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Comprehension [20 Marks]

Read the following passage and then answer the questions that follow as per instruction.
1. Apart from water, wine is about the oldest drink known to man, dating back to 4, 000 B.C or earlier.
References to wine in the Old Testament show the importance attached to wine from very early on.
2. Although the SADCC region is not absolutely ideal for growing grapes too much rain in the late
summer when the grapes are ripening for harvest Zimbabwe has managed in a short time to produce
very good wines. This has removed the need for imports which, given the foreign exchange situation,
means that wine lovers can enjoy a pleasant glass where otherwise they would almost certainly have to
go without.
3. Wine makers in the region have not restricted themselves to grapes: they have also used the abundant
tropical fruits grown in their countries. In Malawi they make wine from mangoes, peaches, blackberries,
paw paw and masuku, while in Zambia they make art of it from mangoes and pineapples. Like grape,
the art of making fruit wine has to be developed to improve quality. A lot of research goes into finding the
right fruit. The relative success of the Mulunguzi Winery in Malawi is a good example of what can be
achieved in the non traditional wine making industry.
4. Perhaps what is most important is not what has been achieved, but the potential of the industry to
improve. And here, the industry is not working in a vacuum. Australia which has a lot in common with
the SADCC region has developed its own wine industry over the last 30 years from a small domestic
affair to an extremely serious world class industry, earning the country millions of dollars in export
each year. It is now the largest wine exporter to the USA and its share of the market in the rest of the
world is growing faster than that of any other new wine exporting countries.
5. A factor in the regions favour is that labour is plentiful to plant cheap and the hot climate makes it
necessary to plant vineyards on mountain sides. In most European countries, vineyards have to be
planted on mountain slopes to capture sunshine, but this also makes it impossible to harvest or clear
weeds mechanically. The result is that the area under grapes is shrinking because of the shortage of
labour and its high cost.
6. The industry does not demand a high foreign currency input. Cairns Holidays, the owners of Mukuyu
Winery in Zimbabwe, say the foreign currency required in the actual process of making wine is only

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about 3.5 per cent of the total costs. Other imported inputs such as spraying chemicals and fertilizers
would be required for any other crops.
7. Another reason why SADCC countries would do well to make their own wines is that except for a few,
most agricultural products from the region are exported in their unprocessed state. Wine is an area
where they could take advantage of value added. If the export market can be created, earnings could be
much higher than other horticulture products. Further advantages are the downstream industries and
consequent job creation. The wine industry requires corks, bottle labels and cartons, among other
inputs. Wineries also make other products such as Sherries, brandies, vinegar and industrial alcohol. If
these products are made in the region, foreign exchange will be saved and eventually earned.
8. Growing grapes is also a lucrative business if the price is right. Returns per hectare are much higher
than from traditional crops such as maize and tobacco. On top of that, grapes do not require as much
fertilizer as other crops and for the twenty odd years that the vine is bearing fruit, there is no
requirement for new seeding.
9. Initially of course, high levels of investment are required and a lot of effort has to go into research to find
suitable varieties. But the investment will pay off in the end. This, of course, only applies if those
concerned operate efficiently. The Tanzania story is a sad one. It is one of the countries that could
harvest two crops a year. But following initial successes, the industry began to slide as the government
owned winery failed to pay the growers. Today, the industry is a shadow of what it might have been
and the acreage under grapes has fallen sharply. Shortages of foreign currency have also resulted in
quality suffering and with a glut of wine on the world market; this has put little attention to be paid to
Tanzanias hopes for exports.
10. Tanzanias wine industry could be resuscitated if the government took its hands of it and allowed it to
develop on its own. The market for Tanzanias wine is there, both internally and for export. The wine
makers in the SADCC countries, like the other potential producers and exporters cant operate
adequately without government back up; they can do so without its interference.
Questions
1. According to paragraph one, which is the oldest drink known to man?
A. Wine. B. water. C. Grape wine. D. Tea.
2. Paragraph 2. It is almost impossible to grow grapes in the SADCC region because
A. There is too much rainfall during the ripening period of grapes
B. There is not enough rainfall in the late summer
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C. The region is not absolutely ideal for growing grapes


D. Summers are too hot.
3. According to the passage, which two SADCC countries make wine from mangoes?
A. Zimbabwe and Malawi. B. Zimbabwe and Tanzania. C. Zimbabwe and Zambia. D. Zambia and
Malawi.
4. Which factors would help the wine industry in the SADCC to flourish
A. Cheap labour and availability of foreign exchange
B. Good climate and availability of market
C. Availability of cheap labour and a hot climate
D. Foreign exchange and potential market.
5. Which of the following statements is not true according to paragraph 5?
A. There is a shortage of labour in Europe
B. It is difficult to use machines to clear weeds from vineyards of Europe.
C. Labour is plentiful in most European countries
D. The area under grapes in Europe is shrinking.
6. Why is the Tanzanian story a sad one?
A. Because it is one of the countries that could harvest two crops
B. Because even when the winery was making a lot of money, the government failed to pay the
workers
C. Because the acreage under grapes has fallen sharply
D. Because despite a promising start, the industry, due to inefficiency by the owners the government
went down.
7. According to the writer, the wine industry in the SADCC region can succeed only if
A. The government is allowed to control it
B. A lot of foreign exchange is made available to the industry
C. The government stopped interfering in the day to day affairs of the industry, at the same time giving
support to it.
D. Market is sourced by the government.
8. From the passage, write the ONE sentence which indicates that in fact farming of grapes is more
profitable than crops commonly grown in the SADCC region.

9. Find words from the underlined which are synonyms or have nearly the same meaning as the
following words or phrases: Spell the word correctly. (One word space)
A. Totally..
B. Make active or bring to life again....
C. Working or producing using machines..
D. Emptiness
10. From the words underlined in the passage, find antonyms (opposite meaning) of the following words
or phrases: Spell the word correctly. (One word per space)
A. A few
B. Disinvest .

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