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Review&of&articles&for&the&class&of&

Mechanical&Behavior&of&Materials&
Ricardo&Martinez&
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A" review" of" non+destructive" techniques" for" the" detection" of" creep"
damage"in"power"plants"steels."
Summary'
This& paper& is& a& review& for& the& present& techniques& to& assess& damage& and& service& life& in&
power& plant& steels.& & Advantages& and& disadvantages& are& presented& in& the& usage& of& each&
technique.&A&summary&of&the&techniques&is&presented&in&table&below.&&
Diffusive&and&dislocation&creep&are&the&most&significant&mechanism&affecting&these&parts.&
Commonly&accepted&that&microAvoids,&created&by&the&nucleation&of&cavities&due&dislocations&
or&wedge&cracks&due&to&GBS.&The&voids&form&microAcracks,&which&will&lead&to&fracture.&
Volumetric& creep& is& the& damage& over& a& relatively& large& area.& Important& when& part& is&
approaching&design&life.&However&localized&creep&are&of&primary&concern&to&determine&the&
locations&where&failure&is&likely&to&originate.&&
From&all&cracks&that&can&be&developed,&the&type&IV&cracks&(narrow&transition&between&HAZ&
and&base&metal)&are&the&most&critical&to&cause&ultimate&failure.&Type&III&cracks&occurs&in&HAZ,&
and&is&the&2nd&most&critical.&&
Analysis&of&the&techniques&using&CrAMo&low&alloy&and&martensitic&steels&which&are&used&in&
high&temperature&tubing&and&pipework&in&power&generation&and&petrochemical&plants.&&
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Method'
Thermal:
Mechanical'
history'
Analysis' of'
ex:service'
samples'
Non:
Destructive'
evaluation'
(NDE)'
Replication''

How'is'done?'
Advantage'
Extrapolation' of' statistics' Identify'
areas'
using'past'failures'
after'
periodic'
inspection'
Accelerating'creep'rupture' '
in'samples'that'were'used.'

Disadvantages'
No'history'for'(,T,)'corrosion,'oxides,'etc.'''

Notes'and'Mechanical'behavior'
'

Only'some'samples'can'be'analyzed.'
No'equal'conditions'of'(,T,)'.'

Continuous' inspection' of' '


actual' components' to'
identify'cracks'or'voids.''

'

Experimental' shows' elongated'


grains' in' tertiary' creep.' Service'
doesnt'show'this.''
The' microstructure' of' material' and'
evolution' during' service' life' can'
depend'of'composition.'

After'polished'and'etching,' Quantitative' data'


a' film' is' applied,' softened' of'defects,'voids'of'
with' solvent' and' solidify.' <1m.''
Mirror'image'obtained'and'
examined.''

Cavity' detection' on' surface' can' be' misleading,'


since' studies' have' been' reported' that' they'
appear'also'just'before'fracture.'
It' does' not' distinguish' cavities' from' usage' or'
surface'preparation.''
No'detection'of'subsurface'voids.''
Periodic' inspection' with' maintenance' of'
structure.'

Most'commonly'used'(>1980)'
Type' IV' cracks' in' HAZ' often'
initiates'below'outer'surface'
Cavities' may' unite' to' form'
microcracks,' and' density' of' surface'
cavities'decrease,'not'meaning'early'
creep,'but'close'to'fracture.''
Damage' in' end' caps' can' develop'
through' half' of' thickness' before'
cavities'can'be'seen'on'surface.'
Ultrasonics' Wave'
velocity'
or' Evaluates'
No' good' for' high' temperature' operating' Inspect'the'bulk'of'tested'object.'
(NDE)'
=' attenuation:' Measures' the' volumetric' creep' conditions.''
High' frequency' surface' acoustic'
USo'
back' wall' echo,' and' it' and''
waves' allow' localized' creep' on' a'
average'
over'
entire'
thin'subsurface'layer.''
thickness.'
Backscatter:'
Localized'
creep.''
Wave'
Velocity' measurements' on' Velocity' maps' of' Interpretation' of' velocity' changes:' cavities' or' Based'on'variations'in'density'and'E'
velocity'
wave'
affected'
by' spatial' resolution' precipitates?.'
caused'
by'
changes'
in'
(USo)'
microstructure.''
of' 25' um' and' Insensitive' to' some' materials,' primary' and' microstructure.''
velocity'
better' secondary'creep,'oxide'and'rough'surfaces.''
Changes' depend' on' material,' wave'
than'1m/s.''
Uncertainties'severely'affect'readings.''
mode.'
Very'thin'subsurface'layer.''
Birefringen
Velocity' difference' of' two' '
Grains'deformation'can'cancel'effects'of'cracks.' Cavities' and' microcracks' have'
ces'(USo)'
shear' waves' polarized' in'
Not'good'for'early'stages'of'creep.'''
preferential'
directions'
and'
perpendicular'directions.''
velocities'will'change'depending'on'
creep'life.''
Wave'
'
Some'
authors' Very'sensitive'to'grain'size'variation.''
Different' studies' have' presented'

attenuation'
(USo)'

claim'
more'
sensitivity'
to'
creep'damage.''
''
Linear' correlation'
with'creep'life.''
Good' at' final'
stages'of'creep.'
Localized'method''
More' sensitive' as'
damage'proceeds.''
'
Clear'
relation'
between'
coercivity'
and'
signal' observed'
on'
ferritic'
stainless'steels.''
Signals' can' be'
detected'
from'
bulk'material.''
More' sensitive' to'
motion' of' 90'
degrees' domain'
walls' an' material'
stress.''
'

Backscatter'
(USo)'

Analysis' of' data' received'


between' excitation' pulse'
and' arrival' of' first' back'
wall'echo.''

Barkhausen'
emission'
(magnetic)'

Develop'
relationship'
between' damage' and'
magnetic'pulses'

Magneto'
acoustic'
emission'

Detection' of' elastic' wave'


pulses''

Eddy'
Current'

Eddy' signal' is' correlated'


with' magnetic' phase'
concentration' and' creep'
damage.'
'
Volumetric' creep'
damage'
assessment.''
Early' stages' of'
damage'
Vickers'indentation''
Good' correlation'
between' hardness'
and'creep'life.'

Potential'
drop'
techniques'
Hardness'

Difficult'in'practice'
Large'scatter'if'surface'is'rough'or'curved.''
No'good'for'early'stages.'

results'for'attenuation'coefficient.''

Large'errors'due'inhomogeneities.''
'

GB,' inclusions,' cavities' and'


microcracks'cause'partial'reflection'
of'ultrasonic'wave.''
'

Very'thin'surface'layers.'
Residual' stresses' and'
measurements.''
'

oxide'

Studies' using' this' technique' have'


affects' been'made.''
'

Results'affected'with'grain'size.''
Amplitude'reduced'at'creep'damage.''
Large' spatial' permeability' variation'
ferromagnetic'materials.''

Small' strain' field' created,' and'


millions' of' small' acoustic' waves'
in' generated'locally'of'sudden'domain'
wall'motion'during'hysteresis.''

Decoupling'of'effects'impossible.''
Exclusive'to'non:ferromagnetic'material.''

Some' articles' have' used' this'


technique.''
Only'for'range'of'austenitic'steels.''

Only'volumetric.''
In' creep' test,' electrical' resistivity'
Cavities' and' microcrack' alignment' cause' varies'since'solute,'voids'and'cracks'
difference'in'resistivity'
concentration,'decreases'in'matrix.'
Measurements' in' industry' with' thin' layers'
affect'measurements.''
Very' sensitive' to' local' variations' of'
microstructure.''

Insensitive' to' HAZ' zone' since'


thickness'is'small.''
Qualitatively'indication'of'excessive'
temperature'exposure.''

Strain'
gauges'

Markers'
such'
as' '
projections'
or'
pips'
attached'to'the'surface.'25'
um'accuracy.''
Digital'
Random' speckle' patterns' Highly' localized'
image'
are'created.''
increases'of'strain'
correlation'
rate'in'HAZ'would'
be'
easily'
recorded.''
Positron'
Vacancies' and' cracks' act' Creep' life' with'
annihilation' as'traps'for'positrons.''
positron' lifetime'
correlation.''
XRD'
and' Diffraction' direction' used' '
small' angle' for'plastic'deformation.''
neutron'
scattering'
'
'
'

Not'good'for'high'temperature'conditions.''
Not'good'for'localized'creep.'
Degradation' of'
temperatures.''

speckle'

due'

Effects'of'precipitates'in'lifetime.''
No'portable'systems.''
Very'small'subsurface'layer.''
Small'penetration'depth'
SANS'only'in'laboratory.''

to'

Alternative' markers' have' been'


used.'
high' Stereo' imaging' for' out' of' plane'
distance.''

Lifetime' of' positron' increases' in'


defective' areas' because' electron'
density'is'reduced.''
Neutron' simplify' data' compared' to'
XRD''
'

Conclusion'by'the'author'
This&article&is&not&pretended&to&understand&creep&mechanisms&but&to&determine&a&way&to&
assess& damage.& Diffusional& and& dislocational& creep& mostly& causes& the& damage.& High&
temperatures& and& cavities& due& to& microstructure& enhance& diffusional& creep.& The& loading&
operating&conditions&acting&on&the&HAZ&of&the&welded&part&enhances&dislocation&creep.&&
Most&of&the&techniques&focused&on&determining&the&damage&that&cavities&and&cracks&caused&
in&the&part.&Decoupling&the&effects&of&uncertainties&is&a&challenge&that&is&not&solved&yet;&these&
uncertainties& include& oxide& layers,& magnetic& properties& variation,& precipitates,& high&
temperature&influence,&among&others.&
Details&on&the&mechanism&of&measurement&of&cavities&are&not&explained&in&the&article.&&&
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