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LARSEN & TOUBRO LIMITED

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SLIPFORM
Slipform is a type of system form work and it is a continuously moving form work.

PRINCIPLE
The technique of slipform consists of constructing a wall - shaped form of reduced
height (1, 1.2 or 2m) at the base of the structure to be built. This form is constructed rigidly
and precisely, is not fixed to the floor and is suspended either from several lifting devices
supported on metal rods of 25 50 mm, or from other members resting on the foundation or
on hardened concrete, by means of wooden or metal yokes. Once the form has filled with
fresh concrete and hardening has started, the form is gradually raised by the lifting devices on
which it is suspended, the form progressing along the tie rods or supporting members by
manual, hydraulic, pneumatic or mechanical devices.

OPERATION
1. The complex installation known as a Slipform is endowed with
a. A form of a reduced height of concreting
b. one or two upper working platforms and one or two lower working
platforms with various levels from which the above mentioned operations
can be executed, the platforms being supported by the slipform.
c. A lifting device from which the entire slipform hangs.
d. A leveling system to control the horizontality of the slipform and an
installation controlling the verticality of the structure.
e. Electric power to drive the equipment and lighting.
f. Water for wall spraying.
g. Heating to be used during the cold season.
2. The slipform allows the execution of all operations forming a technological
sequence, without the use of any scaffolding. It ascends continually to the height of the

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building at a previously fixed rate, and after it has moved up, the walls require only some
easy corrections, which can be made from hanging scaffolding or working platforms.
3.

The weight of the entire installation is supported by raising devices laid on s

series of metal tie rods resting directly either on the foundation or on the hardened concrete.
This leads to the possibility of early removal of the form from recently poured concrete, since
it has to support only its own weight, to avoid the possible buckling of the tie rods.
4. The tie rods can have diameters of 25 -50 mm and can be recovered when the
slipforming is over.
5. Concrete pouring into the form to a small depth in thin layers of 10 20 cm is
possible. This allows the best compaction as well as the overlapping of a new layer before
hardening of the previously poured one. Thus this method ensures the execution of
monolithic structures without horizontal joints.
6. It is possible to change the structures cross - section along its height by modifying
the slipform using a series of special devices.
7. The slip formed walls can be used for the further support of forms or
prefabricated members for floors, and of hanging scaffolding or working platforms used for
corrections and painting, thus completely avoiding the need for stationary scaffolding.

ADVANTAGES
By the correct application of the slip form techniques, the following technical and
economic advantages are obtained
i. Several operations can be carried out simultaneously (concrete forming,
reinforcing, concrete pouring, striking, finishing etc.), leading to a remarkable shortening of
the construction time. When using other methods, these operations are executed
consecutively.
ii. Wasted man-hours and bottle necks are eliminated by fixing the technological
sequence at a certain rate and by sizing all the other means accordingly; likewise, continuity
of work is assured.

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iii. A high rate of progress is obtained upto 6.00 m/day; such a high rate cannot be
obtained by any other method.
iv. A high quality of work is assured by its monolithic characteristics, thus obtaining
important savings in reinforcement.
v. A great number of equivalent reusings (about 150 200) with the same slip form
(height 1.00 2.00 m) is possible. One or more identical structures can be achieved with it,
summing up to a total slip formed height of 200 600 m if a wooden form is used or 1800
2400 m if a metal form is used.
vi. It is possible to standardize some of the members of the slipform, namely those
parts that are independent of the shape of the structure, i.e. yokes, lifting installation, tie rods,
frames, tension members, etc. Therefore, the contractors should be equipped with the
respective pieces.
vii. It is possible to manufacture universal forms made either of metal or of special
plywood. They allow the building of very different structures by assembling the standard
panels, which can be used until they are completely worn, even for a small number of
identical constructions, thus providing large savings.
viii.

It is possible to build very tall structures without using scaffolding.

ix. Further need for scaffolding is avoided since the walls used as supports either for
the erection of forms or prefabricated members for floors, or for hanging scaffolding or
cranes.
x. Important savings in materials, costs and labour are obtained due to the re-use of
slipform, avoiding the use of scaffolding, and mechanization of operations etc.
xi. Finishing is reduced to a thin layer of rendering, 3 7 mm thick, instead of the
common 25 mm rendering, since the surface of the walls coming out of the slipform is
smooth and flat.
xii. After moving the slip form up, the construction walls remain partially or
completely finished without it being necessary to erect any other scaffolding. The final
corrections can be made by use of scaffolding hanging from the already built walls.

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xiii.

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Continuity of work is achieved during cold weather too, by taking certain

measures to ensure that the concrete hardens.


CONDITIONS FOR USE
i.
The slip form technique is especially recommended when building high structures.
The above mentioned advantages would increase in effectiveness if the method is better
known and more widely applied. The difficulties in the fulfillment of the above mentioned
conditions decrease with better knowledge of the method, site organization and training etc.

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