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ISSN 2349-3534, www.ijmpe.com, email editor@ijmpe.com

AND HEAT TRANSFER OF ANNULUS

Alireza Tahavvor1,*, Saeed Hosseini 1

1

Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University, Shiraz, Iran

* Corresponding Author, Email: tahavvor@iaushiraz.ac.ir

ABSTRACT:

Concentric and eccentric annulus is used frequently in technical and industrial applications

such as nuclear reactors, thermal storage system and etc. In this paper, computational fluid

dynamics (CFD) is used to investigate two dimensional free convection of laminar flow in

annulus with isotherm cylinders surface and cooler inner surface. Problem studied in thirty

different cases. Due to natural convection continuity and momentum equations are coupled and

must be solved simultaneously. Finite volume method is used for solving governing equations.

The purpose was to obtain the eccentricity effect on Nusselt number in different Rayleight

numbers, so streamlines and temperature fields must be determined. Results shown that the

highest Nusselt number values occurs in degree of eccentricity equal to 0.5 upward for inner

cylinder and degree of eccentricity equal to 0.3 upward for outer cylinder. Side eccentricity

reduces the outer cylinder Nusselt number but increases inner cylinder Nusselt number.

Correlations are included to calculate the Nusselt number of the cylinders.

[1] INTRODUCTION

Natural convection heat transfer and fluid flow in the annulus between two concentric and

eccentric cylinders has been subject of intensive research due to its important applications in

physics and engineering ranging from nuclear reactors, thermal storage systems and solar energy

collectors, cooling of electronic components and aircraft fuselage insulation to underground

electrical transmission cables.

A comprehensive review of the early works on this subject is found. Experimental and

numerical results of laminar natural convection in horizontal annuli with different Rayleigh

numbers were documented by some researchers [1]. Numerical solutions for the steady-state,

two-dimensional laminar and turbulent natural convection between two horizontal isothermal

concentric cylinders has presented by ref. [2]. Natural convective heat transfer in a horizontal

21

ECCENTRICITY EFFECT ON FREE CONVECTION FLUID FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER OF ANNULUS

eccentric annulus between an isothermal square outer and a heated isothermal circular inner

cylinder has numerically studied using differential quadrature (DQ) method, [3]. The effect of

eccentricity on the heat transfer has been studied using different thermal boundary conditions

with heated inner pipe in laminar completely formed conditions [4]. Its indicated that the

Nusselt number decreases as the eccentricity increases. Therefore, concentric pipes have better

heat transfer rate than the similar straight eccentric annuli. Fluid flow and heat transfer in

eccentric curved annuli has been numerically studied and reported that in contrast to straight

eccentric annuli, heat transfer rates can be augmented in eccentric curved annuli comparing with

the straight concentric annuli at the large dean numbers [5]. There are some studies consider the

effect of eccentricity of heated body inside a cooled enclosure. Refs. [6, 7] studied the effect of

circular cylinder vertical and horizontal and diagonal positions on heat transfer in the range of

103 to 106 Ra by means of finite volume method. They showed either changing Rayleigh number

or cylinder position can affect heat transfer quantities. Forced and free convective heat transfer

in the thermal entry region of horizontal concentric annuli [8], natural convection in a square

cavity containing a sinusoidal cylinder [9] and heat transfer due to buoyancy-driven convective

interaction in enclosures [10] are investigated recently.

According to authors knowledge from review of literature it is evident that natural

convection in concentric and eccentric annulus with both isothermal cylinders and cooler inner

wall is not studied yet.

The problem to be considered is an annular region filled with air between two circular

cylinders both concentrically and eccentrically placed. Thirty cases have been studied. Annulus

with le 0.3 , 0.5 and 0.7 Up, down and right eccentricity and concentric models have been

investigated where le is maximum length of eccentricity divided by ( Do Di ) and Do is outer

cylinder diameter and Di is inner cylinder diameter. Annulus geometry and related grid

arrangement for CFD solution is shown in [Figure-1]:

By assuming that both cylinders are extremely long in the axial direction into the page, the

problem is considered two-dimensional. The outer and inner cylinders are both isothermal solid

surfaces with no-slip and no-jump conditions and maintained at constant temperatures To and

Ti , respectively, with Ti < To . The problem is solved. The gravity is set to be along the

negative Y-direction. It should be noted that right and left eccentricities have the same results

22

International Journal of Mechanical, Robotics and Production Engineering. Volume V, Issue I Jan 15

ISSN 2349-3534, www.ijmpe.com, email editor@ijmpe.com

because of Y-direction gravity, thus the right model is investigated and called side eccentricity.

The Rayleigh number is 5 10 3 . By neglecting the viscous heating effect and assuming

constant thermo physical properties except density in the gravitational term, where the Bussinesq

approximation is applied to model the buoyancy effect, the two-dimensional, steady-state

governing equations for laminar flow are given by:

Continuity Equation:

u v

0

x y

(1)

u

u 1 p

2u 2u

v

v( 2 2 )

x

y x

x

y

(2)

v

v 1 p

2v 2v

v

v( 2 2 ) g (T T )

x

y y

x

y

(3)

Energy Equation:

T

T

2T 2T

v

( 2 2 )

x

y

x

y

(4)

The governing equations are solved using the finite volume method in which the pressure

correction procedure is conducted following the SIMPLE algorithm. The grid system is created

using structured quadrilateral cells. In descretizing the governing equations, the second order

upwind scheme is adopted for both momentum and energy equations. The convergence criterion

is set to 10-6 for each variable. Some grid sizes are tested to achieve grid independent result. To

do this, several tests are made between grid size of 10000 and 50000 cells. It was found that

45000 cells grid size is sufficiently fine to ensure a grid independent solution.

Concentric annulus temperature fields and streamlines are shown in [Figure-2]. The plume

below the cooled cylinder (inner) could be seen obviously. Temperature range is 313 to 323

Kelvin. In level 9 lockout air is observed, As a result, outer cylinder Nusselt number isnt

maximum value in this stage as it could be observed in [Table-1]. The plume is not completely

formed and it causes reduce in inner cylinder Nusselt number in addition to air lockout [Table2].

23

ECCENTRICITY EFFECT ON FREE CONVECTION FLUID FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER OF ANNULUS

[Figure-3] illustrate temperature fields and streamlines of 50% upward eccentricity. Plume is

completely formed. An isotherm area could be seen below inner cylinder in level 5 [Figure-3].

Plume is completely formed with no interact to outer cylinder surface as a result the inner

cylinder Nusselt number has maximum value in this position. Also in le 0.3 upward

eccentricity the plume is completely formed and no lockout air above it, thus the outer cylinder

Nusselt number has its maximum value in this position. 70% downward eccentricity is

illustrated in [Figure-4]. No plume is observable and lockout air above inner cylinder is

remarkable.

l e 0.5

24

International Journal of Mechanical, Robotics and Production Engineering. Volume V, Issue I Jan 15

ISSN 2349-3534, www.ijmpe.com, email editor@ijmpe.com

le 0.7

Plume in side eccentricity is not completely formed and lock out air could be seen in one side of

cylinder in more than 50% eccentricity [Figure-5].

Outer cylinder Nusselt number is influenced by the lockout air above and below the inner

cylinder, effect of above air is more significant because of plume in the below are. As its

illustrated in [Table-1] Nusselt number around 70% downward eccentricity is the lowest. As the

inner cylinder moves up the lockout air above it decreases and as a matter of fact the Nusselt

number increases until the optimum point. Around 30% up eccentricity the Nusselt number of

outer cylinder is the highest. Above this point effect of lockout air below the inner cylinder

increases and causes the Nusselt number to decrease. In side position as the eccentricity

increases the Nusselt number decrease as its illustrated in [Table-1].

25

ECCENTRICITY EFFECT ON FREE CONVECTION FLUID FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER OF ANNULUS

le

0

0.3

0.5

0.7

Upward

Downward

Side

12.88

11.22

10.78

11.61

10.91

10.67

10.28

10.78

10.57

10.38

Inner cylinder Nusselt number is influenced by plume formation and lockout air around it.

l e 0.7 downward and upward eccentricity positions have lower Nusselt number value in

compare to l e 0.5 eccentricity. It happened because of plume layers conflux with outer

cylinder surface. In downward eccentricity as the inner cylinder goes up the Nusselt number

decreases due to lockout air increasing around it up to the center point. Above the center point

the plume is developing and the lockout air around it reduces. So the highest inner cylinder

eccentricity is around l e 0.3 upward. Side eccentricity causes the inner cylinder Nusselt

number to increase until the plume layer conflux the outer cylinder surface, considering lockout

air around the cylinder reduces as it moves to sides. [Table-2]

le

0

0.3

0.5

0.7

Upward

Downward

Side

21.25

21.56

21.49

20.04

20.73

21.34

20.55

21.06

21.11

20.76

The results indicate that the inner cylinder Nusselt number maximum value occurs around

l e 0.5 upward and for outer cylinder its l e 0.3 upward. Considering the plume is below the

cooled inner cylinder. Studies of ref. [4] indicated that for annulus with heated inner cylinders

the Nusselt number decreases as the eccentricity increases. When the plume is below the inner

cylinder it causes a reduction in effect of lockout air below the cylinder so as it goes up to the

optimum point the Nusselt number increases.

This correlation can be used to determine Nusselt number of inner and outer cylinder in up

down and side eccentricity:

(5)

[Table-3] and [Table-4] contain all parameters values for each correlation. Range of is 0

to 1.

Table 3: parameters of equation 5 for outer cylinder

Parameter

Up

Down

Side

A

-18.59

16.39

11.95

B

16.48

6.04

-1.67

C

0.5

1.5

0.5

D

30.2

-4.79

-0.34

E

-1

1

-1

26

International Journal of Mechanical, Robotics and Production Engineering. Volume V, Issue I Jan 15

ISSN 2349-3534, www.ijmpe.com, email editor@ijmpe.com

Parameter

Up

Down

Side

A

25.72

16.62

36.42

B

-2.87

8.08

-10.7

C

2

3

1

D

-5.68

3.35

-16.4

E

-1

1

-1

2

Fit standard error and r are included in Table5

Eccentricity, cylinder

Up, outer

Down, outer

Side, outer

Up, inner

Down, inner

Side, inner

r2

0.989

0.998

0.999

0.999

0.899

0.999

0.1941

0.0377

0.0088

0.0050

0.2947

0.0004

[5] CONCLUSIONS

Results of eccentricity of annulus whit cooled inner cylinder in Nusselt number has been studied in

this paper. Outcomes were:

eccentricity

l e 0.5 upward

Highest inner cylinder Nusselt number occurs around

eccentricity.

Side eccentricity reduces outer cylinder Nusselt number but has opposite effect on

inner cylinder Nusselt number.

More than l e 0.7 eccentricity in all positions causes the Nusselt number to

reduce.

27

ECCENTRICITY EFFECT ON FREE CONVECTION FLUID FLOW AND HEAT TRANSFER OF ANNULUS

REFERENCES

[1]

Kuehn, T.H., Goldstein, R.J., 1976. An experimental and theoretical study of natural

convection in the annulus between horizontal concentric cylinders. International Journal of

Fluid Mechanic, 74, 695719.

[2]

Farouk, B., Gceri, S.I., 1982. Laminar and turbulent natural convection in the annulus

between horizontal concentric cylinders. International Journal of Heat Transfer, 104, 631

636.

[3]

Shu, C., Xue, H., Zhu, Y.D., 2001. Numerical study of natural convection in an eccentric

annulus between square outer cylinder and a circular inner cylinder using a DQ method.

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 44, 33213333.

[4]

Manglik, R.M., Fang, P.P., 1995. Effect of eccentricity and thermal boundary conditions on

laminar completely formed flow in annular ducts. International Journal of Heat and Fluid

Flow, 16, 298306.

[5]

Nobari, M.R.H., Mehrabani, M.T., 2009. A numerical study of fluid flow and heat transfer in

eccentric curved annuli. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 49, 380396.

[6]

Kim, B.S., Lee, D.S., Ha, M.Y., Yoon, H.S., 2008. A numerical study of natural convection in

a square enclosure with a circular cylinder at different vertical locations. International Journal

of Heat and Mass Transfer, 51, 1888-1906.

[7]

Lee, J.M., Ha, M.Y., Yoon, H.S., 2010. Natural convection in a square enclosure with a

circular cylinder at different horizontal and diagonal locations. International Journal of Heat

and Mass Transfer, 53, 5905-5919.

[8]

Mohammed, H.A., Antonio Campo, Saidur, R., 2010 Experimental study of forced and free

convective heat transfer in the thermal entry region of horizontal concentric annuli.

International Communications in Heat and Mass Transfer, 37, 739747.

[9]

Nabavizadeh, S.A, Talebi, S., Sefid, M., 2011. Natural convection in a square cavity

containing a sinusoidal cylinder. International Journal of Thermal Sciences, 51, 112-120.

[10]

Polezhaev, Vadim I., Myakshina, Marina N., Nikitin, Sergey A., 2012. Heat transfer due to

buoyancy-driven convective interaction in enclosures: Fundamentals and applications.

International Journal of Heat and Mass Transfer, 55, 156165.

28

ISSN 2349-3534, www.ijmpe.com, email editor@ijmpe.com

Ali Reza Tahavvor, Ph.D.

University)

Currently, A.R. Tahavvor is an assistant professor of mechanical engineering

in the Department of Mechanical Engineering, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad

University, Shiraz, Iran. He is especially interested in the heat and mass

transfer and also the application of soft computing methods such as artificial neural networks,

fuzzy logic, etc. in miscellaneous branches of mechanical engineering. He has some publications

on application of soft computing in convective heat and mass transfer. Other research interests of

him are heat and mass transfer, computational fluid dynamics and computational heat transfer.

Saeed Hosseini

B.Sc. (Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad University)

Currently, S. Hosseini is a M.Sc. student of mechanical engineering in the

department of mechanical engineering, Shiraz Branch, Islamic Azad

University, Shiraz, Iran. He is interested in the applications of heat and mass

transfer, especially in natural convection flows. Also he worked in the field of soft-computing such

as artificial neural networks.

29

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