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Area and/or Course Introduction to Welding

Lesson Title Principals of Arc Welding
No. Periods 1 (73-minute period)





Teacher Goal(s):
1. Students will understand the basics of striking and
maintaining an arc
2. Students will be able to practice arc welding
proficiency by creating arc beads


The student will be able to (TSWBT). (Oregon Skill Set numbers in parentheses at the
end of the objective statement.)
1. Identify the basics steps incorporated into the arc welding (SMAW) process (AG
2. Select applications for arc welding in real-world settings (CS.EF.02)
3. Explain how the arc forms and demonstrate how to properly set up equipment (EL.HS.RE.08)
4. Demonstrate striking the arc to begin the SMAW process (CS.EF.02)
5. Create arc welds which are consistent with industry standards (PST 04.04.07.c)
State Standards met by Objectives:


1. Agriculture






4. English


5. Power Science
PST 04.04.07.c.
and Technology

Eligible Content

Demonstrate the set up and adjustment of tools and

Select, apply, and maintain tools and technologies
appropriate for the workplace.
Listen attentively and summarize key elements of
verbal and non-verbal communication.
Understand, learn, and use new vocabulary that is
introduced and taught directly through
informational text, literary text, and
across the subject areas.
Construct and/or repair metal structures and
equipment using welding fabrication
including those associated with

Knowledge: 1=awareness; 2=comprehension; 3=application; 4=analysis; 5=synthesis; 6=evaluation

Application: 1=knowledge in one discipline; 2=apply knowledge in one discipline; 3=apply knowledge across disciplines; 4=apply knowledge to real-world predictable situations; 5=apply
knowledge to real-world unpredictable situations

GTAW, fuel-oxygen and plasma
arc torch methods.
6. Power Science
PST 04.04.07.b.
Distinguish welding processes, positions, and
and Technology
materials preparation.
Materials, Equipment, Audio-Visual Aids:
1. Arc welder

2. Welding helmet
3. Welding gloves
4. Whiteboard
5. Slag hammer

Anticipatory Set/Introduction/Motivation/Interest Approach:

Review Yesterdays Lesson:
Pass or Fail
The teacher will review some of the careers students have picked, but more importantly the
teacher will review safety with the students because this will be the first day the students are
actually working in the shop. The review will be called pass or fail because in order to receive
daily participation points, students will have to work in the shop. If they are unsafe or not
dressed appropriately they will not be allowed into the shop. Some examples are provided below:
Not wearing safety glasses in the shop at any time. Pass or Fail?
Wearing flip-flops in the shop; Pass or Fail?
Throwing hot metal across the room; Pass or Fail?
Stop your Heart
The teacher will begin the lesson by using a science based statement and safety scare tactic. The
teacher will ask two questions, write down responses on the board, and respond appropriately.
(Q) How many amps does it take to stop the human heart?
(A) of an amp
(Q) How many amps are we working with when we are arc welding?
(A) 75-120 amps

Transition (Use Objective):

Safety is an extremely important piece of working in the welding shop. Today we will be
working on reviewing safety, properly setting up the equipment
1. Identify the basics steps incorporated into the arc welding (SMAW) process
2. Select applications for arc welding in real-world settings
3. Explain how the arc forms and demonstrate how to properly set up equipment
4. Demonstrate striking the arc to begin the SMAW process
5. Create arc welds which are consistent with industry standards

Strategy Includes Teacher

Activity, Student Activity,
Questions/Answers and

Subject Matter Outline/Problem and Solution (Application

Points Lace in Throughout Lesson) (Modeling, Guided
Practice, and Content)

Objective #1

Safety Review
The welding process can and, will injure you, unless you take
welding safety seriously. Items such as, gloves, clothing and
even welding screens all play a role in you personal safety
when welding.

In order for the students to

hear and see how to arc weld
more than once, the teacher
will begin with showing the
students how the arc process
works, while reviewing safety.
The teacher will mention that
arc welding is also commonly
referred to as Shielded Metal
Arc Welding or SMAW
The teacher will be out in the
shop to demonstrate and show
students safety, travel, speed,
and ask/answer questions
about the welding process.
(Q) What is a flashburn?
(A) Flashburn is an extreme
sun burn on the eye, and it has
basically no way to reverse the
effects once it has happened
(Q) When do we not have to
wear our safety glasses in the
(A) NEVER, we always wear
eye protection, even under our
(Q) Why do we double check
we have properly connected
our ground clamp, every time
we begin to weld?
(A) So we make sure the
electric circuit is being made

You don't wear a welding helmet for fashion, or to look good.

Although you can get some pretty sweet looking helmets these
days! That bright blue welding arc will cook your eyeballs if
you do not protect them.
If you look at the welding arc with the naked eye too many
times, or catch too many flashes. Your eyes will get really sore.
It will feel like they are sandy and very itchy. Known as flash
Eye safety is very, very important.
Make sure you always use a welding helmet. I use what is
called an "automatic" welding helmet. This type of helmet will
"automatically" dull and filter the welding arc.
Arc welding preparation, make sure you do it.
So the basic idea behind welding is a simple electric
circuit...right. You attach the earth clamp to the bit of metal
being welded, and then when you bring the electrode closer to
the bit of metal you want to weld, you establish and arc.
So you need the earth to touch the work and you need the
electrode to touch the work, thus completing the basic circuit.
This step in the welding process is also very critical if you want
to learn how to stick weld properly. You must always have a
clean, secure and tight earth connection. If you do not, it can
really affect you welding experience, especially if you are
learning and you don't know what's going on.
So when you are doing the first step to successfully make you
first weld by doing "weld preparation" . Make sure you grind
away a small area on the steel to be welded, so that when you
clamp your earth to it you will not have any troubles later on in

through the metal, and not our

(Q) Why does the metal have
to be clean before we start the
(A) To make a good

the welding process.

Because at least when you are welding the heat from the arc
will to a certain extent burn away some of the impurities. But
where the earth clamp goes, it can't burn away paint or other
surface contaminates can it.
Make sure you have an excellent welding earth connection

(Q) Where should our cords be

located when we are setting up
our station?
(A) Behind us and out of the
way of other students so they
do not trip over the cords
Objective #2

Applications for Arc Welding

(Q) Has anyone used an arc

welder before?

Advantages Disadvantages and Applications of Arc

Welding Advantages
Besides the advantages listed more are as under:
(1) The process involves less maintenance cost.
(2) Skill of the operator does not influence the quality of spot
welds obtained by this process.
(3) The process is normally free from smoke and spatter.
(1) To achieve low cost of construction, the weld production
rate is not very high.
(2) The process proves uneconomical as compared to resistance
spot welding where the latter can be easily employed.

(A) If students have used an

arc welder before, the teacher
will ask them where and what
they were welding and most
importantly why they used the
arc welder
(Q) What would be some of
the advantages of using the arc
(A) Lower maintenance costs,
easy to maneuver around
(Q) What are some of the
disadvantages to this set up?
(A) Welds do not always look
as nice as MIG welds or O/A
(Q) Why do we have you
practice and learn the arc
welding process in this class?

The use of manually operated arc spot welding gun is a
common thing in various industries. Arc spot welding is
especially applicable for situations where resistance spots
welding needs high pressure, high currents, does not have easy
access and thus fails to weld.
Arc spot welding torch can also be employed to make holes in
plates up to 3 mm thick or so. After the arc has impinged on the
plate for a definite time, high pressure inert gas blows away the
molten metal leaving a hole in the plate. Other applications of,
the process are in :
1. Automobile industry.

(A) Arc welding is usually

more affordable for at home
use, and industry still uses it
for certain applications

2. Fabrication of sheet metal products.

3. Assembling sheet metal to steel structures.
4. Fabrication of pulleys.
5. Joining killed carbon steel, low alloy steel, high alloy steel,
titanium, etc.

Objective #3

Striking the Arc

(Q) If there are three ways to

strike an arc, which one is the

There are three ways how to strike an arc.

(A) The one which works best

for you
The teacher will give
demonstrations on striking the
arc and ask students to
practice with the welder
turned off, just to demonstrate
the correct angle and motion
(Q) Is it going to be easier to
practice striking an arc with a
longer electrode or shorter?
(A) Shorter rods or electrodes
will not react as dramatically
to minor hand movements

1. Flick up from an edge

2. Strike like a match/ scratch it

3. Tap it straight down, then back up

Hold the rod as straight up as possible.

One of the mistakes people make when arc welding is not
holding the rod at the right angle. For now hold it straight up,
ie 90deg.
You should actually hold the rod between 0 and 16 degrees,
with the rod leaning towards the direction of travel. I say keep
it straight up as you will always as a learner drop your arm,
which will change the angle of the rod.
Make sure the ground clamp is connected
Yell clear before striking your arc

Objective #4
Students will each practice
setting up an arc welder, but
demonstrating with the
machine off first before
moving to actually practice
striking the arc.
Once students have shown the
teacher how they are going to
strike the arc, students will
turn on their machine to the
correct setting, and practice
just keeping an arc for a few

Demonstration of Striking the Arc

Now that you're ready to weld, remember CLAMS. Bringing
all these points together in one moment of welding may seem
like a lot to think about, but it becomes second nature with
practice. And don't get discouraged! Stick welding got its name
not because the electrode looks like a stick, but because
EVERYONE sticks the rod to the workpiece when learning
how to weld.
Current setting: The correct current, or amperage, setting
primarily depends on the diameter and type of electrode
selected. For example, a 1/8 in. 6010 rod runs well from 75 to
125 amps, while a 5/32 in. 7018 rod welds at currents up to 220

Objective #5
Students will begin arc
welding by creating short
beads and comparing the
welds with industry standard
welds which are posted on the
shop classroom wall.
Students should start to see
the differences in the welds,
and note the differences on a
piece of paper.
At the end of the first day the
teacher will ask that the
students turn in a piece of
paper which describes how
their welds are different from
the industry standard SMAW
(Q) Why do I have you guys
practice just making beads on
a plate?
(A) Because welding takes
practice, practice, practice.
Running beads is the first step
to becoming a professional

Arc Welding
Length of arc: The correct arc length varies with each
electrode and application. As a good starting point, arc length
should not exceed the diameter of the metal portion (core) of
the electrode. Holding the electrode too closely decreases
welding voltage. This creates an erratic arc that may extinguish
itself or cause the rod to freeze, as well as produces a weld
bead with a high crown. Excessively long arcs (too much
voltage) produce spatter, low deposition rates, undercuts and
maybe porosity.
Angle of travel: Stick welding in the flat, horizontal and
overhead position uses a "drag" or "backhand" welding
technique. Hold the rod perpendicular to the joint and tilt the
top of the electrode in the direction of travel approximately 5 to
15 degrees.
Manipulation: Each welder manipulates or weaves the
electrode in a unique style. Develop your own style by
observing others, practicing and creating a method that
produces good results for you. Note that on material 1/4 in. and
thinner, weaving the rod typically creates a bead that is wider
than necessary. In many instances, plain, straight-ahead travel
works fine.
To create a wider bead on thicker material, manipulate the
electrode from side to side creating a continuous series of
partially overlapping circles, or in a "Z," semi-circle or stutterstep pattern. Limit side-to-side motion to 2-1/2 times the
diameter of the electrode core. To cover a wider area, make
multiple passes or "stringer beads."

Closure/Summary/Conclusion (Tie in Objectives)

The only way to improve in arc welding is practice. Good welders work everyday or every
chance they have to make regular beads like you have all practiced today. Welding can be
frustrating, but once those challenges have been over come, it is a very satisfying skill to have.
What have we learned today?
1. Identify the basics steps incorporated into the arc welding (SMAW) process
2. Select applications for arc welding in real-world settings
3. Explain how the arc forms and demonstrate how to properly set up equipment
4. Demonstrate striking the arc to begin the SMAW process
5. Create arc welds which are consistent with industry standards
Evaluation: (Authentic forms of Evaluation, Quizzes, or Written Exam)
Visual and verbal checks for understanding will be done by the teacher to ensure the students are
understanding the concepts of arc welding and striking the arc

Assignments: (Student Activities Involved in Lesson/Designed to Meet Objectives)

Daily calendar
Industry standard comparison sheet

Lesson Reflection
This lesson was set up with students practicing much of the time when the welder is off. If I
could redo this lesson I would demonstrate with the machine off and on, and then let students
turn on the welder and practice striking the arc. I do not think they really learned anything from
practicing with the electricity off, it is an entirely new ballgame when there is actually a response
from a simple movement of the hand.