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MINISTRY OF EDUCATION

FIJI SCHOOL LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION 2012

GEOGRAPHY
Time allowed: Three Hours
(An extra ten minutes is allowed for reading this paper.)

INSTRUCTIONS
1.

Write all your answers in the Answer Book provided.

2.

Write your Index Number on the front page and inside the back flap of the Answer Book.

3.

If you require more paper, ask the supervisor for extra sheets. Tie these inside the
Answer Book at the appropriate places.

4.

There are two sections in this paper. Section A is compulsory.


Note the choices in Section B.

SUMMARY OF QUESTIONS
Section

Guidelines

Total
Mark

Suggested
Time

64

110 minutes

36

70 minutes

There are three questions.


Q.1 Physical Geography - Fiji and New Zealand
Q.2 Natural Hazards - Fiji and Monsoon Asia
Q.3 Population and Settlement Patterns - Fiji and
India
Answer all the questions.
Note the options for essays.

There are four questions.


Q.4
Q.5
Q.6
Q.7

Agriculture and Food Production - Fiji and


New Zealand
Tourism - Fiji and Australia
Industrialisation - Fiji and Japan
Marine Resources - Fiji and Japan

Answer any two questions.


Note the options for essays.

COPYRIGHT: MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, REPUBLIC OF FIJI, 2012.

2.

SECTION A

[64 marks]

The three questions in this section are all compulsory.

QUESTION 1
A.

Physical Geography Fiji and New Zealand

(28 marks)

Mapping
(a)

Use the map of New Zealand given below and your knowledge to identify the
features marked (i) to (iv) that are described as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

this pressure system


this coastal lowland
the soil type present in this area
the dominant vegetation type found in this region
(2 marks)
(i)

(ii)

(iv)

(iii)

(b)

On the outline map of Fiji given in the Answer Book, locate


and name:
(i)

the dominant wind system in Fiji.

(ii)

an area of extensive flat upland.


(2 marks)
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

3.
B.

Resource Interpretation
Use the resource given below and your knowledge to answer the question
that follows.
The Creation of Air Pressure

RISING AIR

DESCENDING AIR
LOW AIR PRESSURE

HIGH AIR PRESSURE

Source: Adapt from New Zealand A New Geography, Dent, P. and McEwan, F., 2000.

Describe the formation of the two pressure systems shown in the diagram above. (2 marks)

C.

Synoptic Chart Interpretation


Use the weather map given below and your knowledge to answer the questions
that follow.

Source: Geography NCEA Level One, Chittenden, C., 2007.


(i)

Explain the weather condition experienced over New Zealand.

(1 mark)

(ii)

State one reason for your answer to question (i) above.

(1 mark)
Turn Over

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

4.
SECTION A
D.

(continued)

Topographic Map Interpretation


Study the map of AYLESBURY given below and use your knowledge to answer the
questions that follow.

Source: Basic Mapwork Skills, Ross, S., 2003.

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

5.

(i)

(ii)

Identify the features at the following grid references:


1.

850112

2.

790132

Describe the settlement pattern shown in the map.

(1 mark)
(1 mark)

Turn Over
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

6.
SECTION A
E.

(continued)

Diagram Interpretation
Use the diagram given below and your knowledge to answer the questions
that follow.
PROCESSES OF DENUDATION, TRANSPORTATION AND
DEPOSITION
1. Rock weathering

2. Mass movement
3. Erosion by river

Denudational
processes
Deposition
Transport

Source: Adapted from Interactions in Physical Geography, Squire, S., 1996.

F.

(i)

Identify two agents of erosion.

(1 mark)

(ii)

Explain the effect of climate on weathering.

(1 mark)

Resource Interpretation
Use the resource given below and your knowledge to answer the question
that follows.
FOREST COVER

Source: New Zealand A New Geography, Dent, P. and McEwan, F., 2000.
State two impacts of the removal of forest cover on soil.

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

(2 marks)

7.
G.

Definitions
Define clearly any two of the following terms:
(i)

isotherms

(iii)

alluviation

(ii)

pioneer community

(iv)

permafrost
(2 marks)

H.

I.

Short-Answer Questions
(i)

Explain two effects of climate change on coastal lowlands.

(2 marks)

(ii)

Suggest two reasons why summer temperatures are warmer than


winter ones.

(2 marks)

Essay
With reference to either Fiji or New Zealand, write an essay on one of the following questions.

Either
(i)

Identify three major landforms, describe their formation and state three
ways people have utilised these landforms.

Or

(ii)

Discuss the interrelationships between climate, soil and vegetation of a


named region of your choice.
(8 marks)

Turn Over
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

8.
SECTION A

(continued)

Note: Answer both Questions 2 and 3 BUT write only one essay from either
Question 2 or Question 3.

QUESTION 2
A.

Natural Hazards Fiji and Monsoon Asia

(22 marks)

Mapping
(a)

Use the map of Fiji given below and your knowledge to identify the
features marked (i) to (iv) that are described as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

island group frequently affected by hurricane


town that was seriously affected by flood earlier in the year (2012)
island where one of its villages is experiencing rise in sea level
island sometimes experiences water shortage
(2 marks)

(i)
(ii)

(iii)

(iv)

(b)

On the outline map of Monsoon Asia given in the Answer Book, locate and name:
(i)

country that was seriously affected by Tsunami in 2011.

(ii)

the major river in China.


(2 marks)
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

9.
B.

Graph Interpretation
Use the resource given below and your knowledge to answer the questions
that follow.
Graph showing the Annual Rainfall and Temperature for Mumbai

Altitude: 210 m
Annual range of temperature: 6C
Annual precipitation: 2 078 mm

Source: The New Wider World, Waugh, D., 2003.

C.

(i)

State the relationship between the rainfall and the temperature graph.

(2 marks)

(ii)

When would be the possible time for flooding to occur in Mumbai and
state the reason for your answer?

(2 marks)

Definitions
Define clearly any two of the following terms:
(i)

foreshocks

(iii)

sea floor spreading

(ii)

flood hydrograph

(iv)

tectonic hazard
(2 marks)

D.

E.

Short - Answer Questions


(i)

Suggest two reasons for the increasing threat of major floods.

(2 marks)

(ii)

State two economic effects of tropical cyclone.

(2 marks)

Essay [Write only one essay from either Question 2 or Question 3.]
With reference to either Fiji or Monsoon Asia, discuss four ways government
policies or national planning can help to reduce the impact of natural disaster.

(8 marks)
Turn Over

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

10.
SECTION A

(continued)

QUESTION 3

Population and Settlement Patterns Fiji and India

A.

(22 marks)

Mapping
(a)

Use the map of Monsoon Asia given below and your knowledge to identify
the features marked (i) to (iv) that are described as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

the dominant religion in this region


this rugged terrain with low population density
this megacity
this poor rural area with low living standards
(2 marks)

(ii)
(iii)

(iv)
(i)

(b)

On the outline map of Fiji provided in the Answer Book, locate and name:
(i)

a sparsely populated province with 9 to10 persons/sq km.

(ii)

an island inhabited by migrants from Ocean Islands.


(2 marks)

B.

Extension of Ideas
Choose any two concepts listed below and explain how each one affects population or
settlement.
(i)

empowerment of women

(iii)

rich hinterland

(ii)

new technology

(iv)

poverty
(2 marks)

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

11.
C.

Cartoon Interpretation
Use the cartoon given below and your knowledge to answer the questions
that follow.
FAMILY PLANNING
And theres nothing left after these high
taxes. They ought to leave school and
earn some wages.

We must limit our family. It costs


too much to give them all they need
in clothes, education, fashions and
entertainment.

Visit your local STERILISATION


CLINIC SIMPLE AND FREE

Apply NOW to Government agents


Source: Adapted from The Fabric of Geography, Farleigh, R.W., 1995.
(i)

(ii)

D.

Explain two factors that caused the failure of the sterilisation policy in
India.

(1 mark)

Suggest two reasons why couples in developed countries chose to limit


the size of their families based on the cartoon above.

(1 mark)

Definitions
Define clearly any two of the following terms:
(i)

asylum seekers

(iii)

under population

(ii)

carrying capacity

(iv)

life expectancy
(2 marks)

Turn Over
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

12.
SECTION A

E.

(continued)

Photograph Interpretation
Use the photograph given below and your knowledge to answer the questions that follow.

SLUM SETTLEMENT

Source: Form 5 Geography Study Guide, Broad, A.E. and Carter, K.R. 1998.

F.

(i)

Describe two features of slum settlements.

(2 marks)

(ii)

Suggest two factors that aggravate the conditions of such settlements.

(2 marks)

Essay [Write only one essay from either Question 2 or 3.]


With reference to either Fiji or India, discuss three impacts of rapid population growth
on the environment and state three ways government can help control these problems.
(8 marks)

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

13.

SECTION B

[36 marks]

There are four questions in this section. Answer any two questions.
Of the two questions that you choose, attempt only one essay from either
one of the two questions.

QUESTION 4
A.

Agriculture and Food Production Fiji and New Zealand

(22 marks)

Mapping
(a)

Use the map of New Zealand given below and your knowledge to identify
the features marked (i) to (iv) that are described as follow:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

area of prime lamb farming and grain growing


area known for horticultural activities
this dairy farming area
a main grape growing area
(2 marks)

(iii)

(iv)

(ii)

(i)

(b)

On the outline map of Fiji provided locate and name:


(i)

the area that is involved/engaged in potato farming.

(ii)

the area used for dalo farming by those affected by the expiry land lease.
(2 marks)
Turn Over
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

14.
SECTION B
B.

(continued)

Resource Interpretation
Study the resource given below and use your knowledge to answer the questions that follow.
MILKING MACHINE

Source: Adapted Geography on the Edge Geography for NCEA Level One,
Peat, J. and Lockyer J., 2009.
(i)

State two advantages of using the above machine.

(ii)

Improved technology means that the perception of Southland being too


cold for dairy farming is no longer true.
Justify the given statement in relation to the use of machine as shown above.

(2 marks)

(2 marks)
C.

D.

Short-Answer Questions
(i)

State two advantages of organic farming.

(2 marks)

(ii)

State two renewable resources that can be used by horticulturalists.

(2 marks)

Definitions
Define clearly any two of the following terms:
(i)

bobby calf

(iii)

aquifers

(ii)

leachate

(iv)

sustainable management
(2 marks)

E.

Essay [Answer only one essay from either one of the two questions you have
chosen in Section B.]
With reference to either Fiji or New Zealand, discuss four ways government can
increase food production.

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

(8 marks)

15.

QUESTION 5
A.

Tourism Fiji and Australia

(22 marks)

Mapping
(a)

Use the map of Australia given below and your knowledge to identify
the features marked (i) to (iv) that are described as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

this heritage centre


this feature which offers a glimpse of Aboriginal culture
Australias largest marine and zoological park
this ski holiday resort
(2 marks)

(i)
(ii)

(iii)
(iv)

(b)

On the outline map of Fiji provided, locate and name:


(i)

the island famous for its traditional firewalker.

(ii)

the "one stop shop" for tourists that features Fijian culture and
heritage along the Queens Highway.
(2 marks)

Turn Over
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

16.
SECTION B

B.

(continued)

Resource Interpretation
Study the resource given below and use your knowledge to answer the
questions that follow:

MULTIPLIER EFFECT
International
hotel is built

Employment

Entertainment
provided

Purchasing of local
produce

Increase income for


goods & services

Employ more workers

Increase farmers income

Source: Tourism the Total Picture, Purdie, H. and OConnor, D., 1990.
(i)
(ii)

C.

D.

Describe two effects of the tourist dollar on the local people as shown
above.

(2 marks)

Explain two ways governments and tourism organisations can retain


the economic benefits of tourism in the country.

(2 marks)

Short-Answer Questions
(i)

Suggest two reasons why overdependence on tourism is a risk.

(2 marks)

(ii)

State two problems caused by the tourism industry.

(2 marks)

Definitions
Define clearly any two of the following terms:
(i)

inbound

(iii)

ethnic tourism

(ii)

wilderness holidays

(iv)

resort

MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

(2 marks)

17.

E.

Essay [Answer only one essay from either one of the two questions you have
chosen in Section B.]
With reference to either Fiji or Australia, discuss three factors that have promoted the
development of the tourism industry and state three benefits brought by the industry on
the country.
(8 marks)

QUESTION 6
A.

Industrialisation Fiji and Japan

(22 marks)

Mapping
(a)

Use the map of Japan given below and your knowledge to identify the
features marked (i) (iv) that are described as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

this industrial city in the Keihin Industrial Region


this city having 50% foodstuff industries
this industrial region known for textiles, automobiles, aircraft
chemicals and petro chemicals manufacturing
industrial city specialised in engineering
(2 marks)

(i)

(iii)
(ii)

(iv)

(b)

On the outline map of Fiji provided, locate and name:


(i)

the copper mining industry in Viti Levu.

(ii)

the pearl farm in Vanua Levu.


(2 marks)
Turn Over
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

18.
SECTION B
B.

(continued)

Resource Interpretation
Study the resource given below and use your knowledge to answer the questions
that follow.
Graph showing the number of industries and percentage of
exporters in the industry in Japan.

Source: http://www.japaninc.com/files/maqz-85

C.

D.

(i)

Give a summary statement of the graph above.

(2 marks)

(ii)

State two best possible options industries can take to improve the
countrys export.

(2 marks)

Short -Answer Questions


(i)

State two advantages of tax free zone.

(2 marks)

(ii)

Differentiate between formal and informal sectors of industry.

(2 marks)

Definitions
Define clearly any two of the following terms:
(i)

high-tech industry

(iii)

appropriate technology

(ii)

sky scraper jungle

(iv)

trade show
(2 marks)

E.

Essay [Write only one essay from either one of the two questions you have
chosen in Section B.]
With reference to either Fiji or Japan, discuss three negative impacts of
industrialisation on natural environment and identify three management strategies
that can reduce the impacts.
(8 marks)
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

19.
QUESTION 7
A.

Marine Resources Fiji and Japan

(22 marks)

Mapping
(a)

Use the map of Japan, given below and your knowledge to identify the features
marked (i) to (iv) that are described as follows:
(i)
(ii)
(iii)
(iv)

this strait
this cool current
region famous for huge soft corals and tube dwelling anemones
this bay
(2 marks)

(ii)

(i)
(iii)
(iv)

(b)

On the outline map of Fiji provided, locate and name:


(i)

an ice plant in the western division.

(ii)

the province in Vanua Levu that is actively involved in marine conservation.


(2 marks)

Turn Over
MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, FSLCE 2012: GEOGRAPHY.

20.
SECTION B
B.

(continued)

Resource Interpretation
Study the resource given below and use your knowledge to answer questions
that follow.
Fishing Activity

Source: The Japan of Today, Ministry of Foreign Affairs, Japan, n.d.


(i)
(ii)

C.

Identify the type of fishing shown in the picture and state one of its
disadvantage.

(2 marks)

State two ways in which sustainability in marine resources can be


promoted.

(2 marks)

Short-Answer Questions
(i)

List two advantages of the mangrove ecosystem.

(ii)

State the difference between the barrier and the fringing reefs.

(2 marks)
(2 marks)

D.

Definitions
Define clearly any two of the following terms:
(i)

species diversity

(iii)

primary consumers

(ii)

maximum sustainable yield

(iv)

atoll
(2 marks)

E.

Essay [Write only one essay from either one of the two questions you have
chosen in Section B]
With reference to either Fiji or Japan, discuss four ways government can
contribute to the improvement of the fishing industry.

THE END
COPYRIGHT: MINISTRY OF EDUCATION, REPUBLIC OF FIJI, 2012.

(8 marks)