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Introduction to Groundwater

and Aquifer
By: Putika Ashfar .K

References
Heath, Ralph C., 1983, Basic ground-water hydrology: U.S .
Geological Survey Water-Supply
Todd, D.K. and Mays L.W., (2005): Groundwater
Hydrology.(3rd Edition). John Wiley & Sons, New York

Ground water is one of the most valuable natural resources .


Ground-water hydrology is the subdivision of the science of hydrology
that deals with the occurrence, movement, and quality of water beneath
the Earth's surface .

Porous Media and Groundwater Flow


1. Water-bearing rocks
2. Voids of rocks
3. Deposits Consolidation

Water bearing rocks

Voids of rocks

Primary openings
If the voids were formed at
the same times as the rocks

Secondary openings
The voids were formed after
rock formed
(E.g : granite)

Both Primary and


Secondary openings
(E.g : limestone, sandstone)

Deposits Consolidation
Unconsolidated deposits
Consist of material derived from the disintegration of consolidated
rocks. The material consists, in different types of unconsolidated
deposits, of particles of rocks or minerals ranging in size from
fractions of a millimeter (clay size) to several meters (boulders).

Semi-Unconsolidated deposits
These are rocks in which openings include both pores and fracturesin other words, both primary and secondary openings .

Consolidated deposits
consist of mineral particles of different sizes and shapes that have
been welded by heat and pressure or by chemical reactions into a
solid mass.

Zones of Groundwater

Unsaturated
zone

aquitard

aquiclude

saturated
zone

Zones of Groundwater

well
Soil surface
Water level

Unsaturated
zone
Capillary fringe
saturated
zone

Groundwater

Unsaturated zone / vadose zone A zone contains of water and air


Capillary fringe A zone which is result from water and rocks
attraction, usually adjacent with unconfined aquifer
Saturated zone Full water zone
Water level Level in the saturated zone when hydraulic pressure equal
to athmospheric pressure

Aquifer
Soil surface
Water level
Aquitard

Confining unit

Confined
aquifer
aquifuge

Confining unit

Aquifer Water bearing geological formation that can store and yield
usable amount of water
Aquitard A bed of low permeability adjacent to an aquifer and may serve
as a stirage unit
Aquiclude A solid and impermeable area overlies the aquifer pressure
which cause a confined aquifer zone
Aquifuge Impermeable body of rocks which contains no interconnected
openings

Aquifer Properties

Porosity (n)
Specific Yield (Sy)
Specific Retention (Sr)
Total Head (Ht)
Hydraulic Gradient
Hydraulic Conductivity (K)
Transmittivity (T)

Porosity (n)
The ratio of opening voids to total volume of a
soil/ rocks

Vt = total volume of soil/ rocks sample


Vv = volume of opening voids

Specific Yield (Sy)


Water storage in the groundwater that drain under the
influence of gravity
It simply tells how much water available for man use

Vt = total volume of soil/ rocks sample


Vr= volume of water retained

Specific Retention (Sr)


Tells how much water is available after drained by
gravity
The part retained on rock surfaces in a very small
openings (capillary fringe indeed)

Vr = volume of water retained

Total Head (Ht) and Hydraulic Gradient


Ht = z + hp
Ht= total head
z = elevation head
Hp = pressure
head

Hydraulic gradient
The change head per unit distance in
a given direction
If the direction isnt specified, choose
the direction with maximum rate of
decrease of head occurs

hL = head between 2 wells


L = horizontal distance
between wells

Hydraulic Gradient
L = 780 m
15 m

Soil surface
18 m

hL

Water line

hp
ht

ht

hp

z
z

Bottom of aquifer
datum

Hydraulic Conductivity (K)


Q = quantity of water per-unit per-time
A = cross-sectional area

By its area,aquifer can be classified as :


Homogenous area
if hydraulic conductivity (K) is same in any area of aquifer
Hetergenous area
If there is any differences of K in aquifer
By moving direction of groundwater flow :
Isotropic
If hydraulic conductivity (K) is same in all direction
Anisotropic
Hydraulic conductivity (K) in one flow direction is different

Transmittivity (T)
The capacity of aquifer to transmit water in
kinetic viscocity
T = K.b
K = hydraulic conductivity
b = aquifer thickness

Transmittivity (T). (example)


Given average daily flow of two wells as below :

Station

Average daily flow (m3/s)

2485

2355

Discharge from half-aquifer (Q) = 5616 m3/day


Distance from A to B = 5000 m
Average thickness of aquifer (b) = 50 m
Average slope on water table = 1/2000

Storage Coefficient (S)


Volume of water that an aquifer release from or take into
storage

for confined aquifer S = 0,00005 0,005


for unconfined aquifer S = 0,07 0,25

Thank you