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Chapter 3-The Renaissance to the Age of Naturalism in Education

Topic Outline
The Philosophy of the Renaissance Period
Modern Philosophies of Education
The Renaissance Period

Monalisa by Leonardo Da
Vinci

Pieta by Michelangelo

Columbus discovers the earth


revolved around the sun

Gutenburg Perfect Printing

Martin Luther founded a new


religion

The Philosophy of the Renaissance Period


Most authorities agree that modern times began with the RENAISSANCE.
It was a general reawakening, a revival or rebirth of learning.
The renaissance upheld the dignity of the human being, renewed the spirit of
nationalism.

It is also the time for increased trade among countries, and a period of exploration.

This lead to scientific research which was used to solve problems.

Books were printed and thus were made more widely available.
Three main lines of Growth
The intellectual to which education belonged.
The aesthetic, and scientific.
For the present, only the first phase, the intellectual, will be discussed.
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period
Humanism (Italian or Individualistic Humanism and Northern or Social
Humanism)
The Reformation
Catholic-Counter Reformation
Protestant Reformation
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period

The scholars of the humanist movement found a new interest in human nature
through the revival of the classics.

They wanted to free the individual from those demands which had been imposed
upon him by the various authoritative institutions of the medieval periods like the
church, the guilds, the lords, and the monasteries.

Interest in classical literature came about first in Italy and then spread to other
parts of Northern Europe.

Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period HUMANISM


Derived from studia humanitatis which means studies of humanity
This movement started in the early part of the 14th century.
This period was marked by a revival of the classical influences of the Romans and
Greeks, expressed in the flowering of the arts and literature as well as the
beginning of modern science (Duca:1998)

It was a way of life concerned with the fullest realization of human development.
It may be traced to the saying of Protagoras, Man is the measure of all things, of
those that are, that they are, of those that are not, that they are not (Tulio:1999)
Humanistic Education was the outgrowth of the renaissance. It identified two
phases:
o Italian or individual humanism
o Social humanism
Italian or individual humanism
This stressed personal culture, individual freedom and the development of the elite
group.
Aims

Individualistic humanism aimed to develop individual personality through nature,


art, music, literature and architecture. The aim of humanistic education was for the
humanist to get the most possible out of life; he was expected to live a full,
excellent and rich existence.

Types

Aesthetic education aimed at the appreciation of art, music and drama which
became the most outstanding characteristic of humanistic education.

Content

The curriculum of the humanistic schools was varied. Students were exposed to
extensive art and literature.

Agencies and Organizations

One of the greatest contributions of humanistic education was the establishment of


a new school, a secondary school type, founded by the nobility for the nobility,
thus the name court schools.

One of the triumphs of humanistic education was the establishment of classical


secondary schools; the Lycees of France; the gymnasium in Germany; the Latin
Grammar School in England.

Popular Humanist during this time

DANTE ALIGHIERI-Author of Divine Comedy


Da Feltre-A scholar and educator who opened the schools for the poor
Petrarch-A prolific writer and a progressive thinker

Northern or Social Humanism-this gave more emphasis on moral and social reforms as
the best means for providing rich and full lives for all.
Aims

The aims of education of Northern Humanism were more social than individual.
Rather than aiming for individual happiness, education aimed at social reform and
the improvement of human relationships.

Types

Social humanistic education stressed religious, moral and social education.


Religious instruction was taken seriously and it attacked more evils in the church.
Literary education was encouraged as a means for social ends.

Content

The curricula of social humanism consisted of classical and biblical literature. One
of the northern humanists was Erasmus of Rotterdam. He edited many of the
Greek and Latin authors including the New Testament which later became the
basis of the King James Version in English.

Agencies and Organizations

To carry out their educational aims, the court schools became models of
humanistic influence. Other secondary schools, the French lycees and the German
gymnasium, became popular.

Popular Humanist during this time


Erasmus-a Dutch scholar and known for his educational works Liberal Education of
children & On the Order of Study
HUMANISM contributed the following to education
1. Allowed the development of educational talent.
2. Encouraged involvement and participation in all educational opportunities.
3. Encouraged students toward actualization and self-fulfillment.
4. Placed a premium on humanity and individual potential.
5. Introduced innovations in teaching methods.
6. Stimulated creativity and independence among students.
7. Increased person to person interaction.
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period THE
REFORMATION
This was one of the movements during the 16th century directed against the
practices of Roman Catholic Church.
Reformation was not merely a reform in religious doctrine. It involved political,
economic, moral, philosophical and institutional changes.

Credit to its success was MARTIN LUTHER, an Augustinian monk and professor
of theology at the newly-established University of Wittenburg.
He was threatened with excommunication from the Catholic faith,
LUTHER and other protestant reformers, formed a movement called Protestant
Reformation
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period THE
REFORMATION Protestant Reformation

The aim of Protestant Reformers was religious moralism living a worthy life
would guarantee a glorious after life.

Education must provide adequate training in the duties at home.

It also promoted parental discipline and a sound family life as a foundations of a


good government.

3 Types of Protestant Schools


1. Vernacular school. This was organized for popular education. The educational
system was compulsory.
2. Secondary School. The protestant reformation gained greatest strides in the
secondary level.
3. University School. Trained the masses and other future leaders.
Aims

The aim of education of the Protestant Reformers was religious moralism-living a


worthy life on earth will guarantee a glorious life hereafter. Education, therefore,
must provide adequate training in the duties of the home, occupation, church, and
state.

Types

To attain this aim, character education was emphasized. It stressed the value of
work over play-The Protestant work ethic.

Content

The study of Bible and all skills required to understand it was the basis subject in
Protestant elementary schools.

Agencies and Organizations

The Protestants considered the home as the basic educational agency and
considered good home training, parental discipline, and sound family life as the
foundations of good government and social welfare.

Popular scholar during this time


Melanchtion-One of the greatest scholars who made a Survey of what was in
Germany, the outcome of which became the basis of the SAXONY Plan to establish a
secondary school in every town under the control of the state.
Methods used in school were:

Reading
Correct pronunciation of words
Memorization of answers from the Gospel
Hymns and Psalms
Eventually, classroom instruction became more rigid, discipline was harsh and
religious Indoctrination was the chief method used.
Different movements that arise during the Renaissance Period CATHOLIC
COUNTER REFORMATION
This was another movement intended to clarify doctrine and improve the practices
of the catholic practices of the Catholic Church.
This aimed to develop an unquestioning obedience to the authority of the church
The different religious congregation also stressed their own aims
The Jesuit schools were designated to train leaders
The Christian Brothers
Jansenists will teach spiritual salvation.
Types

To attain these aims, the Catholics placed religious and moral education above
everything else. Domestic and vocational training were largely in the hands of
parents.

Content

The Jesuits had the broadest curricula in secondary and higher education.

Agencies

The Catholic teaching orders had three levels: the elementary which was for the
poor, the Christian Brothers confined their efforts to this level.

Jesuits schools were designated to train leaders through the following:


1. Doing a small amount of work at a time and doing it well.
2. Two steps in the teaching method: pre selection and repetition.
3. Adapting the lesson to the abilities and interests of the children.
4. Student participation through the question and answer method.
5. Repetition for mastery.
6. Review
7. Motivation by rivalry and emulation.

ANALYSIS

Explained and facilitated by: ANGELO M. MANALAC


BACCALAUREATE: Bachelor of Science in Customs Administration
MAJOR/18 UNITS EARNER: Professional Education specialized in Social Studies

Change is inevitable. Life has its own history and that history changes, fades and
improves. These histories should have to be studied to see and check how and what
kind of EDUCATION of different countries have had before.
In this chapter, were able to study the renaissance to the age of naturalism in
education. Were also able to see the development and different systems that
education had before.
..Modern times began with the movement known as the Renaissance; and since
education is always a reflection of the times, modern education and modern theories
of education can be said to have begun with this movement. Renaissance is the feeling
of reawakening ones desire of changes.

This chapter or the entire movement was able to discussed the three main lines of
growth; the intellectual to which education belonged, the aesthetic, and scientific. For
the present, only the first phase, the intellectual.
Scholars of the humanist movement found a new interest in human nature through the
revival of the classics. They wanted to free the individual from those demands which
had been imposed upon him by the various authoritative institutions of the medieval
period like the church, guilds, the lords, and the monasteries. Interest in classical
literature came about the first in Italy and then spread to other parts of the Northern
Europe.
This chapter stresses and explains about the development of growth brought by
Renaissance.
Reference: The Foundations of Education I by