V
.

0f the Qu an ti ti e of I d e a s

AN id e a in
e

al ,
u
q

re a t e r,

re s

or

p e ct

l e sse r

of

is

an t i t ,
u
y
q

the

the n

th i ng

i th e r

re p re

se n e d .

An

n g re pt e
d
e n th e
l
h
t
h
i
i
w
e a is
q
s e n te d
is b e s to w e d in a pl ac e o f t he r ep osi tory
in its pro pe r an d d u e m agn i t u d e as b e i n g n e it h e r
to o g re at to b e c on t ai n e d t h e re i n n o r s o s m all i t
c an n o t b e d i s c e rn e d b y o n e s tan d i n g b e fo re the
i
t
t
a bl e s
c
r e os it or ;
s u c h are
c ha irs
u res
p
p
y

ua

l
b e d s, he ap s o
s t on e ,
i
e s o wood , t wo
p
f
f
t a n ts in a s in g l e d u e l , an d th e l ik e

c om ba

'

An

au

t h i n g to

be

g m e n te d

or

r e m e m b re d ,

t i d e a is w h e n the
i n c re ase d to a m u l ti~

re a e r

is

A R T I FI C I A L

ME

M O RY

253

t u d e that i t m ay b e b e tt e r v i e we d at a d i s t anc e
w h i c h e l s e b e i n g s m al l w ou l d n ot fal l u n d e r
th i n g to b e d e p os i te d in
c o g n i z an c e ; as i f the
t he r ep osi tory w e re a p e n ny a p e a r l a g rai n of
m u s tar d se e d o r a sp id e r w h i c h are s o s m all
t h at d i s p ose d in a roo m o f the r ep osit or y t h e y
e s c ap e th e s i g h t o f a m an s t an d i n g b e fore the
i
n s t e ad o f o n e p e n n y
: in s u c h c as e s
r e osi tor
y
p
i m agi n e a h e ap o f pe n c e n e w c o i n e d ; i n s te ad of
a m u l t i t u d e o f p e ar l s ; i n s t e ad o f o n e
o n e p e arl
an c y
f
e e r tair
b
o f m u s t ard s e e d
u sh e l s
rai n
g

n d fo r on e s p i d e r
s c att e re d ab ou t the st age ; a
s u pp os e a m u l t i t u d e c re e p i n g ab ou t th e o p p os i t e
wall
f
A c on t rac te d o r l e sse r id e a is w h e n the t h i n g
t o b e r e m e m b e re d is so g re at t h at i t c an n o t b e
c om pre h e n de d in its p ro p e r n atu ra l q u an t i ty
w i t h i n s u c h n arro w l i m i t s o f a r oo m of a r ep osi
t ory an d is t h e re fore i m agi n e d to b e p ou rtray e d
w it h e l e gan t l i v e l y c ol ou rs in a p ict ur e xe d to
Th u s s p ac e o f p l ac e s h ow
th e o pp o s it e w all
far s oe v e r d i s t an t an d al l gre at t h in g s m ay b e
fac i l e l y re pr e s e n te d in a p i ct u re as i f the t h i n g
t o b e re m e m b re d w e re a b att e l a t ri u m p h an t
S p e ct ac l e h u n t i n g o r h aw k i n g t h rou gh w o o d s
a n av al c on ic t
l arg e t e rr i to r i e s
an d gr o v e s
c as tl e s a m oun tai n or c h u rc h 8t c w h o s e i d e a s
c an n o t b e c on tai n e d in the m e m or i al p l ac e s u n
l e s s c on tracte d an d apt l y an d art ic i all y c om
,

'

'

25 4

R I N C I P A L S Y S T EM S

or

p ri z e d i n a p i ct u re , c o n c e i te d b y i m ag in at i o n
han gi n g a
a
n
s t th e o pp o s it e wal l
i
t h at s o i t may
g
,
b e fu ll y c o m pre h e n de d
.

CH AP V
.

Of t he P os it ion

LE T the po s i t i o n

f I de a s

v e ry id e a b e s u c h as i n
v u l gar u s e d o t h m os t c o m m o n l y appe rtain to the
th i n g s i g n i e d ; l e t the i d e a s o f t h i n gs u su al l y
h an ge d agai n s t a w all b e s o d i s p o se d in the r e
as m u s i c al i n s t ru m e n t s ar m s
osi t ory
l
k
i
o
o
n
p
g
se s, p i c t u re s
b
ru s h e s
l
as
w r i tt e n t abl e s
St e
g
S u c h t h i n gs as are c u s t o m aril y fas t e n e d to o r in
a w all
i magi n e t h e m acc om m o d ate d in the re
os ito ry in l i ke m an n e r as t itl e p age s o f b o o ks
p
ar
p
ill
p
ro c l am at i on s
as t e d agai n s t th e
or
p
n te d
f
n e ral s t re am
age s n ail e d to th e w al l
r
i
u
p
p
e rs, o r pe n d an ts, in th e h i gh e r par t o f the o pp o
as
o
u s e e In c h u rc h e s ; su c h t h i n s as
s i t e w all
y
g
fan c y t h e m so
are c o m m on l y s e t u po n s h e l v e s
l
c
s il
e d in th e re po s i t o ry ; as ve ss e l s o f go l d
a
p
b oo k s m e rc e ry w are s Se c S u c h
ve r g l asse s
t h i n gs as are u s u al l y pl ac e d on a t abl e c o n c e i v e
t h em s o m arsh al l e d in the re pos i to ry as v i ct ual s,
t ab l e b oard s 8Lc s u c h t h i n g s
s u m s o f m on e y
ro u n d. mu s t
w
ay s s i t u ate o n
as l ye
or are an
y
g
of e

'

95 6

P RI

s e ve n

th

s on e ,

of

th e

N C I PA L S Y S T EM S

or

gr e e n s t on e ; th e e igh th o f pu rp l e
n i n th o f wh it e s t o n e , the t e n th o f ai

Ne w

for d i s ti n c ti on

go l d
is c all e d the c o l ou r o f the rs t r ep osi t ory ; s i l ve r
the c o l ou r o f t h e s e c on d r ep osit ory ; b l ac k o f

n am on c o o u r .

th e

t h i rd

os it or y

sake

s o s u c c e ss ve l
y as

i
be
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I f yo u u se m o re t han t e n re p o s it o ri e s you
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i ma gi n e he w e are th a s il v e r c h ai n
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l e gs : if in the fo u rt h t hat h e hath a b l e w s ke rf
tye d in a ro s e n o t if in the fth
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w he re b y i t m ay b e pre s e n tl y u n d e rs t o o d to hav e
t he c o l o u r t he re o f i t w i ll h e e d n o o t he r at trib u
ti o n for e xam pl e if a m ayo r o f a c it y ( wh o in
r e ard o f his o f c e
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rs t o r fi ft r ep osi t ory th e re w il l b e n o n e e d o f
att ri b u ti on o f c o l o u r
b e c au s e the go l d e n c h ai n
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c l u d eth an y o t h e r ad d iti o n
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S o a p i c t u r e i m agi n e d to b e pai n t e d o n the o p
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w aye s s o m e c e r t ai n ty t o gu i d e it se l f an d r e c o l
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ki n g t h e re o f) you
t o an i d e a ( o f i t s e l f n o t part a
m u s t b e c are fu l t hat th e c o l o u r o f th e r ep os itory
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the id e a o r as n e ar as m ay b e : if t he h i s t o ry o f
th e pro phe t J on a/z th ro wn i n t o the s e a b y m ar i
b e u s e d as an id e a i t m u s t b e re p re s e n t e d
n e rs
i n a p i c t u re ac c o rd i n g to th e t h i rd c hap t e r p re
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e t the e f t e s o f
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in the fo u rt h b l e w ge e s o t he t o p o f a he ap o f
w he at is the m o s t c on s p i c u o u s par t ; th e re fore
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the e f gie s o f th e e l d re pl e n i s h e d w it h s o u l d e rs
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m arc hi n g in m i lit ary po s tu re s
th i s ki n d is d e l iv e re d w hi c h n at u re i t s e l f hat h
n o t d i c tat e d ; b u t o n e l y t o i m pr i n t t h e s e i d e a 8
m o re d e e pl y in m e m o ry w e b e s t o w t h e m m e
l e s t o th e r w i se t he y b e
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A RTI FI C I A L M E M O R

26 1

l itte r i n g w ith s il ve r, gil t c u ps


ve ss e l s an d o t he r su m t u o u s fu rn it ure , l ai d h o l d
p
o f the c ar p e t w it h al l his m i gh t th re w it to th e
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the re fo re I su ppose in the p l ac e o f th e r ep ository
w h e re i t is to b e b e s t o w e d t hat t h e r e is a t ab l e
c o ve re d w it h a r i c h c ar e t w h i c h a s o r d i d fe l l o w
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in b e ggarl y rai m e n t t hro w s on the gro u n d a g rave
m an c l o t he d in ho n e s t s o b e r appare l l ooki n g o n
The att ri b u ti o n o f the c o l o u r o f the r ep ository is
n o t t o b e fo r o tt e n : if t he re fore it b e the rs t
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if
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in the t h i rd o f b l ac k if i n the fou rt h o f b l e w
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2 62

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t hat

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a n t h e ap in
s t age o f the m e m o ri al
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se e m i n g al m os t b l ac k w ith an ts
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th e c o l ou r o f the Rep osi t ory is s u ffi c i e n tl y n o t e d
b y the b l ac kn e ss o f the an ts ; if in the s e ve n th
b y the gre e n n e ss o f the an t h i l l ; s o t hat t he re
n e e d e th n o ad d i ti o n o f c o l o u r
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is vi s i b l e m ay b e d i s pos e d in Re po s t to rte s b y D i
r e c t I d e as
in e q u al au gm e n t e d 0 r c o n t rac t e d

q u an tity
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t
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Re posi t o ry ; the th i rd in the rs t th e f0u r t h in
the s e c on d p l ac e o f the se c on d Re p os i t ory ; ft
in the rst t he Si xt i n th e se c on d pl ac e o f the
th i rd Re pos it ory the li ke m e thod is t o b e u se d
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Ru l e 2 D u e q u an tity c onve n ie n t s i t e c d
l ou r o f the Re pos it ory an d p e c u li ar att ri b u te s
are to b e i m ose d o n e ac h I d e a
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rs t I de a o f an y Re pos it ory n o t e i t ve ry di li ge n t
l y wit h t he e ve o f yo u r m ind as if i t r e al l y s t o o d
t he re
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A RT

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2 65

l i ke pe c u l i ar attri b u te s if i t have an y For


w he th e r the I d e a d e pos ite d in the rs t
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l
ac e o f an y Re p os it o ry ( as to t he ki n d ) b e d i
p
c on c e rn i n
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r e c t ; as t o th e
g a m an ; in
re s e c t o f q u an tity e q u al ; in r e gard o f s igh t
p
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ac e d o n the gro u n d ; an d as t o
e
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b u t e s w he th e r m o vi n g o r ye il d i n g a s o u n d ; go
o v e r al l the s e t h i n gs in you r m i n d
s ay i n g
T he
I d e a w h i c h I hav e he re b e stow c d is Di re c t o f a
m an e q u al p l ac e d on th e grou n d, m o vi n g an d
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y
I d e a is m ore rm l y grav e n in m e m o ry
Ru l e 4 A fte r yo u h ave tl y d i sp os e d the
s e c on d I d e a o f an y Re p o s i to ry
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g
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p
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ac ti on o f the l att e r I d e a r e fe rre d to th e fo rme r ;
yo u c an pit c h u pon n o I d e a w h i c h m ay n o t b e
re l at e d t o th e for m e r b y o n e o f t he se ve w a e s
y
wh i c h shal l p l ai nl y appe ar b y e xam p l e
if b o t h
I d e a s o f o n e Re p os i t o ry p re c e d e n t an d s u b s e
q u e n t b e xe d to the w al l p l ac e d o n a t ab l e
th e g ro u n d or u n d e r gro u n d 8m t he y agre e in
B u t if o n e b e fas t e n e d t o th e Wal l th e
s it e :
o t he r pl ac e d o n a T ab l e
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2 66
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l ooki n g s o m e B oo ks of Ac c o u n t s w ith C ou n t e rs
l y i n g re ady to c o m pu t e the t o t al s u m b e an I d e a
d i spo s e d in t he rs t p l ac e o f a Re p os it ory ; an d
th e I d e a to b e pl ac e d in th e s e c o n d ro o m o f th e
Re po s it o ry b e a Farrye r g ivi n g a H ors e a D re n c h
w ith a H orn : I n t hi s c ase th at the ac ti o n o f the
l att e r m ay h ave s o m e d e pe n d an c e o n the fo rm e r
i m agi n e that the H ors e ( as s o on as th e d re n c h is
ou re d i n t o h is m o u t h) l e a s b ac k an d d is tu rb e th
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is as i t w e re a l i n ki n g o f t he m t oge the r an d d ot h
ad m i rab l y c o n d u c e t o th e r e m e m b ran c e o f b o th
Ru iz 5 I f two o r m o re d i s ti n c t i d e a s c o n
w h o se r e l ati on to o n e an o th e r is fou n d s o
c ur
n e ar as if t he y w e re c o m b i n e d t o ge th e r ; b e s t o w
th e m in o n e s am e M e m ori al Pl ac e As if the
I d e a i m m e d i at e l y p re c e d i n g b e a S i l v e r B ason
fu l l o f fragran t Wat e r s e t u pon a joyn e d S t oo l ,
s u b s e q u e n t I d e a b e an i d l e m an d o i n g
an d t h e
n o th in g ; yo u m ay c o nj o i n t h e s e t wo I d e a s in
o n e , i m agi n i n g t h at t h i s m an w ashe th his han d s
,

2 68

P RI N C I P AL s Y s r m u s

Ru l e

Las t l y, h av e

or

l oad
yo u r Ill e m ory w i t h a m o r e n u m e rou s m u l ti t u de
o f I d e a s t han is t
fo r as i t is u n w h o l e so m e to
b n rthe n the s t o m ac h ab o ve its s t re n gt h s o al s o t o
o ve r w h e m
t he
e m or
it
h
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th i n k the y c an w e l l c on c oc t ; s o d o you on l y
c o m m it s u c h th i n gs to M e m or
ou t ru s t
a
s
y
y
f aith fu l l y t o re m e m b e r ; for i t is b e tt e r rm l y to
r e t ai n a fe w r e m arkab l e
things, than man y of
m e an b as e n at u re
I n c hap xiv w hi c h t re at s
of the p r ac tic e o
f

the Ar t o
f M e m ory w e have the fo l l owi n g
7

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t aki n g i t for gran t e d ) you


w e re to go to s o m e gre at M arke t To w n i t c on
c e rn s n o t o u r p u rpo se w h e t he r th e p l ac e b e kn o w n ,
l
an d i n t e n d in th e rs t
ac e t o e n
o r u n kn o w n
p
q u i re the pri c e o f S e e d Ea r l ie : im agi n e the n in
th e rs t P l ac e o f th e rs t Rep os it orie ( that is the
ar t o n the r i gh t h an d ) yo u s e e a m an m e asu r i n g
p
B ar l i e o u t o f a S ac k i n t o a B u sh e l w ith a c o m
as is th e u su al
an y o f m e n s t an d i n g ab o u t him
p
m an ne r in M a r ke ts n o t forge tti n g to fan c y t he
B a rb e l l h an d l e s t o b e G o l d t hat s o t he I d e a in
som e
ar t m ay b e r e l at e d to t he Rep os i tory in
p
c ol ou r, as is re q u i re d in the s i xt h C hap t e r
I

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.

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w o rk

2 69

harpe n i n g h is G ol d e n

i t w e re p re pari n g for
s u c h Ru s ti c al im l o ym e n t : I s a
G
ol d e n Sy t l i e
p
y
t hat i t m ay parti c i pat e o f the c o l o u r o f t he Rep o
s i t or
t
h
i
s I d e a a re e t h w i t h th e fo r m e r in s i h t
;
g
g
y
an d s u bj e c t
fo r b o t h I d e a s o f t h i s Rep osit ory
are o f m e n an d pl ac e d o n th e gr o u n d
1 1 1 A w h il e a ft e r yo u c al l t o m i n d e s o m e
a t l t e ts t ou e ,

on a

as

Jl

l Sp ic e s yo u are t o b u y : T o re m e m
w h i c h , f an c v t h e s e c o n d p l a c e o f t h e s e c o n d
i

r om a t c a

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Rep os it or i e c o n v e r t e d i n t o a G r oc e r s S hop the


o s i t e w al l ga rn i h e d w it h Ne s t s o f B o xe s fu l l
o
pp
S pic e s w it h T i tl e s w r it u po n the
o f s e v e ral
B oxe s aft e r the u s u al m o d e ; t w o fo o t o n t hi s
s i d e th e w al l l e t th e r e s t an d :1 C o u n t e r t he Ware s
e x os e d t h e re o n yo u ar e t o b u y : as i f the rs t
p
t h i n g yo u n o m i n at e to b u y b e P epp e r l e t a S il
ve r b o x fu l l o f Pepp e r s t an d u p o n th e fu r th e r
e n d o f t h e C o u n t e r ; if t h e s e c o n d t h i n g d e s i gn
e d b e Nu tm e g s p l ac e a l o o se b agge o f S il ve r
N
u t m e s i n t h e m i d d l e o f th e C o u n t e r ; i f
t
i
l
g
g
th e t h i rd b e S ug a r s e t a S u g a r l o af e o n t he
i
p
the r e n d o f the C o u n t e r w it h a S il ve r s t ri n g
tye d ab o u t the to p t hat it m ay in s o m e part b e ar
th e c o l o u r o f the Rep os it o r i e
I n t h i s c as e yo u
A A 3
,

P RI

2 70

NC

I PA L S Y S T E M S o r

m e m loe r

th a t th r ee I cl e a s w e r e b e sto w e d
i n one P l a c e w h o s e c o h e r en c e w ith th e Id e a i n
th e o th e r Rep osit ory is t a k e n fr o m th e i r u n l i ke
n e sse o f s it e ; fo r th a t I d e a w as h e a p e d o n th e
gr o u n d th ese th r ee a r e p l ac e d u p o n a C o u n te r
I V Yo u r ne xt i n c i d en t b u s i ne ss s is t o r e
m e m b e r t o s p e a k W ith a C ou n s e l l ou r o f th e s a m e
to w n ( a m an o f a v e ry gr e a t r e p u t e a n d c r e d it fo r
k no w l e dg e i n th e Law ) a b o u t a fr i en d s s u te d e
p e n d i n g i n C h an c e ry : l m ag in e th a t C ou n se l l ou r
in a La w y e r s G o w n s itti n g i n a C h a i r o v e r l oo k
i n g so m e w r iti n g s i n th e r s t P l ac e o f th e thi rd
Rep os itory s e e i n g hi s G o w n i s b l a ck y o u n e e d
n o o th e r a tt r i b u t i on o f c o l o u r Of th e Re os i t or
p
y
V I f a no th e r n e w o cc as i on pr esen t it se l f
t o m i n d e a s th a t y o u a r e t o b u y a p i e c e o f
B l a k Ve l vit o f a M e r c e r i n th a t t o w n ; th e s e
Eon d Pl a c e o f th e thi rd Rep os ito ry m u s t b e
t r a ns fo r m e d i n t o a l l f e r c e rs s h o p a p i e c e o f
B l a c k Ve l ve t ne a tl y l a i d i n fo l d s o f e q ua l l e n g th
l y i n g on th e C o u n t e r w hi c h cl o th in l i k e m a nne r
as w e l l d e n o t e th e Rep o si tor i e s c o l o u r a s the
G o w n o f the C o u n se l l or s itti n g i n th e fo r m e r
P l ac e ; w h e n c e a l so i s d e d u c e d a m a n i fes t r e l a
t i on to th e pr e c e d e n t I rl e a th e Law y e rs G o wn
e l ve t
s u p o se d to b e l i n e d w it h V
p

m u st

re

2 72

P RI

NC

I PAL S YS T EM S o r

o f th e r s t Re p os it o ry t o d ie t ate to th e rs t
S cr i b e w h a t h e m u s t w r it e r s t b y th e r s t I d e a
o f th e se c on d Re p o s it o ry to t e l l th e s e c on d
S cr i b e w h a t h e s h a l l w r it e ; by th e r s t I d e a o f
t he th i rd Re p os it o ry t o i n fo r m th e thi rd ; an d i n
l i k e m a nne r a ll th e r es t i n th e i r o rd e r A g a i n
by th e s e c on d I d e a o f e a c h Re p os it o ry th e s e
c on d sen t en c e i s fa c il e l y d e l i v e r e d t o e a c h S cr i b e :
B y th e thi rd e ve rv S cr i b es thi rd b u s i ness ; by
a n d so fo r w a rd in
th e fo u r th I de a th e i r fo u r th
T hi s i s th e Exe rc i se w hi c h by
the r es i d u e
s o m e i s c a l l e d th e Ar t o f D i c t at m g
Rep e ti tion i s w h en a m an r e p e a t e th sen
te h e es s p o k en by se v e r a l p e r sons so a s t o r e t u r n
e ac h p e r sons sen t en c e i n o rd e r a s it w as d e l i v e r
a s i f s ix se v en o r m o r e fr i en d s s i tti n g t o g e
ed
th e r ( t o e x p e r i en c e y o u r h a ppy m e m o r y ) d o e v e ry
one i n o rd e r s p e a k so m e sen te n c e t o h a v e th e m
r e p e a t e d a g a i n a fte r th e s a m e o r a r e tro gade
m a nne r w hi c h w ay th ey p l e a se ; d i s p ose th e
I d e a s o f y o u r r s t fri en d s sen t en c es i n th e rs t
Re p os it o r y o f y o u r se c on d fr i en d i n th e se c on d
Re p os it o ry o f y o u r thi rd fr i en d i n th e thi rd a n d
so fo r w ard in th e r es t A ll w hi c h b e i n g r i gh tl y
d i s p ose d y o u m ay w ith li ttl e t r o u b l e r e s t o r e t o
e ith e r in th e s a m e o rd e r
e v e ry fr i e n d hi s s a y i n g
o r i n ar e tro gade o r i n v e r t
as th e y w e re s p o k e n
e d o rd e r
[ h a ve n o t th o u gh t e xp e d i en t to i ll u s tr a te
I d ea

A RT I FI C I AL M E M O RY

b e c au se I thi n k the m s u f
c ie n tl y e x p l a i n e d by w h a t h a t h b e e n a l r e a dy s a i d ;
as a l so t ha t thi s Exe rc i se o f D i c ta ti n g an d Re
e atin
ve l ittl e o r n o u se
u t va i n os t e n t a ti o n ;
h
a
b
g
p
th o u g h I h ave i ns e r t e d th e m h e re i t w as n ot
d one as n e c e ss a ry b u t b e c au se the k no wl e dg e o f
th e m d i d no t s e e m s u p e r u o u s fo r s u c h as are
l e a r n e d o f thi s Art

h e s e w ith

2 73

Exa m pl e s,

C H

A P XVI
.

Of ir r eg u l ar Rep osi tion

I H AV E th o u g h t g o od to a n n e x a fe w w o rd s
o f i rr e g u l a r Re p os iti o n w hi c h i s on e l y o n e Ru l e
t h a t i s a r e a l Re p os it o ry m ay h e s o m e ti m e s s u b
s t i t u te d i n s te a d o f a fe i g ne d w hi c h i rre u l a r i ty is
g
a d m itt e d u p on a d o u b l e o cc as i on
Fi r s t A thi n g it s e l f b e i n g at h a n d m ay b e
tl y u se d i n s t e a d o f its pr o pe r I d e a As i f a m an
l i g h t on so m e B oo k w h o se
s itti n g in hi s S t u dy
w hi c h h e in te n d e th w h e n
s h e e t s ar e tran spl ac e d
h e g o e s fo r th o f h i s S tu dy to s en d t o a B oo k
b i n d e r t o b e a m en d e d T h a t B oo k is t o b e c a s t
a t th e th r es h o l d o f th e S t u dy th a t th e s i g ht th e r e
o f m ay a d m on i s h him d e p a rti n g t o ge t it b o u n d :
So a l so i f I n k b e w a n ti n g a n I n k G l a ss o r B o ttl e
m ay b e s e t by th e B oo k
S e c on d l y Wh e n a m an m u s t e xo n e ra te o n e
,

P RI

Q74

NC

I P AL S Y S T E M S o r

o r m o r e I d e a s as soon as h e h a th r e p o s it ed
th e m ; a s w h en s o m e th i n g o ff e r s it se l f t o a m a n s
m i n d ta l k i n g to a p o w e rfu l o r r i c h m an w hi c h
h e ju dg e th c on v e n i e n t t o b e c o m m u n i c a te d t o
him w ith th e r s t O pp o r t u n it y l e t h im s p e e d il y
r e p o s ite th e I d e a o f th a t th i n g i n th e s a m e h o u s e
e l d p l a i n o r wh e r e s oe ve r h e t hen i s i n so m e
th a t he
C e r t a i n p l a c e c on v e r s a n t b e fo r e his e y es
m ay b e a l way s p u t in m i n d t o pr o p o u n d th e
s a m e w h en o c c a s i o n se rves : As i f h e thi nk t o d o
by pre
s o m e fr i en d l y o f c e fo r a p e r son a b s en t
f e rr i n g so m e b u s i ness o f hi s t o th e r i c h m an ; l e t
h im i m a gi ne tha t Fr i en d a l w a ys o bv i o u s i n s o m e
d e t e r m i n a te p l a c e i n s i gh t n o t s u ff e r i n g t he o h
e c t t o sl i p o u t o f v i e w
h
til
l
e h a ve c u r te o u sl y
j
r if th e r e
h
e
rf
o
r
e
d
m
i
s o f c iou s e n t e rpr i se
O
p
I n t e r ven e so m e th o u g ht o f b u y i n g fe w e l w h e r eo f
th e r i c h m an h a th gr e a t p l en t y l e t h im s u p p o se
a gr e a t q ua n ti ty o f Woo d p il e d u p In s o m e p l a c e
n o t d i s t a n t o u t o f s i gh t
Thi s is a ll I h a ve to say
o f i r r e u l a r Re os it ion
g
p

C H

A P X VI I
.

Of d ep os it in g I d e a s

s p o k e n c o p i o u s l y o f re p os itin g
I d e a s n o w I w il l c on c l u d e W it h D e pos rt n i g th e m
H

A VI N G

r a m c rr ar. S

2 76

In

ec

re s

of

kin d ,

Y S T EM S

or

D ir e c t ,
Re l at is e ,
Fic t i t iou s ,
S c r ip t i l e ,
C ompou n d ,
D ou bl e , tr e bl e , dye

Of C h r is t ,

In

0f s u b e a

ed

I n re spe c t of q u an tity,

Of An g e l s,
0f M e n ,
Of An imal s .

Aug m e n t e d ,
C

on t r ac t e d .

U n de r g r ou n d ,
Up on g r ai n e d ,
In

In

re spe c

re s pe c

t ion

of

si e ,

o f at trib u

q u e s ti on s
I f it b e

b u t the

in

t i

M ovin g ,
Qu ie t
,

G i vin g a s ou n d
Yie l d i n g a s me l

it

An I d e a i s o ft
fe w

Up on 0 S h e lf,
Ag ain s t a wal l

d b y d i sc u s s m g t he s e
tho u gh t s

re c o ve re

m an s

c er a n

t I d e a w as S c rip til e
ob l ivi on t h e rst in u iry
q

th e fo rgo

i n sc ri p ti o n is in
m u s t b e w h e t he r i t w e re a S n gl e w or d g pr o o f
y
r as e
h
o r s e n t e n c e o f o n e o r m o re c l au s e s ; a
p
s in l e w ord,
n
o
f
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s
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r
o
r
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A RT I FI C l A L M E M O R

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re

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t he

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in the

g
in

a ne

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t he

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p pl yi n g

s am e

Ru l e

2 77

e ac h

m an n e r

as

f Po e ti c al

Le tt e r
is pre

Re v oc a

ti o n in th e s e c o n d B o o k C ap 3 ti l l yo u h ave
o b t ai n e d th e rs t Le tt e r
the o t h e r Le tt e rs m ay
b e fo u n d b y t ran s c e n d e n c i e s an d gil d e d Vo w e l s ;
t h e c hi e f Wo rd b e i n g o b t ai n e d th e r e s t c o m e
e as il y t o m i n d
I f yo u c an n o t ye t d i s c o v e r th e I d e a hav e re
c ou rs e t o t he t h i r d an d fou r t h Ru l e s o f Po e ti c al
Re v o c ati on 2 B ook 3 C hap an I d e a b e i n g
r e v o c ab l e in th e s am e m an n e r
Fi n al l y if i t c on ti n u e i rre p arab l e b y al l
the se w ays l e t i t p ass an d b e n o l o n ge r sol l ic i
t o n s i n s e arc h th e r e o f : Fo r as a B o o k c are l e sl
y
l ai d u p in a S t u d y is n o t m an y ti m e s to b e fou n d
w h e n i t is s o u gh t t ho u gh yo u re m o ve s e ve ral
Vo l u m e s ; ye t aft e rw ard c o m e s t o han d b e yon d
h
e x e c t ati on
w
e n a n o t he r B o o k is r e ac h e d th at
p
s t an d s b y it : S o it d o t h o ft hap e n in th i s b u s i
p
th o u gh an I d e a n e gl i ge n tl y re pos it e d c an
n e ss
fo u n d w he n it is s o u gh t ye t at an o th e r
n ot b e
ti m e whe n a No ti on re pos it e d in the c e l l o f lVIe
m o ry n e ar it is e xc it e d th at al s o o f its o w n ac
c o r d d i s c o v e r e t h it s e l f
I f a m an d o pru d e n tl y fo l l o w t he s e Ru l e s o f
as W i t h 1 1 r iad n e s t h re d
r e c o v e r i ng l at e n t I d e as
h e w il l d o u b tl e s s w i n d h i m s e l f o u t o f t he Lab y
O b l i vi o n an d W i t h ad m i rab l e
rin th o f b li n d
.

B B

9 78

P RI N C I P A L S

fac il ity

van s he

Y STEM S

to m i n d forgo tt e n

ll

re c a

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s.

or

s e n e n c e s,

an

N
a t u r a l l ld e m or
g
y

f
c on c l u d e s th e vo l u m e ; in w h i c h are c o n s i d e re d
Of su c h [th i n gs] as d e b ili tat e l lI e m ory
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i
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p

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to

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Of D y e t p r op e r ly
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6

d b ad

whi c h d e bi l i tate m e mory,

air,

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m e at s ,

air,

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l is t o f
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c or r ob or a t ive s are ,

d ri n ks

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d e c o c ti o n s, b ad w at e r , par ti c u l ar
e tc
r e pl e ti o n , t o o m u c h s l e e , e tc
p
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Am o n g t h o se t h i n gs
are

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e tc ; h e r b s
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b athi n g th e fe e t in w arm d e c o c ti on s o f c am o n i il e
e xe rc ise in d e l i h t fu l
an d
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Fin al l y y ou r app ar e l
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44

A TS Il l

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l ag az in d e s S c i e n c e s , o n m ay l Ar t
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2 85

ti on s o f s u bj e c ts an d pre d i c ate s ; w he n c e w ou l d
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P R I N C I P A L S Y ST EM S

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2 89

( A n gu l e , C orn e r )
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TH E ART O F M EM ORY

P RI M A

LE C TI O

P a r t is The or ic ce

th at d e s i re t h t h i s art o r any o t h e r m u s t
b ri n g al o n g w it h him t w o t h i n g s
L o v e o f the Ar t
1
2 D e s i re o f the Art w i t h o u t w h i c h n o m an
c an l e arn or p ro t in an y Ar t o r S ci e n c e
An d h e m u s t al s o re s o l v e o f a t h i r d t h i n g
n o t to u n d e r v al u e an y Ar t o r S ci e n c e b y t he e x
il ity an d m e an n e s s o f the g ro u n d s o f the Ar t Fo r
D I vin it y Law Phy s i ck an d th e s e ve n Lib e ral l
Art s an d al l o t h e r S ci e n c e s are p re s e r ve d in s ix
an d t w e n ty Le tte rs an d s o t ran s m itt e d t o Pos t e
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Al p h ab e t b e e ve ry o n e k n o w e t h ; s o l e t u s al s o
c o n s id e r t h at m os t r i c h s t o n e s an d p re c i ou s
G e m s are di gg e d o u t o f th e e art h an d t he m os t
ee

PRINC I PA L S YSTEM S

Q90

t t ly

the

or

th b u t if art
By
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Art th e s t o n e s are s e p arate d fro m the c h al k an d
tte d by the Arti c e r fo r the m o s t s u m p tu ou s
b u il di n g s th e D i am on d S ap h i re Ru b i e b y the
h an d an d s k i ll o f the Arti c e r are i n t h ron e d in
th e pu re s t G o l d ; al s o th e m os t h ar m on i ou s an d
Ear pl e as i n g M u s i c k t h at q u ic kn e th u p an d e u
l ive ne th the d ro ws ie Vi t al s c on s i s t e th b u t in t h re e
K e y e s an d s ix No t e s We m i gh t i n st an c e the
l i k e e xili ty in the Fu n da m e n ts and gr ou n ds o f the
o t h e r S ci e n c e s an d rare st Ar ts : T h e re fo re i f i t
b e t h u s in t h e s e h e m u s t n e e d s b e m al ici o u s an d
that w i l l c o n te m n e this Ar t of M e
u n w o rthy
m ory fo r th e m e an n e s s o f the Fu n dame n t s t h e re
of w hic h be
l
Rep osit or ie s 2 I d e as 3 M e thod
t
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4 The Vse or Exe r c ise o
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C
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1 Nat u ral ] w h i c h w e k n o w : o r
9 Ar ti c ial w h i c h w e i m ag i n e an d m ake
An d in b o t h o f t h e m the M e
in o u r Fan c i e
t h od is acc o rd ing to th i s Figure
tre e s d oe gro w

s a e

ou t o f

e ar

PR I N C I P A L S Y S TEM S

2 92
w it h th e

p u re s t

or

h ite Li n n e n o r Taffaty an d d i
vid e d i n t o its ve p ar t s al s o
viz
6 7 8 9 10
T he t h i rd S o r W w h ic h is We s t o f the s am e
Lati t u d e al so an d c l o t h e d w i t h ri c h Tap e st ry
an d divi d e d i n t o it s ve p ar t s
12
wh ic h b e
14
15
13
The fo u r t h Pari e s w h i c h is No r t h
I0 y ar d s fo u re s q u are al s o han ge d w i t h an h an g
in g b e se t fu l l o f D i am on d s Ru b i e s S aphire s,
a n d al l
m an n e r o f p re ci o us G e m s an d d iv i d e d
al s o i n t o its ve p ar ts viz
1 6 1 7 1 8 , 1 9,
w

LECTI O I I

P ar tis The or ic ze

W H E N you are p e rfe ct in t h i s pl ac e in e v e ry


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An g u l e w h ic h is C wl u m ve r su s) an d the se c o n d
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fou rt h An g u l e J u xta t e r r am ( wh ic h is al s o Eas t
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29 3

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t h e se Tabl e s in t h e i r se v e ral P l ac e s ( as t h e y s t an d
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PR I N C I P A L S Y STEM S

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for h is o w n o r o t h e rs s a t i s facti o n b u t t h at h e m ay
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w e h e re t o fo re app ro v e d u p o n s e r i o u s c o n s u l t
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p art o f t h i s Art o f M e m ory w i t h o u t l o sse o f t i m e
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29 8

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to re pre se n t Ch r i s t him se l fe
s I m prope r as i f I pu t the I m age o f C h ri s t
t o re pre s e n t a m an ; L o gic i an s e xp re sse t h i s in
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P R I N C I PA L S Y S T EM S

3 00

LECTI O II
0f the P ra c ti c ke P ar t
S E N T E N C E S,

or

S e n te n c e s

c o n t i n u e d Te xt s are c om
m itte d t o M e m o ry an d re t ai n e d : Th e pr in c ip al l
I d e as o f t h e i r Wo r d s b e i n g pu t i n th e M e th o d i
c al l pl ac e s o f the R An d t h e s e b e i n g m ad e su re
o f t h e y b r i n g th e l e s s e p r in c i al l Wo r d s o f th e
p
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m e m o ry i n t o o u r Re m e m b r an c e i m m e di at e l y
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m u s t o b s e r v e fo u re t h i n g s
1
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I d e a o f t he w h o l e s e n t e n c e
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2 M ar k e dil ig e n t l y th e rs t
W o r d o f e v e ry s e n t e n c e ; for i f re t u rn i n g to t he
P P b y the e ye o f o u r fan c y w e s e e th e rs t
W o r d an d p rin c ipal l I d e a in e v e ry s e n te n c e the
n at u r al l M e m o ry w il l s u gg e s t t h e r e s t v e ry s afe l y :
for as in S c h o o l s C h ild re n th at h av e g o t a t as k e
o f V e rse s b y h e ar t i f t h e y m i s s e th e r e p e at i n g o f
t h e m an d the l e afe b e i n g d o u b te d m ay b e b u t
p e r m i t t e d to s e e the rs t Le tte rs t h at e v e ry V e rse
b e gin n e th w ith al l t h e y w il l b e abl e t o re p e at
e v e ry on e o f t he V e r se s b o t h fo r w ard an d b ac k
w ar d c as t i n g t h e i r e ye u p on the L e tt e r t h at e v e ry
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4 We m u s t h ave a c are
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al on e
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3 04

P RBN C J P AL. s s s r n m s

LECTI O V I
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t or i es

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on

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H I S T O R I E S b e v e ry c asie to b e re me m
b e re d : t hr e e ru l e s ar e to b e obs e r ve d
Fi rs t Pr op o u n d un t o you r s e l f th e H i story
an d Au tho u r o f the
H i s to ry an d re ad s om e of
it in th e m o rn i n g so m e o f i t in the aft e rn oon,
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an d s e rio u s l y
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l
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ve rs H i s t or ie s t he y are al l to b e e xp re ss e d b y
th e i r s i n g ul ar a nd pr op e r I de as in pl ac e s b y
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b e r S c ri ptu re H is t or ie s i n s ix s ev e n e ig h t c on
c la v e s ; fo r e xa m pl e yo u m ay d i vi d e the b o o k o f
G e n e sis in t o the H i s t ory o f Ad am Noah
.

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Ab r a ha m , I saa c , J ac o b , J osep h

Th i rdl y I f you d e s i re l e i su re l y an d w i th
divi d e it i n to p ri n
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L ECT I O VI II
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su r e

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l thin g s in

T H E R E b e t wo s u re di re cti o n s :
The rs t is c all e d Parad i se w h ic h is th e ap
p l y i n g the m os t d e ligh t fu l l th i n gs an d o bje cts
t o e v e ry o f the ve S e n c e s viz wh at m os t aff e ct
,

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3 06
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ki n d o f I d e as fo r t h e r e s t o f th e l e tt e rs W t l l b e
l ike the l e tte rs ; an d i n s t e ad o f vo w e l s u se the se
A fo r w h ite fo r E b l e w o r gre e n
c o l o u rs

for I re d fo r 0 b l ac k for U ye l l o w

in

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l l,

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th i s Art

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w as b o rn

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m e n c e d his n o vi c i at e in t he S o c i e ty o f the J e
in his s e v e n t e e n t h ye ar am o n g w ho m he
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th i n g of a n ove l
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is

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w o rk w h i c h w e

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te r o f the O l d and Ne w T e s t am e n t s e t d o w n
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P R I N C I PA L S Y STEM S

3 10

o r

s h e d u n d e r th e T itl e o f
li
M ic r o b ib l ion ; o r
p
t he B b l e s E pi t o m e e tc
Lon d
T he Pro l e go m e n a t o t hi s m e t ri c a l v e rs i o n an d
ab r i d g m e n t o f t he Ol d an d Ne w T e s t am e n t
a re
tw o Epi s tl e s D e d i c at ory ; o n e fro m T B an d tl ie
o t he r
fro m S W [S i m o n Was te ll ] an d th e
Tr an s l at o r s Pre fac e to t he re ad e r fro m t he s am e
Al l t he s e are c u ri o u s an d w o r thy pre
p e rs o n
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.

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th e

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PAU L W E NT WO RT H

Wo rthy

t aug h t to

ef
s e a k En g l i s h i n
p
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l En c hi ri d i o n was
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ran s l a t e d
t
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f
p
g
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han d of M r W as t e l q u o n da m
,

t he r e ,

S I R,

TH I S l a bor i ou s
rs t

( whos e Ill

Q yn tm e n t ,

e m ory ,

l i ke

Fre e S c h o o l

by th e p ainf u l
S c hooLm ast e r

B ox

r e c ious

p
s t i l l r e t a in s a s we e t fragran c y i n th os e

P a r ts ; ) An d was t he r e by h i m h u m bly r e c om
a No b l e Lor d ,
m e n d e d t o t he P a t r on ag e o
f
o rm l e i h t o n ,
s e c ia l l
W
e
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w a r d s t ha t

e m in e n t

Se e d

Le a r n in g

b e in g

on

the

t he

a c c ou n

Light i n

n ow

a n ew

i n d u l ge n t Fav o u rs to
Pl o t a n d Nu rs e ry of

t he r e

Edi tion ,

or e a

a in

to

sa l u t e

g
to whom m ore p r o

P R IN C I P A L S Y S TE M S

3 12

m a ke P e r s ons b e t t e r

an d

B l e ss e d B o o k whic h
q

or

ac

a on e

wit h the Alm i gh ty

u a in t e d

u a in

t ed

wit h t hat
~

b ri n g

c an

as

ac

Tha t i t m ay c on du c e t o t he se e n d s ; a n d p ar
t i c u l ar ly , t hat y ou r w o r thy S e l fe m a y, by a
.

P ra c ti se

an d

B e l ief , d he r e n c e ,

t h ose

D i vi n e

D ic ta te s , e njoy an e ve r l ast ing M e m o ri al in t he


B ook o f Life , i s t he P ray e r of

Yo u r S e rvan t

T B
.

Ep is t l e D e d ic a t ory

To

S IR

Ro n s RT

w ish e th

od

Lor d ,

S PENC ER,

B ar on Sp e n c e r

on o u rab e

l ar G o

TH E

Ri gh t H
H is S i n gu

Wast e l l

S im on

r om

Km

Wor m l e ig h ton :

of

l l H appin e ss Te m p o ral
Ete rn al
'

an d

Righ t

on ou r a bl e ,

TH E m an i fo l d Favou rs

Lord sh i p
S c h o ol

of

ve r s in c e

my

Nor thamp t on

l at e pro m i s e d Ass i s t an c e
t o th at Righ t w h e re o f

Ye ars

u nc o n sc ion ab

rs t
,

as

to

it

iv e d

fr o m yo ur
l
ac i n g in th e Er e e
p

al so Yo u r H o n ou r s
re c e

h e l p th e

id

sa

S c hoo l

hath b e e n th e s e

ly d e frau de d

man y

hat h c ause d m e

xA n T I

ti me s to

t C I A I.

EM O RY:

3 13

i s h t hat s o m e go o d o c c as i on
m i gh t b e o ffe re d u n t o me w he re b y I m igh t w it
o
u t al so
t
b
n e ss n o t o n l
u n t o you r H o n ou r
y
Po s t e rity h w m u c h I c o n fe s s m y se l f o b l ige d
u n to
h
at i n
o u fo r t he s am e
n d t h e re fo re
A
g
y
t ake n s o me Pai ns to t u rn the C o n t e nts o f the
B i b l e b r i e y i n to En gli sh b l ee t e r for the he l p
o f w e ak M e m o ri e s
( b e in g in c ou r age d the re u n to
b y the Pe rs vvas io n o f d iv e rs o f m y go d l y l e arn e d
Fri e n d s u h e n t h e y s aw s o me En t ran c e m ade
t he re i n t o ) YOU ! H o n o u r b e i n g in th e v e ry
Fro n ti s pi e c e o f m y d e are st an d w o r thi l y mos t ho
n o u re d Fr ie n d s
I d e t e rm in e d to d e d i c at e the
sam e
t o ge t he r w it h m y h u m bl e an d b e s t S e r
vi e u n to you r H o n ou r ; b e s ee c hi n g yo u t hat
b o t h m y s e l f an d i t as al s o o u r po o r w ro n ge d
S c ho o l m ay s til l b e pat ro n i z e d an d s hro w d e d
s h ad o w o f
r H o n ou rab l e Pro te c
u n d e r t he
o
u
y
ti o n : s o w il l I n o t fe ar w hat m y b ac k Fri e n ds
c an Say t o m y B oo k n o r w h at t h e y c an d e vi s e o r
d o agai n s t m y s e l f ; s o al s o shal l you r H o n ou r
( in re s pe c t o f the S c h o o l ) h ave the pr ai se o f th e
Pr o phe t t o b e c al l e d A B u il d e r of t ha t was te
h
l
and
t
F
ou n d a ti on
i
e
ac e
a Raise r
u
p f
p
th e r e of ; a Rep a i r e r
t ha t B r e a c h an d a
ma ny

'

'

'

'

Re st or e r of
h o n o u re d
s ors ,

as

those

P a ths t o d we l l i n

an d e s e e

th e

se c o n d

med

of

me

Fou n d e r
B E

An d

so

be

l l my S uc c e s
the re o f, an d b e pa~
an d a

3 14

P RI N C I P A L

ral l e l

q u al i z e d
rs t : Fo r

an d

wh o w as the

Non

T is

Y S T EM S

or

w ith Tl l am as

C hip sey ,

m i n or

tu e ri

e st v ir tus

ua m

u
ce r e r e
g

r ta
a
p

no

l e s s p i ou s , t h in gs l os t t o

T h an for

'

rs t Fou n d e rs to giv e

re gain ,

t o m ain ain .

Vou c h safe I

Lord )

b e s e e c h yo u ( m y m o s t ho n ou re d
c h e e r fu l l y t o ac c e t o f t hi s m
p
y poo r

as

Wi d o w s M ite ( b e i n g a Paw n an d
P l e dge o f m y e v e r d u ti fu l an d t han kfu l M in d as
Artaxe rxe s is s ai d to hav e re c e iv e d an h an d fu l o f
W ate r froo m the p oor C ou n t ry m an w h o s e
S o w il l
Ab il ity w o u l d affo rd n o b e tt e r a G i ft
I e ve r pou r fo r th m y Praye rs u n t o the Al m i gh ty
Pre s e rv e r o f M an ki n d the G i ve r o f e v e ry go od
t h e w o u l d b e p l e ase d to vo u c h s afe u n t o
G i ft t ha
o u r H o n o u r, an d t o al l yo u r H on o u rab l e Pro
y
e n th o f D a s
h
I
l
it
n
w
e n y h e alth o f B o dy
g
y
g
an d
c r e as e o f G rac e an d H o n o u r in t h i s Li fe
the Fr u iti o n o f e t e rn al B l e s s e d n e ss in th e Wo rl d
Pr e s e n t

an d

to c o m e

Yo u r H
e ve r

on ou r s

to

c om m a n d ,

S I M ON WASTELL
.

31 6

r
c i r A L S Y S T E M t} p a

I o s e s,
lV

an d

l e a rn e d

an d

r a ve

d id by

they
s

f e r ed

me

ar r

o ve r ,

t il l

un

the m

an d

t o h is

M in i ste rs vie w

thei r

orwa r

e r su a s on s
p

d,

t ha t

( t hr oug h

G od

an

othe r

c e n s ur e s ,

p i k

so

an

r c

c ou ld

to

n ot

i
g ve

ssistan c e )

had g on e t hr ough b oth t he Ol d a n d Ne rb


I c onf e ss I have n ot p r e c ise ly
Te stam e n ts
.

h
s l lI e thod a n d M an n e r , b e
i
o
t
f
l
t he E ng l ish t on gu e is f a r m o r e c op iou s

ty e d my
c a us e

t han

se

La tin

t ake n

; b u t have

l ibe r ty ( a o
c or d in g as t he c on te n ts o
f e ac h c hap te r w e r e
l ong e r or br ief e r ) t o c on c l u d e the m som e tim e s in
t wo,

t he

som e ti m e s

ti c hs, with

as

in

ou r ,

me t im e s in m ore D is

so

m u c h b r e vity

( observin g pe rspi

I have p u rpose ly l abou re d


t o Sp e a k p l a in ly t o t he c ap a c i t y an d u n de rs tand
ing of t he simpl e a n d ig n oran t, r ather than by
c ai t

y)

as

c ou l d

P oe tic al str a in s t o p le ase the E a r , a n d the Eye


r ious l e a r n ed R
ad e r s
e
ast alsa
t
e
c
u
h
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Q
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of
t he c on t e n ts (f e ve r y C hap te r se t d own
n ot on l
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.

in

or d e r

t he e

u n to

Alp ha be t ic a l ly
the m ,

bu t

a l so

wit h

u r es

re s
u
g

in

to

dire c t

ne to
l
i
y
shal t in d
y

e ve r

the Ve rse a l t er e t hou


t ha t p r e se n t ly whic h t hou d esi re st t o know,
C hap ter ,
i nhal e
w ithou t r e ad in g ove r the

dir e c t

t he e t o

Thou hast

al so

Ad am

f
of
C hri st t o An tic hri s t
t im e s

rom

C hron ol ogic al

obse rva tion

C hri s t , and
Thou hast also the
to

f rom
n am es

O RY

A RT I FI C I A L M E M
(

al l

in

B ooks of

the

B ibl e ,

t he

3 17

t hey

as

ol l ow

or d e r .

La st l y,
m e n ts
m an s

A B C

Re ad e r )
to

te r ,

ove r

t he

g
old

l
e a se t he e ( e n tl e
g
p
hast r e ad or he ar d a C hap

whe n t hou

rea

e n c ou r a

c al l e d

d e a t h,

s ha l l

it

an d

c om or ts

t he j ear e

a in st

hast

thou

t he

t wic e , thou m ay e st

c on te n ts

be

bl e t o

in m e e t e r

on c e or

re he ar se

an d sa y

by he ar t, a n d so in shor t tim e
b e ac q u ain te d with the H ist or y of the whol e

t he

sa id

B ibl e

c on t e n ts

If

kn owl e dg e
we

ll

an y

the

was, who

B oole

e
j

s o z e a l ou sl
e
y

be

S c r ip tu r e s ,

t he

( a s M aste r Fo x

f M ar t yr s

t he

b y he a r t

1 075 , g ot

as

l l the

c te

d with t he

Lor d C

r e c or d e th

ro m

in the

th

Ed it ion , page
n e w Te st a m e n t o
f

Eras m u s h is Tr an sl a tion in hi sj o ar n ey t o

Ro m e ,

h e m ig ht i n shor t t im e g e t by he ar t t he se b r ief
c on t e n ts
o
h
h
ol e
l
t
w
t
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B
i
b
e
h
e r f or e
f
If
e
.

t he

Law

God

be

was D avi d s ) this l ittl e

or t a b e

b r oa d ,

t h ou

st a ye s t

d e li gh t ,

B ook wil l
whe the r

c omp a n on ,

or

t hy

h om e

at

be

it

c om

wa l /c e st

than

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( as

n al l

c re ase
i
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savin
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f l if e, b y
t he se m y p oor l a b ou rs t o t he Ed i c a t io n a n d
y
re l /

e st

S al vat ion
s i re ,

savin

a sc r ibe

the

an

t hy
t ha t

P r a ise

S ou l ,
I

ha ve

wou l d

an d

E E

t ha t

'

e n tre a t

G l or y
3

al l

al l

I de

the e

to

to

God ,

3 18

P ars

G b rd

an

We l l

wishin g s,

qu e

me

t hy

an d

Thi n e in

an y

m m
C

or

hari tabl e C

P r ay e rs

C hri s ti an

that

e nsu re

s e rv c e

c an

r
r
e
f
o
m,
p

A c hro n o l ogi c al t ab l e fo l l o w s thi s pr e fac e


f rom th e C re ati o n of Adam t o t he d e par t u re o u t
an d th e n am e s o f al l th e B o oks o f the
o f Egy pt
Th e
B i b l e w it h the n u m b e r o f the C hapt e rs
s e c i m e n s se l e c t e d fro m t h e D ivin e Ar t
e
a
r
p
th e w ho l e b ook o f G e n e s is an d t he ol d m an s
,

A B C
.

P RI

3 20

7 G OD

NC

t he

un o

T he y

H Eav n s

Noah

13

fort h

go e s

fo rb id d e n

95

l oK No w

Gi mm

t h e m igh t y

Nimr od r s t

of

1 l LEam h e re

c o n fu s ion

ar

10

S iz e m

to H

t he

3*

2 023

wi l

his

21

Son s

Te r ah

re s e r ve

t he

at

rs t :

"
P

ro ge n y,

l e ave t hy l an d ;

Abr am }

Te r ak w e n t

M Ake has t, 0

d r u n k,

a so .

of

l an gu age

B abe l re n t :

IQ

32

t hy ife

1 d o t h m ake him fain


r
e
a
i
F
Fam n e ;
4
r e s t or e s h is Wife
t he K in g

NOW L

d he

1 ri
c

hly

t u rn :
7
r
d
d
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s
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part s t he m b o t h
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t
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s
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3

n
r
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M OPp os d b y fou r 1 fi v e Kin gs are s l ain
IS

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re

2 03 3

Abr ah am
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s

i
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30

1* r
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h e re b e gin s,
Nat ion s

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s an d

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ho l e

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ex

th e r d u l l an d n o t v e ry protab l e
I n th e f tl r c h ap te r at the ft e e n t h s e c ti o n w e
b o d y as
al l s u c h M o ti on s o f th e
ar e t o l d t h at
are d e
c au s e gi d d i n e s s o r s w i m m i n g in th e h e ad
The ref or e we sh ou l d
s t r u c tiv e t o the m e m o ry
c e

is

e d)
t
p

ra

h a ve

al c a r e
i
e
c
p

a s

P LAC E S ,

t u r n in g

to

a void P A L Ls

r ou n d

as

th e

r om H I G H

D e rvi sh e s w e

A RT I FI C I A L M E M
su

pp

e ad

o se

T he

]
i

33 3

B l ows up on the b i n d e r p a r t of tire

or

s xt

O RY

b o u n d s w it h

h apt e r

re c e

ip t s

fo r

ti n g the m e m o ry t ake n prrn c rpal ly fro m


A fe w o f the s e
t he e arl y w rit e r s o n t h i s s u bj e c t
w e sh al l e xt rac t fo r the be n e t Of s u c h as are in
c l ine d to u s e t h e m

c o m fo r

'

S n ee z in g P on d e rs

S n e e z i n g Pou d e rs w e l l pre par d are o f gr e at


n
u se , b u t m ay
ro v e
e r n i c i ou s if an
t
h
i
b
e
g
p
p
y
off e ns i ve t o th e B rai n in th e C o m os iti o n
D
ri e d
p

Le av e s o f M arj o ram , S age , Ros e m ary, the Roo t s


O f the H e rb Py re th r u m , o f Li n gw o r t p e r fu m e d

M u sk,

w ith

c o m fo r

th e

G a l an g a l
is

v e ry

are

B rai n

we

ll

fu l t o

u se

an

h oi c e

s ne e z

d M e m o ry

d ri e d ,

an d

re

in g

r,

An d the H

to
er

d u c e d to Po n d e r,

t
h
e n M e m or
g
y

s re n

Pon de

An o th e r

Pon d e r m ay b e m ad e o f P epp e r ,
H e rb C on disi, w h it e Li n g wor t , an d

ne e z n
o
d
s
o
g
g

w ith

th e

Lil l i e s ,

i th

mu s t have

re

t he

c ar e n ot

u e n t u se o

r e u di c e
p

e rfu m e

s om e

the s e

B r ai n

B u t we

a tu re b
t
N
a
o
o
d

y
othe r S m m s ol ric l r m a

to

or

d Gums

en

P l a is t e rs t o p re ve n t a d e c ay of M e m ory
D iv e rs Pl ai s t e rs , he n w e n d a d e c ay in

M e m ory , m ay b e u se fu l fo r he l pi n g the B rai n


As a Pl ai s t e r m ad e o f M u s tard s e e d , an d c l apt
v

3 34

P RI

NC I P AL S Y S T E M S

b in d e r p ar t
:M u s tarcf s e e d w he n
t o the

the

of

e ad ,

or

or

O il

th e

Or if

p p l y d t o t hat par t

of

e as e t o b e at
l
t ake Fl o
y
p
gre at e r Expe n c e
re n tin e
Lill i e s the H e rb s H e r m od acj yl e an d
Py re thr u m l e av e s o f t he w il d Vi n e P i ge o n
d u n g M u s t ar d s e e d o f e ac h an O u n c e ; m ix
the m w ith M os c hata Nu t s S pic e C l ov e s C i n a
m on
an d Pe
er
an d m ake a Pl ai s t e r ; w h i c h
pp
a
k
m
o
u
l
i
e
i
se a
l
h
i
n de r
ar
t
f
t
h
e
h
o
t
e
o
w
t
y
y
pp y
p
H e ad an d yo u w il l n d i t i n c re as e an d he l p M e
m o ry
An d a c e rt ai n fam o u s Au t h o r ass u re s u s
t hat the G a l l o
f a P a r tr idg e an oin te d a bou t t he
Te mp l e s d oe s w o n d e rfu ll y s t re n g the n the S e at o f
M e m o ry ; as al s o t he B r a in s of B ir d s an d Fowl s
r oas t e d
an d c hie y o f H e n s are n o t u se l e ss for

ou

the

s am e

ur

p ose

p
3

Take

A P on d e r f or the M e m ory

the

Se e d

or

Le av e s

of

Or m in u m ,

an

t he m to Po n d e r an d e v e ry M o rn i n g take
a s m al l q u an tity o f a G l as s o f W i n e
An d t he y
I
s ay t h at th e S havi n s o r P on d e r c
vory pro
f
g
d u c e th e s am e e ffe c t n am e l y the c orrob orati n g
o f the B rai n an d M e m o ry ; as l i ke w i s e 3 G rai n
o f wh it e Fr an ki n c e n se t ake n in a D rau gh t o f Li
q u o r w he n w e go to B e d d ri e s u p the o ffe n s ive
H u m ors o f the B rai n . An d it has b e e n o b se rv d
th at the Appl i c ati on o f G ol d to that S u tu ra
w h i c h d ivi d e s the S e at o f M e m ory from
the o t he r
re d u c e

3 36

P RI

d o thre

in g m o re
5

Y S T EM S

fou r

o r

i t

an o n

A Ly e

Agai n ,
th e s am e

I P AL S

ti m e s a ye ar and c o n ti n u e
o r l e ss as t he r e is o c c as i o n

or

NC

an o

ur

t he r

os e

Wa sh f or t he

or

e ad .

Expe r i m e n t m ay b e
T ake e i gh t G l as s e s

f ry

d for

of c om

Wate r l e ave s o f I vy an d S tic as o f e ac h 3


Pou n d an d a h al f ; pu t t he m t o ge th e r in the
l t
a e r to b o il til l th e Wat e r b e al m o s t c on s u m d ;
a ft e r w ard s l e t it b e w e l l s train d an d s u e e z d
q
an d p u t in to it a s m al l q u an tity o f Tu r pe nt i n e
w as h d w ith Ro se w ate r : T he n w as h t he H e ad
an d af t e r d ryi n g i t an o in t w it h
w it h a go o d Lye
th e afo re s aid Li q u o r t he T e m p l e s an d h i n d e r par t
m on

'

th e

of

e ad .

6 A p e lf u m e d App l e f or c omf or t in g t he
B rai n a n d M e m ory
.

Take Lau d an u m , Li gn u m Al o e s , S t o rax, o f


C l o v e s , Nu t m e gs s w e e t B as i l ~
e ac h a D ram ;
,

se e

d,

wh

ich

o f e ac

h h al f

D ram ;

l l q u an tity

a sm a

M os c h

of

h as b e e n d is so l v d , m ake

r se

To s t r e n g t he n

t he

To

l o st ;

w he n

m ary,

s re n

gt he n

or

the

aga in s

an

hl

an

Ounc e

; t he

it

e n i o rr ,

G id tl in c s s

Le av e s

in

or r e s t or e

or

of

re s o re

T a ke

B o rage , C h am o mil e , Vi o l et s ,

an

d Am b e r

App l e

M e m ory

whe n l as t

e ac

it h Ro s e w at e r

it

Ros e

Ro s e s

Lau re l , M arj o

M EM

A tt r i r t C i AL

S age

ram ,

o f e ac

O RY

Ounc e s ;

h t wo

837

h op

ll

t he m

t
i
n t he b e s t Win e , an d a ft e r
h
e
m
u
t
d
,
p

d i s til t h ro a gl ass Al e m b i c , an d
a d ay s ti m e
ke e p t he d i s t i ll e d Liq u o r ; in w h i c h p u t o f s w e e t

t oge the r

sc e n e

an

d T u r pe n ti n e

Fran ki n

Po u n d , w h ite

i ght O u n c e s M as ti c M yrrh B d e l li u m
An ac ard i o r C as s i a n u t s o f e ac h fou r O u n c e s :
b e at the m al t o ge th e r an d s o l e t t he m s t an d fo r
ve d ays m ix d w it h the D i s til l ati o n in a c o ve r d
Ve s se l Afte rw ard s d i til w ith a q u i c k Fi re til l
e t an O l o u t o f t he m
h
i
w
c h ke e p c l o s e
o
u
y
y
g
sh u t U p in a g l ass B o ttl e w e l l s to p p d w it h W ax
Fo r u s e t ake as m u c h o f i t as
an d Parc h m e n t
w ou l d l y in a l arge n u t s he l l d own t he M ou t h an d
t he h i n d e r
an o i n t al s o the M e m ori a l p a r ts v iz
an d al l th e Par t s b e for e m e n
ar t o f the H e ad
p
c e nse e

t ion

You

w il l

nd

i t to be

P il l sf or t he

ve r

yg

ood .

f M e m ory

us e o

i t Nu t m e gs C l ove s
o f e ac h a D ram an d a hal f ; th e be s t Fran ki n
c e n se
c h oi c e
M yrrh o ri e n tal Am b e rgris e o f
e ac h a S c r u p l e an d a hal f ; M osc h
ve G rain s :
w it h M orjo ram w ate r m ake Pi l l s
Ta ke on e i n
Take C hn b e b s, C

a am n

oi n

to

b e fo re

S pr i n g

T he

B e d,

an d

t wo

at

Sun

M e at ; in the Wi n te r
an d

Fal l m o re

se

hapt e r w hi c h

l do m
tre at s

G 0

r isin

ve h ou rs

g
e ve r
t
M
o
n
h, in t he
y

of

Arti c i al

or

P RI

33 8

NC

I PA L S

Fan tas tic al M e m o ry


a

Y S T EM S

0y

Re m e m b rame e

or

l ite ral t ran s l at io n from G rataro l i


M ari us B Assign y w as th e Au t ho r

is

l m o st

ve l

n g l or u m ,

r im

Exe r c ita ti ome s O mton w in

Rhe tw ic a m S acro w
i

m or a s c orr o

th i s

w ork,

et

omm u n e m

Lo nd

b or a n das,

a c

1 6 99

62

c ua

1 ee

c la m

3t

e x c e rp e n d i

e r sp i

Nu c l e u m

S c i e n t ia m m m o

om n i u m

ex

'

t e d a gre at
i n t o Latin

lve
sa

In

s u b e c t of

h apt e r is d e v o t e d to the

M e mo r i e s
M e t h od u s

Qu i bu s

e x ec
h
e
b
i
m
i
t
a
s
h
h
c
n
i
w
r
m
o
e
m
p
,
g
y,
n
e
i
s
d
o
r
e
o
m
o
M
t
r
A
i
s
t
h
o
f
r
y
f
pa

1 29

Rh e to

of

t
a
d
r
/
z
r
a
E
o
m
h
T
P
R
n u m e n tis
v
i
a
r
t
P
5
7
1
e
1
n
d
l
i
t
V
Aug u s
[
a

P m tz q u e

i n 3 To m

d e l a M e m oi r e Ar tzf ic ie l l c
'

re n d re

et

r e tem r

ur
o
p

pp
p
l
c
e
c
E
e
r
i
s
o
z
t
H
Z
t
e
a
n
i
S
e
l H is toi r
r
P
c
e
an
F
r
e
a
d
r
e
i
t
o
s
z
H
t
I
s ia s t i q u e e
a

ou r

'

'

l e P e re

B g
z

1 7 1 9 1 72 3
-

i
Th s
si

s e

m is

is in t e n d e d
at

s,

3 t om

o f C h r o n o l o gy

ti o u

th e

w o rk

P an

e r,

a nd

onc e

to
un

fac i l i t at e th e

iv e rs al

i n ge n i o u s

an d

ac

i s t o ry
s i m pl e

,
.

an

It

3 40
a

J e su it in

he

d i e d in

1 6 79

his

xe d

t he

re s

in th e

ye ar 1 73 7,
a

or

Aft e r h av i n g t rav e l l e d to Ro m e ,

i de n c e

S o c ie tv,

the

of

SY S T E M

P RI N C I P AL

c a ital o
p

f Fran c e ,

Par i s , in

at

ge d 76 ye ars

t he

has

an d

l l e ge

l e ft

he

h i n d him m an y w o r ks , b e s i d e s

ti c e d

t h at a l r e ad y n o
h av e b e e n c o l l e c t e d

i
i pal o f w hi c h
p
an d
p u b l i s h e d in h is C ou r s d e s S c i e n c e s p ar d e s
l
r i n c i e s n o u ve a u x c l
si
e
o
r
r
p
u
o
,
p
p
p
m
f mer l e
t he

r nc

'

l a n g u ag e , l

ri

le

rf

'

wu r,

ol

1 73 2

The

v e rs e an d p ros e w r iti n gs
H e w as a vi rt u o u s
is m o r e p l ain t h an e l e gan t
m an an d v e ry l ab o ri o u s in h is
s

tyl e

'

B a f e r, in his

of

M e m or ia Te c hn ic a : o r a Ne w
"
M e th o d q A r t i c ia l M e m ory ap

64

l
e d to
i
p

l
i
p

an d e x e m

l og y , H i s t ory
l

n om

a so

R o m an C
su r e s, e t c

L an d

G e og r ap hy , A s t r o

wis h ,

G r e c ia n

We ig h ts

oin s ,

ub

to w h

M ea
.

1 73 0

n in th e d iti on o f

l ish e d

an d

an

B y R i c ha r d G r ey , D

T he

i n C h r on o

ed

ic h

th iS b OOlC

an d

to

t he

j ust
e d it io n

h as b e e n
e

i gh th

M n e m on ic s, [s e e No
I n 1 802 , a t h i n pam phl e t w as pu b l i shed , e n ti
tl e d , l e c hn ic a M e m or i a , b y M W J o h n e s ; it

ar e

d
ed
n
pp
e

'

Lo we

'

'

D ic

H is

Ar t B i fi
.

A RT I F1 0XA L M E M
'

it

m e re l y

c o ns s s

of

e x rac

ts

r e

t hi s

I n t he

D r Le t ti c e

1 805 ,

h
i
os al s fo r
u b li sh i n
s
p
g
p
p

Te c h n ic a , b u t w e c an n o t l e ar n

so m e

M e m or ia

84 1

fro m G re y

M on thl y Ill ag az i n e for J u n e


i nse

O RY

w o r k w as

ro

ve r

p u t t o pre s s

It

Ne w
t hat

i n te n ded
in c h ro n o l o gy
D r G re y bl i t
w as

t ab l e s
n
o g ra
h
t h e p l an o f
o
e
S
t
e
y
g
p

i
e
m
o
e
it
h
n
d
e
ra
b
l
i
r
v
m
e
n
t
w
c o s
s?
p
I n o rd e r to e n ab l e t ho s e w ho fe e l so i n c li n e d to
r ac t is e D r G re
s S s t e m w e s hal l e xt rac t fro m
y
p
y
the f ou r t h e d i t ion o f th e M e m o ri a l e c hn ic a
t o e m b rac e a n u m b e r o f

'

l
she d
b
i
u
p

i n his l if e tim e ,

fo r the pu rp os e
The p ri n c i p al Par t

s ary

m uc h

so

as

is

nec es

t hi s M e t ho d is b rie y
th i s ; To re m e m b e r an y t hi n g in H i s t ory C hro
G e og raphy &c a Wo r d is fo rm d t he
n o l o gy
B e gin n in g w h e re o f b e in g the rs t Syl l ab l e o r
S y ll ab l e s o f th e T hi n g s o u gh t d o e s b y fre q u e nt
Re pe t iti o n o f c o u rs e d raw afte r i t t he l att e r
Par t wh i c h is s o c o n triv d as to give th e An s w e r
T hu s in H i s t o ry the D e l u ge happe n e d in the
Ye ar b e fo re C hr ist t w o T ho u san d t h re e H u n
d re d fo rty e igh t ; t hi s is s ign i e d b y th e \Vo rd
of

l t m
e t i tl

T o h is is

t im

s in c e ,

As s is

t t

par ts ,

an

on

y be

b y S am ue l

ad d e

R
Ne e d ham ,

w or k

e m i m s c e n t ia

th e p an of D r G re y
.

G G

t o be

ann o u n c e

o r,

c o

mp

so m e

the

M e m or y

l t

d i n t h re e

e e

'

P RI

3 42

N C I P AL S Y S T E M S

D e l e toh : D e l

s an d n

g fo r D E LU G E , an d e t ok
As t ro n o m y, the D i am e t e r o f the

In

fo r

or

S u n ( S o Lis D i am e t e r) is e i gh t H u n d re d t w e n ty
t w o Th o u s an d o n e H u n d re d an d forty e i gh t
,

I il e s ; th i s is s i gn i e d b y S o l d i he d
E n g lis h IV
-

Sol d i

a e i,
sh e

s an d n g

fo i

an

w n m ore

the se Wo rd s
c o n t r i b u t e to
be

fo r t he D i am e t e r o f th e S u n , h e d

ho w n

fu l l y i n

th e re s

so o f

th e

ro

ign i e
Re m e m b r in g

c ome

the

to

er

as

Pl ac e

w il l b e

ow

th e se T hi n gs o r
o f t h e m is n o w to
,

rs t T hi n g to b e d on e is to l e arn e xac tl y
t he fo l l o w i n g S e r i e s o f Vo w e l s an d C o n s o n an t s
w h i c h are to re pre s e n t the n u m e ri c al Fi g u re s s o
at Pl e as u re
t o fo rm a Te c hn ic a l
as to b e ab l e
Wo rd w hi c h shal l s t an d fo r an y Nu m b e r o r to
r e s o l v e a Wo rd al re ad y f o r m d i n t o t he Nu m b e r
w h i c h it s t an d s for
T he

H
an d

I)

e r e a an d

t for 3 ,

an

nd
ta

fo r l

e an d

d for '2 , i

so o n .

The s e Le tte rs

are

ass ign

d Arb it raril y to the

tiv
an d m ay ve ry e as il y b e r e
e Fi gu re s
p
In e n i be r d
Th e rs t ve Vo we l s in o rd e r n at u
T he D i ph t ho n g
ral l
y re pre se n t 1 2 3 4
m e b e i n g c o m po s e d o f a 1 ai td u 5 s t an d s fo r 6 ;

re s

ec

PRI NC I PAL

34 ;

An d
u s ua

r od s

in Nu m e r at io n

as

o in

to

S Y ST E M S o r

l a rge r

S u ms

Fi g u r e s a t th e i r p r o pe r Pe e
M ill i o n s , B i l li o n s , & c f o r

th e

of

p
o f T ho u s an d s ,

Re ad i n g o f t he m as
one
H un
o ne H u n d r e d s e ve n ty t w o M il l io n s
d re d t u o T ho u s an d s e v e n H u n d re d n i n e ty ve
in fo r m i n g a W or d f o r a Nu m b e r c o n s is t in g
so
t he Syl l ab l e s m ay b e so c o u v e
o f m an y Fi gu r e s
o a n s w e r th e En d o f
a s e xa c tl
t
n i e n t l y d i vi d e d
y
T h u s in the I ns ta n c e b e fo re u s
Po rn t m g
w hi c h is t he D i a m e t e r o f th e O rb it o f t he Ear t h
in E n g l is h M il e s : Th e Te c hn ic a l Wo rd is
th e
B e gin n i n
o f th e
D or b t rbo id az e p ou l
W o rd D o r b te r tan d in g { r th e D ia m e te r o f t he
O rb it o f the Eart h ( D i am e t e r O R B itw T ra u ma)
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1 3 99
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s

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fo r S e pt e m b e r, t fo r Oc to b e r
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I f t hi s b e t h ou g h t e i t h e r too d if c u l t, or too

d e r m ay pass i t o v e r
m i n u t e the Re a
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H i s t o ry w i l l b e fou n d a l i s t of re m ark ab l e
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t h e n th e p art i c u l ar D IVI st on s o f the s e v e ral K i n g
d o m s o f Eu r op e i n t o t h e i r re spe c ti v e G o v e rn
For e v e ry D i v i s i on t h e re
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3 58

A RTI FI C I A L M E M O RY .

is

o ne

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from the re s t in the Tab l e s b y S mal l C apit al s
or an H yp he n fo l l o w i n g
T is fu r t h e r to be o b se r v d t h at the B e gi n
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t he s e ve ral D ivi s i o n s I begi n at the We sr an d o
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It

u H

3 54

P RI N C I P AL S

Y S T EM S

or

il l al l ow in a s t rait Li n e u n l e ss wh e re the
I rre gu l arity o f the Posmon m ake s t h i s M e t h o d
Wh e re t h at is th e
in c o n v e n i e n t o r i m pr ac ti c ab l e
C ase th e Re ad e r w il l s u ppl y th e D e fe c t b y his
i
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w
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t ry w

M aps

f u r t he r ,

O b se rve
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w it h

are

d e n o te d b y t h e m
Eas t ; t hu s,

th at

an

are

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H yp lz e n ,

c on

Syl l ab l e s

th e

t he

ti gu ou s fro m

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o f D a up hin g
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e n pre c e d i n g
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j
C o u n t ri e s d e n o t e d b y t h e m l ie Eas t ward b u t are
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b u t n o t c on ti gu ou s
Whe n the Re ad e r is b e c o m e w e l l ac q u ain te d
w i t h the G e n e r a l D ivision s h e m ay t h e n go On
a so

c on

3 56

Pn i

Y S TE M S

N e rP A L S

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g i n n i n gs o f th e Nam e s o f the Pl an e t s re pre s e n t


th e Nu m b e r o f M i l e s o f t h e i r D i am e t e rs , D is;

t an c e s, M agn it u d e s &c ac c o rd i n g
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NC I P AL S Y S T E M S o r
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the Nu m b e r o f Po u nds Shil l i n gs an d Pe n c e
w h i c h are s e parat e d fro m e ac h o th e r b y H yp he n s,
o r e l se s i gn i e d b y t h e Rom a n Le tt e rs 1 s d
Thu s
The d ou b l e Li n e s d e n o t e Eq u al ity]
AM : d rag _t e i n s i gn i e s that an A tti c k
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The Le tt e rs
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th ou gh s e parat e d are to b e pron ou n c e d t oge the r ;
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h e re that r e s i gn i e s
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in s t e ad o f the Frac ti o n r e t h e Le tt e r It is s o me
ti m e s u se d for H al f, as oikbe h2 78 1 2 5 so 78 1 2

Po u n d s 1 0 S h il li n gs
Thi s sys t e m o f D r G re y re e c t s gre at c re d it
i n ge n u ity o f the au t hor Of th e M e
o n th e
D r Pr i e s tl e y o b s e rv e s
it
m or ia Te c hn i c al
is s o e as il y l e arn e d an d m ay b e o f s o m u c h
wh e n o the r m e t h o ds
u s e in r e c o l l e c ti n g d a t e s
t hat he th i n ks al l pe rso n s o f
are n o t at han d
i n e xc u sab l e w ho w il l n ot
a l i b e ral e d u c ati on
t ake th e s m al l d e gre e o f p ai n s th at is n e c e ssary
t o m ake th e m s e l ve s m as t e rs o f it ; o r w ho th i n k
o r u n w o r t hy o f t he i r n o ti c e
an y t h i n g m e an

w h i c h is s o u se fu l an d c on ve n ie n t
T he I t al ic k En d i n gs o f th e
,

Le c t ur e s

on

H is t ory, p 1 57
.

A tt r i r t

RI C
an d

ME M

O RY

361

G RE Y w as b o rn in the ye ar 1 69 3 ,
l e arn e d d ivi n e o f th e C h u rc h o f En g

H ARD

was

l an d H e t ook his d e gre e o f M A a t Li n c o l n


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rs t pre fe rm e n t h i c h he o b t ai n e d w as the
Re c t ory o f Kil n c o te in Le ic e s te rs hi re to w hi c h
h e appe ars t o h av e b e e n i n s tit u t e d at an e arl y
e ri o d o f li fe ; an d aft e rw ard s h e w as a
p
ppo i n te d
to the Re c t o ry o f H i n t on in No r tham p to n shire ,
an d t o a Pr e b e n d in t he C at h e d ral C h urc h o f S t
Pau l
I n the ye ar 1 73 0 he pu b l i she d his M e
I n the sam e ye ar al s o he
m or i a Te c hn ic a
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e m o f En g li sh Ec c l e s i as ti c al
l
i
A
t
s
s he d
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b
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p
Law e xt rac t e d fro m th e C od e x J u r is E c c l e
o f th e Ri h t Re v t h e Lo rd
sias t i c i An g l i c an i
g
B i sho p o f Lon d o n for the u s e o f yo u n g s tu
d e n t s in th e U n iv e rs iti e s w ho are d e s ign e d fo r

Fo r t hi s w o rk the U n i v e rs ity
H o l y O rd e rs
re s e n t e d him w it h t h e d e g re e o f D oc t or o f D i
p
vi n ity b y d i pl o m a d u r i n g th e fo l l o w i n g ye ar
I t w as afte r ward s re p r i n t e d at d i ff e r e n t p e r i o d s
w it h th e add iti on o f m arg i n al r e fe r e n c e s to t he
.

a es

p g
In

in t h e C
th e

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an d

p
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u

on

od e x .

am

d i s t rac te d
th e
an d

h
e t,
l
p

t t
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in

h e p u b l i sh e d a l arge
e n titl e d ,
The m i se rab l e

1 73 6 ,

e
ar
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s a e

the

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ye ar 1 73 8 ,
1

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t li s h

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an

3 62

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m e th o d

e asy

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th e

NC

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of

l e arn i n g

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w ith o u

b re w

d , b y w ay o f praxis ,
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m an Le tt e rs & c a gram m ati c al an alys i s an d
c riti c al an d e x l an at or , e tc
s h ort n o te s
y
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I n the fo l l o w i n g ye ar he pu b l i s he d o n a l arge
T ab u l a e xhib e n s p ar ad ig m at a
s i n gl e sh e e t
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; w it h th e m as s o re ti c al
,

r iu m

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er

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o n u gat io n e s ,

P
e r s o n as , p l e n iu s e t ac c u ratiu s e xc u sa
p
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an d al s o ,
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.

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cu

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v a M e tho d u s H e
b raic e D i s c e n d i d il ige n tiu s re c o gn ita e t c
T h e se pi e c e s w e re agai n re p ri n t e d in 1 75 1
Li b e r
I n the ye ar 1 74 2 D r G re y pu b l i she d
J o b i in ve rs ic u l o s M e t ric e d ivis u s c u m Ve rs i on e
Lati n a Al b e r ti S c h u l t e n s n o tis q u e e x eju s C o m
atq u e an n o t a
m e n tar iis e xc e rpt is e tc Ed id it
s e c tan t e s
t io n e s s u as ad M e t ru m prae c ip u e
p
c c e d it C an ti c u m M o xs is
e tc
A
ad c c i t R G
j
I n the
D e n t xxxii c u m No ti s var io r tim
n t ro
i
r e fac e t o t h i s w o r k s o m e s t ri c t u re s w e re
p
d u c e d o n p arti c u l ar passage s in Warb u r to n s

D iv in e Le g ti o n ; to u h ic h t ha t ge n tl e m an
Re m arks o n s e v e ral o c c asi o n al
r e pl i e d l l l h is
e tc
Th i s re p l y c al l e d fo rt h fro m
d ic o

An al yt ic o ; prae m ittit u r

no

8 64

P RI N C I P AL S

T hi s

Y S T EM S

or

l y r are t rac t c om p il e d b y S ol a
m o n Lowe c o n t ai n s 1 4 p age s in a v e ry s m al l type
b e s i d e s th e titl e an d th e ad v e r ti s e m e n t wh i c h is
ri n t e d o n t h e b ac k o f th e ti tl e
i
i
l
k
n
a
n
m
a
s
p
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s he e t o f d e m y
As D r WAT T S has c ou s i
de red t h i s tr ac t as a m at e ri al i m pro ve me n t o f
t

e x re m e

G re y,
se n

t vo l u m e

of

G re y

m ay

an d

t he

of

an d as s o m e

u rc

h ase r s

of

hoos e top rac ti se the

Lo w e ,

sc

pre

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thou gh t

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we

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pro

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the o rig i n al t rac t , as it h as b e c o m e e xtre m e l y
'

rare

an d

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of

l t ho u gh l ate l y
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TH
t he

ke y to

ex

re
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ar t

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( so

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to

we

i n ge n i o u s D r G re y What fol
l ows m ay b e c on s i d e re d as a su ppl e m e n t to ,
M
e m or ia Te e / mic a :
an d i m ro ve m e n t
o f h is
p
fo r m o s t o f the ar ti c l e s are w hat p e rhaps d id
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ow e

to

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A RT I FI C I AL M E M O R

3 65

to gre at pu rpos e ; parti c u l arl y th os e

of

We i gh t s C oi n s an d M e asu re s ; o f w h i c h I hav e
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a m o u n ts t o
T ho s e h o are c u rio u s w il l ad d
su c h
h
a v e m o s t o c c as i o n fo r ;
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p
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in t he i r he ad s ; fo r th e gre ate s t par t o f w h i c h
t he y m u s t o th e r w is e fro m ti m e to ti m e h av e
w h e re t h o s e are n o t at
re c o u rs e t o b o o ks ; o r
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b e t o t he i r d is c re d it o r p re j u d ic e
I n e e d n ot
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Th e s e e ra c oins , m e asu r es , an d we igh ts , b e i n g


o h e o w e s d e n o m i na io n s , t h e m e m o r ial ve r s e s
re du c d
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f e re n c e

t wo

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3 69

b e in g k n ow n b y su b trac i on
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( as k d , W hat i s a f at hom ( an d s o of an y o h e r ) t h e an s w e r
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NB ( 1 ) S h ok ( as appe ars b y t h e Ab b re ia u r e s e x
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a
i
p
i e a shi in g i s 4 8 far h in gs ; an d s o of t h e r e s
48
( 2)
e
e r ) m ay b e p r on ou n c d w e e o r
t
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t
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d is in gu i s h i t f ro m i : e g C r cf y, a s i f i t w e r e C r ef wi
4 i e i n th e y e ar ( U r b is C on d z tte ) fr om t h e b u i l d i n g o f
e f o uz
i e U C 4 9 0, w h e n t h e
th e c i y of Rom e , 1 9 0
,
P u n i c w ar h ad e xh aus e d t h e re as ur y , i t w e i gh d b u t 2 an d
s o of t h e r e s
5 i e t h e n i u e an m in a w as (u b ss) 56 5 6 q
( g) 1 00
an d s o of t h e r e s
of w h i c h m a d e t h e [Eg i n c an t al e n t
6 N B I n h e se is s h os e i n I tal i c a re m on e y s o f ac
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in g ie c e s , H a f c r own s , Th re e p e n c e s , T w o p e n c e s , H al f
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3 70

N C I PAL S

P RI

Y S T EM S

or

Firk b oid , asf K I l abe l c b ag ( B E E R


A LE)
Q5
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g al ad , hap s
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l
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8
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Ac e t ab u l u m (l in ) 9, 8 B arre l 1 B at h 4
.

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e l, 3
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C yat h u s , 9
C o n giu s , 8
C oo m b , 3
C u le u s, 8
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G o m e r , 5 H e m in a, 9 H in , 4
H o m e r, 4 5 H o gs h e ad , 1 , 2 K il d e rkin , 2 Las t, 3
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M e t r et e s , 6
M ys t ro n , 6 O xyb a
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p h on 7 l e c k, 3
d rau t al
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8
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Sy n on y m s an d E q u i val e n ts
C a
Am ph o ra , q n ad ran t al
( l u s , I n e t rt e s
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P R I NC I P A L

3 72

Sy n ony ms

Am m ah

an

or

d E q u i val e n ts

C h e h al , s e hm
nu s
C u b it ( l e ss e r) pyg m e (gre at e r)pe c hys D ac ty l o
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M e as u rin g
r od s c h oe n u s
M il i are , ou : m il e Pal ae s te , d o r on
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r od
Po l l e x, u n c ia Po u s , p e s Tophac h, pal m ,
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,

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th e Li n e i n

4 g r ains

6 p oin ts
2 N B A S abbat h d ays ourn e y is r e c k on e d t o b e 73 0

e s : 6 of w h i c h m a d e th e P ar as ang , 4 8 a D ay s ou r n e y
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7X7
: 49

ARTI FI C I A L

M EM

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( a) N B 1 5 , b e n t h e l as sou n in t h e m ou t h o f t h e
o e ra o r, d oe s m o re re ad l
y an d c e r a n l y r e m n d h im o f
w ha h e b orro w d , h an i n t h e c o m m o n w a of s u r ac on
;
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9 G RAI NS En gl is h hij , r e m ake Fre n c h al d , D u tc h


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'

Fe b ru ary , it is w e ll known,

e re s t 3 1
t
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9
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2 i e . T h e Non hs are
i n he s e 4 m on th s
3 i e Th e Non e s are
t h e re s .

28

le

( in t h e

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as

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on th e

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3 th ? if}

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Fu l l s al 5 d ays from t he c h ange Wain in g e as t ;
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S o th e m oon ,

38 )

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in E n c r c as mg (from t h e Ne w ) Eas t

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( 1 73 7) W h e n

c om e s

t h e m oo n t o t h e

Ams w T h e m oo n s age I S 2 6 t h e e x c e s s ab o e
m e rid ian

T e n 1 1 he
3- 6 0 2 8 11 4 8 m .
( a1) 1 5 , I S 1 1
fo r t h e S o u th i n g
Fo r t h e re ad l e r w o rki n g, t h e ru e
m ay he t h u s e xp re s t :
z n to 1 2 th e r e
Ag e i n to 4 , by 5

m az n d e r g w e s m z n u te s
:
e
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+ 5:
re m ain d e r 4 x 1 9 2 4 8 m
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Apr 1 5 ( 1 73 7) t h e m oo n S o u th s at 8 h 4 8 m
h 18 m
Th e n a 4 8 m + e h s o
(N B ) I f t h e
am o u n t s t o m ore h an 1 2 ; t h e e x c e s s s h o ws t h e h ou r

TH E 1 2
or

S I G NS

P or t ions of the Zod iac , n am d f r om C on s te l l a


t ion s on c e i n the m
t he i r Name s , C har ac ter s ,
nd
M
w
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19 C apr ic orn u s

Aq u ar i u s

c:

36 Pis c e s

Th e m e t h od i s t h is : To t h e d ay o f th e m on th
fo r t h e ol d s tyl e ) ad d t h e n u m b e r s ign i e d b y t h e n u m e ral s
a , on , & c
t h e S u n ao, i f ab o e 3 0) is in 't h e d e re e
G
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N C I P A I . s e n a tor s or
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( for t h e

11

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t h e n u me ral

( for

1 1

be)

Th us : From th e d ay on Wh ic h M arc h I s t h appe n s ( V.!


M arc h ) fo r an y o e r m on th , c ou n t re m an d so many days
E. 6 M ar l st ,
as are s ign i e d b y t h e n u m e ral s a , f , & c
w as t u e sd ay : t h e re fo re Ape l s t [c ou n t ing ( f) 4 ou
wa rd s , me sd ay be i n g o n e } is fr id ay : an d , c on se u e n tl y , t h e
q
2 9 t h , are frid a ys ; whe n c e m ay b e
8 t h; 1 6
, 2 9d ,
of
t h e re s et
[N 3 J an an d Fe b are re c kon d from
t h e p re c e di n g ye ar
2

th

th

J an 0
7 Fe b r e i 6 m
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e t ad
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5 Apr

M on t h, & c .

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Se tt in g s t h e c ompl e m e n t 013ris ing t o 1 2


4
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P RI

38 4

N C I PA L S Y S T E M S o r

Roman M an ne r of D ating
Non I d ( 2) Prid ie ( 3 ) Te rt q u ar t : (l i b )
.

Kal
.
T he d ay s o u gh t s u b t i ac t fro m
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m on t h s , fr th e Kal e n d s

1
( )

t h an

t he

Non e s ,

Id e s

) For

th e d ays o n w h ic h t h e

Ka

e n d s,

m o n t h h ap pe n ( V M o n t h s ) w ri te ( e g ) K a l D e c
o n t h e kal e n d s o f d e c e m b e r, Vi z
t h e l s t d ay o f D e c e m b e r
( 2 ) o u t h e d ay pre c e d in g e ac h o f t h e m , w rite ( e g ) P r i d z e
K al D e c i e pu d ic kal e n d as d e c e m b ris , o n t h e d ay b e fore
t h e kal e n d s o f d e c e m b e r, viz
t h e 3 0th o f n o e m b e r
(3)
For th e d ay s b ac kward , writ e Te rtz o , Qu ar z o, tyc i e on t h e
8 , 4 t h , &c
of d e c e m
I I To n d an y o f th e d ays , e g
t
l
h
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h e r, W h at , in t h e Ro m an s ty l e 3 An s w 1 0 1 4 ( On e m or e
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14
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( 1 ) 2 0th o f
t he
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d ay s i n the m o n t h)
1 2 i e . I z m o kal d e c
( 2 ) 1 2 m o.
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Q0
32
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R I NC

I P A L S SI E M

To
The y e ar

or

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the J u l i an p e r iod

c or r e sp on d in

to

y E ra
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t
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JU L
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b u t Af or e , C or r fr o m Co m m
an y

in

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2)

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W h a t y e ar of t h e J U LI AN P e ri od is t h e ye ar

b e fo re C h r i s :
a
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s
An s w ( 1 ) 1 73 7
9
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( b e fo re C h r i s t ) 4 71 4 ( t h e ye ar o f t h e c om m e n c e m e n t o f
h e C h r i s t ian ae ra i n th e J u l i an p e r i o d ) 2 2 9 7 7
( Q) 1 73 7
t af te r C h r i s t ) 4 71 3 ( t h e c o m m e n c e m e n t l e s s 1 ) 6 4 5 0,
( h e y e ar o f t h e J u h an p e r i o d
t
2 W h a t y e ar of t h e C H RI S T I AN E r a is t h e y ear o f t h e
An s w ( 1 )
J u l i an p e r i o d ( 1 ) 2 9 77 ? ( 2 )
( t h e ye ar o f t h e J u l i an p e r i o d c or r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e y e ar o f
t h e ae ra s ou g h t )
4 7 1 4 t h e c o m m e nc e m e n t o f t h e C h ri s t i an
ae ra) Z; 1 73 7
4 71 3
( Q) 6 45 0 t h e c o r r e s p o n d in g ye ar)
( t h e c om m e n c e m e n t l e w d ) Z 1 73 7
1

For t he Nu m be r of Year s f r om the Cr e ati on


B

i r th of

Ch r is t

to t

he

T h e Ch r i s t i an v u l gar ae ra c o m m e n c e s in
t h e ye ar o f t h e w o r l d 4 004 , jan 1 [ac c o rd i n g t o
T he J ew s
&c
3 94 8]
H e l vic u s I s aac s on
ate r b y 2 4 2 ye ars,
l
L
ac e t h e c re at i o n o f t h e W o rl d
p
T h e G r e ek hi s t o r i an s ,
v i z in 3 76 2 , o c t 7
o n t h e au t h o r i ty o f t h e s e pt u ag i n t S oo ne r b y a b o u t
t he e c c l e s i ast ic al , in
1 4 9 0, o r 1 5 00 ye ars , v i z
5 4 9 4 ; th e c ivi l , in 5 5 09
.

3 88

R I NC

I PAL

S YS TEM S

Qu ar t e r ly

Lad y m ar e l
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Sy n on y m s , &c
As h w e d n e s d ay, l s t d ay o f l e n t Can d l e m as, pu
C ru c i x i on , g o o d fri d ay
r i c at ion o f t he v i rg i n M
H o l y t h u rs d ay, m au n d ay
H o l y we e k, l as t o f l e n t
J o hn the Bapt is t, m i d su mm e r Paras c e n e , good~
.

RT I FI C

M EM O R Y

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3 89
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P as s i on we e k l as t o f l e n t
Pe n te c os t
Pro c e s s ion in g d ay as
w h i ts u n t i d e
w hits on tid e
s hro v e s u n d ay
d ay
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Q u i n q u age s i m a
S ho r (S h u r ) t h u rs d ay m au n d ay th u rs d ay Tw e l fth
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: Th e

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Ch i t i

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b y w ay o f fou n d at i o n ) 1 h a e i e n t he m os t e n e ral
d i i s i on s o f t he s e e ral par t s o f t he te r ra q u e o u s
l o b e b e i n n i n , in e ac h , w i t h t he m os t n o rt he rl y
par t s , an d , in d es e n d i n s o u t hw ard s , p ro e e d (to
t he r i h t) fro m w e s t to e ast : s o t h at h i l d re n , w i t h
a fe w h i n t s an d o c as i o n a l h e l ps , m a
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s r sr n

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d z i bl in
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Ru ss p e tr e : Fran c e

p ar
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RI C

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r o cc o, Al g i e rs , T u n i s , T r i po l i , B ar c a
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Neg r ol an d : To m b u te
r a : ( c h p r o v ) Zu e n z iga
Nu b i a D an gol a Gu in e a M al agu e t te , Wl i yd aw,
B e n i n , L oan go, C on go, An gol a E thiopi a M on e
m u g i , M on om o tapa, C a r aria
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la
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in d M e x am e r ~n or t h
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t r t Apal ac h n am
me n

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L iz ard S tart po i n t (of ) En g l an d


S t Vi n c e n t s Sp a i n
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tu g
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M e d i te r r an e an
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i
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p
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C ar i b b e e s (An t i g u a, Ne v i s , M on t se rr at , B ar b ad oe s ,
M e xi c o F u e g o, Te r r a M ag e l l an i ca

e n m ar k

'

J dt l an d (in )
Tar tary
I n d ie s
.

E N I NS U L A S

D e nm ar k

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C au
r ic e

v i ot (b e tw e e

ca

Pre c op
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ce
.

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Py
Al ps , I t aly an d Fr an c e
Apal ac hian , Nor tl n Ame

S c ot l an d

Sp ain an d Fr an
as u s (in ) Tar tary

re n e e s ,

C am b aya,
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Nor tt m e r i c a
.

M O U N T A I NS
C he

Gre c

an d

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Rive r s

S tr ai ts ,

3 93

an

d Lake s

OC EANS H y p Ethi Eas t Al t We s t Pac i Sou t h


d e l Zu r
lce
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.

Gas p t ar tar
G U L F S : B o Fi s wd e Ve n i tal Re d d r ab Pe rs .
B n g B a H u n or th am
S TRAI TS : S o u n d hal t C i me d I l el bl a B a r d
S un i n H ad bu D a ba
M ag
LAK ES : Lad O r u s s Ne Lo s cot G e Ln s wi tz
B ab ap er s B o as Par r m
RI V Vii C d D an bl a Rhi g e r Rh Eb Nil me T
Eu p e r s G a be M is m e a
e u , as .

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or

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or n or th e rn

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th e

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w e s te rn

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Eth i op i an
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o r so u th , o r m are d e l

Pac i fi c
S o u th Po l e
S EAS

C han n e l ,
Bal tic , e as t o f D e n ma r k an d S we d e n
s o u t h e as t of E n g l an d
M e d i te rran e an , b e t we e n
E u r op e an d Af r i ca an d part o f As i a
B l ac k s e a,
b e tw e e n part o f E u r op e an d As ia C as pi an , in G r e at
Tar t ar y
.

GU

L FS

O f Ve
in S w e d e n
n i c e , e as t o f
taly
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B atiin s an d H u d s on s B ays in Nor th Am e r i ca

B o thn i a an d

Of

of

Fin l an d

ST R A IT S

G i b ral tar, M e d iter ra


S o u n d (o f t he ) B a l t i c
n e an , H e ll e s pon t, B l ac k s e a
B ab e l m an d e l , Re d
se a
S u n d a, I n d ian o c e an ~H u d s o n s , B u t ton s
bay
D av is s , B ain s bay
M age ll an , S ou t h
.

Am er i ca

39 4

P RXN C I P A L S

LA

Y S TEM S

or

K ES

On e ga, w e s t e rn par t o f Rus sia


Loc h Ne s s an d Lo m o n d ( in ) S c ot l an d Lake s o f
G e n e va an d Lu c e m , S w i t z e r l an d
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P e rs ia
B o rn o u
Neg r ol an d
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Lad oga

an d

RI V E RS

Vo l ga ( fal l s in t o th e ) C asp ian se a


D an u b e
B l ac k se a
Rh in e , Ge r man oc e an
Rh on e ; Eb ro
Nil e M e d i te r r an ean T igris Eu ph rat e s P er s ian
-

g u lf

G an ge s , b ay o f B e n g a l

M is s is ippi, b ay

M e xic o

of

Ac c ou n t

A mor e p ar t i c u l ar
of

th e

v e r al

t rie s

f Eu m p e m ay b e e xhibi
t e d , s o a s t o iv e a p re c is e id e a o f t he s it u at ion o f
g
e ac h s u b d iv is ion , af t e r t h e m an n e r o f th e fo l l ow in
g
s e c im e n : in w h ic h
p
( b e s id e w h at w as p ro pos e d in
s u c h as are
c o n t i u o u s S ou th
ge n e r al , n o t e
g
w ar d ar e
j oi n d as in w e La s u c h as ar e c on t i
as in C h e D e
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m on gl
su :
oxfo b u c k h e r t e s s
S o m w il t b e rk m id d l e s e x : c o m d e v d ors h amp
s u rre
y ke n tS u s s
'

FI RST M ERI D I ANS


On

e ith er

(Eas t) Lon d o n
C orv o boz

as

Side

Te n e r if

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-

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s.

Nic o l

3 96

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ms

sr e

NE W T EST A M E NT

I ts 2 7 B ooks

att

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a.

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Lu ke 5 a
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ar.

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an s .

n oi .

i e El i hu is m os prob ab y su ppos e d to b e t h e au th or
o f t h e b oo k o f j ob , ab ou t 1 73 0
ye ars b e fore t h e b ir th o f
C h ris t
S o , M o s e s , t h e au t h or o f t h e p e n tateu c h , ou rish e d
i n t h e ye ar b e fo re C h ris 1 4 00
An d s o of t h e re s
N B Ez ra is t h ou gh t b y t h e e w is h d oc t ors t o h a e w ri t t h e
c h ro n ic l e s
t
h
e 3 6 t h c h apt e r o f G e n e s is , t h e l as t o f J os h u a
[
an d J e re m iah
an d t o h a e r e is e d an d se t e d t h e c an n on o f
t h e ol d t e s t am e n t ]
2 i e M a tt h e w w r it h is gos pe ab ou t h e ye ar o f ou r Lord
An d s o o f t h e re s
3 i e 2 7 b ooks ( fro m t h e ye ar 4 1 t o 9 7) in 3 6 ye ar s
1

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E NG LA N D

I ts K in g s ,

I LL

tl

on

t he C

s in c e

s au , 1

wi th the C omme n c e
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on q u e s t ,

me n t o
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6th~f e d Ed 4 t h;fau b, 5 th, Rt 3 d f e z t H E 7th f e d ,
8 th ly n
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t he i r

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on t i n uan c e .

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ASS :

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or u n i ve rs a l on e s ,

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re i n
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3 97

b e gan h is
A D 1 06 6

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an d

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c o nq u e ro r

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As sy rian m on arc h y b e g u n in Ni n u s ( A M )
Th e
1 74 8 , an d e n d e d W l t h As s ar add t n u : i n 3 23 5 ; b e i n g s w al l o w d
u p b y t h e B a B y l o n ian , w h ic h e n d e d ( W i t h Nab o n ad t u s ) in
3 4 1 9 , ( w h e n C y ru s re ig nd o e r al l As ra) s o t h e ki n gd o m
w as ran s at e d t o t h e Pe n s ian s : fro m w h om (b y t h e c o n
q u e s t o f D ariu s C o d om an n u s ) in 3 6 1 7, A e xan d e r t ran s l a te d
i t to t h e G a r e tan s : a ft e r w h os e d e at h , i n 3 6 9 5 , i t w as f
d i id e d ( al t e r t h e c on fu s io n o f a fe w y e ars ) am o n g fo u r o f
C as s an d e r h ad m a c e d o n an d g r e c e : Ly si ~
h is fo l o w e rs
m ac h u s h ad t hm c e , w it h t h ose part s o f As ra t h at b o rd e r o n
Pto l e m y h ad (e gy p t , l z bya ,
t h e he e s po n t an d t h e bos ph o ru s
arab ta, p a l e s ti n e , an d c rr l o s y n a : S e l e u c u s , a l l t h e re s t o f
T he
Ro man m o n arc h y b e gu n w it h J u l i u s C ae
ar ia
sar, in 3 9 02 ; an d e n d e d i n J o vna n i n 4 3 1 3 : aft e r w h os e
d ixid e d m m t h e Eas te rn , an d IVe s te rn e m
d e at h i t was
: th e
f
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e n d e d b y t h e t aki n g of C o n
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s t an t in Opl e
( u n d e r C on s tan in e Pa l ae o l ogu s ) i n 5 4 02 ; t h e
akin g o f Ro m e ( u n d e r H on o ri u s ) i n 4 3 5 9 ;
at t e r b y t h e
A D 4 1 0 : b y Al ar tc , kin g o f t h e G o t h s : a ft e r w h o m i t
w as o e rr u n an d ravagd b y At t i l a , kin g o f th e H u n s . i n 4 5 )
b y G ons e r tc , t h e Van d a , m 4 5 5 ; b y Od oac e r, kin g o f t h e
H e ru l i , i n 4 76 ; b y The o d o ric , k in g o f t h e Os t ro go t h s , i n
4 9 3 ; b y Ta t i l as , t h e Os t rogo t h , i n 5 4 7
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ll

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I z b d ,p e
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Ag e s of Life

I T I ES

or s e ve r al

L ig
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uz

4 00

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NC

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Y S T EM S

As is e v id e n t in pe r fu me s , &c
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or

t h e se c on d o f a

m in u t e ,

it ,

of

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1 00 s an d s are e q u al t o 1 in c h V Nie u w e n t re l
ph i vol 8
p 8 58

ll

D U C T I EI I Y

Of B od ie s,

M ic ros e pic al S P I D E RS
t hre ad s au th
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p

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at

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t o t he part

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b u t b y a m ic rosc ope
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be

S o , t h at th e s pac e i n t h e m id dl e of th e kn ot sh al l n ot
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half

of a

M e di t u n s u d ky m 2 ; n e ar
3
i
rs
u
t
t
h
e
r
v
e
r
h
b
b og
y

thi rd

th an s

m ore

Ac c ord in g

M i sc e l l

c u rios . vol

w in d s d o

s om e t im e s

ll

mad e b y D r H a e y, ap
1
T o w h ic h it m ay b e ad d e d, t hat th e
c arry off m ore h an ri s e s b y h e at

to e x pe ri me n s

A RT l Fl C I A L M E M

2 Es im a in g t h e

b road

V Rive rs

M e d z t e rran e an

su rfac e
s p ri n gs ,

O RY

d e gre e s

at 4 0

ly

4 01

lo

an d

n g,

from t h e w h ol e wate ry
ab u n d an t l y e n o u gh t o fu rn i s h al l t h e d e w s , ram s ,
r i e rs, & c t h at are c on ve y d in to t h e oc e an
an d , c on se q u e n t

'

Lgfe , M arr iag e , P ar ts , P m sp ir at ion


1
ou t o f ri , b u t at 4 11, s o at As y at
g
f
'

LI VE,
E s , (H Z at I s , bau
at U s
at Os , (1 :
at

M ARK

in dzf : b ir
m al e s 60 t o fe m a t 5
B O N E S m i M U S C LEs l e n
i'

Au s

23

at

, au

(to h

as a , u

ii r

to

t
o m
g

as a

ay

T E ET H i d

B L OO D

5
.

B ats , in an h ou r, t im e s 61 h : an d an ou n c e , at a
t im e , is d is c harge d 7 :
5 2 fee t in a m in u t e ; as s ept ag t o l l n t h e e x
-

8
s
re m e
.

PERS P I RE th r ou gh p or e s ( be l th w he re of b y ( me
n d m ay b e c o ve rd )
rain o f s a
g
5 p ar t s of 8 (a d ay s fo od ) fro m h ou rs 5 , afte r m eal s ,
t o t he 1 2 t h, 3 9
-

'

Of

lv
l

h i d re n b o rn , o u t o f ) 00, t h e re are i i n g,
at 6 y e ars o f a e , b u t 6 4
An d s o o f t h e re s t
V H a l e y,
g
Lo w t h o r p vo l 3 p 6 9 9
ap
N B On o bse r a
t i on s o f t h is n at u re , dr aw n f ro m t h e b i l s o f m o rt al t t , is
y
c o m pu t e d t h e
al u e o f a n n u z t z e s {o r d l e re n t ag e s o f l ife
V
An n u i t ie s
in g
2 i e
t i n 1 04 I arry
3 i e M arriage s , o n e w i t h an ot h e r, d o e ac h p ro d u c e 4
D e r h am
b irt h s
B z r t h s t o B u r i al s are as 1 , 6 t o 1
4 i e
D e r h am
5 i e M a l e s , b o rn , t o Fem a l e s , are as 1 4 to 1 3
Grau n
6 i e I n a b o d y , w e igh i n g 1 6 0 po u n d , 1 00 t h e re o f are
B l oo d ; u n d e rs ta n d i n g t h e re b y n o t o n y t h e m d c o n t am d i n
th e
e i n s an d ar t e rie s ; b u t a s o t h at tn t h e l m h az d u c t s
,
y p
n e r ve s , an d t h e o th e r ve s se l s , s e c re te d fro m i t
an d re t u rn d
,
I n to i t
Ke i
1

i. e

th e c

M M

402

P RI N C I P A L n

7 i

9 5 0 po u n d s i n

an

er v e s

h ou r

or

wh ol e

at t h e rat e o f t he

m as s , i n 2 4 m in u t e s

8 i e . T h e b l o od is d ri e n ou t of th e h e art i n to t h e gre at
ar e ry w i h a e o c it y , wh ic h w o u l d c arry it 5 9 fe e t i n a
m in u t e : a ve l o c ity t o th at of it s m ot io n in t h e re m ote s!
b ran c h e s , as 1 00 s e p t il l ion s [ 7t h pe rio d ] t o 1
9 W ith in 5 h o u rs afte r e atin g , t h e re is pe rs pird ab ou 1
po u n d ; from t h e 1 2t h to t h e 1 6 th sc arc e h al f a pou n d S an c
t ori u s
.

vl

RI VERS

The Quan tity

Alf Ki n gst on b rid ge , TH


-

Watef s

the ir
AM E

'

Broad rig ,

S (yards

D e e p i) 2 m il e an hou r Ru n s 1 :
fun S e z m ig i k in a day ; rh e t i p6 n i d o

In

t im e s

36 0 y

d ay , 4 8 m il e s ,
1 00, t h e pro l e

ard s,

:2 Th

e m os

tc

n ie s nie pe t

rd s ; w h ic h m u l tipl ie d b y
a
y
t h e b u dge , YI Z )
o f w a e r at
'

yards

c ub ic

give s

2 0 8 00 000 t u n s .

ons ide rab ie ri e rs

th

at

fa l

of

Wat er,

i n o th e

t.

e.

M ED I T E R

b
e, M l e,
D
u
o
a
a
b
e
r
P
b
r
o
T
E
,
,
,
RANE A K s e a, are
a
d
own
o c arr
d
o
s
e
t
su
e
I
S
t
h
e
s
f
o
E
a
c
h
e
e
r
y
pp
D on , Ni e s t e r , Ni p .
a
an y o f
t
h
n
e
s
o
t
Th
a
m
t
h
e
a
s
a
t
e
r
w
c
h
(
1 0 t im e s as m u
s e r ri ve rs
t
l
e
s
e
o
h
e
r
o
r
t
h
f
l
l
o
w
a
t
o
o
t
u
s
b
th e m is s o gre at ;
t he

Rhon e ,

b e ing
rivers

c on i p u te d , as ab ove , at ab out
h to
afore s aid wi l am ou nt , e ac ,

run s.

V Evap orat ion


.

ru n s

; th e 3

i n al l ,

404

P RI N C I P A L S Y S T E M S

II

To n g u e ,

or

A Ne w Syst e m

of

En gli sh

III A Voc ai
Exam pl e s to Lati n S yn t ax,
b u l ary Lati n an d En gl i sh
1 V S e n t e n tice p u e

Eng l i s h V En gl i sh Exam
S yn t ax Vl A C o n s tru in g B oo k

Lati n

7i l e s,

an d

p l e s to Lati n
an d S u
ppl e m e n t

an

Vl l

G re e k C h arac te rs

Tab l e

Ge o

Ab b re vi ati on s , in
66

M ar /ao i P oly l t is tor

ac e e s s i o m

c um

c l ar is s i m om

an d

L i te r a r z u s P h il os op h i c u s
t ic u s ,

'

m J

OIt

'

bu s

vi r or u m

Fr i c lc z z

P 71 56

et

'

i J

oh

M ol l e r i Fl e n s bu rg u [E d i L Qua r t ]
.

2 t om

L u be e z e

I n t his w ork th e re

ti on s
tis

c o n fe ss

mu

D e Ar te Lu l l ian a

D e M e m or ize
so m e

i n ge n i ou s d i sse rta

two

are

1 74 7

l i bu s q u e i n ve n

sz m i

s u bs id i es.

o b l i g at i o n s

To

the se

we

l tho u gh M o rho f

v i d ab l e C i rc u m s t an c e s w as n o t c on
s u l te d til l m o s t o f t he c o l l e c t io n s w e re m ad e fo r
t hi s ac c o u n t o f the sys t e m s o f Arti c i al M e
fro

m o ry

na o

D AN I E L G EO RG E M o n n

Wi s m ar

in the D u t c hy

ye ar 1 6 3 9

e s u

d ie d

of

at

o r,

w as b orn

at

M e c kl e n b u rgh, in th e
S t e tt i n

an d

Ro s t oc k

vi s it e d H o l l an d an d O xfo rd ; an d in 1 6 65
w as i n vit e d b y the D u ke o f H o l s t e i n to b e c o m e
Pro fe sso r o f Po e t ry, El o q u e n c e an d H i s t ory
an d Li b rari an I n the U m ve rs x
ty o f K i e l
H e
an d

an r i r m

M E M ORY.

4%

d i e d in 1 69 1
H is pri nc i pal wo rk is the Pol y
his tor, a c o m pl e t e stor e hous e o f m i sc e ll ane o us
.

l i te ratu re

67 C

E r u d z tas y C
B J Feyjoo
'

a r t as

Fr

u r os as ,

5 t om

r
o
p

Ma

'

d r z d , 1 78 1
I n t hi s

d i e s fo r the m e m ory,
m ory, in w h i c h

is

the re

In

d i sse r tati o n

an d on e o n

se ve ra

the r

b oo ks
the

the

on

re m e

Art of M e

j t

on th e s u b e c

are

i
i
l
e s o f the
p
p
art are s t at e d t o c o n s i s t in
p ar ti c u l ar p l ac e s an d
i mage s, an d a s phe re or gl ob e is d i vi d e d i nto va
I
n the t e n th se c ti on o f t hi s
r i on s c o m p rtm e n t s
a
s e aks
o f re m e m b e r i n
t
i
e ssa
e y oo
e
r
n
c
a
F
g
y
j
p
w ord s b y the m e an s o f i m age s an d in th e e l e ve n th
il l u s t rat e s the appl i c ati on o f the art to
s e c ti o n
t
ry
b
o e xam l e s t ake n fro m a t r e ati se
w
o
e
t
y
p
p
b y C ou n t ( 16 Nol eg ar
o n Arti c i al M e m ory
wh i c h m ay b e s e e n in an o th e r par t o f th i s w o rks f
B E N E D I C T J E RO M FE Y J O O w as a S pan i sh
B e n e d i c ti n e an d atte m p te d b y his w r iti n gs an d
o c orre c t an d re for m th e vi ti at e d n o
e xam l e
t
p
ti on s o f his c ou n t rym e n H is The atr o C r itz c o
in 9 v ol s an d the C ar tas Er u d itas in 5 vo l s
Fe yjoo
w orks o f c on s i d e rab l e m e rit
are
c e ns u re s w ith gre at fre e d o m an d s p i ri t the ign o
n am e

an o

e s sa ,
y

r nc

'

Tom I pp 200228
.

1 S e e p 1 65.
.

406

PRI N CI PA L

Y S T EM S

ar e

l i c e n ti o u sn e s s o f the c l e rgy an d e x
o
s e s the fu tility o f p il g ri m age s
re t e n d e d m i
p
p
T hi s c on
rac l e s an d s u pe rs ti ti o u s e xo r c is m s
d u c t re n d e re d him o b n o xi o u s t o the p ain s an d
an d Fe
o
it
e n al ti e s o f the c hu rc h
o
w
as
h
w
yj
p
d i f c u l ty s av e d fro m th e ho rro rs o f the I n q u i
aition
H e d i e d in 1 76 5
ran c e an d

We

hav e

of

th e

c ou

l d n ot

e n ab e d

i n s e rt e d

be

in

re

to pro c u re the

th e

gu l ar

titl e s

dat e

the re fore ,

o rd e r .

An ac ar d in a d l a Ar te d e M e m or ia
J ob Ag u il e ra d e Ar t e M e m or ies
Ep ip h a n ii d e M oir an s, Ar s M e m or ia ad
.

m ir a b z l z s,
.

be e n

fo ll o w i n g b o o ks ;

n ot

om n iu m n e sc ic n tiu m e xc e d e n s c a

p ta m

Fr an c C
.

on t i

d e Ar t e M e m or i a

H ie r ony m u s M eg z s e r u s d e A r t e M e m or ia
'

Al var o Fe r r el/a d e Ve ra, Tra ttato d e Ill

m oria

ar t g c iosa.

4 08

65 A D
.

N S T AN C E S o r

S E NE C

h as d o n e m e m an y
m an y t h i n gs
of

m y e ye s ,

Age ( says S e n e c a)

A.

an d

I n u ri e s ,

j
had

I on c e
b l u n te d

d e p ri ve d m e

it h ath d u l l e d th e

the s e n se o f m y

h e ar i n g ,

ke n e d m y n e rve s
Am o n gs t t he re s t
m e n ti o n e d b e fo re is the m e m o ry, a th i n g

s ac

the m os t te n d e r
an d

frail

an d

of

i gh t
an d

I hav e
that is

ll p a
rt s o f t h e s ou l
,
the ass au l t s o f age :

of a
.

w h i c h is

rs t s e n s i b l e to
that he re t o fo re thi s d id s o o u r i sh in m e as n o t
o n l y s e rve d m e fo r u se
b u t m i gh t e v e n pass fo r
a m i rac l e I c an n o t d e n
y for I c o u l d re pe at t wo
thou s an d n am es in the same o rde r as t he y w e re
s oke n
n
s
e re
s c h o l ar s
an
h
e
n as m
a
a
w
d
w
y
p
t o m y m as te r
b ro u gh t e ac h o f {h e m s e v e ral
so
ve rse s to h im
tha t t he n u m b e r o f the m
b e gi n n i n g
am ou n t e d to m o re t h an t w o h u n d re d
at th e l as t I c ou l d r e c it e t he m o r d e rl
y u n t o the
rs t : n or w as m y m e m ory on l y apt t o r e c e iv e
b
u t w as
s u c h th i n s as I w o u l d c om m i t to it
g
al s o a faithf u l
r e s e r ve r o f al l t h at I h ad e n t ru st e d
p
"
i t w ith
,

'

A D AVI C

9 80

E N N A, o r

Ebn S in a,
-

an

Arab i an phil os o ph e r an d physi c ian , was b orn at


Ars e n a, n e ar B o c c hara, an d po ss e sse d a re ady
the age
m
e m ory
A
t
e n i u s , an d a w o n d er fu l
g

of

t e n h e m ad e gre at p rogre s s

ld

an d c o u
o ve r

th e

ti m e s ;

re

ea

p
b oo ks

an d

by

th e

in

the

Koran b y h e ar t

of

Ari s t o tl e

th i s

m e an s

'

s
so

l an gu age s
H

e re ad

M e t aphys i c s forty

xe d the m

in his

N AT U RA L M E M

that

m e m o ry,
c

il ity

c o uld

re

ea

4 09

the m w

it h

fa

l 48 4
of

he

O RY

AD
.

J o s n r n S C AL I G E R The W 0rl( S
.

( s ays Wan l e y)

o m e r,

his I l iad s

are

O dys

an d

i t o f t we n ty fo u r b oo ks an d
H is Ili ad s hav e in it t h i rty o n e
so al so the l att e r
t hou san d s ix hu n d re d an d s e ve n ty v e rs e s an d I
ose h is O dyss e ys h ave n o l e ss ; an d ye t it is
su
pp
'
t ha t in o n e an d tw e nt y
sai d o f J o se ph S c ali ge r
d ays he c o m m itt e d al l H o m e r t o his m e m ory
A D B I S H O P J E W E L had n at u rall y
h
b
e
atl
a ve ry s t ro n g m e m or
w
h
i
c
re
i
m
ro
v
e
d
g
y
y
p
b y ar t ; so t hat he c o u l d r e adi l y r e pe at an y t hi n g
th at he had w ritte n afte r on c e re ad i n g it H is
o wn se rm on s w e re c h ie y e x t e m p ore fr o m he ad s
d pe n n e d d ow n an d o n w h i c h h e
w h i c h be h a
w h il e th e b e l l w as r i n gi n g t o
use d to me d i a te
H e is s ai d
su m m on th e c o n gr e gati on to c hu r c h
t o have t au gh t h is m e t ho d o f ar ti c i al m e m o ry
D r P ar kku rs t w hil e t he y
to his o l d tu t o r
se ys , the

fo r m e r

c on s s

w e re
w

ith

on

l e arn e d

w ho

Zu ric h ;

at

ly one
ll

in th e

of

ac e

2 8 d ays ,

c ati o n o n e ac h d a ,
li
p
y
p

2 8 c h apt e rs o f S t M atthe w s

ho u r s

the

tly,

th at he c o u l d re ad il y re pe at
ar ti c u l ar v e rs e
o r an y
th e w h o l e
kn o w i n g at
p
the sa m e ti m e w h at w e n t b e fo re o r w hat fol
l o we d aft e r an y v e rse t hat w as m e n ti o n e d to
G o spe

so

e re e

S o rm w as

the m e m ory

of

B i sho p J e w e l
,

4 10

NS TA NC ES

or

that he u se d to say if he we re to d e l i ve r a p re
m e d itat e d s p e e c h b e fo re a th ou san d au d it ors
t he y w o u l d n o t
sh o u t i n g o r gh t in g al l th e w h il e
o hn H o o e r , B i sh o
J
u t h im o u t
o f G l on
p
p
p
w h o w as b u rn t in th e re i gn o f Q u e e n
c e s te r
M ary o n c e to try him w ro t e ab ou t fo r ty
We l sh an d I ri sh w o rd s M r J e we l go i n g a
l ittl e w h il e as i d e an d r e c o l l e c t in g the m in h is
m e m ory an d r e ad i n g the m t w i c e or thri c e o ve r
s ai d t he m b y h e ar t b ac kw ard an d for w ard e x
o r d e r in w h i c h t h e
e re s e t
w
a c tl y in th e sam e
y
An d at an o the r ti m e h e d id the sam e
d ow n
b y te n l i n e s o f Eras m u s p araphrase in En gl i sh ;
th e w o rd s o f wh i c h b e i n g re ad s o m e ti m e s c o n
fu se d l y w ithou t ord e r an d s o m e ti m e s in o r d e r
b y th e Lord K e e pe r B ac on M r J e w e l th i n ki n g
awh il e o n th e m pre s e n tl y re pe at e d t h e m agai n
L1 P S I U s an e m i n e n t phil os o
1 547 A D
b
or
n at I sc h
n e ar B r u s se l s w as
h
e r a n d c r iti c
p
H e
r e m ar kab l e fo r the e xt e n t o f his m e m o ry
r e m e m b e r e d the w h o l e h i s t ory o f T ac it u s an d
l
re c it e wor d
or w o r d
an y
e d ge d h im s e l f t o
f
p
e r e q u i re d
o c o n de n t
b
S
as sage t h at m i gh t
p
w as h e o f h avi n g t h i s b o o k xe d in h is m e m o ry
that h e al l o we d a pe rs on to s t an d by h im w ith a
d agge r an d to pl u n ge i t i n t o h is b o dy if h e d id
n o t re pe at fait h fu l l y th e w o rd s o f the au t ho r
,

'

1 585

h as

th e

A D
.

fo l l o wi n g

U B ET
an e c

in h is

d o te

Var iw Le c tz on e s
'

I n Pad u a,

n e ar

4 12

N S TA N C E S o r

xi n g his e ye s u pon the ground


r e at e x e c t a ti on o n o u r
h
w
it
ar t ) aft e r a sho r t
g
(
p
p
au se b e an to s e ak
I n b r i e f to ou r am az e
g
p
p
m e n t he r e pe at e d al l w e had w ritt e n in th e ve r
y
s am e o r d e r t h e y w e re s e t d o wn
withou t s c arc e
a s to p o r an y h e s it ati on : an d t h e n b e in nin
g
g at
the l as t re c it e d t h e m al l b ac kward s to the rst ;
the n s o as that h e wou l d n am e o n l y the r s t
th i rd fth an d in t hat o rde r re pe a t al l ; an d ia
d e e d in what o rd e r we pl e ase d , withou t the l e as t
e rro r
Aft e r w ards wh e n I w as m ore fam il iar
w it h h im ( havi n g o fte n tr i e d h im an d ve t ne ve r
fo u n d him s pe akn o th e rw i s e than t he t ru th, ) he
to l d m e o n c e an d c e r t ai n l y h e was n o b o as te r,
th at he c o u l d re pe at in tha t m an n e r thirty six
th ou san d n am e s an d wh i c h w as ye t the m ost
stran ge
th i n gs s t u c k in his m e m ory tha t he
w o u l d s ay w ith l ittl e t rou b l e he c ou l d re pe at
an y thi ng he had e n t ru s t e d w i th i n a ye ar aft e r
For m y o wn par t I m ad e t ri al of him afte r
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an y o f his vo l u m e s ( w h i c h o f t he m se l v e s are al
m os t e n o u gh t o ll a l i b rary ) I m yse l f hav e s e e n
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au th or o f th e Wo rt h i e s o f En g l an d h ad so gre at
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o r d e r al l th e s i gn s o n b o th s i de s th e w ay fro m the
b e gi n n i n g o f Pat e r n o s t e r Ro w at Ave M ari a
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G e n tl e m e n ( says
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m o ry i n that parti c u l ar
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I w i l l n e v e r fo rge t
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th e kin dn e s s w hi l e I l iv e
had s u c h an i n u e nc e u po n the c o m m i tt e e t ha t
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I N S T AN C E S O 46

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d o u b l e d 1 4 0 ti m e s w o u l d am o u n t to
d e s i re d m e t o se t d o w n in 3 9 pl ac e s o f po u n d s
Whe n I aske d h im if he
an d an o d d 2 8 8 d
he
c ou l d m u l ti pl y t h i s i m m e n s e s u m i n t o it se l f
an d the o d d frac ti o n
sai d h e w ou l d u n d e r t ake it
l i ke w i se if I p l e ase d ; b u t I d i s m i sse d him w ith
th e w ho l e n u m b e rs an d s hal l n o t b e m o re am az
e

s r

o ve r a

424

N S T AN C E S

or

n d i n g the are a o f a c i rc l e b u t ye t he n d s it
v e ry n e ar the t ru th tho u gh he d on t u s e the m a
the m ati c al r u l e s Al l o w i n g the d i s t an c e b e t w e e n
Yor k an d Lon d on to b e 2 04 m il e s I as ke d h im
h o w m an y ti m e s a c oac h Whe e l t u rn e d rou n d in
th at d i s t an c e al l o wi n g the w he e l s c i r c u m fe re n c e
t o b e s ix yard s ? I n 1 3 m i n u t e s h e an s w e re d
5 9 8 4 0 ti m e s
The n e x t propos iti on w as , a t u b
or b in 3 4 6 i n c h e s l o n , 2 5 6 i n c h e s w i d e
94
g
i n c he s d e e p h ow m an y gal l on s l iqu i d m e asu re
an d w h at c o rn w i l l i t h o l d ? An s w e r
h al f q u ar t e rs o f
s o l i d in c he s
or
s o l i d i n c h e s m aki n g
gal l o n s l iq u i d
m e asu re o r 1 2 2 4 9 gal l on s 3 q u ar t s and 3 4 %
i n c he s ; o r i t w il l h o l d 1 9 1 q u art e rs 3 b u she l s
3 q u ar t e rn s a hal f q u art e rn an d 3 4% i n c he s re
,

m ain de r

Again ,

p pose a c an al w as to b e d u g 4 26
fe e t l o n g, 2 63 w i d e , an d 2 fe e t d e e p , ho w m an y
c u b i c al yar d s o f e ar t h t o b e r e m o v e d ? Aft e r

sn

q
u ar t e r o f an h ou r h e an s w e re d
1
03 73
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eet
H
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w hil s t h e is d o i n g h is q u e s ti o n s i t b e i n g n o
m o l e s t ati o n o r h i n d ran c e to h im b u t e n o u gh to
c o n fo u n d a pe n m an
H is m e m o ry i s s o gre at
t hat he c an l e av e o ff an d re ass u m e th e o p e rati o n
m
o n t hs
again
at a w e e k m on t h
o r at s e v e ral
,
e nd ;
he c al l s h is gu re s al l b y the i r p ro pe r
n am e s an d is v e r
a m i n g t he m e it he r
d
t
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au s n g a

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b ac kward s

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or

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ru

425

Fr o m M ay ,

1 7, 1 0 h

t o l d m e he w as d r u n k ( to m ake
u s e o f h is e x r e s s i on ) w ith re c ko n i n
g b y h is m e
p
m o ry til l J u n e 1 6 fo l l o w i n g an d th e n s l e p t
s ou n d l y s e ve n ho u rs
b u t w il l n e ve r att e m pt so
m u c h re c kon i n g agai n fo r fe ar o f fal l i n g i n t o t he
s am e
I s u ppo se w hat he m e an s b y
d il e m m a
h is b e i n g d ru n k w as h is b e i n g s o m u c h s t u pi e d
w ith th o u gh t as re n d e re d h im i n c apab l e o f b u s i
n e s s ; w he n i t m ay w e l l b e sa i d n e u e
es n e ue
p
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1 725 , he

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B u t,
m an ,

to

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ro c e e

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w as

ac i t .

d sfu rt he r w ith t h i s
c

u n c o m m on

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ue s

ti o n i t w as that c au s e d his d ru n ke n n e s s ; t o w h ic h
h e r e pli e d in an s w e ri n g th e fo l l o w i n g q u e s ti on
I n 2 02 6 8 0 000 3 6O m il e s an d e ac h m il e re c k
ho w m an y b arl e y c o rn s
c u b i c al
o n e d to b e
v e t c he s pe as whe at o at s rye b e an s l i n t e l s an d
how m an y h ai rs e ac h an i n c h l o n g w o u l d l l
that sp ac e re c kon i n g 4 8 h ai rs in b re ad t h to an
i n c h o n the at as he fo u n d t he m to b e so I
o f m e as u re s w h i c h
shal l he re su bj o i n h is t ab l e
he fou n d e d o n e xpe r i m e n t
.

200 B ar e y c orn s
300 W h e a c orn s
5 1 2 Ry e c orn s
1 8 0 Oa s
40 P e as

are c on t ain e d
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25 B e an s
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lo

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in c h

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4 26

'

Fr om

N S T AN C E S o r

w hi c h h e

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m il l 4 2 0 tho u s 9 3 6

1 4 t h ou s an d ,
1 b u s he l ,

th e

l t

c a c u a ed
.

1 pe c k,

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lt

q u art e rs

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re su

an d

:
,

an d

q u ar te r s o l i d i n c he s o f o n e sort o f grai n are


45 1
c on t ai n e d in o n e s o l i d m ile ; or 5 t h ou san d
m il l 776 t ho u s an d yard s in a c u b i c al m il e b e i n g
25 4 m il l i o n s o f m ill i o n s 3 5 8 t h ou san d 6 1 m i l l
an d if
an d 5 6 t ho us an d i n c he s in a c u b i c al m i l e
an i n c h l o n
e ve ry h ai r b e
g an d 2 3 04 hairs a
the n 5 8 6 th o u san d 4 0 m il l i o n s o f
c u b i c al i n c h
m il l i o n s 9 72 th o u san d 6 73 m il l i o n s an d 2 4
th o u san d w il l l l the s pac e o f a c u b i c al m il e :
b u t if a h ai r b e n o l o n ge r t han it is b ro ad h e
th e n fo u n d th at th e re w o u l d b e 2 8 t ri b e s 1 29
th ou s an d 9 6 6 m i l lio n s o f m ill i on s 6 88 thou s an d
3 05 m il li on s an d 1 5 2 t ho u san d h ai rs t o l l th e
s ac e o f a c u b i c al m il e
p
As we are c o m e to t hat n o t ati o n w he re he
i n tro d u c e s th e w o rd t ri b e i t w il l b e p rope r t o
1 40
ari s m g fr o m
s e t d o w n t hat pro l i x n u m b e r
d o u b l e d at a farth i n g a n ail viz
n ail s
a

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thu s
f t ib e

r e ad s

725 T r i b e s

9 5 8 T h ou s

of

m i ll

23 8

M il l i on s

09 6 T h o u san
074 M il l i on s

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86 8 T r ib e s ,

s,

of

mi

ll

of

t rib

ll
of t i b e
d m ill i o s of t r i b e s
f t ib e s
d t rib e
of

m i i on s
n

s,

s,
,

4 28

NS T AN C E S o r

2 9 8 T r i b e s of tr ib e s ,
9 6 6 Th ou s m i
.

O79 M i l ion s

3 07 Th ou s an
5 24 M il l i on s

of

m il l of
.

ll
d m il l i
of t i b
of

mi

r ib e s,

tr ib s
of tr i b e s

of

on s

e s,

9 04 Th ou san d t r ib e S,

3 8 1 T r ib e s ,
3 8 9 T h ou s an d mi l l ion s

ll

49 9 M i i on

25 1

of

of

m il i on s,

m il l i ons
of

T h ou san d s

m i l io n s ,

6 3 7 M il l io n s ,
23 T hou s an d s ,
42

236 P ou n d s

Fu rthe r par ti c u l ars re s pe c ti n g J e d e d ia /z ,

i n t e re s ti n g

fo u n d in

n a u re , are

G e n t l e man

th e

llI ag az in e fo r D e c e m b e r ,

T hi s

n de n
o
p

o b s e rve s ,

l as t

af e rn oo n

h o u rs in his

tw o

h o u r,

se

v e ral

an d

w e e k,

i d e n t al l y

ac c

w as

not

In

c o m p an y .

o f an

t he

c orr e s

m e t h im

muc h

on e

ab o ve

rs t

h al f

b e i n g pre s e n t , s o m e t ri
s t ar t e d and
t al ke d o f ; b u t as

e rs o n s

i n g t h i n gs w e re
h e w as v e ry d e s i ro u s t h at I sh o u l d pro po se s om e
h i ghe r q u e s ti o n s t o h im I c o m p l i e d an d the
c om pan y w e re all w it n e ss e s o f h is pro d i gi o u s
r e ad i n e s s in an s w e ri n g the fo l l o w i ng q u e s ti o n s
,

Q U ES T I ON
In
m an y

e ld

ac re s

35 1 yar d s l on g,

an d

roo d s ,

26 1 yar d s wi d e , h ow

Aft e r 1 1 m i n u t e s, h e
3

2 8 pe rc he s ,

Vol

an

an s we re

d 14

xxi ii .

re

ma i n e d

p 5 57
.

d 1 8

ac re s ,

N AT U R A L M E M O RY

II

Q U ES T I ON
S u p p os e

h ow

on g

th

sou n d

af e r

e n,

Re t for d , m ay th e
t he d is

mo

Aft e r ab ou t
m e in 2 3

r in g

b e h e ar d

s am e

ti

1 1 4 2 fe e

es

th e

ve m i

an c e a t

n on e se c on d o f

t im

t h e c an n on s

P ark ,

au gh o n

t aki

e,

at
ng

es ?

q u ar te r o f an
se c o n d s
7 th i rd s an d

h o u r he

Q U ES T I ON

Ad m i t I

on e o f

of

at

4 29

III

re

tol d

m ai n e d

l i pl t i w 4 f t s
d
t g l p l o t of
d t
pla t 7 f t p t i a
d w il l th e
d h w m ch l
g o
p
pl t t k
I n n e ar h al f an h o u r h e sai d 2 ac re s I
rood
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e r,

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se

n s

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an s

ar ,

se

an

n ro

s,

re c

an s

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a un

ee

u ar

e u

Q U ES T I ON I V

W h at
a c u b ic a

ma

lt

b in ,

c or n

W in c he s t e r

th t
a

I gi e m y
s h al l h o d m e

d im e n s ion s m u s

j oi e
j t
n

us

t o m ak e m e
a

q u ar

e r of

m e as u re ?

q u e s ti on e xe rc i se d al l his fac u l ti e s an d
h e d e c l are d it w as the h ar d e s t h e e v e r p ro po se d ;
b y th i s I pe rc e iv e d h e had n e v e r e n gage d hi m se l f
e ve r
t ho u gh s o d iffi
ab o u t th e c u b e r o o t : h o w
h e w as v e ry de s i rou s to
c u l t it appe are d to h im
an s w e r it
b e fo re it w as too l at e in the e v e n i n g
ti m e he s ai d to hi m s e l f the r e
an d a ft e r s o m e
T hi s

we r e

n oo ks

he

ve r

i n i t , bu t he w ou l d

t he m

ou t :

t
al ki n
b
u
t
sa
a
one
s
t
g
g
h e e d l e s s o f e v e ry th in g ab o u t h im e xc e pt h is
I gav e
p o t o f b e e r w h i c h he t o o k n o ti c e o f
h im n o h i n t s he l p o r ass i s t an c e b u t l e ft i t e u
t ir e l y to h im as I d id the o t he rs n or had he an
y
thi n g in his han d to m ake an y m arks ( wh i c h I
ne

ar d e

re

our

0
3
4

m u st

re

sr an c ns

b e c au se he m ake s

ea ,
p

b y his m e m ory)

t on s

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al l

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b ou t

aft e r

p u ta
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c om

an

l ittl e m o re than 25 2
in c h e s on a s i d e an d 2 6 i n c he s w o u l d b e too
mu c h al l wh i c h is v e ry t r u e an d ve ry e xac t
1 sh al l he re s u bj o i n an ac c o u n t h e gave m e
o f th e q u an tit y o f a l e o r s tr on g b e e r th at h e has
d r an k o n fre e c o s t s i n c e he w as 1 2 ye ars o f age
an d t h e
ge n tl e m e n s n am e s wh e re ; an d as th e
ac c o u n t w as a l ittl e
I
aske d him hu e
ar ti c u l ar
p
a n d i l l u c aft e r I h ad c o m m i tt e d i t t o pape r an d
to l d

it

me ,

wou l d

be

he

e ac h

an s w e re d

ho u se s
men

of

d e m an d

fo l l o w m g

t he

se

as

n ob e

d o wn ,

me n

an d

at

the

g e n tl e

:
P i n ts
21 30
.

D u k e o f K i n gs to n
D u e o f No r f o l
D u e o f Le e d s
D u e o f D e v on sh i r e
La d y O x f o r d

k
k
k

2 66

2 32
10

G H e at h c o t e , Esq
S i r G S a v i l e , B ar t
J Th o m h ag h , Es q
S i r L Pi l k m g t o n , B ar t
J o h n B ri s t o w e , Es q
W Vi l l a r e al , E sq
S i r l l H n n l o c k , B art
B u r t o n , Es q
W h i t e , Esq
D r B u rn e
M r H oo k s
.

1 60
20

20

M r M ay or
.

M r S h aw
M r B ar e r
M r S i sson
M r M aj o r
M r B ri g s
M r Pi l i n g t on
M r J B ri gs
M r B e e st i n g s
G a t h e r i n g f o r h i s d e ad
Re v M r H e w e t

of

C h e st e r

ol

C h ad w i c
l l a l f h e ad

Mr
M r W r i gh t
At El m t o n M an o r
M r S h e rw m
M r C ar t e r e t
M r Lan e
M r W h i t e h o u se
M r R Par i n
M r R G r e e n w oo d
M r Th C l a r e
M r B u l l i v an t
M r Pad l e y
At m y o w n h o u s e

ld

15
1 2
3
3

2
4
45
c o w 72

2
3

15
40
300
15
16

20

C l a r e , Es q
H a l l o w s , Esq
S i r J J e n k m s o n , B ar t .
M r H an c o c
M r H al l
M r E S h ar p e o f El k e s l y
M r 1 h S h ar p e
Re v M r B o a w r e
M r W i l l e ts

30

art s h o r n

M r G r e e n w oo d

10

M r St e v e n s
M r Fa r

M r W e st
M r Ve s e y
Re v M r H
M r Fl i n t

Re v M r Pe g g e
M r Ri c h a r d s o n
M r Ray n e s

3
go

64
so
1
10

10

4 32

h l i fe

p ri n t

that

( says the

l i fe

i form

w o ul d

of

an d

of

trait

of

or

With thi s
w as gre atl y to h e w i she d
m an

l i fe

c ou

ld

b e g iv e n

l ab o ri ou s

l m os t i n c l u d e

T h e p or
u t i s tak c n

h is

o b s c u re :

t
i
e d it or) i t

e x raor d n ar
y

s o m e ac c o u n

b u t the
un

t hi s

of

t e

NS T ANC E S

po ve r ty is n e c e s s aril y
t he h i s t o ry o f o n e d ay

the e ve n

ts

of

ll

J e d e d iah fr om w h ic h t he

Ti m e ,

ab o e

w ood

'

n ar u u i n

ith
age

re s pe c

nor

e xc e

d id

at
t
t
h
p

sum m e r a

to

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t he

n i u o n v

han ge d

in w i n t e r h e

Z
in g hob /c

u ed

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thi n g b u t his
e m lo me n t
p y

no

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v ary

s e as o n s

433

a il ,

an d

in

The gran d fath e r of J e d e d ia h, J ohn B u r ton ,

vi c ar o f E l m e ton in D e r by shir e an d h is
as s c h o o l m as t e r o f
fath e r Wil l iam B u xt on w
e dia h n o t w it hs t an d i n g
but c
the s am e pari s h
th e pro fe ss i o n o f h is fat he r is e xt re m e l y ill ite
be e n so
havi n g b y w hat e v e r ac c i d e n t
rat e
m u c h n e gl e c t e d i n h is yo u t h as n e v e r to h av e
b e e n t au gh t to w r it e : ho w he c am e fi rs t t o
kn o w th e re l ativ e p ro po rti o n s o f n u m b e rs an d
t he i r progre ss iv e d e no m i n ati on s he d o e s n o t re
m e m b e r ; b u t t o th i s h e has appl i e d the w h o l e
fo rc e o f his m i n d an d u pon th i s his atte n ti on is

t
ed
so t h at h e
f
u e n tl
ake s n o
c o n s t an tl
x
re
y
y
q
an d
o f e xt e r n al o bj e c t s
w he n h e
c o gn i z an c e
d o e s i t is o n l y w ith r e s pe c t to t he i r n u m b e rs :
the s am e att e n ti o n o f h is m i n d appe ars as w e l l
b y w hat he he ars as b y w hat he se e s
I f an y
i
s m e n ti o n e d
s ac e
o f ti m e
il
l
h
e
s o o n aft e r
w
p
~
h
n d if an
sa
t
at i t is s o m an y m in u t e s
a
d
i
s
y
y
t an c e o f w ay he w il l ass ign the n u mb e r o f
hai r s b re ad ths u itl i o u t an y q u e s ti on havi ng
b e e n aske d or any c al c u l ati o n: e xpe c t e d by the

w as

c o m pany.

By t hi s m e t ho d he has gre atl y i nc re ase d the


o w e r o f his m e m o r , w it h re s e c t to u re s
,
y
p
p
g
P 1

'

434
an

d sto re d

mm on prod u c ts .in his


have i m me diat e re c our
e,
s

s e ve ra c o

up

to w h c h

he c an
as t he nu m b er o f m in u te s in a ye ar,
b re ad t hs in a m i l e , an d m any o the r s

mi n d,

c om re
p

h e n ds

w i tho u t d ii c ul ty
w it h

a m az n g

f hai r s

Whe n he

on c e

q ue s ti o n w hic h is n o t
t ime h e b e gi ns to w o rk
an d w il l l e av e a l o n g

an d

fac i l i ty,

q u e s ti on hal f w rou gh t an d at the e n d o f s e


v e ral m on ths re su m e it b e gi n nin g w he re he
l e ft o ff an d p roc e e d i n g re gu l arl y til l i t is c om
,

l
e te d
p

H is m e m o ry w o u l d

t i l y have b e e n
w i t h r e s pe c t t o o th e r o bje c ts
e q u al ly r e t e n tiv e
if he h ad att e n d e d t o o th e r o bje c ts w it h e q ual
d ili ge n c e ; b u t h is p e rpe t u al applic ati on to
re s h as pre v e n te d t he s mal l e s t ac q u i s iti o n of
u
g
an d h is m i n d s e e m s to
an y o t he r kn o w l e d ge
h av e r e ta i n e d fe w e r i de as than t h at o f a b o y of
t e n ye a r s o l d in th e s am e c l as s o f l i fe
He
h as b e e n s o m e ti me s aske d o n h is re t u rn fro m
or
w h t h e r he re me m b e re d the t e xt
c h u rc h
b u t it ne v e r ap pe are d
any pa r t o f the s e r m o n
that he b rou gh t aw ay on e s e nte nc e : hi s mi n d
n
f
o
u nd to hav e
i
u on a c l o se r e xam i n ati o n
e
b
g
p
b e e n b u s i e d e v e n d u ri n g d ivi n e s e rvi c e i n its
fav o u r i te op e rati o n e ith e r d iv id i n g s o me ti m e o r
or
s o m e s ac e in t o t h e s m al l e s t kn o w n par t s
p
re s o l v in g s o m e q u e s ti o n t h at had b e e n gi ve n h im
as a t e s t o f h is ab iliti e s
H is p o w e r o f ab s t rae
c er a n

436

N A T URAL

M EM

O RY

h e fo u n d t he prod u c t o f 4 56
A
m u l t iplie d b y 3 7s t o b e 1 72 3 6 8
Thu s i t appe ars t hat h is arit hm e ti c is pe r

n umbe r

to 1 7 1 000,

fe c tl y
w

it h

t he

by 5 ,

it

his

o w n , an
c om

an d

wou l d

th e

d t hat he is

m on

ru e s

i;o d nc

l ittl e ac q u ai n te d :
m u l ti pl y 4 5 6 rs t :
t o n d w h a t su m

so

as t o

t ;by
20,

m l ti pl i e d b y 1 00 whe re as if
h e h ad ad d e d t w o n o u gh t s to th e gu re s he }
w ou l d have o b t ai n e d i t at o n c e
T he o n l y o bje c ts o f J e d e dia h s C u r i os ity, e x
ce
nd
t

e
s
i
r o al fa m l
u
h
n
w
e
re
e
k
an
d
t
r
p
g
g
y
iy a
h is d e s i re t o s e e t he m w as s o s t ro n g h at in th e
t
b e gi n n i n g o f th e s p ri n g h e w al ke d to Lo n d o n
on
u r os e
u t at l as t r e t u rn e d d i s ap po i n t e d
b
p p
the ki n g hav in g j u s t r e m o v e d to K e n s i ng t on as
H e w as h o w e v e r
J e d e d iah c a m e in t o Lon d o n
in t ro d u c e d to th e Royal S o c i e ty wh o m h e c al l e d
t he ge n tl e m e n
th e wal k of t he S i e ty C ou r t
w h o w e re
r e s e n t aske d h im s e ve ral q u e s t io n s in
p
ari t h m e ti c
t o pr o v e h is ab i l iti e s an d d i s m i ss e d
h im w ith a h an d s o m e grat u ity
D u ri n g h is re s i d e n c e in Lo n d o n he w as c ar
e r fo r m e d a t
ri e d t o s e e
K i n g Ri c hard I I I
p
D ru ry l an e pl ayh o u s e an d i t w as e xpe c t e d e i
t he r th at t he n o v e l ty an d the s p l e n d o u r of the
or
s h o w w ou l d h av e xe d h im i n as t o n i s hm e n t
ke p t h is i m agi n ati o n in a c o n ti n u al hu rry ; o r
t hat his p as s i o n s w ou l d in s o m e d e gre e h av e
ad
h
h
e
i
f
n
o
a
c
f
t
r
o
ti
e
w
o
h
e
d
e
h
b
t
e
n
o
u
c
be
y
p
ro d u c e
p

N AT U RA L M

EM

O RY

437

tl y u n d e rs to o d th e d i al o gu e ; b u t J e d e
d id /7 s m i n d w as e m pl oye d in t he pl ayh o us e j u s t
as i t w as e m l o ve d a t c h u rc h
u ri n
h
D
t
e
g
p
d an c e h e xe d h is att e n ti o n U po n the n u m b e r of
s te
ps ; he d e c l are d aft e r a fi n e pi e c e o f m u s rc
t h at the i n n u m e rab l e s o u n d s pro d u c e d b y t he ~i n
s tr u m e n t s h ad
pe rpl e xe d h im b e yo n d me as u re
at te n d e d e ve n t o
an d he
M r G arri c k o n l y t o
e
rfe c
p

n ot

t h e wor d s t ha t

c ou n t
s ays ,

li e

u t te r e d

h e pe r fe c tl y s u c c e e d e d
J e d e d ia /z is n o w s afe l y re t u rn e d
.

h is b i rt h, w he re , if h is

of

in wh ic h , h e

h is w i s he s d o

not

'

l ab o u r

se e

m o re

i t

are

he

fe w ,

ppl ie s

t c he e r
fu l n e s s ; h e re gre ts n o t h i n g t hat h e l e ft b e h i n d
h im in Lo n d on an d it is s til l h is O p in i o n t hat
a s l ic e o f ru s ty b ac o n affo rd s th e m o s t d e li c i o u s
his

to

b y w hi c h he

e n oy m e n s

m to b e

l
c e
a
p

to t he

subs s s

wi h

i 8 1 2 A D LZ E RA H C O L B U R N
.

Th e ap

of
m
r ic an
an d r iv a l
t
i
h
n
A
e
s
u
o
g
y
p
J e d e d i ah B u xt o n havi n g e xc it e d c o n s id e rab l e at
t e n ti on w e shal l pre s e n t o u r re ade rs w ith the fo l
l o w in g i n te r e s ti n g n arrativ e as d raw n u p b y th e
i n e n i ou s an d w e l l kn o w n c al c ul ato r M r Fr: A N
e aran c e

c rs

B A I LY

J e d e d iah d ie d

ve
l t

se

ral c

e n s of

h i l d re n ,

th

e ir

ab o u

n on e

fa he r

t th

l t

y e ar 1 774 , age d ao, an d e f


of w h om h a e in h e r i e d t h e rare ta
e

4 38

NS T A N C E S o r:

Lon d on , ag 2 0,
.

tte n ti o n o f the phil o s o phi c al u ori d has


b e e n l at e l y a tt rac t e d b y the m os t s i n gu l ar pha mo
in the h is t o r y o f the h u m an m i n d th at
i n e n on
e rh a s e v e r e xi s t e d
It
i
s t he
ase o f a c h il d
c
p
p
ars o
a e w h o w it h o u t an
u n d e r e i ht
e
y p re
g y
f g
vi ou s kn o w l e d ge o f th e c o m m o n r u l e s o f ari t h
m e ti c
o r e v e n o f th e u s e a n d
ow e r o f t he Ara
p
b ic n u m e ral s an d w ith o u t h avm g giv e n an y par
t ic u l ar att e n ti o n t o th e s u bj e c t po s se s se s ( as if
b y i n t u it io n ) th e s m gu l ar fac u l ty o f s o l vi n g a
re a t v ari e t
o f ar it h m e ti c a l q u e s ti o n s b
h
t
e m e re
g
y
y
a n d w ith o u t th e
t
h
e m in d
u s u al
o e r a t ion
p
o
f
ass i s t an c e o f an y vi s i b l e s ym b o l o r c o n t r iv an c e
The n am e o f t hi s c h il d is Ze ra C o l b u rn who
w as b o r n at C ab a t ( a t o w n l yi n g a t th e h e ad o f
O n io n r i v e r in Ve r m on t i n t h o U n ite d S t ate s
l s t o f S e pt e m b e r 1 804
o f Am e r i c a ) o n t he
Ab o u t t w o ye ars ago ( Au gu s t 1 8 1 0) al tho u gh
h
e
r s t b e an t o
e ars
a
e
a t t h at ti m e n o t s ix
f

g
o g
y
t hos e w on d e rfu l p o w ers o f c al c u l ati on
sh o w
w hic h , ave s in c e s o m u c h att r c t e d t he atte n ti o n
a
h
as t o n i s h m e n t o f e v e r
an d e xc it e d t h e
y p e rso n
w h o h as w i tn e ss e d h is e xt raord i n ary ab ili t ie s
The d i s c o v e ry w as m ad e b y ac c i d e n t H is fa
the r w h o h ad n o t giv e n h im an y o th e r in s tru c
ti o n ihan s dc h as w as t o b e o b t ain e d at a s m al l
s c h o o l e stab l i s h e d i n t h a t u nfre q ii e rtte d an d re
m o t e p ar t o f t he c o u n t ry ( an d w hi c h d id n o t
Th e

'

I N S T A N C ES

4 40

M an y pe rsons o f th e rs t
kn o wl e d ge in m at h e mati c s ,

o r

e m n enc e

an d

we

ll

for the i r

kn o wn fe r

th e i r phil o so ph i c al i n q u i ri e s hav e m ad e a po i nt
o f s e e i n g an d c o n ve rs i n g w i t h h is e xt raor d i n ary
as s t at e d o f him t hat
t
l
i
s c o rre c tl y t r u e
o w e rs
p
H e w i l l n o t o n l y de t e rm i n e w i th th e gre at e s t
fac il i ty an d d i s patc h the e xac t n u m b e r o f min u tes
o r s e c on d s in a n y g i ve n p e r i o d o f ti m e ; b u t w il l
al s o s o l v e a ny o t h e r q u e s ti o n o f a s i m il ar ki n d
H e w il l t e l l t he e xac t p r od u c t ar i s i n g fro m t he
m u l ti pl ic ati o n o f an y n u m b e r c o n s i s ti ng o f tw o
t h re e o r fo u r g u re s b y an y o th e r n u m b e r c o n s i s t
in o f the l ike n u m b e r o f gu re s Or an y n u mb e r
c o n s is t in g o f s ix o r s e v e n p l ac e s o f gu re s b e i n
g
h
e q u al e x e d i
it
re po s e d h e w il l d e t e rm i n e
w
p
p
t i on an d e ase a l l t he f a c t ors o f w h i c h i t is C om
h
i
ose d
T
s s i n gu l a r fac u l ty c o n se q u e n tl
y ex
p
t e n d s n ot o n l y t o the r a is in g q owe rs b u t al s o
t o th e e x t rac ti on o f the s q u a r e an d c u b e r oots o f
th e n u m b e r p ro po s e d ; an d l i ke w i s e t o the m e an s
o f d e t e rm i n i n g w he t h e r i t b e a r im e n u m b e r ( o r
p
a n u m b e r i n c apab l e o f d i vi s i o n b y an o th e r n u m
y
b e r) fo r w hi c h c as e t he re d be s n o t e xi s t at p re
an y
se n t
ge n e ral ru l e am o n g m ath e m ati c i an s
All t he s e an d a v ar i e ty o f o t he r q u e s ti o n s c o n
n e c te d t h e r e w it h are an s w e re d b
y t h i s c h il d w it h
su c h
p r omp tn e ss an d a c c u r a cy ( an d in th e m i ds t
o f h is J u v e n il e
u rs u it s ) as to as t on i sh e v e r
er
y
p
p
s on w h o h as v is i t e d him
,

'

NA T U RA L M

At

m e e ti n g

fo r the pu rpo s e
pro m o ti n g th e
de

rt Oo k,

an d

of

O RY

44 1

his fri e n d s wh i c h w as he l d

f c o n c e rti n g the b e s t m e t ho d

of

vi e ws o f th e fat he r this c h il d u n
n
c o m l e te l
e e d e d in
i
i
s
u
c
ra
s
c
y
g
p
,

the n u m b e r 8

ro

p g
an d
in

po w e r ! 1 l

EM

r e ss

ive ly

t o th e

s ixt e e n t h

l as t re s u l t viz
h e was r i gh t in e ve ry gu re
H e w as t he n t ri e d as to o t he r n u m b e rs c o n s i s t
in o f o n e g u re ; al l o f w h i c h h e r ai se d ( b y ac
t u al m u l ti pli c ati on an d n o t b y m e m ory) as hi gh
f
ac il i ty a n d
as t h e t e n t h
o w e r w it h s o m u c h
p
d i s pat c h t h at the pe rs o n a ppo i n te d to t ake d o w n
th e r e s u l t s
w as o b l ige d t o e nj o i n h im n ot to b e
s o r a id ! Wit h re s e c t to n u m b e rs c o n s i s tin g o f
p
p
two gu re s h e w o u l d rai s e s ome o f th e m to the
s ixt h s e ve n t h an d e i h th
o w e r ; b u t n o t al w ays
p
g
w it h e q u al fac il ity : fo r t he l arge r the p ro d u c t s
n am n

g th e

b e c am e , the m o re d ii c u l t h e fo u n d it t o pr o c e e d
H e w as as ke d the sq u a r e r oot o f 1 069 2 9 , an d

b e fore the

n u m b e r c ou

i m m e d ia te ly

q u i re d
an

n am e

to

d w ith

a n s w e re

p l i e d 64 5 :

qu al

th e

b e w ritt e n d o w n , h e

d 3 27

cu

fac il i ty

Vari o u s

ld
be

r oot o

an d

w as

t he n

re

ro m

n e ss
t
p

he

re

t he r q u e s ti o n s o f a s i m il ar
n at u re
r e s e c ti n
p
g t he r o o ts an d po w e rs o f v e ry
h i gh n u m b e rs w e re pro p os e d b y s e v e ral o f t he
e n tl e m e n
a
ll
f
h
h
e an s w e r
t
i
h
s
e
n
t
o
o
w
c
r
e
g
p
e d in a s i m il ar m an n e r
O n e o f t he party r e
q u e s t e d him to n am e the f a c tors w hic h pro d u c e d
o

442
t he

n umbe r
'

s r x n c ze s
'

or

i m me d i at e l y d id

9 4 74 88 , wh ic h h e

b y m e n ti on i n g th e

n u m be

t wo

rs 9 4 1

an

8 63 ;

wh i c h

i n de e d are t he o n l y two nu m b e r s th at wi l l
An o t he r o f t he m pro po s e d 1 7 1 39 5
pr od uc e i t
an d he n am e d th e fol l ow i n
g fac t ors as t he on ly
o ne s t ha t
Woul d prod u c e it ; viz 5 k 3 4279
.

7 x 24 4 8 5 ,
29 5 x 5 8 ] ,

s e x ao6s , 3 5 x 4 8 9 7,

'

5 9 x 29 05 ,
an d

41 3 x 4 15

giv e the fac t ors


re
p li e d t hat it h ad

was t h e n

n o n e,

hi c h in

t he

3 6083 is a prim e n u m b e r
O th e r n n m
w e re i n d i s c r i m in at e l y p re po se d to h im, an d

b e rs

e xc e

fac t w as

c ase , as

aske

b u t h e i m m e d i at e l y

to

he

l w ays su c c e e d e d
t
p

d i s c o ve

in t he
re

c as e

l mos t

in g ivi ng t he

of

i me

n u m b e rs ,

as s o o n

as

c orre c

o se d

'

t fac t ors
w h i c h he

On e

of

p p
h o w m an y m i n u ts
ro

ge n tl e m e n as ke d him

l
re
t he w e re in fo r ty e ig h t ye ars ; an d be l ore t he
q u e s t io n c o u l d b e w r itt e n d o w n h e re p l i e d

th e

an d n s tan t

of

se c on d s in t h e

Vari o u s

i i

of

ll

the m

u e s t or s

q
an d t o

h im

s ame

of

l y add e d , t hat t he
i

e r od

t he

w as

l i ke

he

n umb e r

ki n d w e re p u t to

an s e re

d w i th

ly

n e ar

q u al fac il i ty an d pro m ptit u d e ; So as to as to


re s e n t
an d
n i s h e v e ry o n e
e x c it e
a d e s i re
t
o
p
th at so e xt rao rd i n ary a fac u l ty s ho u l d ( if po s si bl e )
b e r e n d e re d m o re e xt e n s iv e an d u e fu l
i t u as the w i sh o f the ge n t l e m e n t pre se nt
t o o b t ai n a kn o w l e d ge o f t he m e t ho d b y w h i c h
the c h il d w as e n ab l e d to ans w e r w it h s o m u c h
e

'

'

4 44

I AN C
NS T

ES o r

d
v
t
h
a
t
it
a
s
w
y
fro m s om e s i n gu l ar fac t s that th e c hil d
e vi d e n t
onl
r u l e s kn o w n
t o h im
o e rat e d b y c e t ain
y
p
r
Thi s dis c o v e ry w as m ad e i n o n e o r tw o
se l f
i n s t an c e s w he n he h ad b e e n c l o se l y pr e sse d
that po i n t
I n o n e c as e he w as as ke d
u p on
t o t e l l t h e s q u ar e o f 4 3 9 5 ; he at rs t h e s i
fe arfu l t ha t he sho u l d n o t b e ab l e
t ate d
t o an s w e r it c o rre c tl y : b u t w he n h e appl i e d
On
hi m s e l f t o i t he s ai d it w as
b e i n g q u e s ti o n e d as to th e c au s e o f h is h e s it ati o n
he re pl i e d t h at he d id n o t l i ke to m u l ti pl y fo u r
I fo u n d
gu re s b y fo u r gu re s : b u t s aid he
o u t an o t he r w ay ; I m u l t ipl ie d 2 9 3 b y 2 9 3 an d
the n m u l t ipli e d t hi s pro d uc t t w ic e b y the n u m
On
b e r 1 5 w hi c h pro d u c e d the s am e re s u l t
h is hi ghn e s s t he D u ke o f
o c c as i o n
an o the r
G l o u c e s t e r aske d him the pro d u c t o f
m u l ti pl i e d by 5 43 : he i m m e d i at e l y re pli e d
b u t u po n s o me re m ark b e i n g
m ad e o n t he s u bj e c t the c hi l d s ai d t hat he had
in his o w n m i n d m u l t ipli e d 6 5 202 b y 1 8 1
No w al tho ugh in the rs t i n s t anc e it m us t b e
to e v e ry m athe mati c i an t hat 4 3 95 is
e vi d e n t
e q u al to 939 3 x 1 5 ( an d c o n se u e n tl y t hat 4 3 9 5 )
(
q
( 1 5 V; an d fu rthe r t hat in t he s e
c on d c as e 5 4 3 is e u al to 1 8 1 x 3
an d c e nse
q
e n tl
h
a
t
t
u
y
q

I t has b e e n

a r e ad

o b se r e

'

'

N AT U RAL M E M O R

4 45

th at th i s
c o m b i n ati o n s ho u l d b e i mm e d ia te l y pe rc e iv e d b y
the c h il d an d w e c an n o t th e l e s s ad m i re h is in
e as i e s t m e
e n u ity in t h u s s e i z i n g in s ta n t l y th e
g
t ho d o f so l vi n g th e q u e s ti o n pro pose d to him
I t m u s t b e e vi d e n t fro m w h at has he re b e e n
that th e s i n gu l ar fac u l ty w hi c h th i s c hil d
s tat e d
o s se s s e s is n o t a l t og e t he r d e pe n d e n t u po n his
p
18 1

ye

t,

it

is

n ot

th e

l e ss

re

m arkab l e

m e m ory

in the

r a is in

d e rab l y
m in d
as

th e m u l t ip l ic a t ion

In

i t

ass s e

in

an d

he arin g

owe rs ,

f nu m b e rs

h e is d o u b tl e ss

an d

c ou s

d b y t h at re m ar kab l e q u al i ty o f t he
th i s re s pe c t he m i gh t b e c o n s i d e re d

so m e re s e

m b l an c e

( if the d i ff e re n c e o f

e n t the j u s t n e ss o f t h e c o m a
v
p
p
ri so n ) t o the c e l e b rat e d J e d e d i ah B u xt o n
an d
B u t in t h e e x
o t he r pe rso n s O f s i m il ar n o t e
t he r oots o f n u m b e rs
an d in d e t e r
tra c tion o
f
m i n i n g th e i r f ac t or s ( if an y) i t is c l e ar t o al l
those who have w it n e sse d th e as t o n i sh i n g q u i c k
n e s s an d ac c u rac y o f t h i s c h il d t hat the m e m o r
y
has l it tl e or n othin g t o d o w i t h the pro c e ss
An d in th i s par ti c u l ar po i n t c o n s i s t s the re m ar k
ab l e d i
e r e n c e b e t w e e n th e pr e s e n t an d al l fo r
m e r i n s tan c e s o f an appare n tl y s i m il ar ki n d
It has b e e n re c o rd e d as an as t o n i shi n g e ffor t
c e l e b rat e d Eu l e r ( w h o
Of m e m o ry t hat t he
in
the s c i e n c e Of an al ys i s m i gh t vie e ve n w i th Ne w
to n h i m se l f ) c o u l d re m e m b e r the rs t s ix po w
l
e rs o f e ve ry n u m b e r u n d e r 1 00 T hi s ,
r
b
o
b
a
p
y

ge

d id

n ot

re

'

4 46

NS T A N C E S

or

t ake n with so m e re stric tion s b u t if tru e


t o the fu l l e s t e xt e n t it is n o t m or e as t on i sh i n
g
t han the e ffort s o f thi s c h il d ; w ith this addit i o n al
c i r c u m s t an c e in fav o u r Of th e l at t e r
th at h e is
c a ab l e
o f ve r fyin g
i
n
v
e ry fe w s e c o n d s
a
p
y
e v e ry g u re w h i c h he m a h av e oc c as i o n fo r
It
y
h as b e e n fu rth e r r e m ark e d
th e b i ogr ap he r o f

t hat e m in e n t m athe m at i c ian t hat he pe rc e iv e d


anc e
h
e fac to r s o f wh i c h
l
l
t
al m os t a t a s i m
e
g
p
h is form u l ae w e re c o m p ose d ; the parti c u l ar
s s te m of fac t o rs b e l o n in
t
o
t
h
e
q u e s ti on n u
g g
y
the v ar io u s ar ti c e s b y
d e r c o n s i d e rati o n
w h i c h th a t s ys t e m m ay b e s i m pl i e d an d re d u
o f th e
s e v e ral fac to rs to
c c d ; a n d th e re l ati o n
H is e xpe n
t he c o n d iti o n s o f th e hypo th e s i s
ar ti c u l ar
ro b ab l
r e su l t e d
n a
n e s s in t h i s
i
p
y
p
e a t m e as u re
f
rom the e as e
h
h
it
i
w
c h he
w
r
g
rf o r m e d m at he m ati c al i n ve s t igati o ns b
h
e
ad
e
p
y
H e h ad al w ays ac c u s t o m e d h i m s e l f to t hat e x
c ro i s e
an d h a vi n g p rac ti se d i t w it h ass i d u ity
( e ve n b e fo re the l os s o f s igh t w hi c h afte rwar d s
re n de re d it a m at te r o f n e c e s s ty ) h e i s an in
i
s t an c e t o what a n as t on i s hi n g d e gre e i t m ay b e
an d h o w m u c h it i m ro ve s t he i n t e l
ac q u i re d
p
l e c t u a l po w e rs No o the r d i s c i p l i n e is s o e f
fe c t u al in st re n gt he n i ng th e f ac u l ty o f atte n ti on :
i t giv e s a fac i lity o f appre he n s i on an ac c u rac y
an d s t e ad i n e s s to th e c o n c e p ti o n s ; an d ( wh at is
a s til l m ore val u ab l e ac q u i s i ti o n ) it hab i tu at e s
m ust b e

4 48

NS T A N C

ES

Pe rhaps th i s c h il d po s s e s se s

m or e i mp or tan t p ro p e r t ie s

or

kn ow l e dge

o f so me

t e d w ith thi s
s u bj e c t ; an d al tho u h h e is i n c a ab l e at
re se n t
g
p
p
o f g i vi n g an y s ati s fac t o r
y ac c ou n t o f the s t at e o f
h is m i n d o r o f c o m m u n i c ati n g to o t he r s th e
kn o w l e dge w h i c h i t is s o e vi d e n t h e d oe s po ss e ss
e t t h e re
s e ve r
e aso n t o b e l i e ve th at
i
r
w he n
y
y
h is m i n d is m o re c u l ti vat e d an d hi s i d e as m ore
he w i ll b e ab l e n o t o n l y to d i vu l ge the
e xp an d e d
m o d e b y w hi c h h e at p re se n t o pe rat e s b u t al s o
o i n t o u t s om e n e w s ou r c e s o f i n fo rm ati o n o n
p
th i s i n te re s ti n g s u bj e c t
The c ase is c e r t ai n l y on e o f gre at n ove l ty
e r ar c harac t e r an d
an d e v e r
l
it
an d im or t an c e
y
y
p
e v e ry fr i e n d t o s c i e n c e m u s t b e an x i o u s t o s e e
th e e xpe ri m e n t fai rl y t ri e d as t o the e ffe c t w h i c h
o n a m in d
a s u i ta b l e e d u c a t i on m ay prod u c e
With thi s Vi e w
c o n s tit u t e d as h is app e ars to b e
a n u m b e r o f ge n tl e m e n h av e t ake n th e c h il d u n
d e r th e i r p at ron age an d h ave fo rm e d t he m se l ve s
in t o a c o m m itt e e fo r t he pu rpose o f s u pe r i n t e n d
in g his e d u c ati o n
Appli c ati o n has b e e n m ad e
w e l l kn o w n fo r h is
t o a ge n tl e m an o f sc i e n c e
m athe m ati c al ab il iti e s w ho has c on s e n t e d t o
t ake the c h il d u n d e r h is i m m e d i ate t u i ti on the
t o w it hd raw him
c o m m itt e e t he re fo re p r o po se
fo r th e pre se n t fro m p u bl ic e xhibi t ion in o rd e r
that he m ay fu l l y d e v o t e hi m se l f to h is s t u d i e s
B u t wh e th e r the y shal l b e ab l e who l l y to ae c o m
c on n e c

N AT U RA L M E M

pl isl t the
u on the
p
u

44 9

j t the y hav e in vi e w w il l d e pe n d
as s i s t an c e w h i c h t he
y m ay re c e i ve fro m

ob e c

l
i
b
c
p
S i n c e t hi s

the

O RY

t t

s a e

favo u re d w ith

m e n t w as pri n t e d , w e hav e b e e n

t hi s e x
traord in ary c h i l d
wh i c h d e t ail s an e xam i n ati o n
b y IvI r H A S E th e c h i e f c ash i e r o f the B AN K
The au the n ti c ity o f th i s n arrativ e
of EN G LA N D
may b e re l i e d on
Zara /t C ol bu r n w as i n t ro d u c e d to M r H ase
e
h
h
T
at t he B an k ac c o m an i e d b
i
f
a
t
r
e
s
p
y h
rs t q u e s ti on re q u i re d th e c u be r oot o f
he an s w e re d in ab o u t on e m i n u t e
9 8 3 w h i c h is c orre c t ; the n e x t q u e s ti on w as
of
c u be
th e
4 78 ; in l e ss th an t wo m i n u t e s
h e sai d i t w as
T he th i rd q u e s
t i on w as to gi ve the pro d u c t o f th e t w o f a c t ors
4 9 73 an d 3 58 7 ; in ab o ut fou r m i n u te s h e s ta t e d
I
a ro d u c t w ro n in t w o u re s n am e l y
p
g
g
th e n
o n b e i n g t o l d th at h e w as no t
c orre c t aft e r a l a se o f t w o m i n u t e s m ore h e s ta
p
t e d the ri gh t p rod u c t
H e w as th e n
aske d w hat
t w o f a c t ors o f fou r gu re s e ac h
h e he s it at e d fo r s o m e
w ou l d g i ve
ti m e an d appe are d u n ab l e t o an swe r i t ; his fa
t he r th e n re q u e s t e d M r H to m e n ti on on e o f the
r s w hi c h h e d id
ac
t
o
n am e l
i
n ab o u t
8
3
7
9
f
y
fu r t he r

s om e

a c c ou n

of

t o w hom th e

M r B O NNY C
.

tl

A ST LE, w e u n d e rs an d ,

tu i t io

i s th e ge n e m an
o f Ze rah C ol b u m is t o b e e n ru s e d

I NS T ANC E S

4 50

t h re e

m i n u te s

he

n am e

OF

th e

th e r

c o rr e c

tl y

l as t q u e s ti o n w as to n am e t wo f ac
t or s o n e o f fou r th e o t he r o f t h re e gu re s w h i c h
h e appe are d u n ab l e
d uc e
w ou l d p r o
t o d o th i s sayi n g th e y w e re pr i m e n u m b e rs b u t
h is fat he r p e rs i s t e d th at h e w o u l d so l v e the q u e s
ti o n ; b e h o w e ve r fo u n d the d i f c u l ty i n s ar
m o u n t ab l e
t he
H is fathe r t he n as ke d M r H
rs t n u m b e r o f th e f ac tor o f t h re e gu re s w hi c h
w as n an ie d viz 7 s til l h e c o u l d n o t ac c o m pli sh
it t h e n th e s e c o n d gu re 3 w as t o l d h im ; s ti ll
h e fail e d b u t w he n h e w as m ad e ac q u ai n t e d w ith
th e l as t gu re
9 t o th e gre at as t o n i s h m e n t o f
M r H h e im m e d i at e ly c al l e d o u t t hat the o the r
t c tor w as @3 4 7 w h i c h is c orre c t
S i n c e the ab o v e ac c o u n t h as b e e n c o l l e c t e d w e
r e gre t t o n d th a t t h i s i n t e r e s ti n g yo u t h is agai n
th e m o n e y c o l l e c t e d for his
e xh i b it e d to th e p u b l i c
e d u c ati o n
w e s u p pos e n o t b e i n g fo u n d s u f c i e n t
I f his pare n t s i n t e n d t o appro
fo r the pu rpo s e
ai n e d b y e xh i b iti n g him in aid
riate th e s u m
p
g
w
sh t h e m su c c e s s
o f th e ab o v e fu n d w e he ar til
i
y
an d c an n o t
d
o t he m a m o r e e s s e n ti al
e rh a s
p
p
f
o l l o w i n g n o ti c e
i
s e r vi c e t h an b
n s e r ti n g th e
y
w h i c h a ppe are d in the C hro n i c l e o f the 1 7th
4 71 9

The

Dec

1 8 12

Ne e ly

B ooks p r in ted f or S he rwood ,

an

d J on e s

B AU SSET S LI FE OF FENELON

I n To

ol u m e s ,

m b e l l ish e d w i h an
p ri c e 1 8 3 . b oar d s ,

8 vo

e e gan

t Port rai t

1 TH E LI FE OF FENELON, Ar c h b is h op of
C am b r ai ; c om p il e d , f rom O r ig in a M an u s c r ip s , b y M L F
D e B au s s e t , form e r y B is h o p o f A ais , & c
T ran sl a e d
fr om t he Fre n c h ,
.

W I LLI AM M U D FORD

BY

T h e u tm os g e n l e n e ss o f m an n e rs , a e m p e r w h i c h
n o h i n g c o u l d d i s u r b , p e r fe c
i n ge n u ou sn e ss , e m in e n at
t ain m e n t s , a s u b l im e ge n ion s , e xal e d i r u e , an d e e a e d
p i e y , c re a e d t h e s in gu l ar in e r e s w h i c h b e on ge d t o Fe
n e on w h e n i i g, an d w h i c h s i l l s u r r ou n d s h is m e m ory
T h e w o r k b e fore u s w i l l h i gh l y gra ify al l w ho d e igh t
t o c on e m p a e e x ra or d in ary w o r h an d e x c e e n c e ; an d ,
i n d e e d , i n i n e re s a n d b e n e c ial e n d e n c y, h ow fe w p e r
forman c e s app r oac h i t M on thl y Re vi e w , M ar c h, 1 8 1 1

lv

l t
t

v t

l v t

t
t

ll

T H E C H ARAC T ERS AND PROPERT I ES


O F T RU E C H ARI TY D I SP LAY ED , f r om t h e Fre n c h
0

of

Fe n e

On e

on .

ar ge

Vo l u m e ,

1 2m o 4 s 6 d
.

b oar d s

FENELON S PI OU S REFLEC T I ONS, for


D ay in th e M on th
Tw e l f t h Ed i t ion , P r ic e f i s or

e v t ry

tl y

i n c a f, 23 6 d ;
i n En g ish M or oc c o ,
M or oc c o , 3 s 6 d
i e m an u a is t oo w e
Th is e x c e l e n
kn o w n t o t h e
u b ic t o re u ire on o u r p ar an y ad d i i on a re c o m m e n d a
p
q
t io n an d th e M e m o irs of h e am iab l e Fe n e on , p r e xe d t o
"
C ri tic al
h is e d i ion , form a c on s id e rab l e im pro e m e n
Re vie w
b ou n d

nea

l t l ttl

ll

As

a c omp an ion

t o the

abo ve ,

( th

e s ame s iz e

85 pr ic e , )

FENELON S PI OU S TH O U G H TS

v
l

c orn

Lo e of G od
T o w h i c h are
s u b o in e d , D ire c i on s fo r a H o
y Life , an d t h e a ain in g
C h r is ian P e rfe c ion ; a s o , th e C ose C om pan i on , or a
C ou rse of S hor Pray e rs for e e ry D ay in t he W e e k
c e rn in g

th e K n o w

t
t

d ge

an d

tt

x
t

U n i ve r s i ty o f C al i fo r n i a
e
S OUTH ERNREGIONALLIB RARYFAC ILITY
4 05 H i l g ard Ave n u e , Los Ang e l e s , C A 9002 4 1 3 88
Re t u r n t h i s m ate r i al to t h e l i b rary
f ro m w h i c h it was b o rrow e d
.

'

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