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COMPARATIVE STUDY OF THE ACADEMIC ACHIEVEMENT OF

ECDE CHILDREN IN PRIVATE AND PUBLIC ECDE CENTRE IN


LEMOTIT ZONE LONDIANI DISTRICT.

PRESENTED BY : JOLINDO FRANKISTER

A RESEARCH PROJECT SUBMITTED TO KENYA NATIONAL


EXAMINATION COUNCIL IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE
REQUIREMENT FOR THE AWARD OF DIPLOMA IN EARLY
CHILDHOOD DEVELOPMENT AND EDUCATION

THROUGH

DATE OF SUBMISSION JULY 2013.

DECLARATION
I, declare that this research project is my own original project and not duplicate of similar
published work of any other person for purpose as partial requirement of any college or
otherwise.
Name: Signature
Date :
Supervisor :

This research proposal has been submitted to KNEC with my approval as college supervisor.
Name: Signature
Date :
Supervisor :

ii

DEDICATION
This research project is dedicated to my entire family.

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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
I would like to acknowledge the contribution of the following persons and the institution in
assisting me in the development of this research project. My thanks goes to my entire family
members my research lecture Mr. Moses Omondi Abiero and the entire family Koskana
international ECDE college for provision of the required facilities. Also not forgetting the staff
of Saramek primary school.

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ABSTRACT
The study is about comparative study of the academic achievement of ECDE children in private
and public ECDE centres in Lemotit Zone, Londiani district.

TABLE OF CONTENT
DECLARATION ............................................................................................................................ ii
DEDICATION ............................................................................................................................... iii
ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ............................................................................................................. iv
ABSTRACT .................................................................................................................................... v
TABLE OF CONTENT ................................................................................................................. vi
ABBREVIATION AND ACRONYMS ...................................................................................... viii
CHAPTER ONE ............................................................................................................................. 1
1.0 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 1
1.1 Background of the study. ...................................................................................................... 1
1.2 Statement of the problem ...................................................................................................... 2
1.3 Purpose of the study .............................................................................................................. 3
1.4 Objective of the study ........................................................................................................... 3
1.6 Delimitation of the study. ...................................................................................................... 3
1.6.1 Limitation of the study. ...................................................................................................... 3
1.6.2 Definition of terms ............................................................................................................. 4
CHAPTER TWO ............................................................................................................................ 5
2.0 Literature review ................................................................................................................... 5
2.1 Introduction ........................................................................................................................... 5
2.2 Progress of children in public and private ECDE centres. .................................................... 5
2.3 Availability of material in both private and ECDE centre. ................................................... 7
2.4 Staffing pattern in schools. .................................................................................................. 11
CHAPTER THREE ...................................................................................................................... 14
3.0 Research design and methodology ...................................................................................... 14
3.1 Introduction ......................................................................................................................... 14
3.2 Research design. .................................................................................................................. 14
3.3 Location of the study. .......................................................................................................... 14
3.4 Target population. ............................................................................................................... 14
3.5 Sampling techniques and sample size. ................................................................................ 14
3.4.1 Simple random sampling. ................................................................................................. 15
3.5 Research instruments........................................................................................................... 15
3.5.1 Questionnaire for ECDE teachers. ................................................................................... 15
3.5.2 Interview schedule for parents and head teachers. ........................................................... 15
3.5.3 Observation checklist for ECDE children. ....................................................................... 15
3.6 Data analysis ....................................................................................................................... 16
CHAPTER FOUR ......................................................................................................................... 17
4.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 17
4.1 Demographic characteristics of respondent ............................................................................ 17
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4.2 Instrument rate return .............................................................................................................. 17


4.3 Period worked in teaching ...................................................................................................... 20
4.4 Summary of respondents by education levels. ........................................................................ 21
4.4.1 How is academic performance in both private and public ECDE centres. .......................... 22
4.7 How does enrolment affect performance in both private and public ECDE .......................... 24
4.8 Solution towards improving academic performance in public and private ECDE centres..... 25
CHAPTER FIVE .......................................................................................................................... 26
5.0 Introduction ............................................................................................................................. 26
Summary of the findings ............................................................................................................... 26
5.1 Data information of respondents ............................................................................................. 26
5.1.2 Gender of respondent. .......................................................................................................... 26
5.13 Respondents in relation to the ages ....................................................................................... 26
5.1.4 Period worked in teaching ................................................................................................... 26
5.1.5 How is the academic performance in the two schools private and public ECDE centres ... 27
5.1.6 How does enrolment affects the performances in private and public .................................. 27
5.1.7 Solution towards improving the performance in public ECDE centre ................................ 27
5.2 Recommendation .................................................................................................................... 27
CONCLUSION ............................................................................................................................. 28
5.4 Area for further studies ........................................................................................................... 28
REFERENCES ............................................................................................................................. 29
APPENDIX A
APPENDIX B
APPENDIX C
APPENDIX D
APPENDIX E

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ABBREVIATION AND ACRONYMS

C.R.C

Child Rights Convention

C.S

Comparative Study

E.F.A

Education For all

E.C.D.E

Early Childhood Development Education

F.B.O

Faith based organizations

N.G.O

Non Governmental Organization

F.P.E

Free Primary Education

G.E.R

Gross Enrolment Rate

K.E.S.S.P

Kenya Education Sector Programme

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CHAPTER ONE

1.0 Introduction
This chapter consists of background of the study statement of the problem, purpose of the study,
significance of the study, delimitation and limitation of the study and operational definition of
the terms
1.1 Background of the study.
The national education sector for young children and teenager is represented by a network of
public and private school, where modern America children can receive their elementary and
secondary education, develops their social skills and achieve personal and academic progress
both public and private school have certain advantage and disadvantages, but no doubt both the
types of these education establishments have a lot of programs and course to offer. When making
a decision about the type of school which can work best for every particular child , it is important
to be aware about the difference between todays private and public schools in various
perspectives . Such factors as the cost of education and admission can be considered among most
significance different between public and private schools in our country.
Since all public schools are funded through national and federal tax systems parents do not have
to pay for the education of their children in public schools. Beside all Americans children
without exceptions should be admitted to a public school. In contrast to that, private educational
sector is funded through the fees for tuition and various donations that is why the parents have to
pay for their children education in private schools are selective and may not accept every child.
Budget and academic curriculum are other key differences between the establishments of public
and private educational sector. Usually there are more effective fund raising opportunities for
private schools. They are not limited by only include grants from various foundation and
organization development activities and so on. In company to this budget of public school and
their funding opportunities are comparatively smaller. As to academic curriculum in all public
schools through out the country it almost the same standard. However private schools are
generally more flexible about the curriculum and can offer some special programme or
1

disciplines. Besides in the content of different between public and private schools, it is possible
to name such factors as class size and actually the student population. Generally in there are
more student in the class since public schools must accept every student who applied. In private
schools the number of the student in the class is usually smaller and can be as small as 12-16
children.
Again since private schools are selective as to the student communities in such school tend to be
more homogenous than those of public schools. Therefore it an be easier to find a common
language common goals and interest for the children who study in private in private school we
can notice more differences. In public schools teachers are usually better paid and are provided
with such benefit as good pension and health costs. Therefore they tend to spend more efforts in
their work and be more tolerant to behavioral and other issues in contrast to that in private
schools teachers generally can enjoy such financial advantages. At the same time the
administrative of private schools are very strict about the teacher qualification and as a result of
higher competition only the most qualified competent and experience educator received an
opportunity to work in private schools.
There is no need in mentioning the significance of education and proper training for modern
children and teenager. Its very important for today parents to choose an effective school for their
children undoubtedly never is no a clear conclusion or an answer to the question which school
are better public or private . Some children can be successful and develop their talent in a private
school, and some children may find the environment of public schools better for their education
and personal development. Therefore in order to make a good choice, it is necessary to consider
all possible factor starting from the specifies of the Childs personality and ending with the most
attractive financial conditions.
1.2 Statement of the problem
Public ECDE centre has been manifested by many problems compared to private ECDE schools
for instance lack of enough teaching and learning material. Not enough teachers, lack of
classrooms, lack of sitting facilities and lack of feeding programme to give children during class

hours ;this has brought serious challenges that have attested the attainment of ECDE goals as
outlined by ministry of education.
1.3 Purpose of the study
The purpose of the study is a comparative study of the difference in progress of ECDE centres
between Private ECDE centres in Lemotit zones Londiani district.
1.4 Objective of the study
i. To compare the academic progress of children in public ECDE centres and private ECDE
centres
ii. To find out the enrolment rate of children in public school and in private schools.
iii. To find out the availability of teaching and learning materials in both public and private
ECDE centre and if its sufficient resources to boost the progress of public ECDE centre in
lemotit zone Londiani district.
1.6 Delimitation of the study.
The scope of the study covered selected school in the zone. It was carried out when schools were
in session, the researcher is well conversant with the language of the catchment area hence there
was easy communication and most head teachers were familiar with the researcher and this
created a free atmosphere during the study.
1.6.1 Limitation of the study.
Financial constraints limited the study in terms of preparation and traveling. Also since the
research carried out the research during the school days. The researcher did not get enough time
to go to all schools as was expected to execute her duties as a teacher at her station. Furthermore
the school are far apart. Lastly, some teachers were not willing to give feedback in time.

1.6.2 Definition of terms


Enrolment is the study it means the total number of children in an ECDE set up.
Child in this study it means any person between the ages of 3-8years.
Poverty it mean lack of basic needs.
Community its a group of people living in the same geographical area and they are sharing some
physical feature and structure for instances Rivers and schools.
Respondents- in the study it means those people to be asked question and is expected to answer.
Public ECDE centre - in the study it means ECDE centre that are sponsored by government or it
is attached to public primary schools. Private ECDE centre in the study it means ECDE centre
that is owned by individual group of people or organization.

CHAPTER TWO

2.0 Literature review


2.1 Introduction
This chapter presents a summary of literature related to a comparative study of the difference in
progress of ECDE centre and the following topics are discussed.
i. Progress of children in public and private ECDE centre.
ii. Availability of materials in both public and private ECDE.
iii. Staffing in public and private schools.
2.2 Progress of children in public and private ECDE centres.
Usually when considering private versus public ECDE schools, parents will have one or more
factors that concern them. When looking at public or private schools the following factors came
into play.

Academic reputation and college preparation

Schools size and class size.

Safety reputation.

Special programmes

Costs

Religious and moral instruction.

Location

Ideology.

Academic reputation plays a big role when considering private versus public schools.
Schools system vary greatly in their academic schools that exist, there are also those that
perform below bar. Unfortunately for most families, children must go to the public school that
their home is zoned in. usually there is a perceived or statistically supported issue with a public
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schools academic record that flags a parents concern and willingness to move their child in to a
private school. Private schools usually have a more rigorous academic reputation. But within the
public system, charter school and magnet schools both blur the distinction between public and
private school system. Related to the academic reputation is the focus of the school on college
preparation. Within the public school system the percent of children that go on to college differ
depending on the location of the school. You can look at the schools overall focus and whether
its on college preparation or note (and whether that is your shared focus). School size and
classroom size and class size can be corrected to a schools ability to execute on its academic
goals. Basically when school sizes get to big, it can become burden some to administer. Students
and programs may not have enough money to support specialized programs. Class size is another
factor that parent will look into when considering private schools or public schools.
How many children will the classroom teacher be responsible? What the overall student to
teacher ration? Usually the smaller the class size. What the overall student to teacher ratio?
Usually the smaller the class size. The more attentions each individual student will receive.
Safety at school and the general school environment is another factor parent use to decide
whether or not to keep their children in public school or move them into private school. Many
public schools have perfectly save environment yet in some school districts children may be
safer in private schools may pick and choose who will enroll therefore keeping their classroom
milieu safer. Special program impact parent into two different ways when considering private
versu public schools. Because public schools have responsibility to teach all students, public
schools often have in place special programs for children with special needs (whether its
academically or mentally) private schools while they may have special programs for gifted
student will rarely have programs for children with special needs unless that is what the private
school specialize in. there are also other kinds of special programs for example, ones that
specializes in arts. Military boarding and single sex program are usually found in a private
setting. Cost is another important factor that impacts the private versus public school decision.
Simply put private school tuition fee whereas public school offered free of charge. For many
parent this is the hardest factor with which to come to terms.
A factor that plays a large role in private deciding whether to send their children to public or
private school is whether or not they want religious and or moral to play part of their children
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academic setting. Overall religious and moral instruction does of public schooling. Location is as
important a factor as any other when considering whether to enroll your children in a public
school or a private school. For public school you are either within the zoning district of the
public school you want or not. If you are then you dont need to worry about anything. If you
arent youll need to consider whether relocating your family is desirable your family is desirable
and feasible in order to your children enrolled in your public school of choice. For private
schools, youll need to consider if the location is feasible for your family private school provide
transportation to and back from school. Public school may or may not. Finally for many families
a final factor that impact their decision making process is their ideology regarding private or
public schools classism, elitism ect.
Parents are not usually on the fence about this factor. They either believe that going to private
school is okay or they believe that going to a pubic school is better in the theoretical sense.
Private and public school statistics now that we understand some of the main factor that families
consider when deciding whether to enroll their children inn private or public school lets look at
the facts. Here are statistic on both private and public school in America.
2.3 Availability of material in both private and ECDE centre.
Public schools offer a general program designed for all. This usually includes math, English,
reading, writing science, History and physical education. In addition many public school offer
programs that in music and arts too. What students learn is decided by the state. In most states
learning is measured through standardized test. The content and minimum achievement criteria
in each course offered in public high school are put forward by the state and each student must
achieve this minimum criterion before receiving credit. The charter school movement is also
picking up momentum in many states these school are public, but offer specialized programs and
smaller classes. These are not that many charter school in the United States. According to the
center for education reform here are approximately 3400 public charter schools in America as of
2005. Charter schools are often closed if their student does not show academic progress.
According to a report by educational next org, there were 3100 magnet schools in America as of
2001/2002. Private schools have the flexibility to create specialized programs for students. For
example private schools may use art or science in all classes or take children on outdoor trips.
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They can create their own curriculum and assessment system system, although may choose to
use standardized test. Many parents are draw to the alternative curriculum that private school
counterpart on standardized achievement tests. As with earlier result from the national
assessment of education progress (NAEP) private school student performed higher than public
school student on the NAEP: 2000 test. Their average score were above those of public student
on the 4th grade reading test and on the 4th -8th and 12th grade science and mathematics
proficiency test. Private high school typically has more demanding graduation requirements than
do public schools. Compared with public schools, private schools require more course work ( in
4- year high school programs) in 1990- 2000) in social studies, mathematics, science, foreign
language and computer science. For example private schools require an average of 3.1 years of
mathematics while private schools require 2.7 years. The figure for foreign language study also
differed: 1.5 years at private school but 0.5 years at public school. In addition about 40 percent of
private schools require some form of community service for high school graduation, four times
the rate for public schools (10 percent). Public schools depend on government funds (local, state
and federal) and occasionally on funds from corporation and organizations. Private school
depends mainly on tuition fees funds coming from non- public organization such as religious
organization, endowment, grants and charitable donations. Private schools can participate in
federal breakfast and lunch programs, but they usually dont need to. Public schools are on
average, at least the size of private schools according to us departments of education data. School
size usually correlate to the population density of the local area. The average private school had
193 students in 199-200. The average public school had 535 students in the same are. Another
way to look at this is to see that 80 percent of private has less than 300 students enrolled while
smaller school size may bee correlated to a more controlled academic setting.
The flip side is that there is strength in numbers. Small schools have some disadvantage as well
such as providing a narrower set of programs and serves. The smallest high school may not be
able to offer advanced course because they have too few student, a shortage of qualified teachers,
both larger schools can often be set up to support specific group within their student population
(such as those requiring English as a second language targeted help) overall research is debatable
over whether a smaller school size is correlated with a better academic setting. Average class
size in public school I larger than private school. Many states recognize the value of small class

and have provided funding to keep class size small in grade K-3. As student become older, class
size tends to get bigger in public school. On going, especially in large school district and urban
school. On average private school have smaller average class size and lower student teacher
ratios than public schools.
The average class reported by teachers was larger in public schools than in private. Teachers in
catholic schools had an average of 23 students in their classes. For public schools, teachers have
an average of 23 students per class. Another aspect

beside this is different from the actual

classroom head count because a school may have extra teachers that help set up programs or help
with special course work. Private schools average 13 student per teacher, compare with an
average of 16 students per teacher in public schools. Another way to look at this is to see how
many schools have a student / teacher ratio less than 10. Thirty- six percent of private schools
have a student / teacher ratio lower than 10-1. Only 10 percent of public have student/teacher
ratios lower than 10-1. if you feel your child would learn better in a smaller setting then youI
need to look toward private groups public school may be the way to go . Teachers in public
school are state certified, which means that they have gone through the training required by the
states including student teaching and courses work. They are required to hold college degree and
to be licensed by the state. Public school cannot terminate the terms of their teachers abruptly.
After completing a probationary period teacher are granted tenure by law. They cannot be
dismissed without first going through a twelve month rehabilitation period. This too, can only be
done after a public hearing in which charges of incompetence or misconduct must be proven. On
the other hand private school teacher may not be required to have certification and often have
subject area expertise and a degree in he subject teach private school can terminated the term of
their teachers abruptly. Schools are tree to deal with personal matters. Level of education most
school- 61 percent of private school and 71 percent of public were elementary. Ten percent of
private school and 25 percent of public school (30 percent) combined education level (usually
grades k-12 or 1-12) compared with only 4 percent of public school. Usually public are broken
out due to their size. If having your child around kids that are much older or younger bother you,
you may have an easier time finding a public school that meets your needs than a private school.
Special needs another aspect that needs alternative is regarding children with special needs.
Special education laws make it mandatory for public school to educate and meet the special need
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of these children. Therefore most of the public school have special programme and teachers for
these will have specialized school to support children with multiple special need, private school
children on the other hand have no such obligation most private school dont have special
education programs or teachers . However there are private school that cater for specially to
special needs, youii need to research your option to determine whether public or private school
best suits your child at this time .public are obligated by law to educate all children so to enroll in
a public school simply register your child by filling out he necessary forms. Public schools must
accept any resident student who apply for admission regardless of sex, race religious affiliation
economic status or physical or mental handicap. Public schools must also meet states graduation
requirement which vary state by state. Public school can kick children out if their behaviour is
too disruptive but the public school system will usually have in place an alternative school that
the child will attend until they are no longer under the care of the public (18 yrs of age ) private
school are not obligated by any laws regarding admission therefore private school admission is
competitive. Also private schools are not required to provide educational programs for children
with specialized needs.
Private schools are also under no obligation to keep a student enrolled. If a child behavior
disrupts the schools mileu they can be kicked out as well. Graduation requirement for private
school decided by each school and not subject to any state requirement. Many private schools do
choose to align themselves with private school association which will mandate graduation
requirement. In private schools student must apply and then are invite to enroll cost is another
important factor that helps in deciding the type of school parent want to send their children to
state constitution prohibits public school from charging resident any form tuition or other fee for
materials, supplies , textbooks or transportation . On the other hand private schools do not
receive tax revenue but are funded through tuition, donations and private grants. Therefore
private school cost more than the public schools. One thing to consider is the location of public
schools. That is better funded public school are usually found where the average housing cost
higher than in neigbouring zips codes. That said although public school is free you may find
yourself paying more out pocket to live in a specific school zone. Public schools are required to
provide academic and health- related service under federal and state laws. More school prove
academic and health related service under federal and state laws. More school provide extended

10

day programs. Free and reduced- price meals must be provided to all qualified low income
students. Private schools are permitted but not required to participated, in the federal lunch and
breakfast program not all but many private school are religiously affiliated public school are not
religiously affliated. In a study of private schools in 1999-2000, seventy nine percent of all
private school were found to have a religious affiliation. 30 percent were affiliated with the
Roman Catholic church and 49 percent with other religious group. The remaining 22 percent
were non secretarian. Although Catholic schools accounted for 30 percent of the total number of
private schools, they enrolled 48 percent of all private school students. Public schools do not
have areligious affiliation.
2.4 Staffing pattern in schools.
Governance public school are governed by local, state and federal laws including specifics about
funding, program development and curriculum . public school are required to operate for a
minimum of 180 day as per the compulsory attendance law. In addition, public school teacher
must be employed for at least 16 days beyond the school term. Private school are not subjected to
as many state and federal regulation as public schools. They are not subjected to the limitation of
state education budget and have more freedom in designing curriculum and instruction. Private
school are required to operate for a minimum of 170 days as per compulsory attendance law.
There is no regulation on employing a private school teacher beyond the school term teacher
impact and perception for most teaching practices- selecting teaching techniques, evaluating and
grading students, disciplining students, choosing course content and skill to teach and selecting
textbooks and materials- private school teacher were more likely than public school teacher to
report having a lot of influence on school policy making in four areas of school policy linked
closely with teaching- establishing curriculum, setting students performance standards, forexample 68 percent of private school teachers said they had a lot of influence on establishing
curriculum, compared with 44 percent of public teacher were more likely than public school
teacher to say that they had a lot of influence on setting student performance standards ( 63
versus 38 percent) and on student discipline policy (48 versus 30 percent). The national
education sector for young children and teenager is represented by a network of public and
private schools, where modern American children can receive their social skills and achieve
11

personal and academic progress. Both public and private schools have certain advantages and
disadvantages, but undoubtedly both types of these educational establishments have a lot of
programmes and courses to offer when making a decision about the type of the school which can
work best for every particular child, it is essential to be a ware about the differences between
todays private and public schools in a variety of perspective.
Such factors as the cost of education and admission can be considered among the most
significant differences between public and private schools in our country. Since all public
schools are funded through national and federal tax systems, parent do not have to pay for the
education of their children in public schools. Besides, all America children without exception
should be admitted to a public school. In contrast to that, private educational sector is funded
through the fee for tuition and various donations to that, private school are selective and may not
accept every child. Budget and academic curriculum are other key difference between the
establishment of public and private educational sector. Usually, there are more effective fundsraising opportunities for private schools. They are not limited by only tuition fee or donations
and also include grant from various foundations and organizations, development activities and so
on. In contrast to this budget of public schools throughout the country it is almost the same and
standard. However, private schools are generally more flexible about the curriculum and can
offer some special programs or discipline. Beside, in the context of difference between public
and private schools, it is possible to name such factors as class size and actually, the student
population generally in public schools there are more students in class since public school must
accept every student who applied. In private schools, the number of the student in the class is
usually smaller and can be as smaller as 12-16 children. Again, private school are selective as to
the student, communities in such school tend to be more homogenous than those of public
schools.
Therefore it can be easier to find a common language, common goals and interests for the
children who study in private schools we can notice more difference. In public schools, teachers
are usually better paid and are provided with such benefits as good pension and health costs.
Therefore they tend to spend more efforts in their work and be more tolerant to behavioral or
other issues in contrast to that in private school generally cannot enjoy such financial advantages.
At the same time, the administrations of private school are very strict about the teachers
12

qualification and as a result of higher competition, only the most qualified, competent and
experienced educators receive an opportunity to work in private schools. There is no need in
mentioning the significances of education and proper training for modern children and teenagers.
Its very important for todays parent to choose, an effective school for their children.
Undoubtedly there is no clear conclusion or an answer to the question, which school are better,
public or private. Some children can be successful and develop their talent in a private school
and some children may find the environment public school better for their education and
personal development. Therefore in order to make a good choice, it is necessary to consider all
possible factors, starting from the specific of the childs and ending with most attractive financial
conditions.

13

CHAPTER THREE

3.0 Research design and methodology


3.1 Introduction
This chapter comprises of research design, location of study, target population, sample size and
techniques, research instruments to be used and data collection procedure.
3.2 Research design.
The study employed a descriptive survey design describe the statistic of a given situation,
manified (1987). The design allows use of questionnaires, interviews schedules and observation
checklist. It also renders use of simple descriptive analysis data, Mugenda (1999).
3.3 Location of the study.
The study was conducted in Lemotit Zone in Londiani District which has 23 ECDE centres. The
researcher used this zone to study the difference in progress of ECDE centre between private
ECDE centers and public ECDE centers. The economic activity is mixed farming in this zone.
3.4 Target population.
The target population comprised of ECDE teachers head teachers, parents and children.
3.5 Sampling techniques and sample size.
The study respondents were drawn from 23 ECDE centers in the Zone they included 11 ECDE
teachers, 11 head teachers, 11 parents all from selected ECDE centre. The other respondents
were 11 children all total up to 44 participants.

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3.4.1 Simple random sampling.


The researcher employed simple random sampling in order to obtain 11 ECDE centers out 23
representing the all zone. What the researcher did is that in every school, she picked a sample in
every number four child or parent up to 11 children and 11 parents to get her sample which was
30% of entire population.
3.5 Research instruments.
The researcher used questionnaires, interview schedules and observation schedules to collect
relevant data.
3.5.1 Questionnaire for ECDE teachers.
The question is to be used will be both open and close ended which will involve ticking
appropriate and filling in blank spaces as per instructional given. Open ended questions provide
in-depth information for the study while close ended questions to be used appears simple and
easy to be used appears simple and easy to be analyzed. They are all written and typed and were
supplied one day earlier to the respondents for collecting of data.
3.5.2 Interview schedule for parents and head teachers.
This is the most popular technique used in research that provides conversation where one seeks
responses for a particular reason. The interview employed ticking appropriate responses at most
and also filling in blank spaces. It is a quick tool in obtaining responses and also helped in
situational where language was a problem. It also accessed flexibility and adaptation to
individuals. All school management officials from all sample ECDE centres were interviewed at
the centre.
3.5.3 Observation checklist for ECDE children.
The instrument employed observation of facilities naturally. It does not allow manipulation of
situation, but instead solicit data relevant to the study. The responses in this case were real and

15

reliable. All sanitary facilities from sample centers were observed which were followed by
recording outcome by the researcher.
3.6 Data analysis
The researcher collected data from the respondent through questionnaires, interview and
observation checklist. Data was collected, analyzed statistically through frequencies, percentages
and tables. And tables prose to describe the quantitative data, Ngechu (2003).

16

CHAPTER FOUR

4.0 Introduction
This chapter presents the analysis and interpretation of research finding in view of what the
researcher felt about them. It begins with providing some background information on
comparative study of the achievements of the child in private and public ECDE centres in
Lemotit Zone, Londiani District. Kericho County. The presentation was given by use of
discussions, graphs and tables. The researcher was guided by the following objectives.
a) To find out the availability of teaching learning materials
b) To find out the enrolment rate of children in public and private ECDE centres.
c) To find out the ratio of teacher to the public and private ECDE centres.
d) To find out the qualification of the teaching staff in both ECDE centres.

4.1 Demographic characteristics of respondent


The demographic characteristics of respondents were sought in the study to find out
achievements of children studying in private and public ECDE centers. The demographic
analyzed were age and level of education of respondents marital status and the working years on
the current station. The study sought to compare the academic achievement of children studying
in private and public ECDE centres.

4.2 Instrument rate return


The researcher issued 40 questionnaires to the sampled respondents 30 questionnaires issued
which accounted for about 75% return rate. The reason as to why the response rate was high was
attributed to the fact that the questionnaires were issued and collected immediately.
The gender of respondents was sought in the study in order to determine gender distribution in
the study. It was analyzed and presented in the figure 4.1 above. From the findings the greater
percentage goes to females because the researcher focused on the women owned enterprises.

17

Table 4.1 Respondent by marital status


Frequency

Percentage

Male

15

37.5%

Female

35

62.5%

Total

40

100%

Figure 4.1 Respondents in relation to marital status.

70
60
50
40

Male
Female

30
20
10
0
Percentage

18

Table 4.2 Respondents in relation to age


Age (years)

Frequency

Percentage

20-25

12.5%

26- 35

20%

36-45

12

30%

Above 45 years

15

37.5%

Total

40

100%

Figure 4.2 Respondents in relation to age

40
35
30
25

20-25

20

26-35
36-45

15

Above 45

10
5
0
Percentage

This shows that a larger percentage lies between 36- 45 years


19

4.3 Period worked in teaching


The findings showed that majority of the respondents who have stayed in teaching for over 5
years which registered 35% of the sample i.e 30% have stayed for a length of 3-4 yrs 15% have
stayed for a period between 2-3 years 12.5% have stayed for 1-2 years and 7.5% have stayed for
less that 1 year.
Table 4.3 Period worked in teaching
Duration

Frequency

Percentage

Below 1 year

7.5%

1-2 years

12.5%

2-3 years

15%

3-4 years

12

30%

Above 5 years

14

37%

Total

40

100%

Figure 4.3 Period worked in teaching

30
25
20
1-2 years
2-3 years

15

3-4 years

10

Above 5 years

5
0
Percentage
20

4.4 Summary of respondents by education levels.


The education level varied from those with primary Certificate to those having University
Education. Table 4.4 showed that 15% of the respondents have primary level of education 35%
of them have secondary education where as 40% of the total have post secondary education i.e
middle level college 10% accounted for university level of education.
Table 4.4 respondents by education levels
Education Level

Frequency

Percentage

Primary

15

Secondary

14

35

Middle level

16

40

University level

10

Total

40

100%

Figure 4.4 Respondents in relation to level of education

40
35
30
25

Primary
Secondary

20

Middle level

15

University level

10
5
0
Percentage
21

4.4.1 How is academic performance in both private and public ECDE centres.
The most appropriate way of measuring the academic performance is the use of rating scale
ranging from good, fair, poor, average.
The finding in the table 4.5 below shows the performance is as good 15% fair 50%, Average
30% satisfactory 10%, poor 20%
Table 4.5 performance in private ECDE
Performance in private

Frequency

Percentage

Good

22

55%

Fair

10

25%

Satisfactory

28

20%

Poor

0%

Total

40

100%

Figure 4.5 Academic performances in private ECDE

60
50
40
Good
Fair

30

Satisfactory

20

Poor

10
0
Percentage

22

Table 4.6 performance in public ECDE


Performance in Public

Frequency

Percentage

Good

15

37.5%

Fair

12

30%

Satisfactory

20%

Poor

12.5%

Total

40

100%

Figure 4.6 academic performance in public

40
35
30
25

Good
Fair

20

Satisfactory

15

Poor

10
5
0
Percentage
According to the figures above and the tables of both academic performance in private did better
academically

23

4.7 How does enrolment affect performance in both private and public ECDE
Table 4.7 How enrolment affects performance in both private public ECDE
Enrolment

Frequency

Percentages

Late registration

12.5%

Over population

12

30%

Check class work

15%

Class control

17.5%

Contraction rate

10

25%

Total

40

100%

The above table indicated that most of the respondents cited that increase in population lead to
over population in classroom hence reluctant in checking student work that is 30% contraction
rate of student performance is 25% lack of class control 17.5% checking class work 15% and late
registration was 12.5%
Figure 4.7 How enrolment affects performance in both private public ECDE

Late registration
Over population
Check class work
Class control
Contraction rate

24

4.8 Solution towards improving academic performance in public and private ECDE centres
Table 4.8 Solution towards improving academic performance
Solutions

frequency

Percentage

Improving teaching facilities

20

50%

Improving qualification of teachers

20%

Promoting equity and equality

10%

Employing teachers

20%

The table indicated that the most important solution is to improve teaching facilities 50%
improving qualification of teaching force 20% promoting equity and equality 10% and
employment of teachers 20%
Figure 4.8 Solution towards improving academic performance

Improving teaching
facilities
Improving qualification of
teachers
Promoting equity and
equality
Employing teachers

25

CHAPTER FIVE
DISCUSSION CONCLUSION AND RECOMMENDATION
5.0 Introduction
This chapter presents the discussion of the findings, summary, conclusions recommendation and
suggestion for further research. This study was carried out to compare the academic achievement
in private and public ECDE in Lemotit Zone, Londiani division, Londiani District of Kericho
County.
Summary of the findings
5.1 Data information of respondents
The demographic characteristics of respondents were sought to in the study to establish the
characteristic of participants the demographic analyzed were gender, age and level of education
of the respondent were sought in the study to compare the academic achievement in private and
public ECDE centres.

5.1.2 Gender of respondent.


The findings showed that the greater percentage were females because the researcher focused on
women owned enterprises.
The researcher sought to establish the age and marital status of teachers who provided the
services in the schools. This also showed that majority of the teachers were female

5.13 Respondents in relation to the ages


The study covered respondents from 20yrs to 45 years. The responses indicated that the teacher
who facilitated the most are those that their ages lies from 36-45 years.

5.1.4 Period worked in teaching


The findings showed that majority of the respondents who have stayed in teaching for over five
years had a larger percentage when compared to those from 4 years
26

5.1.5 How is the academic performance in the two schools private and public ECDE centres
The findings in the table 4.5/4.6 above showed that the academic performance in private school
ranges between good to satisfactory while in public school the academic performance ranges
from good to poor. This indicated that private school does better than public

5.1.6 How does enrolment affects the performances in private and public
The findings cited that increase in population leads to low concentration in the classroom. It is
therefore important to consider the number of children in relation to the number of teachers to
avoid poor concentration.

5.1.7 Solution towards improving the performance in public ECDE centre


The findings on the solution towards improving the performance in the public school includes
improving teaching learning facilities like classrooms being sufficience, in good condition use of
teaching learning materials training all the teachers handily ECDE classes and offering them
seminars, promoting equity and equality in schools and employing more teachers to meet the
number of children in school.

5.2 Recommendation
1. The researcher recommends that ECDE centres be under the ministry of education so as to
provide them with qualified teaching staff and the teaching staff and the teachers be distributed
to all ECDE according to the number of pupils in the centre
2. Government to provide materials like books, pencils and others to ECDE centres the way it is
providing to primary schools
3. Parents should be sensitized on importance of basic education in their childrens life. That
starts right on the ECDE

27

CONCLUSION
The researcher concluded that many ECDE centres in Lemotit Zone lack enough learning
facilities thus becoming a big challenge to the childrens learning conditions. The entire
community should work hand in hand with the school teachers by providing all the necessary
materials that can promote their childrens education and holistic growth

5.4 Area for further studies


The man worked in Lemotit Zone Londiani Division Londiani District is to improve community
participation in ECDE centres. The suggest that should be carried on effects of illiterate parents
of the academic performance of school children.

28

REFERENCES
Black, jk andpucket m.b (1996). The young: development from rebirth through age eighth.
Englewood cliff, new jersey prentice hall,inc.
Buckley, j, Schneider, and shang, Y. 2004) .organizing for effective early childhood programs
and practices. Critical issue, Cambridge: Harard family.
Pipes p.l and trahms.N (1993) nutrition in infancy and childhood. Fith edition st.
Ngome, c.k (2002). Quality of training and attrition of early childhood development teachers in
Kenya. Manuscript to be submitted for publication.
Essq, E.L (2003) introduction to early childhood education Canada. Thomson Delmar Learning.
Gakii, M.c (2003) preschool teacher factor that influence the teacher child relationship in
miringa meru Divisions, meru central district, Kenya. Un published M.Ed thesis Kenyatta
University
Research project posted by the national clearing house for education facilities retrieved on March
19 2007, from www.edfacilities.org.
Organization of African unity, (1990). The African charter on rights and welfare of the child,
Nairobi, Kenya.
Orodho, J.A (2004) Elements of education and social research methods. Nairobi: Mosola
publishers.
Ngaroga, J.m (1985) A study of the factors that contribute to job satisfaction and dissatisfaction
among the rural primary school teachers. Unpublished Med thesis, Kenyatta University.
Ngasike, J.T (2004). Teachers use of play as medium for bridging preschool childrens
mathematical experiences. A study of Kasarani Division, Nairobi, Kenya, Unpublished MED
thesi Kenyatta University.

29

APPENDIX A

QUESTIONNAIRE FOR ECDE TEACHERS

INTRODUCTION
The question is used only for the ECDE teachers and its confidential immediately the
information is given.
1. As a teacher do you agree that private schools do better than public schools?
Yes [

No [

2. If yes why do you think it does better?


3. Which factors contribute to private ECDE centres doing better than public, if you think it does
better?
a. Good management

b. Teachers being paid well

c. Enough teaching and learning materials

d. Long time stay in schools

e. Good teacher/ child ratio

4. How is the arrival of children to school on daily morning basis?


Early [

Late

5. If you are told to choose a school to go and teach which one will be your first choice and why?
Private

Public

Why?

APPENDIX B

INTERVIEW SCHEDULE FOR HEAD TEACHERS.

1. As a head teacher who provides material to ECDE centres?


2. Do you involve parents for the provision of teaching and learning material?
3. Do you agree that private school have sufficient teaching and learning materials than public
schools?
4. How do you staff your ECDE center?
5. Which criteria do you use to motivate your teachers to do better in your school?
6. What is the ratio of teacher to child in your school?

APPENDIX C
OBSERVATION SCHEDULE FOR THE RESEARCHER.
Comparison of enrolment in both private ECDE centres and public ECDE centres.
No

Private ECDE centres

10

11

No of teacher

Public ECDE centres


Bo of children

No of teachers

No of children

APPENDIX D
OBSERVATION SCHEDULE FOR THE RESEARCHER
Comparison of academic progress in both private ECDE centres and public ECDE centres.
No

Mathematic

Language

Creative

Science skill and

Out door

Music and

skills

skills

skills

concepts

activity

movement

A1
2.
B1
2.
C1
2.
D1
2.
E1
2.
F1
2.
G1
2.
H1
2.
I1
2.
J1
2.
K1
2.
Key: 1 Private ECDE
2. Public ECDE
(v) Acquisition
(x) Not Acquired
4

APPENDIX E
Observation schedule for the researcher. Comparison of academic progress in both private ECDE
centre and public ECDE centers.
Materials

Available

1. Flash cards
2. Reading charts
3. Counting sticks
4. Puzzlers
5. Balls
6. Plasticine and clay
7. Crayons
8. Writing materials
9. Swing and ladders

Key:
(v) Available
(x) Not available

Not available