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https://www.academia.

edu/26848925/Ancient_Literary_Traditions_Tracing_Heterogeny_and_Assessing_Intangibl
es_1st_Draft_
THE SCHOOL OF GRADUATE STUDIES, PHILIPPINE COLLEGE OF HEALTH SCIENCES

Ancient Literary Traditions: Tracing


Heterogeny & Assessing Intangibles
A Research Paper in
Philippine Literature

Submitted in fulfillment of
the Academic Requirements
for the Degree
Ph. D. English

By Jaime Cabrera
30 March 2016

This paper traces Hindu-Sanskrit influences in precolonial Philippine literature; examines intangible
elements such as superstitions and filial piety in ancient literary forms; and discusses their influences on
regional literatures particularly in the literary traditions of Muslim Philippines.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 1

Contents
ABSTRACT ......................................................................................................................................................................7
1

INTRODUCTION .....................................................................................................................................................8
1.1

Research Goals .............................................................................................................................................9

1.2

Prcis of Research Findings ..........................................................................................................................9

1.3

Periods of Philippine Historiography..........................................................................................................11

1.4

Definition of Terms ....................................................................................................................................11

1.5

Organization of the Paper ..........................................................................................................................13

METHODOLOGY ...................................................................................................................................................15
2.1

The Scientific Approach..............................................................................................................................15

2.2

The Mixed Methods Approach ...................................................................................................................17

2.3

Phase 1: Narrative Reconstruction .............................................................................................................19

2.4

Phase 2: Empirical Analysis ........................................................................................................................19

2.4.1

Text Interpretation ................................................................................................................................20

2.4.2

Content Analysis ....................................................................................................................................20

2.4.3

Categorization ........................................................................................................................................20

2.4.4

Classication ..........................................................................................................................................22

2.4.5

Text Analysis ..........................................................................................................................................23

2.5

Phase 3: Humanistic Analysis .....................................................................................................................25

2.6

Theoretical Constructs ...............................................................................................................................26

2.6.1

Theories of Narrative Reconstruction ....................................................................................................26

2.6.2

Theories of Text Analysis .......................................................................................................................26

2.7

Research Tools ...........................................................................................................................................29

2.8

Objects of Analysis .....................................................................................................................................30

2.8.1

Superstitions ..........................................................................................................................................30

2.8.2

Ancient Philippine Literature .................................................................................................................30

NARRATIVES RECONSTRUCTION ..........................................................................................................................32


3.1

The Prehistoric Narrative ...........................................................................................................................32

3.1.1

The First Humans ...................................................................................................................................33

3.1.2

Negrito Migrations .................................................................................................................................34

3.1.3

Austronesian Migration .........................................................................................................................37

3.1.4

Indonesian Migration .............................................................................................................................39

3.1.5

Indochinese Migration ...........................................................................................................................39

3.1.6

Alternative Migration Theory ................................................................................................................39

3.2

The Precolonial Narrative ...........................................................................................................................40

3.2.1

Hinduism ................................................................................................................................................41

3.2.2

700s: Islam .............................................................................................................................................42

3.2.3

Destructive Forces .................................................................................................................................43

3.2.4

The Islands of Ma-i .................................................................................................................................45

3.2.5

200s: The Pallava Empire .......................................................................................................................46

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 2

3.2.6

700s: Sri-Vishaya Colonizes Visayas .......................................................................................................47

3.2.7

700s: Sri-Vishaya Colonizes Sulu ............................................................................................................50

3.2.8

1200s: The Lesser Song Empire .............................................................................................................51

3.2.9

1300s: Majapahit Controls Visayas & Mindanao ...................................................................................55

3.2.10

1370s: Vassals of China .....................................................................................................................57

3.2.11

1400s: China Governs North Philippines ...........................................................................................59

3.2.12

1500s: Hindunized Islam Governs the South .....................................................................................60

3.2.13

1500s: Indic Brunei Rules the Philippines ..........................................................................................64

3.2.14

1540: Japan Invades the Philippines .................................................................................................67

3.2.15

1500s: Europe Discovers the Philippines ...........................................................................................67

3.3

Elements of Literary Tradition ....................................................................................................................69

3.3.1

Language ................................................................................................................................................69

3.3.2

Writing System.......................................................................................................................................70

3.3.3

Precolonial Literature ............................................................................................................................70

3.3.4

Moslem Philippines................................................................................................................................70

EMPIRICAL ANALYSES ..........................................................................................................................................72


4.1

Filial Piety ...................................................................................................................................................72

4.2

Superstitions ..............................................................................................................................................74

4.3

Empirical Analysis of Superstitions ............................................................................................................74

4.3.1

Filial Piety in Superstitions .....................................................................................................................74

4.3.2

Frequency of Values in Folk Beliefs .......................................................................................................75

4.3.3

Explicit-Prescriptive Folk Beliefs ............................................................................................................76

4.3.4

Implicit-Symbolic Folk Beliefs ................................................................................................................77

4.3.5

House, Home, and Family ......................................................................................................................77

4.3.6

Food and Eating .....................................................................................................................................78

4.3.7

Money and Wealth ................................................................................................................................79

4.3.8

Love, Courtship, and Marriage...............................................................................................................80

4.3.9

Pregnancy ..............................................................................................................................................80

4.3.10

Childbirth ...........................................................................................................................................81

4.3.11

Infants................................................................................................................................................82

4.3.12

Children .............................................................................................................................................82

4.3.13

The Body ............................................................................................................................................83

4.3.14

Illness and Disorders..........................................................................................................................84

4.3.15

Death .................................................................................................................................................84

4.3.16

Numbers and Colors ..........................................................................................................................85

4.3.17

Numbers & Colors .............................................................................................................................86

4.3.18

Bad and Good Luck ............................................................................................................................86

4.3.19

Other Folk Beliefs ..............................................................................................................................87

4.4

Value Frequency Counts ............................................................................................................................88

4.5

Empirical Analysis of Literary Text .............................................................................................................89

4.5.1

Darangen Bantugan (23 lines)................................................................................................................90

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 3

4.5.2

Darangen Bantugan (85 lines)................................................................................................................94

4.5.3

Darangen (07 lines) ..............................................................................................................................100

4.5.1

Ullalim Banna (03 lines) .......................................................................................................................101

4.5.1

Matabagka at Nalandagan (04 lines) ...................................................................................................102

4.5.2

Alim (10 lines) ......................................................................................................................................102

4.5.3

Biag ni Lam-ang (30 lines) ....................................................................................................................103

4.5.4

Biag ni Lam-ang (43 lines) ....................................................................................................................105

4.5.5

Bidasari (24 lines) .................................................................................................................................108

4.5.6

Bidasari (43 lines) .................................................................................................................................109

4.5.7

Hudhud ni Aliguyon (13 lines) ..............................................................................................................111

4.5.8

Hudhud ni Aliguyon (23 paragraphs, bilingual) ...................................................................................112

4.5.9

Ibalon (15 lines) ...................................................................................................................................114

4.5.10

Ibalon: Yling (25 lines, bilingual) ......................................................................................................115

4.5.11

Indarapatra at Sulayman (06 lines) .................................................................................................116

4.5.12

Indarapatra at Sulayman (22 lines) .................................................................................................117

4.5.13

Indarapatra & Sulayman (37 paragraphs) .......................................................................................118

4.5.14

Indarapatra & Sulayman (70 lines) ..................................................................................................121

4.5.15

Kamanduan (21 paragraphs) ...........................................................................................................125

4.5.16

Keg Sumba neg Sandayo (8 lines) ....................................................................................................128

4.5.17

Keg Sumba neg Sondayo (08 paragraphs) .......................................................................................129

4.5.18

Keg Sumba neg Sondayo (53 lines) ..................................................................................................131

4.5.19

Tuwaang (33 lines) ..........................................................................................................................133

HUMANISTIC ANALYSIS......................................................................................................................................136
5.1

Procedural Challenges ..............................................................................................................................136

5.2

Recapitulation ..........................................................................................................................................138

5.3

Ethnographic Analysis ..............................................................................................................................139

5.4

Research Procedure .................................................................................................................................139

5.5

Prehistoric Narrative ................................................................................................................................140

5.6

Precolonial Narrative ...............................................................................................................................141

5.7

Hindu-Budhhist-Arab Influences ..............................................................................................................144

5.8

End of Precolonial Narrative ....................................................................................................................146

CONCLUSIONS....................................................................................................................................................148
6.1

Findings ....................................................................................................................................................149

6.2

Indigenized literary elements ...................................................................................................................149

6.3

Indic influence in Muslim folk epics .........................................................................................................150

6.4

Recommendations ...................................................................................................................................150

6.5

Original Contributions ..............................................................................................................................151

REFERENCES...............................................................................................................................................................153
ADDITIONAL READINGS .............................................................................................................................................171
APPENDICES ...............................................................................................................................................................179

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 4

List of Tables
Table 1: Indic Elements in Philipine Literature ............................................................................................................10
Table 2: Periods of Philippine Literature .....................................................................................................................11
Table 3: Key Terms Used in the Research ....................................................................................................................11
Table 4: Key Features of the Scientific Approach in Research .....................................................................................16
Table 5: Research Designs and Approaches ................................................................................................................17
Table 6: Three Ways to Interpret Literary Text ...........................................................................................................20
Table 7: Types of Categorization .................................................................................................................................21
Table 8: Data Catagories for Narrative Construction...................................................................................................22
Table 9: Steps of the Research Design .........................................................................................................................23
Table 10: Tools of the Research...................................................................................................................................29
Table 11: Typology of Philippine Superstitions or Folk Beliefs ....................................................................................30
Table 12: Indic Elements in Philipine Epics ..................................................................................................................31
Table 13: Timeline of Early Human Migrations ...........................................................................................................33
Table 14: Timeline of Early Philippine Cultural Contacts .............................................................................................35
Table 15: Material Proof of Indic Colonization ............................................................................................................57
Table 16: Values of Folk Beliefs in the Philippines .......................................................................................................73
Table 17: Values of Folk Beliefs in the Philippines .......................................................................................................75
Table 18: Summary of Values Frequency in Filipino Folk Beliefs .................................................................................75
Table 19: Values Frequency in Filipino Explicit-Prescriptive Folk Beliefs.....................................................................76
Table 20: Values Frequency in Filipino Implicit-Symbolic Folk Beliefs .........................................................................77
Table 21: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to House, Home, and Family .....................................................................78
Table 22: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Food and Eating.....................................................................................78
Table 23: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Money & Wealth ...................................................................................79
Table 24: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Love, Courtship, & Marriage .................................................................80
Table 25: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Pregnancy ..............................................................................................81
Table 26: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Childbirth ...............................................................................................81
Table 27: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Infants ...................................................................................................82
Table 28: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Children .................................................................................................83
Table 29: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to the Human Body ....................................................................................83
Table 30: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Illness and Disorders .............................................................................84
Table 31: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Death .....................................................................................................85
Table 32: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Numbers & Colors .................................................................................86
Table 33: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Numbers & Colors .................................................................................86
Table 34: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Bad & Good Luck ...................................................................................87
Table 35: Other Folk Beliefs & Superstitions................................................................................................................88
Table 36: List OF Values Frequency Charts ..................................................................................................................89
Table 37: Frequency of Folk Beliefs and Filial Piety in Darangen (23) .........................................................................91
Table 38: Darangen Analysis Chart (Bilingual) .............................................................................................................94
Table 39: Darangen (85) Summary Practice Chart.......................................................................................................96
Table 40: Darangen Bantugan Percentage Averages of Totals .................................................................................99
Table 41: Darangen (07) Summary Practice Chart .....................................................................................................101
Table 42: Ullalim Banna (03) Summary Practice Chart ..............................................................................................102
Table 43: Matabagka at Nalandagan (04) Summary Practice Chart ........................................................................102
Table 44: Alim (10) Summary Practice Chart .............................................................................................................103
Table 45: Biag ni Lam-ang (30) Summary Practice Chart ...........................................................................................104
Table 46: Biag ni Lam-ang (43) Summary Practice Chart ...........................................................................................106
Table 47: Bidasari (24) Summary Practice Chart .......................................................................................................108
Table 48: Bidasari (43) Summary Practice Chart .......................................................................................................109
Table 49: Hudhud ni Aliguyon (13) Summary Practice Chart .....................................................................................111
Table 50: Hudhud ni Aliguyon (23) Bilingual Summary Practice Chart ......................................................................112
Table 51: Ibalon (15) Summary Practice Chart ..........................................................................................................114
Table 52: Ibalon Yling (25) Bilingual Summary Practice Chart ...................................................................................115
Table 53: Indarapatra at Sulayman (05) Summary Practice Chart ............................................................................116
Table 54: Indarapatra at Sulayman (22) Summary Practice Chart ............................................................................117
Table 55: Indarapatra at Sulayman (37) Summary Practice Chart ............................................................................118
Table 56: Indarapatra at Sulayman (70) Summary Practice Chart ............................................................................122

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 5

Table 57: Kamanduan (21) Summary Practice Chart .................................................................................................125


Table 58: Keg Sumba neg Sandayo (08L) Summary Practice Chart ...........................................................................129
Table 59: Keg Sumba neg Sandayo (08P) Summary Practice Chart ...........................................................................130
Table 60: Keg Sumba neg Sandayo (53) Summary Practice Chart .............................................................................131
Table 61: Tuwaang (33) Summary Practice Chart .....................................................................................................134
Table 62: Philippine Timeline Up To 1521 .................................................................................................................179
Table 63: Timele of Origin and Development of Writing Scripts ..........................................................................................179
Table 64: The 12 Conventions of the Epic Genre.......................................................................................................180
Table 65: The Mahabharata ......................................................................................................................................180
Table 66: Alphabetical List of Philippine Languages ..................................................................................................181

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 6

List of Figures
Figure 1: The Countries of East Asia (pinimg.com). .....................................................................................................32
Figure 2: Migrations Out of Africa (wikispaces.com) ...................................................................................................34
Figure 3: Sundaland and Changes of Sea Levels (maritimemysteries.org) ..................................................................36
Figure 4: Sundaland 30,000 Years Ago and Today (loveisrasa.blogspot.com) ............................................................38
Figure 5: The Cultural Zones of Greater India (Wikimedia) .........................................................................................41
Figure 6: Map of the Philippines 1598 Petrus Kaerius (gmanews) ..............................................................................46
Figure 7: Pallava Kingfom (Wikipedia) .........................................................................................................................47
Figure 8: South East Asia 500 AD 750 AD (timemaps.com) ......................................................................................48
Figure 9: Sri-Vishaya Empire (Wikimedia) ...................................................................................................................50
Figure 10: Map of Precolonial Philippines (Philip Andrew) .........................................................................................52
th
Figure 11: The Majapahit Empire in the 15 Century (quora.cdn.net) .......................................................................56
Figure 12: The Dutch Trade Route ca. 1650 (ireneses.files.wordpress.com) ..............................................................68

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 7

ABSTRACT
This paper lays the groundwork for a mixed-methods research approach in literary
analysis. To trace the Indic origins of Philippine folk literature, prehistoric and precolonial
narratives are reconstructed. to analyze filial piety and superstitions in Muslim folk epics, an
empirical approach involving frequency analysis is used. As a result, one original contribution is
a set of ready-to-use charts that can be used to analyze folk literature epics and practice the
mixed methods approach. The key findings include: (a) that all elements of traditional literature
in the Philippines are not indigenous; (b) that Indic cultural influence in traditional Philippine
literature can be traced back to 600 years of Indian colonization of the Philippine islands; and (c)
that qualitative analysis of intangibles in literary and ethnographic text samples is best supported
with empirical data and a quantitative research approach. The paper is presented in six (6)
chapters. Chapter 1(Introduction) presents the research questions and a prcis of the answers; the
operational definitions of key terminology; and the organization of the paper. Chapter 2
(Methodology) presents the research problem and theoretical constructs; research design,
methods, tools, and procedures; the objects of the study; and the qualitative and quantitative
procedures used. Chapter 3 (Narrative Reconstruction) reconstructs prehistoric and precolonial
narratives that trace the development of literary tradition in the Philippines. Chapter 4 (Empirical
Analysis) explains and exemplifies step-by-step procedure in analyzing intangibles such as filial
piety and superstitions in ethnological and in literary texts. Chapter 5 (Humanistic Analysis)
explains various elements in traditional Philippine literature in terms of historical and statistical
data discovered in the preceding chapters. Chapter 6 (Conclusions) summarizes the research
goals, findings, and original contributions, as well as suggests avenues for future research.
References, Additional Readings, Tables, and Figures are listed at the end of the paper.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 8

INTRODUCTION

The research examines superstitions and filial piety in precolonial Philippine


literature, particularly Muslim epics. This chapter (a) presents the research
questions, (b) defines key terminology, and (c) explains the organization of the
paper.

Heterogeneity simply means foreign origins. As a result of the increasing distance


between today and past history, there is a need to understand the relationships between forgotten
and current events, particularly the foreign influences that shaped the mundane minutiae that
comprise our habits, our ways of doing, thinking, and relating, our identities, and our ancient
records and traditions. Where did these come from? Knowing the literature of a nation helps in
the understanding of not only a nations history but also its culture and values.
Ancient Philippine literature is rooted in its historiography, which is understood by many
students as beginning in 1521 (Godinez-Ortega, n. d.). This research begins from the assumption
that a lost historiographic narrative of Philippine prehistory can be reconstructed.
Meanwhile, traditional Philippine literature survives in a variety of languages, forms and
expressions (Mabanglo, 2015), oral traditions that include legends, folk tales, epics, folk songs,
epigrams, riddles, chants, proverbs and sayings (Marias, 2011) with influences that can be
traced back to India through precolonial contacts with traders, settlers, and proselytizers who
unwittingly served as agents of cultural transfer and, quite significantly, without the cultural
destruction caused by other colonizers such as Spain, Japan, and America.
The cultural elements from these benign foreign contacts sat so well with the precolonial
inhabitants of what later came to be known as the Philippine archipelago that their cultural
transfers are hardly considered as foreign today. The following chapters examine several
elements that are so ingrained in Filipino culture that they are taken for granted as indigenous
traditions but are actually from foreign empires.
The indigenous Philippine cultures most successful in resisting foreign influences are in
the north (Ifugao), in the east (Palawan) and in the south (Muslims). However, only the
southerners engaged in active and violent resistance while the others preserved their cultures by
increasing isolation as they retreated to the hinterlands. Even today, Filipinos consider the
Muslims of Mindanao as the fiercest of warriors. Moreover, the Muslim religions mandate of

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 9

kindness and hospitality towards visitors predisposed the southern Filipinos towards benign
cultural inputs from Hindunized Arab influences via ancient maritime traders. To this day, the
original precolonial values such as filial piety and folk beliefs can be found in Muslim epics such
as the Maranao Darangen Bantugan, the Manubo legend of Ango, the Maranao Maharadia
Lawana, and the Maguindanao lndarapatra at Sulayman.
Most of precolonial Philippine literature was oral and took on many forms to transmit
the inner quality and strength of a culture, usually among the traditions, customs, fairytales,
ballads, songs, accounts of ancient festivals, games, superstitions, beliefs, proverbs, popular
sayings, nursery rhymes, riddles, and jingles of the masses, which are woven in the fabric of
the daily life of the community (Marias, 2011). The foreign roots of native folklore can be
even traced to the ancient cultures of SE Asia and Polynesia (Mabanglo, 2015).
While the main focus of the thesis is on tracing period Hindu-Sanskrit elements in
prehispanic Philippine literature, particularly Muslim Philippine folk epics, the paper will
include salient facts related to prehistoric origins and movements shaped by natural phenomena;
historical events that shaped precolonial Philippine history and culture; as well as theoretical
underspinnings and procedures that shape the research. One purpose is to position the
significance of the events in the proper historical context so that the significance of literary
works can be understood more completely. The other pupose is to provide the information
required to answer the research assignment.

1.1 Research Goals


This is a research paper in Philippine Literature, in partial fulfillment of the requirements
of the degree Ph. D. in English. The research assignment is: (1) Trace the influence of HinduSanskrit culture in our pre-Spanish literature. (2) Pay attention to superstitious beliefs and filial
piety. (3) Give specific titles of stories and (4) explain influences on regional literatures,
particularly of Muslim Philippines.

1.2 Prcis of Research Findings


The more than 600 years of Indias colonization of the Philippine islands have been lost
in time. The islands were only a distant source of goods and materials, thus were not subjected to
intensive or direct Indian cultural forces that created empires elsewhere, such as those now
marked by ancient ruins in Champa, Ayutthaya, Bagan, and Angkor.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 10

However, one of the many lasting legacies of Indias forgotten erea of Philippine
colonization includes aside from vocabulary, archaeological artifacts, customs and traditions
Indic elements in ancient Philippine literature. For instance, Filipino epics such as Darangen,
Indarapatra at Sulayman, Lam-ang, Ibalon, Hudhud and Alim were inspired by the Mahabharata
and other Hindu epics (Liclican, 2014). The following table shows the spread of Indic
influences in the regional literatures of the Philippines, including the literary traditions of
Moslem Mindanao:
Table 1: Indic Elements in Philipine Literature
Regions
Ifugao

Literary Works
Alim

Ilocano
Biag ni Lam-ang
Maguindanao lndarapatra at
Sulayman
Manobo
Alamat ng Agusan
Maranao
Maranao

Singkil
Darangen

Maranao

Maharadia Lawana

Maranao

Radiya Mangandiri

Pangasinan

The Legend of
Princess Urduja
Ang Unggoy at ang
Pagong
Ang Lawin at ang
Inahing Manok

Tagalog
Tagalog

Putative Indic Elements


Balituk obtained water from a rock with his arrow, as did
Arjuna in the Hindu Mahabharata (Khatnani, 1969; Reyes
& Perez III, n. d.).
similar structure with a Hindu epic (Great, 2014).
Contains elements that can be found in the Hindu
Ramayana (Churchill, 33-34).
(The Legend of Agusan) is similar to a legend from India
(Great, 2014).
This dance contains several Indic elements
Agusan legend of Manubo Ango resembles the story of
Ahalya in the Hindu Ramayana. (Reyes & Perez III, n. d.).
Contains elements that can be found in the Hindu
Ramayana (Churchill, 33-34).
Elements of the Ramayana are reflected in this Maranao
tale (Saber, 1993; Ahimsa-Putra , 2012)
Urduja is supposed to be a Sanskrit name
(The Monkey and the Turtle) is similar to that of India
(Great, 2014).
(The Eagle and the Mother Hen) is similar to that of India
(Great, 2014).

Although empirical evidence in the literature as well as supporting documents seem to be


scant, the influences of Indic culture in the Philippine pre-colonial literature have been traced by
means of foreign records and local archaeology to be mainly from seafarers: traders along coastal
settlements, settlers, as well as Muslim proselytizers in southern Philippines.1
Traditional families within the areas of Maritime Asia and Mainland Asia seem to be
marked by very strong family ties, a continuing phenomenon in modern times that might be
traced to China as the nearest ancient Empire. However, despite Chinas limited period of
governance of some of the Philippine islands, filial piety might be ultimately traced to an older
and longer influence, the 600-plus years of colonization by the Hindu-Buddhist Sri Vishaya and
1

The cultural destruction wrought by later colonizers (e.g, Spain, Japan, North America) did less cultural damage to
inaccessible areas of Palawan, the Bontoc provinces, and the most resistant areas of Muslim Mindanao which,
unlike the preceding two, actively engaged in war and battle. As a result, some precolonial cultural and oral
traditions remained well-preserved.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 11

Madjapahit empires. Furthermore, the most empirically-supported of all the various migration
theories regarding the earliest inhabitants of the Philippine archipelago indicates migration
waves from the south, where the Indic empires lay, rather than from the Sinic empires in the
north. Lastly, there seem to be no clear instances of infusions from ancient Chinese literature into
ancient literary traditions of the Philippines comparable to those of the Mahabharata and the
Ramayana.

1.3 Periods of Philippine Historiography


The development of Philippine historiography is classified into eight (8) historical
periods. The research focus includes prehistory and ends around 1567, as illustrated below.
Table 2: Periods in Philippine Historiography

#
1
2
3
4
5
6
7
8

Timelines
Prehistoric Period
Precolonial Period
Sri-Vishayan Period2
Majapahit Period3
Spanish Colonial Period
American Colonial Period
Japanese Occupation Period
Contemporary Period

Time Frame

Years

? - 200
200 - 700
700 -1293
1293 -1567
1565 1898
1898 1946
1942 - 1945
1946 2016

?
500
593
274
333
48
3
71

Adapted from Wikipedia, Srivijaya; Wikipedia, Majapahit; and from Infogr.Am

1.4 Definition of Terms


The following alphabetical list defines the key terms used in the research.
Table 3: Key Terms Used in the Research
culture

(1) the way of life of a group of people, including automatically-accepted behaviors,


beliefs, values, and symbols that are passed from one generation to the next;
(2) the symbolic communication that includes a group's skills, knowledge, attitudes,
values, and motives, learned and deliberately perpetuated in a societys institutions;
(3) the explicit and implicit patterns of traditional ideas and their attached values;
(4) the cumulative deposit of knowledge, experience, beliefs, values, attitudes,
meanings, hierarchies, religion, notions of time, roles, spatial relations, concepts of the
universe, and material objects and possessions acquired by a group of people4

empirical
approach

(Synonyms: objective approach; scientific approach; quantitative approach) the use of


working hypothesis that can be tested using observation and experiment to produce
empirical data. In the scientific method, all evidence must be empirical (based on
evidence)5

The Sri-Vishaya Empire controls the Asian Maritime Trade Route


The Majapahit Empire controls the Asian Maritime Trade Route
4
https://www.tamu.edu/faculty/choudhury/culture.html
5
explorable.com, Empirical Research Based on the Scientific Method
3

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 12

filial piety

This devotion or allegiance to one's family, family loyalty,6 or respect, obedience, and
care for ones parents and elderly family members7

folk belief

(Synonyms: superstition; superstitious belief) ethnic or regional religious customs


under the umbrella of a religion, but outside of official doctrine and practices 8

folk literature

traditional literature or myths, legends, epics, fables, and folktales passed down by
word of mouth through the generations usually with unknown authors9

frequency
analysis

a descriptive statistical method that focuses on the number of occurrences (frequency) or


the number of times that something happens, occurs, or repeats.10

Heterogenous

(adj.) having a source or origin outside of the organism; having a foreign origin
(dictionary.com)

Hindu

Those who regards themselves as culturally, ethnically or religiously adhering to


aspects of Hinduism11 or the body of religion, philosophy, and cultural practice native
to and predominant in India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme
being.12 See Indic. Cf. Sanskrit

Indic

Of or relating to India or its peoples or cultures13 See: Hindu. Cf. Sanskrit

indigenous

Naturally existing in a place or country rather than arriving from another place14 See:
Precolonial. Cf. pre-Spanish

influence

(1) The power to change or affect someone or something;


(2) the power to cause changes without directly forcing them to happen;
(3) a person or thing that affects someone or something in an important way15

literature

Literature is defined as written works considered as having creative or artistic merit or


lasting value.16 Cf. Philippine literature

Muslim
Philippines

The Philippine Muslim communities include (1) the Maguindanao, (2) the Maranao of
Lake Lanao, (3) the Tausug, (4) the Sama,17 (5) the Yakan, (6) the IIanon or Iranun of
Lanao del Sur and Magindanao, (7) the Molebugan or Molbog of Palawan, (8) the
Kolibugan of the Subanons, (9) the Sangil of Sarangani, S Cotabato, and Davao Sur,
(10) the Kalagan of Davao, and (11) the Panimusan18.

Philippine
literature

This refers to the literature of the Philippines. In this paper, it refers to the Philippines
indigenous oral literary traditions that include poems, sayings, riddles, literary jousts,
songs, lullabies, work songs, solemn or ritual songs, and folk epics.

Philippines

A SE Asian country in the SW Pacific, an archipelago of more than 7000 islands


including Luzon, Mindanao, Mindoro, Leyte, Samar, Negros, and Panay.19

www.encyclopedia.com/doc/1G2-3406900157.html
dictionary.com
8
Wikipedia, Folk religion
9
Folk Literature at nkfust.edu.tw
10
It also analyzes measures of central tendency, dispersion, percentiles, etc. From researchoptimus.com, What is
Frequency Analysis?
11
Wikipedia, Hindu
12
The Free Dictionary, Hinduism
13
The Free Dictionary, Indic
14
Cambridge English Dictionary, indigenous
15
Merriam-Webster, Influence
16
www.yourdictionary.com
17
includes the Samal and the Badjao
18
Muslim Inhabitants of Palawan
19
www.yourdictionary.com
7

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 13

precolonial

An age, era, or time period before foreign colonization. See Pre-Spanish. Cf. Indigenous

precolonial
literature

Refers to the legends of prehistory, and the precolonial literary traditions of the
Philippines

pre-Spanish,
pre-Hispanic

The period of time before the Spanish occupation of the Philippine islands. See
precolonial. Cf. indigenous

regional
literature

The literature of any of the 18 regions (17 administrative and 1 autonomous) of the
Philippines. The eight largest language regions are Tagalog, Cebuano, Ilokano,
Hiligaynon or Ilonggo, Waray, Bikolano, Pangasinense, and Kapampangan. In addition,
a uniquely diverse culture is in N Luzon, in Mindanao, and in the southern islands of the
Philippine archipelago.20

Sanskrit

An ancient Indo-European language of India, in which the Hindu scriptures and


classical Indian epic poems are written and from which many northern Indian (Indic)
languages are derived.21 See Hindu. Cf. Indic

superstition

(1) a belief or practice resulting from ignorance, fear of the unknown, trust in magic or
chance, or a false conception of causation;
(2) an irrational abject attitude of mind toward the supernatural, nature, or God resulting
from superstition;
(3) a notion maintained despite evidence to the contrary;22
(4) the belief in supernatural causality that one event causes another without any
natural process linking the two events such as astrology and certain aspects linked to
religion, such as omens, witchcraft, and prophecies, that contradict natural science.23 Cf.
superstitious beliefs

superstitious
beliefs

Superstitious belief refers to the notion that a ritual or activity can have a positive or
negative impact on the events in ones life.24 Cf. superstition

trace

To trace is to investigate or to Carry out a systematic or formal inquiry to discover and


examine the facts of (an incident, allegation, etc.) so as to establish the truth25

1.5 Organization of the Paper


The research is organized in six (6) chapters.
The first chapter (Introduction) presents procedures for a mixed methods approach to
analyzing intangibles in literary works; the research questions; a prcis of the answers; the
operational definitions of key terminology; and the organization of the paper.
The second chapter (Methodology) presents the research design for narrative
reconstruction, empirical analysis, and humanistic analysis; related theoretical constructcs; as
well as research approaches, methods, and tools; the objects of analyses; and descriptions of the
various procedures.

20

seasite.niu.edu
Oxforddictionaries.com
22
Merriam-Webster Dictionary, superstitionus belief
23
Wikipedia, superstitionus belief
24
eHow, What is the Meaning of a Superstitious Belief?
25
www.oxforddictionaries.com/us/definition/american_english/investigate
21

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 14

The third chapter (Narrative Reconstruction) reconstructs prehistoric and precolonial


narratives by tracing the origins of humans and of inhabitants of the Philippine islands, and by
discussing precolonial contacts between them and ancient empires, trading centers, and
communities of mainland and and maritime Asia.
The fourth chapter (Empirical Analysis) shows how intangible elements such as filial
piety in superstitions as well as in folk epics can be objectively analyzed and discussed.
The fifth chapter (Humanistic Analysis) explains how the objective analyses can be
balanced by qualitative analyis.
The last chapter (Conclusions and Recommendations) summarizes the research goals and
findings, presents the original contributions of the research, and suggests avenues for future
research. The paper ends with a list of references, additional readings, and appended tables and
figures.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 15

METHODOLOGY

The research examines intangible values in precolonial Philippine literature,


including superstitions, Filial Piety, Indic-Sanskrit origins and influences on
regional literature, particularly Moslem Philippine folk epics. An empirical
method for examining intangible values in text samples is tested by analyzing a
ethnological and literary text samples.

The research uses a mixed-method approach involving theoretical concepts for narrative
reconstruction, empirical procedures for empirical analysis, and humanistic approach in data
interpretation.

2.1 The Scientific Approach


The central theme in scientific method is that all evidence must be observable and
measurable (explorable.com). In this paper, the terms scientific approach, empirical approach,
and objective approach are used to mean the same thing.
The term research design refers to creating the structural form of research in way that the
interrelationships of each research element are clear and purposeful.
On the other hand, the term research procedure refers to the steps of each process, and
shows how the various steps and processes support each other towards again achieving the
articulated goals of the research.
By research procedures, this paper refers to the steps used in the data collection, data
organization, data processing, data analysis, and data interpretation.
The term research methods also called methodology refers to a specifically articulated
form of procedure for accomplishing or approaching a research investigation, in this particular
case, the systematic analysis of literary text. Research methodology includes the ways of
collecting data for analysis, as well as the concepts and theories that underlie the methods.26
The empirical approach in research can result in statements or hypotheses that can be
falsifiable. Falsifiability means that the statements or hypotheses can be refuted by other
empirical evidence (UPenn. 2015). The word empirical means knowledge gained by experience,
observation, or experiment.
26

The University of Manchester, Research Methodology. Electronic document available at manchester.ac.uk

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 16

Table 4: Key Features of the Scientific Approach in Research

Features
Empirical
evidence

Objectivity
Control
Predictability
Hypothesis
testing
Replication

Details
This is data that is collected by direct observation or experiment, not by
argument or belief. Careful experiments and observations are carefully
reported in detail so that others can repeat and verify the data.
Researchers are totally value free and unbiased in their investigations; they
are not influenced by personal feelings, experiences, preferences, or opinions.
All sources of bias are minimized. Personal or subjective ideas are eliminated.
Facts speak for themselves though they may be unexpected or different.
All extraneous variables are controlled so as to identify cause and effect.
Research aims to predict future behavior from the research findings.
Predictions at the onset of a research is derived from theory. Hypotheses (null
or alternative) must be testable, stated in operationalized, explicit forms.
If research methods and results are repeated with the same results reoccuring
in the same conditions, accuracy is beyond reasonable doubt, results are
reliable and scientific theory can be formulated.

Adapted from McLeod, 2008

The empirical approach of gaining knowledge via sensory experience only is not the
scientific approach. The scientific approach proposes that knowledge is gained through empirical
experience, that is, by using a process of research and analysis that includes careful observation
and experiments to identify facts and evidence.
Literary analysis that aims for objectivity uses an empirical approach. Empiricism27 states
that knowledge can only be accessed through the human senses. In other words, information can
be gleaned from observable phenomena by using sight, hearing, touch, taste, and smell. Before
the empirical approach, researchers believed that knowledge could be gained by using reason and
logical argument (known as rationalism) but empiricism takes the position that knowledge is
based on or may be created by personal experience (McLeod, 2008).
The research assignment is: (1) Trace the influence of Hindu-Sanskrit culture in our preSpanish literature; (2) Pay attention to superstitious beliefs and filial piety; (3) Give specific titles
of the story and explain its influences on the regional literatures of the country, particularly the
Muslim Philippines.
In the case of the necessarily broad and interdisciplinary investigation related to literary
text analysis, the research can be implemented in four possible research approaches: text
interpretation, content analysis, empirical approach, and mixed-methods research.

27

founded by John Locke

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 17

The research designs and approaches summarized in the following table are, by no
means, mutually exclusive: a research endeavor can include more than one of these approaches,
as well as research approaches other than those described in the next sections.
Table 5: Research Designs and Approaches

Approach

Quantitative

Qualitative

Postpositivist
Experimental
Test a theory via a
narrow
hypotheses;
collect data to
support/refute the
hypotheses
Pretest and
posttest measures
of attitudes

Constructivist
Ethnographic
Establish the
meaning of a
phenomenon from
the views of
participants

Procedure

Assess attitudes
before and after
an experimental
treatment

Data
Collection

An instrument that
measures
attitudes

Data
Analysis

Statistical
procedures and
hypothesis testing

Identify a culturesharing group and


study how it
develops shared
patterns of
behavior over time
Observe
participant
behavior while
doing activities
To be decided

Worldview
Design
Goal

Method

Observation of
behavior

Qualitative
Transformative
Narrative
Long interviews to
record how
individuals
personally
experienced
oppression
Open-ended
interview

Examine an issue
related to
oppression of
individuals

Collect stories of
individual
oppression via a
narrative approach
To be decided

Mixed
methods28
Pragmatic
To be decided
Sequentially
collect both
quantitative and
qualitative data

General survey
of a population,
then use openended interviews
Collect detailed
participant views
to help explain
the initial
quantitative
survey.
Phase 1 general
survey; Phase 2,
qualitative, openended interviews
To be decided

Adapted from The Three Approaches to Research in Selection of a Research Approach. Electronic document
available at sagepub.in

In this paper, qualitative and quantitative approaches are used in a mixed methods
research approach. These approaches are neither separate nor opposing but rather complimentary
concepts, and can be imagined as located at the ends of a research continuum where mixedmethods research is in the middle (Newman & Benz, 1998).

2.2 The Mixed Methods Approach


In literary analysis, two types of scientific inquiry can be used: (1) research that aims to
formulate and to test theory and hypotheses; and (2) research that uses empirical methods of
inquiry (e. g., experimentation) and recording of observations and results (McLeod, 2008). The
following table summarizes the key features of the scientific approach in academic research:

28

Assume that diverse data types provide better understanding of a research problem than quantitative or
qualitative data alone

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 18

The scientific approach works by taking a deterministic as well as reductionist approach


on the assumption that there are explicit and quantifiable elements of expression in each literary
genre. In the scientific analysis of explicit and implicit meanings in literature, it is required that
elements can be observed objectively and measured so that others can record similar elements,
replicate the procedure and results, and agree on resulting observations. In this manner, a theory
can be tested by collecting such proof or evidence.
However, the use of a scientific approach in literary analysis does have issues that invite
arguments about how literary analysis may not be successful as a science. Limitations can be
related to the focus of the study (e.g. explicit sense versus explicit meaning, cultural contexts), or
to issues regarding academic rigor, objectivity, as well as the generality and the testability of
findings.
To paraphrase McLeod (2008), the scientic approach to literary analysis is validated by
scientific laws that are generalizable. However, in this approach, literary analyses should be
limited to particular structures expression and textual elements. Thus, literary analysis can
indirectly or directly analyze degrees, varieties, and elements social and cultural behavior.
It might be argued that no literary interpretation happens in a contextual vacuum.
Meanings in recorded text can change over time, or in different situations of writing or of
interpretation. In addition to individual differences, these factors can mean that the results of
literary analyses will have a reliability that is limited to a specific time or situational context.
Can literary analysis be truly scientific or objective? The term scientific can have
different shades of meaning, depending on ones philosophical viewpoint. To paraphrase Slife
and Williams (1995):

There is a need to try and use scientific methods when there is a need for a rigorous
discipline. If literary analysts abandon the search for unified methods, one can lose ones
sense of literary analysis.

There is a need to try and continue to develop scientific methods that are suitable to
studying literature because it might reveal more effective methods or prove the
inappropriateness of current methods.

The arguments for mixed methods research have been reported elsewhere.i Furthermore,
the literature on mixed methods research includes a range of arguments that are better expressed

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 19

in other works. ii Of particular relevance to literary analysis and textual interpretation, mixed
methods research has been discussed by a number of authors.iii Thus, discussions on mixed
methods analysis are foregone in this paper. 29

2.3 Phase 1: Narrative Reconstruction


The research assumes that an ancient narrative of Philippine history, now lost in the mists
of time, continues into the present time but disjointed and rediscoverable via various endeavors
such as archaeology, language analysis, palenteology, botany, and genetic analysis.
The research begins by attempting to reconstruct the lost and the disjointed data into a
coherent narrative. This first phase, Narrative Reconstruction, includes three steps:

Phase 1a: Origins of the first inhabitants of the Philippine Archipelago

Phase 1b: Origins of the indigenous cultures of the Philippine Archipelago

Phase 1c: Sundaland Inundation (Island Formation of Maritime Asia).

2.4 Phase 2: Empirical Analysis


In the second phase of the research, Empirical Analysis, the use of empirical approaches
includes the processes of frequency counts and frequency tabulation, preceding data analysis
(See Table: Steps of the Research Design). To examine intangibles in selected texts, the research
uses empirical methods involving classification, categorization, and frequency analysis. Thus,
Phase 2, Empirical Analysis, is in five parts.

Phase 2a: Tabular Configuration Design of tables for analysis of folk beliefs and filial
piety in selected Philippine folk epics.

Phase 2b: Classification Identification of folk beliefs and filial piety in selected
Philippine folk epics

Phase 2c: Frequency Count A Counting the frequency of occurrence of folk beliefs or
superstitions in selected Philippine folk epics.

Phase 2d: Frequency Count B Counting the frequency of occurrence of filial piety in
selected Philippine folk epics.

Phase 2e: Frequency Analysis Analysis of the statistical significance of the frequency
count results
In Phase 2e, the empirical approach is used to examine intangible elements in

ethnological as well as in literary text. The empirical approach uses basic statistical procedures to

29

Links to the electronic copies of these documents are available in the References section.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 20

analyze ethnologic texts (e. g., filial piety in a sample of 200+ Filipino superstitions) as well as
literary texts (e. g., filial piety and superstitions in folk epics from the precolonial literary
traditions of various Philippine regions).

2.4.1 Text Interpretation


A readers personal beliefs, culture, as well as viewpoint and values can be called an
ideology, which is a set of beliefs that are held by a person and by society as a whole. Every
literary piece contains some ideology as well as ideological constructions that can be obvious or
or implicit (Hall, 1993). Stuart Hall's model of text analysis underscores the role of personal
response which emanates from ideology. Three ways to interpret literary texts are summarized in
the following table.
Table 6: Three Ways to Interpret Literary Text
Preferred Reading
Dominant Reading
Oppositional Reading
Negotiated Reading

The way the producer of a text intended the text to be understood


The preferred (dominant) meaning is recognised but rejected for
cultural or political reasons
The reader agrees with elements of the text, but not all.

Adapted from Couli, 2011

2.4.2 Content Analysis


Text analysis is the process of analysing the text in a piece of literature so as to determine
how its writer conveys meaning (Coull, 2011). Successful academic writing requires the
knowledge of writing a text analysis, as well as the ability to identify and classify specific
information from a text (Williamson, 2006). Another term for text analysis is content analysis,
which is defined as:
a research technique used to make replicable and valid inferences by
interpreting and coding textual material. By systematically evaluating texts (e.g.,
documents, oral communication, and graphics), qualitative data can be converted into
quantitative data (Uga, 2012).

The key difference between the definitions of text analysis and content analysis is that the
former focuses on understanding by description and interpretation while the latter uses
systematic evaluation by interpretation after coding and classification.

2.4.3 Categorization

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 21

Categorization is a method of understanding a complex literary text by differentiating


and classifying ideas and objects so as to aid in understanding the text. Categorization is a
process that involves labeling, sorting, and organizing (Boundless, 2016).
In the case of literary analysis, elements can be meanings or concepts, or objects such
as words, phrases, or other grammatical elements. Through this method, ideas and objects are
recognized, differentiated, classified, and understood (Boundless, 2016). In other words,
categorization is fundamental in language, prediction, inference, decision making, and all kinds
of environmental interaction (Boundless, 2016).
Selected literary elemens are sorted into categories or groups to aid understanding as well
as for easier analysis. The three types of categorization are summarized in the following table.
Table 7: Types of Categorization

Types
Classical
categorization
Conceptual
clustering
Fuzzy-set theory
Prototype theory

Explanation
Sorts objects into rigid, clearly defined categories based on rules
Modernized version of classical categorization that classifies objects based
on rules but allows for different levels of fitness for each category
Clustering of conceptual that allows objects to sort of belong to a set
Classifies objects based on how similar they are to a mental image of a
prototype of that object

Adapted from Boundless, 2016.

The concept of classical categorization is rather strict: categories have to be explicitly


and clearly defined, mutually exclusive, and collectively exhaustive so that the categorys
description belongs only to one and and not any of the proposed categories (Boundless, 2016).
On the other hand, the idea of conceptual clustering is more relevant to modern contexts.
In conceptual clustering, the first step is to describe each cluster and then sorting the literary
elements being analyzed into the appropriate cluster according to the elements fit to the given
descriptions (Boundless, 2016).
From conceptual clustering, the necessary and sufficient conditions are the descriptions
that can be used to create clusters called fuzzy sets where different clusters have different
requirements, and objects have different levels of fitness for different clusters (Boundless,
2016).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 22

After the main task of categorization classifying each object as belonging to a particular
group different purposes can be served. For instance, the researcher can infer unobserved
properties of this individual based on common properties within the group (Danks, n. d., 3).
Fuzzy sets are particularly useful in understanding intangibles such as prior knowledge, attitudes,
preferences, pragmatics, cultural values, or folk beliefs (Danks, n. d., 4).
This research on the elements and origins of ancient Philippine literature involves two
phases, Narrative Construction and Empirical Analysis. The categorization process begins the
data collection for the Narrative Reconstruction phase. Based on the research assignment, the
categories of data that shaped the research parameters of the first phase of the research follow:
Table 8: Data Catagories for Narrative Construction

Category

Details

Elements of literature: culture, alphabet, language, and history

Definition of ancient Philippine literature

Philippine regions of culture, language, and literature

Types of ancient Philippine literature in each region

Hindu-Sanskrit influences on Philippine literature

Folk beliefs / superstitions in the Philippines

Hindu-Sanskrit elements in ancient Philippine literature, by region

These categories helped shape the structure of the report, guided the data search from
voluminous sources and references, as well as the organization of the discovered data. For
instance, after elements are categorized in Phase 1 (Narratives Reconstruction), the research
classifies the elements for Phase 2 (Empirical Analysis). During Phase 2, the process of
categorization is prominent in the first two steps (See Table: Steps of the Research Design).

2.4.4 Classication
Any research design is both articial and arbitrary: articial because it is a tool created
for the express purpose of establishing a meaningful organization; and arbitrary because the
criteria used to dene classes in the scheme reect a single perspective of the domain to the
exclusion of all other perspectives (Jacob, 2004, 522).
In Phase 2, Empirical Analysis, the process of classification involves assigning the
literary elements into groups, in this case, filial piety and folk beliefs or superstitions. This
research on the elements and origins of ancient Philippine literature utilizes a mixed-method

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 23

approach, with an emphasis on data collection, categorization, and interpretation. The most
prevalent and comprehensive area of human activity in terms of data classification is in Library
and Information Science (LIS). In LIS, the term classication refers to three concepts (Jacob,
2004, 522):

A system of classes, ordered according to a predetermined set of principles and used to


organize a set of entities;

A group or class in a classication system; and

The process of assigning entities to classes in a classication system.

The process of classification involves the second and third steps of the research design, as
exemplified in the following table:
Table 9: Steps of the Research Design

Steps
1. Categorization
2. Categorization
3. Classification
4. Classification
5. Empirical Analysis
6. Empirical Analysis
7. Humanistic Analysis

Research Design
Group Descriptions: Creating the groups according to the
classification description (filial piety and folk beliefs);
Literary Selections: Selecting the literary texts for analysis
(precolonial folk epics from Muslim Mindanao)
Text Processing: Separating the epics into conceptual sections and
numbering each section;
Text Analysis: Identifying the elements of filial piety and folk
beliefs in each literary text
Frequency Counts: Counting the number of occurrence of each
element in each section of each selected literary text
Frequency Tables: Tabulating the counts of occurrence into a
frequency table; and
Analysis: Interpreting the results across sections of a literary text,
and across literary texts by region, according to

2.4.5 Text Analysis


The procedure for literary analysis is summarized as follows:
Step 1: Tabular Processing of LiteraryText
1.

List the epics of precolonial Philippine literature.

2.

From the list, select the epics that are said to be influenced by Indian culture, or contain
Indic elements.

3.

For each selected epic, find a summary in English.

4.

Separate each paragraph at one paragraph per row in a table.

5.

If a paragraph is long, separate into one meaning or central idea per row.

6.

On the top row of this column, and title it Text Summary of ___ (title of the story).

7.

Insert a column before the Text Summary column. On the top row of this first column,
title it #.

8.

Number each row on the # column. This is for ease of reference during analysis.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 24

9.

After the second column Text Summary, insert a third column and title it Superstitions.

10.

Insert a fourth column and title it Filial Piety.

11.

Insert a fifth column and title it Other Values.

Step 2: Frequency Analysis of Intangibles in LiteraryText


1.

Selection of text sample for analysis: For practice, select a set of texts to serve as text
samples. In this paper, a set of 200+ superstitions serve an ethnographic sample, while
selected summaries of folk epics from various Philippine regions represent a literary
sample.

2.

Format Stripping: In this paper, all text samples were taken from electronic sources. To
strip the text of all formatting and achieve a uniform look, the text sample is copy-pasted
to Notepad. Then it is copy-pasted to MS Word for separation.

3.

Separation by sentence or conceptual groups: For ease of analysis, the text can be
divided into separate units, which can be by sentence, or by sentences that refer to one
idea (paragraphs). This is done by using the search-replace function of MS Word to
replace all final punctuation (e.g., full stops) with the punctuation plus a paragraph
separator. The result is that each sentence begins on a new line.

4.

Text tabulation: The separated sentences are all selected, and the Insert menu is activated
to conver the text to table by paragraphs. The result is a table with one column and
several rows, each row containing one sentence. A top row is inserted, and the heading
(title of the text selection) is typed in. Option: In case the choice of the researcher is for
each row to include more than one sentence (each group can be called a paragraph for
prose or a stanza for verse), the preceding step of separation can be done manually.

5.

Text numbering: A new column is inserted to the right of the column that was first
created. The column label on the top row is ##. This column is used to consecutively
number each sentence. When discussing the analysis, the numbers are used to refer to
specific ideas or sentences.

6.

Values identification: Three columns are inserted after the column containing the text
sentences or paragraphs (now the second column after the text numbering column is
inserted). In this paper, column 3 is titled Superstitions, Column 4 is titled Filial Piety,
and an optional Column 5 is titled Other Values.

7.

Values frequency count: Read the sentence (or paragraph or stanza) on one line. If a
superstitious belief or practice is indicated, implied, or articulated, write the number 1 in
Column 3. If an instance of Filial Piety (e.g., love of family, respect for siblings, parents,
elders, or prioritizing the family over other matters is indicated, implied, or articulated),
write the number 1 in Column 4. Write zero otherwise. In Column 5, write a brief text
description to label each new value found (for example, specify if literary or cultural
value, then list the value). Use the same label for recurring values elsewhere in the text
sample.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 25

8.

Frequency analysis: Examples of frequency analysis are shown in the chapter titled
Empirical Analyses. Likewise, examples of qualitative analysis proven by quantitative
data are provided.

2.5 Phase 3: Humanistic Analysis


In response to the argument that literary analysis should not be scientific, alternative
research approaches can be considered. Research can use reason, argument, and belief, or a
humanistic approach that values private, subjective conscious experience instead of the rigidity
and rigor of the empirical approach.
The humanistic approach posits that a person's subjective perception and subjective
understanding of the world is more important than objective reality. It assumes that a literary
work is connected to the writers inner feelings and self-image. This can be particularly relevant
in artistic fields of investigation such as in literary analyses, which look at literary pieces not
only through the eyes of the observer but also through the eyes of the identified or putative
writer. In literary analysis, it can be argued that, ones subjective experience of the world is a
critical element in the writing or analysis of literature.
The aim of the humanistic approach to literary criticism is to see the world from the point
of view of a writer or a literary analyst in order to examine meanings such as, for instance, why
literary works are written or interpreted in particular ways.
To complete the research with a well-rounded viewpoint, the analysis concludes with a
humanistic approach in a way that melds the historical and cultural variables with the statistical
results. Since the humanistic approach considers the historical and cultural contexts of the data,
incorporating this with statistical data can create a well-rounded report on Hindu-Sanskrit
elements in pre-colonial literature in the Philippines. This step ties the narrative reconstruction
together with the empirical analysis.
Phase 3 uses the humanistic approach to analyze intangible elements such as filial piety
in a sample of 200+ Filipino superstitions as well as in a selection of folk epics from the oral
traditions of precolonial Philippine literature, as well as to trace the cultural touchpoints that
introduced Indic elements into selected literary pieces.

Phase 3a: Frequency Analysis Analysis of the humanistic significance of the frequency
count results

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 26

Phase 3b: Frequency Analysis Analysis of the humanistic significance of the folk
beliefs or superstitions frequency count results in terms of Indic elements

Phase 3c: Frequency Analysis Analysis of the humanistic significance of the filial piety
frequency count results in terms of Indic elements

2.6 Theoretical Constructs


The research uses several theoretical constructs: the theories for the reconstruction of
narratives includes theories of human origination, dispersal, and flood theory while the theories
for the empirical analysis include theories of classification, categorization, reception, context,
local interpretation, cultural context, and co-text.

2.6.1 Theories of Narrative Reconstruction


To analyze the prevalence of elements such as superstitious beliefs and filial piety in
Philippine and in Philippine Muslim precolonial literature, the following theories are used. In
other words:

Phase 1a: Origins of the first inhabitants of the Philippine Archipelago


o Out-of-Africa Theory (Human Origination).
o Land Bridge Migration (Mainland Asia to Maritime Asia).
o Sundaland Inundation (Island Formation of Maritime Asia).

Phase 1b: Origins of the indigenous cultures of the Philippine Archipelago


o Migration Waves (Racial variety in the Philippine Islands).
o Migration Direction (Pre-eminence of ancient Indic influence).

Phase 1c: Reviews the related historical literature, which precludes the use of theoretical
constructs regarding the continuation and development of Indic influences on Philippine
culture and literature.

2.6.2 Theories of Text Analysis


The second phase of the research includes key elements from literature related to
concepts used in text analysis, such as: local interpretation, cultural context, and co-text. As
well, the following theories are used in the empirical analysis of the literary elements that are
evident in the text (See details): Classification Theory, Categorization Theory, Reception Theory
as well as Context Theory. These theories rely on the researchers abilities to use their
knowledge and experiences of events that are related to the text being interpreted. These
experiences of similar events and knowledge of similar or parallel ideas help literary analysis of
literary text as well as to shape each interpretation.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 27

1.1.1.1.

Classification Theory

Classification theory includes principles governing the organization of objects into


groups according to similarities and differences or relation to a set of criteria. Classification
theory has applications in all branches of knowledge (Encyclopdia Britannica).
1.1.1.2.

Categorization Theory

In literary analysis, the term categorization means dividing literary elements into groups
in such a way that the members of each group are similar or related to each other. This process of
recognizing relationships or similarities and then grouping them accordingly helps the researcher
to discover structures, patterns, and order in a complex body of literary text.
Without this procedure, the literary analysis will be unique at every instance of textual
encounter, so much so that ones experience or understanding cannot be extended to other
encounters with similar elements in a literary piece. In addition, categorizing complex texts can
reduce thinking load by simplifying the connections between literary elements (Jacob, 2004,
518). In categorization, the researcher decides on the context and the descriptions of each
category. Jacob (2004) cites Zerubavel (1993) who contends that the individual nds order and
meaning in the environment by imposing boundaries by splitting and lumping objects of
experience so as to create distinct islands of meaning (p. 518).
The most significant aspect of categorizing literary elements is that (Barsalou, 1983;
1987) it allows the researcher to create new relationships and thus to create new information
whose value exceeds the simple grouping (Jacob, 2004, 519) of elements in the literary text.
Categorizing literary elements clarifies patterns of similarity and helps the researcher discover
new knowledge.
1.1.1.3.

Reception Theory

Halls Reception Theory (1993) focuses on the meaning of a literary text that lies with
the audience and not with the writer or producer. Successful textual construction allows
audiences to quickly understand messages and meanings. As well, audiences generate concepts
and emotions related to their acceptance, rejection, or revision of the text. Halls theory helps
researchers consider the way intentions and meanings are encoded or embedded in literary texts,
as well as the ways the text is understood (decoded) by readers. The theory also helps analyze the

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 28

ways that readers can reject or misunderstand the writers intended message. The theory suggests
that, while literature may be seen as reflecting or preserving reality, it actually constructs reality.
Halls model of textual interpretation includes preferred reading, which is the transfer of
a writers intended meaning; negotiated reading, which is the way a reader can perceive or
modify a writers intended meaning; and oppositional reading, which is the way a reader can
reject or oppose a writers intended meaning.30
1.1.1.4.

Context Theory

In literary analysis, context theory can be used as a linguistic tool. The conscious use of
context theory can help guide textual analysis so that readers can overcome any difficulties in
understanding complex literary texts. As well, analysis can have less errors of interpretation.
Hymes (1974) developed a model that can help researchers analyze literary texts within a
cultural context. The model includes components of speech acts that are categorized in ways that
can be used to analyze various types of discourse. This theory can help researchers see how the
literary text is produced within the parameters of a society, language, and culture. The elements
of society, language, and culture that affect the literary text are called context. The theory of
context includes three types: context of utterance, context of situation, and context of culture.
1.1.1.5.

Local Interpretation

The principle of local interpretation is related to context theory. For instance, when
people read and understand a text, they will use some principles to make sure that they
understand the text reasonably.
The principle of local interpretation instructs the hearer not to construct a context any
larger than what he needs to arrive at an interpretation. This principle is a strategy where the
reader does as little processing as possible, only to construct a representation which is
sufficiently specific to permit an interpretation which is adequate for the readers perceived
purpose of the literary text (Zhu & Han, 2010, 143).
1.1.1.6.

Cultural Context

Related to the concepts of the context theory and local interpretation in the preceding
sections is the notion of cultural context.

30

See georgetown.edu or hu.mtu.edu for the original essay.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 29

The use of language in writing, as well as the analysis of text in reading, depends on
context. The critical elements for understanding text include situation, common knowledge,
cultural context, and the subjective factors of readers and writers (Zhu & Han, 2010, 144).
1.1.1.7.

Co-text

The interpretation of the meaning of the following text is constrained, limited, influenced,
and shaped by preceding text, which is called co-text. Co-text refers to words that contain
meanings that affect any text that follows. In short, co-text illustrates the relationships between
different parts of a literary text.
In the process of literary analysis, readers must consider not only cultural contexts but
also the meanings embedded in the preceding texts (Lewis, 1972) because interpretation of a
sentence will be forcibly constrained by the preceding text, not just those phrases which
obviously and specifically refer to the preceding text (Zhu & Han, 2010, 143).

2.7 Research Tools


In this research the term research tools refers to the tables and the statistical procedures
used to collect and to analyze data. The following table summarizes the research tools used in the
investigation:
Table 10: Tools of the Research

Statistical
Procedures
Summary count
Summary count
Frequency
count
Frequency
count
None

Frequency
count

Summary count

Frequency
count

Tables
Indigenous Philippine Languages
Indigenous Philippine Scripts
Frequency of filial piety in in a sample
of 200+ Philippine folk beliefs
Frequency of superstitions in in a
sample of 200+ Philippine folk beliefs
Ancient Philippine epics by region
Conceptual groups in each ancient
epics
Frequency of filial piety in selected
ancient epics
Frequency of folk beliefs or
superstitions in selected ancient epics
Regional Summary of filial piety in
selected ancient epics
Regional Summary of folk beliefs or
superstitions in selected ancient epics
Tabulation of Hindu-Sanskrit folk
beliefs or superstitions in selected
ancient epics
Tabulation of Hindu-Sanskrit
elements of filial piety in selected
ancient epics

Analysis
Narrative Empirical Humanistic

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 30

Other tools utilized by the research include electronic search engines (e. g., Google
Scholar), word processing software (MS Word, Notepad), numerical data processing software
(MS Excel), image processing software, downloading and unlocking programs.

2.8 Objects of Analysis


The research analyzes intangibles such as Filial Piety and Superstitions or Folk Beliefs by
using empirical methods that gather statistical proof from two objects of analysis: Filipino
superstitions or folk beliefs, and from selected literary pieces from precolonial Philippines.

2.8.1 Superstitions
A total of 219 samples of superstitions or folk beliefs are selected as objects for empirical
analysis. The samples are separated into 15 types.
The following table ranks the samples by number of samples per type.
Table 11: Typology of Philippine Superstitions or Folk Beliefs

Objects

Samples

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15

Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Other Folk Beliefs


Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to The Body
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Love, Courtship & Marriage
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Death
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Food & Eating
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Bad & Good Luck
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Home & Family
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Numbers & Colors
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Numbers & Colors
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Money & Wealth
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Pregnancy
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Infants
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Illness & Disorders
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Children
Philippine superstitions or folk beliefs related to Childbirth
TOTAL SAMPLES

44
23
22
21
16
15
15
12
12
11
8
7
6
4
3
219

2.8.2 Ancient Philippine Literature


The phrase ancient Philippine literature refers to the oral literary traditions of the
Philippines that are believed to have existed during the precolonioal period. The term epics refer
to long stories that are chanted or sung in poetic verse. Several samples of ancient Philippine
epics are selected at random, including those that are said to contain Indic elements or influences
in either form of content:

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 31

Table 12: Indic Elements in Philipine Epics

Culture

01

Ifugao

02

Ilocano, Bicol
Region

03

Pangasinan

04

Maranao

05

Maranao

06

Maguindanao

Title

Indic Elements

Balituk obtained water from a rock with his arrow, as


Alim
did Arjuna in the Hindu Mahabharata (Khatnani, 1969;
Reyes & Perez III, n. d.).
The Life of Lam-ang is similar in structure with a Hindu
Biag ni Lam-ang epic (Great, 2014); influenced from the Indian Hindu
epics Ramayana and Mahabharta (Wikipedia)31
Urduja is a variation of the Sanskrit Udaya (rising sun
The Legend of or stars). Udaya Parvata (Sanskrit, Pali) is the mythical
Princess Urduja morning mountain that catches the first rays of the
day's sun
Agusan legend of Manubo Ango resembles the story
Darangen
of Ahalya in the Hindu Ramayana (Reyes & Perez III,
n. d.).
Maharadia
(Mahrja Rvaa) related to the Hindu Ramayana
Lawana
(Churchill, 33-34).
lndarapatra at
lndarapatra and Sulayman clearly (owes its) origin
Sulayman
to the Ramayana tale (Churchill, 1977)

The next section, Narratives Reconstruction, reconstructs the prehistoric and precolonial
narratives of Philippine historiography. The purpose is to trace the cultural elements that helped
shape the literary traditions of the various regions of the Philippines, particularly the IndicSanskrit elements in Moslem Philippine literary forms and traditions.

31

https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biag_ni_Lam-ang

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 32

NARRATIVES RECONSTRUCTION

This chapter reconstructs prehistoric and precolonial narratives that show


some 600 years of Indic cultural influence over the most populated communities
of what was later to be known as the Philippines.This narrative ends with the
advent of an Indianized Islamic culture, some decades before the onset of the
330 years of Spanish colonization.

3.1 The Prehistoric Narrative


The Philippines is located in SE Asia, which was connected to Mainland Asia before the
last Ice Age. When the glacial shelves melted, the sea rose and covered much of Sundaland, thus
turning mountains into the islands of Maritime SE Asia (Wikipedia).
Mainland SE Asia (or Indochina) includes Cambodia, Laos, Myanmar (also known as
Burma), Thailand, Vietnam, and the peninsula called West Malaysia. Maritime SE Asia includes
Indonesia, E Malaysia, Singapore, the Philippines, E Timor, Brunei, and Christmas Island.

Figure 1: The Countries of East Asia (pinimg.com).

The Philippine islands lie near intersecting geological plates, which accounts for seismic
and volcanic activities in the area. The numerous coasts face the Pacific and Indian oceans on the
path of annual monsoon winds. Typhoons touch these coasts before reaching landfall in China.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 33

The islands, numbering over 7,000 though only about 400 are greater than one
square mile, are widely dispersed over an area of more than 100,000 miles. They are
centrally located in relation to the centuries old trade routes of the region and helps to
explain their heterogeneity. (Pisano, 1992, 7)
Tectonic plateal movements can create tidal waves. On the Indian Ocean, these can be
dissipated by the islands of Indonesia and Malaysia. However, from the Pacific Ocean, the full
force of these seismic waves touches first land in Philippine territory.
How can literature develop in such an elemental and fragmented environment? This
narrative includes the origins of the elements of literature. There must be a system of writing.
There must be a culture that is conducive for the writing of literary ideas. There must be humans
to create such a culture. There must be time to develop such a culture. These are the basic
elements of literary progress.

3.1.1 The First Humans


The narrative begins with theories of the first humans. According to Charles Darwin as
well as to proof from archeology and carbon-dating, the first humans came from the Olduvai
Gorge in Tanzania, Africa. Theory suggests that, from Africa some 2 million years ago, Homo
erectus moved across the continents. Then Homo heidelbergensis32 and Homo sapiens moved
out of Africa around 100,000 years ago. They spread across Asia starting from 60,000 years ago
(Wikipedia, Early human migrations). The following table illustrates the data:
Table 13: Timeline of Early Human Migrations

Estimated Timeline

Early Human Migrations


Homo habilis, earliest humanoid species; no data available

2,000,000 years ago

Homo erectus and Homo ergaster migrations from Africa

1,900,000 years ago

Homo heidelbergensis migrations from Africa

100,000 years ago

Homo sapiens migrations from Africa;


H sapiens in Africa & the Middle East, H neanderthalensislived in Europe, and H
floresiensis in S Asia (Dorey & Bixland, 2015)33

60,000 years ago

They spread across Asia

Adapted from Wikipedia, Early human migrations

What is known about ancient humans migrations comes from radiometric dating of sand
particles34 attached to archeological artifacts, and from sciences such as archaeogenetics, which

32

the probable ancestor of modern humans and Neanderthals


http://australianmuseum.net.au/the-first-migrations-out-of-africa
34
http://anthro.palomar.edu/homo/homo_2.htm
33

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 34

is study of the past using the techniques of molecular genetics the process of which includes
DNA analysis and connecting results with historic data:
In archaeogenetics, information on the DNA of different ethnic groups from
around the world is used to analyze prehistoric events and corroborate accounts from
historical sources. The DNA data are reconciled with the findings of archeologists,
linguists, and paleoanthropologists to shed light on the past (MedicineNet, 2012).
Cultural and ethnic migrations are estimated by combining archaeogenetics and
comparative linguistics (Wikipedia, Early human migrations). Thus, although the narrative
begins with conjectural scenarios, the theoretical data is largely supported by empirical evidence
that can be observed, categorized, and measured.

3.1.2 Negrito Migrations


Migration to the archipelago spanned thousands of years. Among the migrants were
Negritos and Austonesians, but few of todays Filipinos are Negritos; genetic as well as language
analysis shows that most Filipinos are Austronesians, 35 an ethnolinguistic group native
inhabitants of maritime SE Asia, Madagascar, and the Pacific islands (Resture, 2011).

Figure 2: Migrations Out of Africa (wikispaces.com)

One of the many theories about the first inhabitants of the Philippine archipelago
suggests southward and eastward migrations from the neolithic cultures of SE China (Wikipedia,
Austronesian peoples) or from Taiwan by land bridges. When the ocean levels rose, they used

35

a linguistic and genetic group that includes other ethnicities from maritime SE Asia, Madagascar, and the Pacific
islands

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 35

rafts or boats. Whichever mode of travel was used, many settled on the Philippine islands
(Bellwood & Hiscock, 77; Cavalli-Sforza, et. al. 1988. pp. 6002-6006). To this day, ancient oral
tradition mentions ocean levels that changed and covered or revealed islands. While epic tales
include no racial descriptions so that Malay or Negrito characters can be assumed or confused,
historical narratives such as in the following table are explicit.
Table 14: Timeline of Early Philippine Cultural Contacts

Timeline
25,000 B.C.

5,000 B.C. to
3,000 B.C.
3,000 B.C. to
1,000 B.C.
200 B.C.
200 B.C. to
1000 A.D.
300 A. D.36
900 A. D.
982 A. D.
1,000 A.D. to
1,200 A.D.
1200 to 1300
1300 A. D38
1300 to 1400
1380 A. D.

1450 A. D.
1475 A. D.
1512 A. D.
1700 A. D.
1830 A. D.

Philippine Prehistory
The forefathers of the Negritos travel over Sundaland that used to connect all
Asia. They choose higher elevations and caves, gather food, hunted. They use
bows, arrows and stone tools (Sergio, 2016).
The Negritos move to coasts & rivers. Indonesians arrive by sea, w/ polished
stone tools, boat building, bark & animal skin cloth, pottery, rice planting,
cooking food in bamboo tubes, rubbing two sticks to make fire (Sergio, 2016).
The Malay ancestors of the Ifugao, Bontoc, Mangyans, and other primitive tribes
arrive, each ship (barangay) carry a small clan. They bring animist religions, jar
burial, metal tools of copper, bronze, iron and gold (Sergio, 2016).
Malays in large numbers migrate to the Philippines. They are the racial stock of
the majority of todays Philippine populace (Sergio, 2016).
Iron Age artistry in earrings, beads, pendants and bangles of clay, stone and
shells; tattooing, filing and blackening teeth which were then wrapped with gold
foil or studded with gold fillings (Sergio, 2016).
Chinese trading contact (Churchill, 1977, 3)
Indic trading contact (Wikipedia, Hinduism in the Philippines)37
Chinese trading contact
Trading begins with Arabia, India, Annam, China and later with Europeans.
Porcelains from different Chinese dynasties are imported (Sergio, 2016).
Migrants from Borneo settle in southern Philippines (Sergio, 2016).
Japanese trading contact
The Majapahit empire on Java gains influence over parts of the islands (Sergio,
2016).
Islam reaches southern Philippines via Borneo. Head-hunting victims become
slaves bartered to Chinese traders. A new social order includes freemen,
commoners, slaves & bonded servants under a datu (Sergio, 2016).
The Muslim sultanate of Jolo is established (Sergio, 2016).
The Muslim sultanate of Maguindanao is founded on Mindanao. Islam spreads,
reaching central Luzon (Sergio, 2016).
Malacca, Borneo trading contact (Churchill, 1977, 4)
Halmahera, Sulawesi, Java, Borneo, Indonesia (Churchill, 1977, 5)
Arabia trading, proselitizing contact (Baldonado)
Malay Champa

Adapted from Baldonado, 2005; Churchill, 1977; and Sergio, 2016.

In the 1960s, anthropologist Robert Fox discovered the earliest human remains found in
the Philippines: fossilized fragments of a skull and jawbone39 (Valdez, 2011). The first human

36

3rd Century
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hinduism_in_the_Philippines
38
13th Century
39
Anthropologists who examined these remains agreed that they belonged to modern human beings. These
include the Homo sapiens, as distinguished from the mid-Pleistocene Homo erectus species.
37

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 36

artifacts in Palawan, dated back to between 30,000 and 50,000 B. C., were believed to be of
Negrito aborigines from Melanesia that settled in the Philippine islands at least 30,000 years ago.
In 2007, a human metatarsal found near the Callao caves north of Manila was dated to at
least 67,000 years ago; experts say there was proof of raft- or boat-building skills 40 (World
Heritage Encyclopedia, History of the Philippines; Discovery News; Henderson, 2010). The foot
bone suggests that humans had settled in the Philippines as far back as 67,000 years41 ago
(Defense Language Institute. 2011, 18; Morella, 2010). How the Callao person came to the
islands could not be determined (Morella, 2010) but experts say there is a strong resemblance to
pygmy Negritos42 (Defense Language Institute. 2011, 18; Dolan, 1991).

Figure 3: Sundaland and Changes of Sea Levels (maritimemysteries.org)

It is theorized that, some 50,000 years before the Mongoloids came to SE Asia, pygmy
Negritos had arrived in the Philippines via the Sunda landmass through todays Malaysia and
Indonesia. 43 It is suggested that their ancesteors are the New Guinea pygmies (Howells, 1993,
235236). In the Philippines, they are said to be the ancestors of the Aeta, Agta, Ayta, Ati, and
the Dumagat 44 (Bulbeck, 2013; Bulbeck, et al, 2006. pp. 109132)45

40

as proven by the discovery of Callao Man in 2007


dated through uranium-series dating
42
Aetas are dark-skinned, short Asian group of hunter-gatherers indigenous to the Philippines. Later called
Negritos (small blacks) by the Spanish, the Aeta migrated to the Philippine islands over a land bridge during the
last glacial period some 30,000 years ago
43
They were later named Negritos (small negros) by the Spaniards for their dark skin.
44
Today they comprise just 0.03% of the total Philippine population
45
A published analysis has shown that Negritos from SE Asia to New Guinea share a closer cranial affinity with
Australo-Melanesians (Bulbeck, 2013)
41

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 37

Pygmy Negritos are said to have a fetishist-type of religion; lived by hunting and
gathering natural edibles; used blowguns, bows and arrows; and wore tree-bark and leaves.
Aside from living lived in temporary shelters of grass and tree branches (Zaide, 1949, 24-25), or
what available outcroppings and cave shelters that are available, the pygmy Negritos remain
mostly culturally separate in the interior countryside on some of the larger islands of the
archipelago (Pisano, 1992, 8).
So far, no study has advanced knowledge regarding the pygmy Negritos traditional use
of organized governance, communication, or writing systems.

3.1.3 Austronesian Migration


Analyses of the Proto-Austronesian language, cultures and ethnic groups of the
Taiwanese (Resture, 2011) suggested that pre-Austronesian-speaking aborigines from mainland
Asia moved to Taiwan some 6,000 years ago, or sometime between 10,000 and 6,000 B. C.
Meanwhile, about 12,000 B. C., groups of short Mongoloid people called Proto-Malays
arrived via the Sundaland to the Philippines. Their Paleolithic cultural systems were similar to
those of the Negritos (Beyer, 1932, 129; Jocano, 1967, 132; Pisano, 1992, 8). Proof is provided
from Palawan, where Tabon Cave fossils indicate pre-Mongoloid inhabitants between 22,000
and 20,000 BCE some 44,000 years ago during the Upper Pleistocene era (Scott, 1984, 1415).46
In the last Ice Age, global warming increased temperature, melted glaciers, and raised sea
levels. Mountains became islands and Sundaland was submerged into the present Sunda Shelf.
From this point on, says Jocano (1967), all further migrations came by sea (pp. 131-132).
Echoing this theory, Bulbeck et al (2014) suggest that some 50,000 years ago, human built boats
and traveled between Mainland Asia and Island SE Asia:
Island SE Asia (ISEA) comprises the tropical islands lying in between mainland
East Asia and Taiwan to the northwest and Australia and New Guinea to the southeast.
The western islands lie on a shallow continental shelf, the Sunda Shelf, and were
connected to mainland East Asia during the Pleistocene. The eastern islands that have
been separated from the mainland and from each other by deep marine troughs include
the Philippines (east of Palawan), Sulawesi, northern Moluccas, and the southeast
islands. Accordingly, human colonization of eastern ISEA, leading to the colonization
46

Mongoloid is the term which anthropologists applied to the ethnic group which migrated to SE Asia during the
Holocene period and evolved into the Austronesian people, a group of Malayo-Polynesian-speaking people
including those from Indonesia, the Philippines, Malaysia, Malagasy, the non-Chinese Taiwan Aboriginals
(Wikipedia)

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 38

of Australia and New Guinea (by 50,000 years ago), would have required watercraft
capable of transporting groups of people numerous enough to establish viable
daughter colonies. (4090-4096)

Figure 4: Sundaland 30,000 Years Ago and Today (loveisrasa.blogspot.com)

Although Bellwood (1997) suggest that by 5,000 years ago, all of the large islands and
many of the small islands of ISEA were extensively settled, Bulbeck et al suggest that, between
5000-2500 B. C., large southward and eastward migrations continued. Theorists attribute these
migrations to two factors: sea changes had turned Taiwan into an island, and the island was
overpopulated by the Neolithic Austronesians (Bellwood & Hiscock, 77; Cavalli-Sforza, et. al.
1988. pp. 6002-6006). The migrations, it is suggested, included groups of Malayo-Polynesians
(Resture, 2011).
Theorists postulate that the first Malayo-Polynesians that landed in northern Luzon and
met the Austral-Melanesian groups who had settled there some 23,000 years earlier (Resture,
2011).
Over the next thousand years, these groups intermingled (Wikipilipinas; Resture, 2011)47
and spread southwards to populate the other Philippine islands (Resture, 2011), while others
went on to Borneo, Indonesia, Malaysia, and Polynesia until, over time, the Austronesians had
colonized the SE Asian archipelago (Defense Language Institute. 2011, 18; Bureau of East Asian
and Pacific Affairs. 2010).

47

From maritime SE Asia, the Austronesian people reached some parts of mainland SE Asia, then sailed eastward
and spread to the islands of Melanesia around 1200 B.C.and to Micronesia around 500 A.D., and later on to
Madagascar (Resture, 2011).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 39

3.1.4 Indonesian Migration


Next to arrive were Neolithic peoples who appeared in two waves: the first around 5,000
B.C. and the second between 1,500 and 500 B.C. (Zaide, 1949, 25). Presumed to have come
from South China, Indochina, or Indonesia (Jocano, 1967, 131-132; Pisano, 1992, 9), theorists
say that they introduced more complex lifestyles: grass-roofed houses with wooden frames built
high on the ground or in treetops (Evangelista, 1967, 80), but no archaeological evidence
supports this hypothesis. It is suggested that they used dry agriculture to raise crops such as rice,
taro, millet, and yam,48 decorated bark for clothing, and did not know of pottery so they cooked
food in bamboo tubes. They used stone axes, adzes, chisels, bows and arrows, spears, shields,
and blowguns, and had pet dogs as the only animal they domesticated (Zaide, 1949, 26; Jocano,
1967, 131-132; Pisano, 1992, 8- 9).

3.1.5 Indochinese Migration


One theory suggests that Papuan or Melanesian groups drifted from the Pacific islands
and settled along the entire east coast of the Philippine archipelago during the Neolithic Age
(Beyer, 1932, 129; Pisano, 1992, 9), but no empirical evidence has been forwarded to support
this hypothesis.
Between 800 and 500 B.C., archaeological artifacts indicate several waves of migrations
from Indochina that crossed the China Sea and travelled to N Luzon, the probable ancestors of
the rice-terrace builders of (Pisano, 1992, 9). Between 300 and 200 B.C., migrations from either
Java or Sumatra arrived, distinguishable by iron artifacts. Between 300 and 700 A.D.,49 migrants
from South China, arrived with practices such as jar-burials (Jocano, 1967, 131; Evangelista,
1967, 83; Pisano, 1992, 9).

3.1.6 Alternative Migration Theory


Up to this writing, no new evidence supports Beyers theory, which relied on race-typing
by cranial measurement and ocular inspection. Pisano (1992) suggests a middle ground
alternative theory, where:
over the entire prehistoric period waves of immigrants may have entered
the islands from time to time due to various calamities or human events. Considering
the nature of Filipino settlement, as described by the Chinese and later the Spaniards,
a steady trickle of a few individual family groups or small communities entered the
islands over time and explains the majority of human migration. The existing
48
49

Eventually, a subgroup kin to the rice-terrace builders of north Luzon introduced wet agriculture methods.
an earlier date has been suggested

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 40

community accepted the immigrants and absorbed them and their customs or, if the
immigrant population was sizable (by relative standards) and displayed group
cohesion, the existing community would be displaced. (p.10).
The prehistoric narrative of the Philippine archipelago has other elements, but the
limitations of the research require this overview to suffice. The discussion now shifts to the next
stage of the narrative, the precolonial period of Philippine history.

3.2 The Precolonial Narrative


The precolonial narrative that the research reconstructs involves the ancient empires of
Champa, Pallava,
SriVishaya , and Majapahit.
Located too far from the
maritime trade route on
which the Philippine islands
lay, Bagan, Ayutthaya, and
Angkor were kingdoms that
did not affect Philippine
culture in any significant
way.
The narrative begins
in the year 200, and ends in
1521. These dates are
selected based on historical events that marked key changes in the region. The year 200 is related
to the rise of the first Asian kingdom that would reshape cultures in the Philippine islands while
the year 1521 is when Ferdinand Magellan colonized the Philippine islands for King Philip of
Spain and, even more significant, claimed the islands as Spanish territory that, among others,
resulted in the willful destruction of prehistoric records of the culture, literature, beliefs, and
history of the inhabitants of these islands.50

50

Should there be a move to take the Spanish nation to the World Court and present a case for damage
compensation in favor of the Filipinos; the research would lay the background of the case.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 41

Figure 5: The Cultural Zones of Greater India (Wikimedia)

3.2.1 Hinduism
The research focuses on Hindu elements in ancient Philippine literature. Hinduism is said
to have begun during the Iron Age in India51 (Wikipedia, History of Hinduism) and is unique in
that there is no known founder or date of inception (ReligionFacts, Hindu History).
In addition, Hinduism does not claim to be a religion but rather claims to encompass
religions, with a particular focus on personal spirituality (Flood, 2009). The Hindu faith
proposes a cyclic nature of human progression, marked by stages or ages. For instance, in the
Golden Age:
people were pious and adhered to dharma (law, duty, truth) but its power
diminishes over time until it has to be reinvigorated through divine intervention. With
each successive age, good qualities diminish, until we reach the current iron or dark
age (kali yuga) marked by cruelty, hypocrisy, materialism and so on. Such ideas
challenge the widespread, linear view that humans are inevitably progressing (Flood,
2009)..

The history of Hinduism includes an eventful age between c.500 BCE and 500 CE,
beginning with the death of the Buddha (c. 400 BCE). During this period, texts such as the
Dharma Sutras and Shastras (explains law, duty, truth or dharma a key Hindu concept), the
epics, Mahabharata and Ramayana, and then the Puranas were composed. The Mahabharata
includes the Bhagavad Gita. The Dharma Sutras recognise three sources of dharma: revelation

51

the oldest living religion in the world

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 42

(i.e. the Veda), tradition (smrti), and good custom. The Laws of Manu adds what is pleasing to
oneself (Flood, 2009).
In this paper, some Philippine epics that comprise the national literary traditions contain
strongly Indic elements, particularly literary elements that are clearly identifiable as from the
Mahabharata and the Ramayana. While the creation of these two epics can be placed between
500 BCE and 500 CE, the oral literature of the Philippines could not be pinned to a specific start
date. Although this paper traces connections between India and the Philippines such as the
Arab traders of the ancient maritime Asia trade route to explain the Indic elements in
Philippine literature, several forces of destruction have limited available resources for reference.
These forces of destruction are discussed in a following section. Meanwhile, the discussion shifts
to another ancient religion, not as ancient as Hinduism, but as pervasively powerful, if not more.

3.2.2 700s: Islam


Around 700, the religion called Islam spread in Arabia (Encyclopedia Britannica,
Arabian religion). This religion arose out of a combination of historical and cultural forces.
For instance, it has been the tradition of the of the Arabian Peninsula nomads to migrate
every season so as to cope with the desert climate. At that time, the Arabs (literally, desert
dweller) were animists and believed in many deities and in jinns (fiery spirits) who lived in the
desert. Some time in 500 B. C., some groups decided to settle in Mecca, near the west coast of
Saudi Arabia. According to ReligionFacts (History of Islam), Mecca soon became the religious
center, with 360 shrines, one for each day in the lunar year.
In this religion, Arabs focused entirely on the earthly life, and religion was not a source
of morality so much so that blood feuds, violence, and general immorality were common
during the time of Mohammad (ReligionFacts, History of Islam). Jews and Christians who lived
on the southern areas of the Arabian Peninsula had influenced local culture, particularly in
monotheism, the belief in one supreme being, as well as in heaven, hell and a final judgment.
In general, Allah was regarded as the greatest among the many gods deserving
worship, but one contemplative sect, the hanifs, worshiped Allah exclusively. It was
into this world of sporadic monotheism and rampant immorality that Islam was born.
(ReligionFacts, History of Islam)
Islam is a monotheistic religious tradition that is believed to have developed in Mecca
and in Medina in the Middle East at the start of the 7th century C.E. (Patheos, n. d.;

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 43

ReligionFacts, The Quran). The word Islam literally means voluntary submission or
voluntary surrender to the will of God. The root of the root is salam, which means peace
(Anon., n. d., What is Islam). A Muslim, on the other hand, is a person who follows the tenets of
the Islamic faith. The word Muslim means one who submits to God. (Wikipedia, Muslim).
Islam places great importance on maintaining the purity of the soul.
Islam encourages the individual to focus on keeping the soul healthy, through the
remembrance, obedience and worship of God. There should be a correct balance in
strengthening the soul and not over-indulging with the pleasures of the body. Islam
teaches that it is through the doing of good deeds and seeking the pleasure of God that
souls find true happiness and peace. It is in this context that the word Islam derives
from the root word salam, or peace. (Wikipedia, Islam)
The advent of Islam in the Philippine islands began when Muslim traders who came to
trade. They returned home with their tales of the pagan tribes of the islands. Eventually, Muslim
missionaries landed in Jolo, and then in Mindanao. There is no historical mention of destruction
of literary materials, or of documents, in relation to these missionaries. As in other countries,
native beliefs coexisted with Islamic beliefs, some cultures even creating indigenous versions of
Islam. The destruction of ancient literature in precolonial Philippines was attributed to other
forces.

3.2.3 Destructive Forces


Aside from natural forces that destroyed narratives of the prehistory of the Philippines,
much of the destruction is traced to the Spaniards who arrived in 1521 (Niel, 1992):
the people were believed to have a sense of belonging to the Malay World
and were thought to be literate, prosperous, and united under their chiefs. The Spanish
conquest is believed to have put an end to this idyllic condition and led to the decline
and destruction of the Philippine people.52
Other factors explaining the dearth of primary materials are explained by Dobby (1956:
382-85) as including the use of orality in the transfer of historical or literary traditions. The socalled literary-minded people were mostly religious persons, trained in or oriented toward the
Indian tradition, and for the most part disinterested in the keeping of mundane records (RausaGomez, n. d., 94). In addition, the three centuries of Spanish occupation destroyed much
historical material. The subsequent American occupation did little to help. As Pisano explains it:

52

Spanish and American colonialism is seen as the cause of the present-day problems faced in the Philippine
society (Niel, 1992).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 44

The ravages of time and the Spanish invaders destroyed most of the manuscripts
from the early history of the archipelago. Even after the Americans took possession of
the islands in 1898, with a few notable exceptions, the flurry of historical scholarship
that followed mainly concerned itself with the most recent Spanish colonial period
(focusing on its negative aspects) and the natural resources that could be exploited in
the islands (1992, 2-3).
It has been observed that what remained of ancient civilations are more likely
discoverable since they stay put for a long time, which is uncommon in Maritime Asia. RausaGomez (n.d.) points to geographical diffusion as a critical factor in material destruction.
The SE Asians had the tendency to diffuse themselves geographically, even
within particular states. This was especially true of those migratory ethnic groups who
practiced shifting or fire agriculture (kaingin). The absence of a common focus of
interest is seen in the fact that no great depositories of learning were maintained in the
area to gather and conserve the record of its historical past. (94).
Rausa-Gomez also describes the practice of writing on leaves as well as to the weather
conditions prevalent in the torrid zone: if there were any local records inscribed on palm-leaf
manuscripts, they most likely have been destroyed by the humid tropical climate, insects, and
molds (95). The geographys effects on local mindsets were also pointed out:
The areas physical environment is not conducive to the preservation of
monuments and artifacts. Many were situated in swamps and forests, where the
most accessible and available material was wood. The artistic inclination of the
peoples was therefore most naturally expressed in wooden carvings, buildings, or
tools. The passage of time and the effects of climate and insects cause wooden objects
to disintegrate or be eaten away, leaving little or no evidence for the history of the
region. (Rausa-Gomez, 95)
Other factors are natural calamities and diseases. Rausa-Gomez (n. d.) exemplifies such
events in adjoining regions:
In east Sumatra, riverine settlements have been wiped out by the mudflows
sweeping down unexpectedly from the highlands. Coastal settlements have been
abandoned as rivers changed their natural courses . Plagues and endemic
diseases depopulated many kingdoms. Fleeing populations spread the
diseases. Sometimes kings relocated their capitals in areas distantly located from
those cities associated with pain, suffering, and disasters, in an effort to placate the
malevolent spirits (nats, or phi) responsible.
As shifts of population occurred from the forested inland areas to the coastal
towns, the ensuing overcrowding of towns, improper sewage disposal systems and the
absence of public sanitation practices proved to be menaces to the populace.
Climatologists have shown that there is a direct relationship between the outbreak of
endemic diseases and the climatic seasons. In SE Asia, the areas humid climate has
the effect of encouraging a high rate of bacterial reproduction. In this manner, the
occurrence of natural calamities, and the outbreak of endemic diseases have had the
effect of killing off or debilitating the population. As the populace fled, nature

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 45

gradually reclaimed the abandoned town sites and covered them with jungles and wild
vegetation, leaving no trace of human settlement. (p. 96).
Some Spanish writers deny the existence of precolonial religious writings, but other
sources say that this could be a denial of anything not Christian. For instance, Chirino says that
indigenous writing was only used for correspondence, not for religion or governance. However,
indigenous writing was used to record folk beliefs. Churchill (1977) cites Chirino as saying:
two of them were at this time most fortunately saved from perdition... (O)ne,
who possessed a book of a certain kind of poem which they call golo, very pernicious
because it expresses a deliberate pact with the devil, voluntarily gave it up for burning,
which was done. (p. 33).
To summarize, much has been lost due to Spanish narrow-mindedness. Beyer suggests
that large collections of writings of indigenous beliefs that were destroyed by early Spanish
priests included religious writings. Though no source was identified, Beyer reports that, one
Spanish priest in southern Luzon boasted of having destroyed more than three hundred scrolls
written in the native character (Churchill, 1977, 33 from Beyer, op. cit, 2).
[Note: The place names reported are for only ease of understanding. In those times, other
names were used and territorial boundaries were amorphous or nonexisting. Thousands of years
of warfare, invasion, colonization, cultural and commercial shifts would pass to create the names
and places that we know today.]

3.2.4 The Islands of Ma-i


In 1992, Pisano wrote of the pitifully few surviving artifacts and talked about the
elements, chance, the Spanish missionaries, and the recent depredations of amateur artifact
collectors (p. 11). Still, historians have assembled enough late 15th-century accounts from other
Asiatic realms that recorded economic and social intercourse with the islands and, in some
cases, exercised hegemony over them (Pisano, 1992, 11-12).
For instance, it is said that in 200, the Philippine islands were known oversea as Tawalisi.
Olmedo cites Jose Rizal as saying that the ancient name of Palawan was Puloan, that Visayas
was Baroussai, and the Manila area was called Maniolas (Olmedo, 2012):

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 46

on Ptolemy's map, which was made before the second century A.D., the
Philippines was called
Tawalisi. In later
editions53 the names
Maniolas, Barusas or
Baroussai and Puloan or
Palawan. [refer to]
the whole group [of
islands].
It has been argued
that such claims would seem
to lack historical veracity.
For that, we turn to other
sources.
Figure 6: Map of the Philippines 1598 Petrus Kaerius (gmanews)

About 800 years


later, 10th-century Sinic records of seafaring Chinese traders would refer to the Philippine
islands as Ma-i, a name that was very frequently used in the 12th and 13th centuries, and
probably long thereafter (Olmedo, 2012).54
It has been suggested that Ma-i was considered as a distant source of goods and materials,
too far and too insignificant for invasion or subjugation thus, unlike the ancient empires of
SriVishaya ,55 Angkor,56 Pagan,57 and Majapahit,58 Ma-i remained insulated from much of the
Buddhist and Hindu elements coming from India (Niel, 1992).
However, despite being relatively isolated from empirical dominion and its attendant ills,
the trade of Ma-i products and materials created cultural transfers of intangible Indic elements
such as language, customs, and literature that remain alive today, unlike the aforementioned
empires that now are nothing but ruins. As will be discussed in the next sections, the lack of such
ruins does not prove that Ma-i was ever free of India.

3.2.5 200s: The Pallava Empire

53

in the 1540 edition


However, other sources say that Chinas 13th-century records that refer to the country of Ma-i Mindoro only,
not the entire archipelago (Niel, 1992).
55
ca. 600-1250 A. D.
56
ca.802-1432A. D.
57
ca.l044-l287 A. D.
58
ca. 1293-1478 A. D.
54

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 47

In 200, the Pallava Empire rose in power in eastern India. It occupied areas of todays
India and Sri Lanka. At its height, it included Sri Lanka, S India, the Malay Peninsula,
Cambodia, Java, Sumatra, and the islands of Malaysia. Simhavarman (275-300), the first king,
was a Hindu as was his kingdom. The Pallavas were tolerant of other faiths. For instance, a
Chinese monk named Xuanzang who is said to have visited Kanchipuram in the reign of
Narasimhavarman I observed at least 100 Buddhist monasteries, and 80 temples. Moreover,
Sanskrit was one of the official languages of the Pallava (Wikipedia, Pallava Dynasty). There
was also enough Persian influence in the Pallava culture to warrant calling them Persianised
Indians (Fic, 2003, p. 72). The Pallava Empire ended after 620 years of rule when the Chola
Empires second king defeated King Aparajita (876-895) (Singh, 2013).
The Pallava civilizations
contributions to Philippine prehistory
include the kawi script, Sanskrit
vocabulary, and elements of Indic
culture. Persian cultural elements in
the Pallava culture could have
transferred to the Philippines as well.
When the Pallava Kingdom
declined, new ones arose, such as the
Figure 7: Pallava Kingfom (Wikipedia)

Champa Kingdom and the Angkor

Kingdom in Cambodia between 600 and 100 (Whitmore, 2009), and the Hindunized Malay
empires of Sri-Vishaya and Madjapahit (Zaide, 1939, 37-39) that exerted the most influence
upon the Philippines until the arrival of the Spaniards (Pisano, 1992, 12).

3.2.6 700s: Sri-Vishaya Colonizes Visayas


While the Austronesians migrated from island to island in the Philippines, a welldeveloped civilization in the far eastern edge of South Asia, the Land of the Veda was growing
(Bowman, 2000 p. 468). The Austronesian migrations must have passed this area, but there is no
proof of cultural transfer; some migrants could have stayed, while some of the local population
could have gone with the migrants in their trek towards the Philippines and beyond.
By the 700s, the capital of the Sri-Vishayan Empire was located near Palembang in
Sumatra but it dominated Malaysia from the 800s to 1377 (Zaide, 1939, 39; Steiger, 195). In the

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 48

nature of the indigenization process, the empire was racially Malayan, culturally Hindu, and
Buddhist in terms of religion.
In the 8th century, Sri-Vishaya was a Buddhist kingdom in Palembang,59 as well as a
commercial empire in SE Asia (Bowman, 2000 p. 468). The capital was held in high esteem as a
major Buddhist teaching and missionary center, so much so that, sometime during the end of the
7th century, I Tsing, a Chinese pilgrim spent seven years in this capital (Robequain, 1958, 67;
Pisano, 1992, 13).
When the powerful Tang Dynasty began trading with other countries. Sri-Vishaya , a
tributary trading partner of the Chinese empire. The Sri-Vishayan Empire the maritime trade
routes between China and
India, as it gained a stronghold,
due to its strategic location, on
the Straits of Malacca and
Sunda, the two main passages
from the Indian Ocean to the
China Sea.
Over the centuries, SriVishaya amassed wealth and
Figure 8: South East Asia 500 AD 750 AD (timemaps.com)

power, ruling the Sunda and


Malacca straits, and further increased power by quelling the raids of the Javanese Sailendra king
and the South Indian Chola king (Defense Language Institute. 2011, 19; Manguin, 2010;
Bowman, 2000, 439140).
Their navigation skills played a large role in their success, underscored by their ability to
conduct a long war with the Chola kingdom of SE India60 (Beyer, 1921, 863). In addition, booty
from pirating vessels transiting along the rich SE Asian trade routes added to the empires wealth
(Robequain, 1958, 67; Pisano, 1992, 13-14).
In 1180 CE, India was the richest country in Asia and the SriVishaya Empire was the
most advanced civilization in the region. The Empire controlled Sumatra, Sri Lanka, the Malay
Peninsula, the Moluccas, Sumatra, Ceylon, Java, Celebes, Borneo, the Philippines, and Formosa
59
60

In SE Sumatra
For at least a century Ceylon paid them tribute

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 49

(Zaide, 1939, 39; Fox, 1959, 27; Steiger, 1936, 195; New World Encyclopedia, SriVishaya ;
WikiPilipinas, SriVishaya ; Rausa-Gomez, 1967, 63-107).
In 30,000 B. C. or thereafter, valley-dwelling Austronesians and highland-dwelling
Negritos were the first to settle and create animist tribes in the Visayas Islands. In 900 or later,
other Asian peoples settled in the area (Wikipedia). Precolonial Visayas included the present-day
provinces of Agusan, Aklan, Antique, Biliran, Bohol, Cebu, Capiz, Dvao Oriental, Dinagat, E
Samar, Guimaras, Iloilo, Leyte, Masbate, Misamis Oriental, Negros, Samar, Romblon, Siquijor,
Leyte, and Surigao.
In 1200 and after, Hindu-Buddhist descendants from the late rVishaya, Majapahit and
Brunei kingdoms settled the islands (Abellana, 1960). By 1400, Visayas communities were
practicing a mixture of Islamic, Hindu and Buddhist beliefs (Wikipedia).
Sources claim that the Tumandok (or Suludnon) in the mountains of Panay are the only
Visayans to maintain pre-Hispanic Visayan culture and beliefs, and this is due to their
geographic isolation (Argos, 2015; Wikipedia). However, later data would contradict this
statement.
Ethnic Visayans predominantly speak at least one of the Visayan languages which are
called Binisaya or Bisaya. The table Languages of the Visayan Islands lists the Philippine
languages classified as Visayan by the Summer Institute of Linguistics.
The story of Indian colonization of the Philippines started when Sri-Vishaya vassalized
Borneo, although records are unclear. It is known that the Indian empire had established several
colonies in Borneo before the 10th century ended. As mentioned in another section, the Bornean
towns of Bandjarmasin and Brunei had already established outposts in Ma-i long before the SriVishayan Empire conquered Borneo (Leake, 1989, 5).
All Sri-Vishayan orders to colonize the west-central Philippine islands were issued to its
vassal state, Brunei (Beyer, 1921, pp. 863-864). The colonists arrived at the islands carrying the
name Vishaya (Pisano, 1992, 14). To this day, the islands of central Philippines are collectively
known as Visayas, while their inhabitants are called Bisaya.61

61

In 1365, a list of the 34 tributary states between Java and the Philippines included: eighteen on Borneo, six each
in Celebes and the Moluccas, one in the Talaut Islands to the south of Mindanao, and three in the Philippines
(Beyer, 1921, 866, 892).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 50

No records of Sri-Vishayan colonies in the Philippine remain, but some manuscripts


indicate that Panay, Palawan, Mindoro, and S Luzon were under Brunei. 1858, a romanized
Ilongo-Visayan document was found in Panay, containing a (possibly apocryphal) story of how
Borneo natives settled in Panay (Santaren, 1954, ii) in the year 1250 A.D. (Fox, 1959, 28). A

3.2.7 700s: Sri-Vishaya Colonizes Sulu


Sometime between the 9th and 12th centuries, the first known Hindu settlement in the
Philippines consisted of not only one but several towns in Sulu. Historical records indicate that,
at that time, Sulu
Figure 9: Sri-Vishaya Empire (Wikimedia)

was not only


densely populated
but also served as
one of the major
trading centers in
the region (Beyer,
1921, 862; Pisano,
1992, 12-13).
The locals
called new settlers
Orang Dampuan.
Some sources
suggest that the
colonists were from
the Champa

Kingdom62, 63 which was a thriving trade center that aimed to establish a trading colony in Sulu.64
Troubles arose, to the point that the natives killed some of the colonists and a bloody
war ensued. After killing as many of the native inhabitants as they could, the Orang Dampuan
burned their towns and withdrew from Sulu (Beyer, 1921, 862; Pisano, 1992, 12).
62

Orang Dampuan literally translated means Men of Dampa-land, which does not make much sense. However; it
has been proven that the d and ch sounds are interchangeable in many Philippine dialects: Orang Dampuan could
be Orang Champuan or Men of Champa.
63
Later, when the island came under Sri-Vishayan rule, Champa ships continued to trade there which seems to
confirm that the earlier colonists were from that kingdom.
64
as they had done elsewhere in SE Asia

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 51

There are no sources that indicate how much time had passed before the Sri-Vishayan
orders its vassal state, Bandjarmasin, to colonize Sulu. However, the fact of the colonization can
be found in tarsila, the ancient historical genealogies of Sulu, which articulate the Bandjarmasin
roots of Sulu (Pisano, 1992, 14).
The Sulus called the colonists Orang Bandjar (people of Banjar). As in the case of the
earlier Orang Dampuan occupation, conflicts arose between the colonists and the natives of
Sulu. To achieve peace, a Bandjarmasin princess of reputedly great beauty was brought in to
marry the principal chief of Sulu.
The treaty of marriage not only achieved peace, it also turned Sulu into a tributary state
to the Sri-Vishayan Empire through Bandjarmasin, and secured a permanent foothold for further
expansion (Pisano, 1992, 14-15).
With the treaty of marriage came great economic activity. The coastal areas of Sulu saw
arrivals from Borneo, Celebes and Mindanao, and perhaps Sumatra, Java, the Moluccas, and
Indochina.
Sulu became a great trade center and ships from China, Cambodia, Sumatra, Java, and
possibly India and Arabia frequented its harbors (Beyer, 1921, 864; Pisano, 1992, 15).

3.2.8 1200s: The Lesser Song Empire


Long after Austronesian westward migration passed the lands of China and India, trade
began, but in the opposite direction. The Indian and the Chinese traders would seem to retrace
the Malayo-Polynesian migration backwards, eventually reaching the Philippine islands (Ptak,
1992, 27-56).
Sources indicate that Chinese merchants had sailed in their junks65 from S China to the
Lingayen Gulf and then to Manila de Bay (Baldonado, 2005). In reverse, records dating back to
982 A.D. show that traders using an Arab ship and sailed from Mindoro to Canton in S China to
sell their goods (Baldonado, 2005; Liclican, 2014; Guzon, 2012). The Chinese noted the honesty
of the Filipinos traders. According to Wang TaYuan, The Chinese trust the Filipinos for they
keep their promise. The traders trust them, for they never fail to keep their bargains (Liclican,
2014).

65

Chinese sailing ships

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 52

Figure 10: Map of Precolonial Philippines (Philip Andrew)

Sources
Before China named Luzon an empire in the 1200s, people from N Philippines had
intitiated trade with China before the year 700 (Craig, 1914, 7-9) via the Muslim merchants who

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 53

had traded in China66 (Robequain, 1958, 68; Pisano, 1992, 20-21). Archeological relics of the
Sung and Yuan periods found in the Philippines indicate that, in the 700s, there was trade
between China and the islands.67 In 982 or earlier, records in Canton indicate that Muslim traders
on a ship from Ma-I arrived laden with valuable merchandise68 (Zaide, 1939, 41-42; Craig, 1914,
7; Pisano, 1992, 20; Majul, 1973, 39).
In 1200 or after, the Chinese began to prepare trading junks under the command of Arab
pilots. In Zhang Xies 1617 record of the Ming Dynastys69 foreign relations, A study of the
Eastern and Western Oceans records that ancient Luzon was a kingdom or empire ruled by kings
and not chieftains.
In Chinese tradition, the character L () the name lusung () means backbone or
substitute and Sng () is the Song Empire (). In Cantonese, the character L () is
added before to signify a lesser status70 thus, Luzon () can mean Substitute Song
Empire or Lesser Song Empire (Pangilinan, 2009a). Zhangs document uses the word gu (
), which means a sovereign kingdom ruled by a king () and not a chieftain. As Pangilinan
(2009) puts it:
The Luzon Empire (, Cantonese: Lsng Kk; 1279-1571 AD) was an
ancient empire once located around the Manila de Bay region of the Philippines. Its
capital was Tondo (, Cantonese: Tngd). Its territories covered most of what is
now Central Luzon, extending from the delta region that surrounds Manila de Bay, all
the way into the interior along head waters of the surrounding rivers in the provinces
of Pampanga and Bulacan.
In 1214 or earlier, a customs collector in Chinchew71 named Chau Ju-Kuan published a
book that combined W Luzon and Mindoro into an island north of Borneo named Ma-i.72 The
book includes details such as trade and exchange, the honesty of the Filipinos, and the accuracy
of the Negrito blowguns, and Sulu people who cut their hair and wore black turbans and sarongs,
which seems to describe Indic fashion (Craig, 1914, 10-11; Pisano, 1992, 21-24).
66

This relationship continued throughout the reigns of the Sri-Vishaya and the Madjapahit empires.
The earliest contact is in the Tung tien, encyclopedia of the chronicler Tu Yu (735-812). In this account a land
called Chu-po, believed to be Borneo, and two of its vassal states, Chii-yen and Tan-lan, conducted extensive trade
with Funan (SE Asia). The two vassal states were believed to be settlements in the Philippines (Wolters, 1967, 5152; Pisano, 1992, 20).
68
If true, the entry supports the hypothesis that the alternate trade route around Champa spoken of in other
documents of the time did exist and that this trade route included the Philippine archipelago. In addition, the
traders Muslim religion indicates that this route included Arabia (Pisano, 1992, 20).
69
1368-1644
70
For example, long () dragon becomes lulong () dragon-like when L () is added before.
71
the port in the Amoy district later made famous by Marco Polo
72
a name similar to that in the annals over two hundred years before
67

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 54

In 1349, a Wang Ta-yuan produced the Tao-i-chih-lio (A Description of the Barbarians of


the Isles), which describes Mai where:
the people were chaste and observed good customs, where men and women
wore their hair done up in a knot and clothed themselves in a blue cotton shirt.
One indication of an Indic influence in early Philippine culture is clear in Ta-yuans
description that depics a form of suttee practiced by widows (Craig, 1914, 10-11; Pisano, 1992,
23).
Widows would shave their heads and lie fasting beside their husbands corpses
for seven days. If still alive at the end of this period they could eat but were never
permitted to remarry and many accompanied their husbands body into the flames of
the funeral pyre. The region must have been populous because the account relates that,
upon the burial of a chief of renown, the natives entombed two or three thousand of
his slaves with the body
In 1373, according to the Ming Annals (), the first Luzon Empire diplomatic mission
to the Ming Empire73 arrived at the same time as did the embassies of the Chola Empire of
India74 (Scott, 1984; Pangilinan, 2009a). The Ming Empire allowed the Luzon Empire to trade
once every two years; Japan was allowed to trade only once every 11 years (, 1739;
Pangilinan, 2009a).
Later, writers would disagree about Luzon being an empire, saying that it was a
thalassocracy75, a trading empire (Pangilinan, 2009a; Scott, 1994) that flourished even when
China not only forbade foreign trade missions but also forbade Chinese merchants to trade
outside its borders.76 However, the merchants of Guangzhou and Quanzhou secretly delivered
regular trade goods to Tondo, which the Luzoners traded all over SE Asia (Agustin, 1699;
Pangilinan, 2009a).
In 1571, Spanish records indicate the end of the Luzon Empire although the fortified
cities of Lubao and Betis77 continued to thrive until 1572.
In 1575, the Lakandula of Tondo died. The child king Rajah Bago and his cousin
Lumanlan killed by the Spaniards. In 1588, Japanese merchants helped the nobles of the Luzon

73

; 1368-1644

74

, 1739
a realm based on controlling trade rather than land
(https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/History_of_Brunei#Conversion_to_Islam_and_.22Golden_Age.22)
76
during the last half of the Ming Dynasty
77
principalities of the Luzon Empire
75

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 55

Empire in Tondo, the descendants of Lakandula, to revolt against the Spaniards, but they were
defeated; many were executed or exiled, their properties confiscated. In 1590 the end of the
Luzon Empire came about by a combination of international events, Filipino collaboration, and
Spanish machinations. As Varilla (2013) narrates it:
King Sattha of Cambodia sent two elephants to the King of Luzon through his
Portuguese ambassador and requested the Luzon Empire's assistance in their battle
against Siam. In the same year the lords of the Luzon Empire were said to have been
corresponding with theTaikou-sama of Japan, Toyotomi Hideyoshi, begging for
assistance to help liberate the Luzon Empire from Spaniards. Hideyoshi (sent) a
letter to the Spanish Governor of Manila, demanding that the Spaniards leave Luzon
quietly or else face a full scale invasion that would force them out.

Unprepared for a Japanese attack, the Spanish Governor of Manila sent Hideyoshi gifts
from the Americas, including the two elephants sent by the King of Cambodia. The descendants
of the Filipino royalty who helped the Spaniards in this endeavor still enjoy high positions in
society to this day.

3.2.9 1300s: Majapahit Controls Visayas & Mindanao


By the 900s, the Hindu religion came to the Philippines via the Javanese empire of
Majapahit (UNESCO ICT), and then indirectly through the Indianized countries of the Malay
archipelago (Liclican, 2014). This might be a conservative estimate, as some archaeological
artifacts found in the Philippines would appear to predate this period (see Table: Proof of Indic
Influences on Philippine Cultures).
Between the 13th and 16th centuries, the Majapahit Kingdom ruled the maritime trade of
SE Asia (Defense Language Institute, 2011). It ruled the Straits of Malacca and Sunda and
controlled kingdoms in the Malay archipelago, Borneo, Sumatra, Bali, and the Philippines
(Ricklefs, 1991). The governors of the Madjapahit Empire ruled its colonies from favorable
spots along the coast with troops and ships under their command to enforce their most
important function: the export of products and the collection of tributes (p. 18).
The three localities in the Philippines known to have been under Madjapahit sovereignty
were Sulu, the Lake Lanao region in Mindanao, and the areas in and around Manila de Bay in
Luzon.
Sources suggest that colonies of the Madjapahit Empire were also established in the
Pulangi and the Agusan river valleys in Mindanao, in Palawan, in Mindoro, and in several

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 56

Visayan islands78 (Beyer, 1921, 866, 892; Zaide, 1939, 40-41). Archaeological finds support the
notion (Fox, 1959, 28; Pisano, 1992, 19):
Sufficient evidence also exists to establish Bantuan as a Madjapahit colony. Gold
mining was an important industry throughout the Agusan-Surigao area during the 14th
century. A solid gold figure from this period was found in Agusan in 1917 and,
though of local manufacture, is a Ngundjuk-type image common to Madjapahit
communities.
In 1389, the Madjapahit Empire began to weaken when a civil war over the succession to
the Madjapahit throne began.

Figure 11: The Majapahit Empire in the 15th Century (quora.cdn.net)

In 1405 up to 1434, Chinese naval expeditions under Admiral Cheng Ho brought many of
the empires Malaysian colonies under the suzerainty of the Ming Emperor of China. While
gathering the Madjapahit colonies, China encouraged the Arabians (via Malaysia) to destroy the
Madjapahit Empire (Zaide, 1939, 40-41; Pisano, 1992, 19-20).79 Mohammedan Rajah Bonang80
eventually led to the overthrow of the Madjapahit Empire.
If not for yet another wave of settlers who brought Islam to the Philippines, the
Majapahit Kingdom might have continued its influence on the islands (Defense Language
Institute. 2011, 20). By the time Islam came to southern Philippines, the inhabitants had adopted

78

In the beginning of the 20th century, clearly Indic cultural elements were found in these regions, where many
natives still use the old Indian syllabic script for writing
79
As noted elsewhere on this paper, since the 7th century, the Chinese had been providing the Arabs with Chinese
junks, large trading boats manned by up to 200 men (Beyer, 1932, 130).
80
who created the Mohammedan-Malay Empire of Malacca

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 57

some Sanskrit words but the Devanagri script and the Sanskrit language were not used for
commerce or literature (Churchill, 1977). However, in agriculture, farming methods that relied
on rain were displaced by the use of irrigation and water buffalos (Defense Language Institute
(2011, 19).
Although some sources deny that Brunei and Borneo were vassal states of Madjapahit,
many other sources record relationships of colonization and vassalage between the Philippines
and Java, Brunei, and Borneo (Rausa-Gomez, 98). Through the years, proof has been
accumulated from artifacts and cultural analysis. For instance, the following table underscores
the Indic influences on Philippine culture.
Table 15: Material Proof of Indic Colonization

familiarity with Indian religious concepts and terminology through intermediate countries81
01 blending with native religious beliefs blurred the clarity of Indian concepts (but) persisted in
recognizable form
02 Sanskrit words directly absorbed into different Philippine languages.
03 The adoption of various Indian customs.
04 Elements obviously from the Ramayana epic are incorporated into local literature.
05 Elements obviously from the Mahabharate are incorporated into local literature
06

In 1843, a bronze statue of Hindu god Siva and a copper image of the Hindu elephant god Gauesha
were found in Mactan

07 In 1917, a gold statue of a Hindu Goddess was found at Esperanza, Agusan province
08 In 1958, a 13th century Buddhist-Siamese clay medallion was found in Batangas
09 In 1961, a gold pendant of a garuda, a legendary Indic bird, was found at Brookes Point in Palawan
Adapted from Churchill, 1976; Baldonado, 2005; Tan, 1967; Hontiveros, n. d.; Londhe, 1968; and Francisco, 1961

The preceding table shows the little that remains of Indic culture in the Philippines. These
comprise most of the material proof that bolster discussions of precolonial cultural transfers from
Indian civilization. The dearth of material proof is explained in the section Destructive Forces.

3.2.10 1370s: Vassals of China


The Ming-shih, the annals of the Ming dynasty, records that for almost half a century,
rulers from the Philippines sent embassies to pay tributes to China, a practice that started in the
1370s. The practice was not imposed or demanded by the Chinese emperor. Rather, the local
rulers made the voyage in order to increase local status and power. Manila and Pangasinan began
the practice. Sulu potentates followed some years later.

81

and because of a century of absence of contact with an Indian source as Islam intervened

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 58

In 1372, the first tribute embassy from Luzon to China was recorded on the Ming
Chronicles.82 The ruler of the Chinese Middle Kingdom sent an official to the King of Luzon
with gifts of silk gauze embroidered in gold and colors.
In 1405, Chinese emperor Yung-lo dispatched an official to Luzon to govern the country.
(Craig, 1914, 11-12; Laufer, 1908, 257; Pisano, 1992, 25).
By the 13th century, trade between the Philippines and Japan included cultural transfer
such as Japanese manufacturing of arm and tools, artificial breeding of ducks and fishes, and
tanning of animal skins (Baldonado, 2005). However, Japanese trade was minimal compared to
the Chinese exchange. This can explain why despite Japan being geographically closer than
China there are more Sinic influences in todays Philippine vocabulary, fashion, customs, and
lineage (Liclican, 2014).
However, despite the geographic proximity of China and the PHlippines, there appears to
be no significant Sinic elements in ancient Philippine literature.
In 1406, a Malayan tribe named Ping-ka-shi-lan who lived along the western and
southern shores of the Lingayen Bay in Luzon, is recorded in the Ming Chronicles as sending a
delegation to China and presenting the emperor a gift of horses, silver, and other objects and
receiving in return paper money and silks (Pisano, 1992, 24).
In 1406 until 1407, 1408 to 1410, and in 1417, Chinese admiral Cheng Hos fleet of 62
ships bearing 27,800 soldiers (Craig, 1914, 11-12; Pisano, 1992, 25) went to Lingayen, Manila,
Mindoro, and Sulu as well as Borneo, Java, Sumatra, and other Madjapahit colonies in SE Asia,
to bring them under Ming governance (Zaide, 1949, 46; Laufer, 1908, 257; Steiger, 1936, 333).
In 1408, a chief arrived from the Philippines, along with two headmen from each village
under him, each accompanied by retainers. The Chinese emperors gifts to them were paper
money for the sub-chiefs and for each hundred men six pieces of an open-work variegated silk
used in making coats and linings (Craig, 1914, 11). In 1410, a Chinese recorded a tribute
embassy from the Pangasinan king (Laufer, 1908, 256; Pisano, 1992, 24-25).
In 1417, the rajahs of Sulu, their wives, children, and headmen paid tribute to the Chinese
court, followed by another Sulu mission in 1420 (Craig, 1914, 12; Pisano, 1992, 25). A sultan of
Sulu who died on a visit to the Emperor Yung-lo was buried in Shantung Province, China.

82

At this time, the decline of the Madjapahit Empire had begun.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 59

In 1421, the Philippine stopped paying tribute to the Ming Dynasty, which retreated from
the islands and returned to its own borders (Zaide, 1939, 41-42; Pisano, 1992, 25-26).

3.2.11 1400s: China Governs North Philippines


In the 15th century, Chinese governance extended to islands in the north. the Chinese
governed some of the islands in northern Philippines for purposes of trade and commerce. When
the Chinese later lost their settlements, many Chinese stayed in the Philippines (Ptak, 1992, 2756).
Between 960 and 1500, during the Song83 and Ming84 dynasties, Chinese political and
economic influences were limited to some barangay to regulate trade in honey, beeswax,
livestock and exotic birds, food products, palm wine and sugar in exchange for porcelain and
metal products (Niel, 1992). The trading included transfer of technology and culture.
For instance, Chinese trade enabled their clients to learn how to make gunpowder and
how to use placer gold mining. Filipinos acquired skills in iron mongery, gardening, and jewelry
manufacture. Chinese communities in Luzon showed the use of porcelain, gongs, lead, silver
and tin; kite flying, mahjjong, and other games, as well as various forms of gambling including
jueteng (Liclican, 2014). Filipinos learned of dishes such as lumpia, mami, pansit, ukoy and
roasted pork, brewed tea; and planting bataw, pechay and upo (Liclican, 2014).
The apex of early Chinese-Philippine trading relations involved international forces
brewing in the region. Grundry (1884) says:
The trading states of SriVishaya , Brunei, Luzon, Sulu and Melaka all sought
tributary connections, while the powerful Empire of Majapahit, though wary of its
vassals contact with China, regularly dispatched its own envoys to the Ming Court.
The eastern maritime trade route via Taiwan and Luzon (i.e., northern Philippines)
was abandoned in the late 1420s.
At least 10% of Filipinos today are Chinese descent. North Philippine cultures include
Chinese customs such as hired go-betweens to arranged marriages; hired burial mourners; filial
respect towards parents and elders; exploding fireworks to celebrate as well as traits such as
close family ties, frugality, patience, and humility. Chinese languge influences include hundreds
of words such as ate from a-chi (elder sister); gunting from kau-ting (scissors); susi from sosi
(key); and tiani from tiah-ming (Liclican, 2014).

83
84

960-1279 A.D.
1368-1644 A.D.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 60

While it would seem that Chinese trade enabled transfer but not exchange, the absence of
records, however, is not proof that Filipino culture did not influence Chinese as a lesser culture
can still in any way, introduce minute and therefore unarticulated elements that can be
indigenized by a dominant culture in unnoticed ways. In addition, the dynamics of cultural
superiority-inferiroty can be considered as barriers of intangible cultural and literary influences.
Traditionally, however, lesser cultures are depicted as mere receivers.

3.2.12 1500s: Hindunized Islam Governs the South


Since the start of the early migration period, various ethnolinguistic groups of indigenous
people had settled Mindanao and the Sulu archipelago, creating their own distinct cultures. The
Maguindanao, the Maranaw, and the Tausug are the most populous of of the thirteen Muslim
groups that live in Mindanao, the Sulu Archipelago, and Palawan (Luga, 2002, 1-2). Most of the
Moro live in Sulu and Mindanao. They live near bodies of water in houses being raised high on
poles near or over the water, for they live largely on food from the sea. Although some wander
as sea gypsies, other settle in communities and earn a living by fishing, farming, and
manufacturing cloth, brass, and steel (Cole, 1916). For centuries, Mindanao existed as though
separate from the other islands (Luga, 2002, 2).
Leake (1989) suggests that S Borneo, which was then Hindu in religion, had heard of the
famed richness of the pearl beds and other resources of Sulu from the Champa and Chinese
traders who had traded there before. The intrigued Borneans visited, traded and soon decided to
establish a colony there (Pisano, 1992, 14).
The beliefs and customs of many of the Mindanao tribes made of them a powerful and
dreaded people (Cole, 1916). Hassells monograph quotes (1953) two sources that mention the
adventurous and fearless nature of the Sulus:
...According to Javanese records a Javanese force expelled Sulu marauders from
Brunei during the reign of Angka Wijaya who was the last king to reign over
Majapahit... The inhabitants of the Soeloe Islands (in the present Philippines) made an
attack againet Brunei (in order to obtain camphor), in keeping with their (piratical)
nature, but they were driven off by the Javanese soldiers. (p. 70)
In the 900s, Indic influences on Philippine cultures began from trade with merchants
from the Hindu-influenced areas of China and Malaysia. From the 900s until the 1100s, Arab
traders were the first to reach Mindanao through the Red Sea-Indian Ocean-South China Sea

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 61

trade route (Luga, 2002, 20). Malay traders and religious figures had established Muslim
settlements in Sulu by the last quarter of the 13th century (Cline, 2000, 115-138).
In 1000, Arab traders had established themselves in ports in Sumatra, Java, Borneo, and
the Philippines. It might be noted that the early Arabs traders in the Philippines were not
Muslims (Liclican, 2014). Before Islam, the dominant religion in pre-Islamic Arabia was a mix
of Christian, Judaism, and Iranian religions. Zoroastrianism, Manichaeism and Mazdakism were
practiced in Mecca. (Wikipedia, Religion in pre-Islamic Arabia).
In 1250, small Muslim states had been established in Sumatra (Robequain, 1958, 68-69).
In the mid-1300s, international trade and commerce were flourishing in the Sulu islands
(Aquino, 2009, 19). The seaborne trade was dominated by Arab Muslims, early Arab traders and
Islamic missionaries who brought Islam from Morocco to the Philippines, and to China (Majul,
1974, 3; Estranero, 2007).
In the 1370s or earlier some sources say before Malacca was even founded Muslim
traders from Borneo and Sulawesi entered the Philippines from the south, claiming to be from
Sumatra or Arabia (Niel, 1992). The Sulu archipelago in S Mindanao allowed nearby countries
to establish a sea trade route for early Malay and Arab merchants (Aquino, 2009, 19; Wikipedia,
Autonomous Region in Muslim Mindanao).
In 1380, an Arabian scholar from Mecca named Mukdum had converted Malaccans to
Islam and went to Sulu to do the same (Zaide, 1939, 46-47; Pisano, 1992, 26). He built the first
Mosque in Simunul (Baldonado, 2005; Liclican, 2014).85 On the other hand, Carpio & Sunga
(1998) say that Tuan Mashaika introduced Islam to Jolo where the natives adored stones and
idols followed by Baginda ten years later.
It would seem that the Hindunized Arab missionary mindset, as opposed Sinic goal of
profit orientitaion, would be more likelty to share stories of their culture, with the purpose of
winning hearts and minds. At this point in history, how Indic epics came to be known to the
inhabitants of S Philippines might be explained. While the Sinic merchants were solely interested
in trade and commerce, their Hindunized Arab counterparts appears to have been motivated by
more; they tried to build better bonds by sharing their own stories.

85

At this time, a certain Siat Saen tried to spread Islam in Batangas but failed (Liclican, 2014).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 62

Shortly after the arrival of Islamic missionaries, Islamic armies began a conquest of SE
Asia. Inspired by Tamerlanes successful alternating of peaceful means and force in India, these
missionaries and armies spread a Hindunized Islam in SE Asia, which the natives readily
accepted (Robequain, 1958, 68-69; Pisano, 1992, 26). It is said that Raja Baguinda introduced
the first firearms to Sulu in 1390.
Sources say that, in 1390, Rajah Baguinda, an Islamic prince of the Menankabaw
Kingdom in Sumatra, led an army to Sulu, where his firearms overcame the resistance of the
Islamic rulers, as had the Madjapahit before him (Zaide, 1939, 46-47). After peacefully
concluding relations with the native rulers, Baguinda replaced their somewhat informal state
Mohammedanism with a formal Islamic dynasty (Majul, 1973, 55, 63; Pisano, 1992, 27).
Cotabato, Manila, and Mindoro followed:
Sharif Muhammad Kabungsuwan arrived in Cotabato in 1478 (and became) the
first sultan in Mindanao. In 1600, Muslim businessmen and missionaries brought the
religion to Manila, Tondo, and Mindoro. In the 16th century, Fort Santiago was a
Muslim community ruled by Raja Matanda, nephew of Raja Soliman (p. 24).
In 1400 and thereafter, Arab traders and missionaries began to arrive and increased
Muslim conversions. When the newcomers introduced firearms, other natives even more greatly
feared the Moro who grew very daring (with) long trips on the sea to the north and south,
carrying on trade and making many surprise attacks for loot and slaves (Cole, 1916). Some
visitors became powerful rulers who, in time and under the Islamic faith, unified many
settlements that had been at war with each other (Cole, 1916).
By 1500, Hindunized Muslim merchants from China or Malaysia had organized trade and
developed state systems in Maritime Asia (Niel, 1992).86 After Abu Bakrs first Sultanate of Sulu
and Sherif Muhammad Kabungsuwan the establishment of Sultanate of Maguindanao (Liclican,
2014), the sultanate form of governance Mindanao.
In 1435 and after, the Ming dynasty began a slow withdrawal from SE Asia (Beyer, 1932,
130) that quickened the pace of the Islamic conquest and consolidation throughout the region,
including the islands of Ma-i (Steiger, 1936, 334).
In 1450, Abu Bakr, a Muslim from Johore, arrived at Sulu and married Rajah Baguindas
daughter, Princess Paramisuli. He established the Sultanate of Sulu, which was the first Muslim
86

It was this rather recent creation of a state that Legazpi encountered when the center of Spanish control in the
Philippines was shifted from Cebu to Manila in 1571.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 63

sultanate in Mindanao, (Magdalena, n. d.). When Baguinda died, he became sultan, reshaped
governance as a traditional Arabian sultanate, and modified local customs according to Koranic
laws. His rule lasted until his death in 1480.
By1460, Islamic culture had changed many Mindanao communities into sultanates and
principalities87 that were active in the maritime trade with SE Asia, India, Japan, and China.
In 1475, Johores Muslim leader, Sharif Kabungsuwan, and his men arrived from Johore
(now Malaysia), converted natives to Islam, and established the Sultanate of Maguindanao,
making him as the first sultan in Mindanao (Agoncillo & Alfonso, 1967, 26; Zaide, 1939, 46-47;
Pisano, 1992, 27).
In 1478, Madjapahit succumbed to the Islamic armies of Rajah Bonang (Zaide, 1939, 4647), and the Mohammedan-Malay Empire of Malacca emerged. At the height of its power,
Malacca controlled the former Sinic colonies: Malaysia, Borneo, Sulu, Mindanao, the Moluccas,
the north coast of Java, and much of Sumatra. Malacca grew in power and riches by controlling
international Asian trade but was constantly pressured by competition from the Siamese
Kingdom.
In 1511, Malacca surrendered when the Portuguese systematically destroyed the the
Mohammedan-Malay Empire. (Beyer, 1932, 130-131; Pisano, 1992, 27-28)
Meanwhile, operating as sovereign states, the early Muslim sultanates in Sulu were the
first to develop cohesive political organizations, considered the most advanced in the Philippine
islands at that time (Tuminez, 2007, 77-91; Gowing & McAmis, 1974, ix; Cline, 2000, 117).
These sultanates established nationhood: a territory, people, government, and sovereignty
(Santos, 2005, 67). The sultanates provided Mindanao Muslims with an identity as peoples
distinct from the inhabitants of Luzon and the Visayas (Muslim & Cagoco-Guiam 1999). The
political influence of the sultanates extended to what is known today as Brunei, as well as the
provinces of Cebu, Panay, Mindoro, and Ilocos (Aquino, 2009, 22-23, from Abreau, 2008, 18).
By mid-1500s, Islamic political institutions had become prominent (Cline, 2000, 115138). Mindanao and Sulu were places of flourishing Islamic communities and settlements under
the sultanates that had been established and that provided a system of rules and governance

87

other tribes in Luzon and the Visayas remained scattered and unconsolidated

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 64

(Buendia, 2005). During this period, the Moros comprised more than 90% of the populations of
Mindanao and Sulu (Bacani, 2005).
The international trading ports in Jolo and Maguindanao at that time, even before the
reported discovery of the Philippines by Magellan, werre said to be already receiving ships and
visitors from Arabia, China, Spain, France, the Netherlands, and Britain (Luga, 2002, 2). An
early Sulu manuscript indicates that, in the century before the arrival of the Spaniards, up to five
hundred junks arrived each year from Cambodia, Champa, and China (Beyer, 1921, 862; Pisano,
1992, 12).
By the end of the 15th century, Islamic missionaries had established sultanates in Lanao
and Cotabato, with Islam had spreading to Luzon, skipping most of the Visayans who were more
resistant to the Moslems. In Manila, Muslim leaders Rajah Sulaiman Mahmud, Rajah Matanda,
and Rajah Lakandula had also established their respective sultanates (Aquino, 2009, 21).
To this day, traces of Hindunized Muslim influences in the Philippines abound.,
Philippine vocabulary includes sultan (king), raha (heir), dayang (princess) and kali (judge)
from Arabic (Liclican, 2014). Muslim arts in Mindanao now include the Maranao sarimanok,
said to be an adaptation of the mythical Indic fowl, the garuda. The onion-shaped minarets of
mosques echo Arabic architecture.
In 1521, the sultan and datus of Magindanao ruled the southern and western shores of
Mindanao (Saleeby, 1905. pp. 7-8; 25-26) Spanish and American colonizers failed to subjugate
them. Mindanao and Sulu could not be covered by the Spanish agrarian system (or) other
land tenurial arrangements (as) in the Visayas and Mindanao (Luga, 2002, 2).
As a result, the other islands spoke of the Moro in fear. They became ferocious pirates
infesting the southern seas and preying upon the rich trade which the Spaniards carried on with
Mexico. Stone walls and watch towers were built at advantageous points to guard against them,
but bays and creeks which afforded opportunities for lurking, surprise, and attack continued to be
frequented by the treacherous warriors (Cole, 1916).

3.2.13 1500s: Indic Brunei Rules the Philippines


Official accounts of the history of Brunei seem to gloss over the fact that its first
sultanates first sultan, Sultan Mohammed Shah, the former Alak Betatar, was a Bisaya (Pisano,
1992). Instead, foundation legend says his father came from an egg (Buyers, 2011).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 65

Some versions of the Syair Awang Semaun trace the foundation of Brunei to
fourteen saudara (brothers and first cousins). Other versions say they were all sons of
Dewa Amas of Kayangan, a supernatural being who fell to earth in an egg at Ulu
Limbang, and fathered them by fourteen different aboriginal wives (Buyers, 2011)

Official documents, however, seem to find no need to use mythology. For instance, the
High Commission of India (2016) in Brunei echoes the official line, that in the 6th century,
Brunei was a Hindu-Buddhist kingdom but converted to Islam late in the 14the century when its
ruler, Awang Alak Betatar, married a Muslim Johore princess from Malacca (p. 3). In another
source, the 2011 annual report of the Brunei Prime Minister's Office says that three of its recent
Sultans can trace their ancestry straight back to the first Sultan, Mohammed Shah, who ruled
from 1363 to 1402 the first Muslim ruler of Brunei Darussalam, after converting to Islam at
the start of his reign (p. 19).
There are other sources, however, that interestingly support the aforementioned account.
Pisano (1992), for instance, states that sometime in mid-1500s, a Bisaya named Alak ber Tala
became Sultan Mohammed when he was crowned the king of the Islamic sultanate of Brunei, a
small empire close to the Philippines. Sultan Mohammed introduced Arabic doctrines into his
kingdom as well as the use of Arabic writing made his reign the beginning of Bruneis local
recorded history (p. 28).
However, Pisano does not specify if Tala is from the Bisaya of Borneo (Wikipedia,
Bisaya (Borneo) or if he was a Filipino Bisaya. Other sources are equally vague about his
genealogy, describing his rule from 1368, his conversion to Islam in the 1360s, and his death in
1402 (Sidhu, 2009, 20; Malay History; Elisseeff, 2000, pp. 145157) but not his origin, only
saying that The genealogy of Muhammad Shah is unclear and that The early life of
Muhammad Shah is unknown (Wikipedia, Muhammad Shah of Brunei).
Although the Shaer Awang Semaun, Bruneis foundation myth, would rather give him
legendary status (Bowman, 410) rather than establish that his Filipino roots emanate from a
Filipino or from a sub-ethnic Dayak tribe (Wikipedia, Bisaya (Borneo),88 Buyers (2011)
unequivocally states the aboriginal origins of the first sultan of Brunei:

88

The strategy of claiming mythological descent to legitimize rule is not without historical precedent; it has been
used by many ruling classes in various eras all over the world (Birenbaum-Carmeli & Carmell, 2010, 139; Kalt, 2004,
1; Alikuzai, 2013 p. 367; Hekster, 2015, 18; Haviland, et. al, 2013, 508; Chaix, 2004; & Genealogical Gleanings,
2004).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 66

Paduka Sri Sultan Muhammad Shah, Sultan of Brunei, a younger son of Dewa
Amas of Kayangan, by an aboriginal lady. He was chosen by the saudara to become
the first ruler. Constructed his palace at Pirasung. He supposedly journeyed to Johor
and received confirmation as ruler and was invested with the title of Paduka Sri Sultan
Muhammad Shah by the Johor Sultan. m. [ca. 1365,] Dayang Sri Alam#2, a lady from
Johor. He [d. 1402, having] had issue, a son a one daughter

It should be noted that, at that time, Brunei was Indic territory. Hose and McDougall
(1912) cite evidence to prove that Bruni, before it became Mohammedan, was a Bisaya
kingdom under Buddhist sovereigns and Hindu influence (p1).89 In addition, they cite local
tradition regarding the Bisayan first sultan of Brunei:
How early the Arab doctrines were taught in Bruni is impossible to state with any
precision. Local tradition ascribes their introduction to the renowned Alak ber Tata,
afterwards known as Sultan Mohammed. Like most of his subjects this warrior was a
Bisaya, and in early life he was not a Mohammedan, not indeed a civilised potentate at
all, to judge by conventional standards; for the chief mark of his royal dignity was an
immense chawat, or loin-cloth, carried as he walked by eighty men, forty in front and
forty behind. He is the earliest monarch of whom the present Brunis have any
knowledge, a fact to be accounted for partly by the brilliance of his exploits, partly by
the introduction about that time of Arabic writing. After much fighting he subdued the
people of Igan, Kalaka, Seribas, Sadong, Semarahan, and Sarawak, and compelled
them to pay tribute. He stopped the annual payment to Majapahit of one jar of pinang
juice, a useless commodity though troublesome to collect (pp 17-19).

After Alak ber Tatas conversion to Islam, marriage to the daughter of Sultan Bakhei, and
proclamation as Sultan Johore, his claim to rule Sarawak was confirmed. It might be noted that
his rule was not strictly Islamic but rather Hindunized Islam. When his brother and then his
brother in law succeeded him, his Bisayan origin was always remembered:
the present royal house of Bruni is derived from three sources -- Arab, Bisaya,
and Chinese. The coronation ceremony as still maintained the principal minister
wears a turban and Haji outfit, the two next in rank are dressed in Chinese and Hindu
fashion, while the fourth wears a chawat over his trousers to represent the Bisayas
(Hose & McDougall, 1912, pp. 19-20)
In 1480 up to 1520 when Nadoka Ragam, the great-grandnephew of Sultan Mohammed
nee Alak ber Tata, became the fifth Sultan of Brunei, the kingdom extended its influence. At that
time, the power of Malacca was starting to decline. Ragam was able to bring all of Borneo,
Sulu, Palawan, Mindoro, south and central Luzon, parts of the Visayan Islands and Mindanao,
and the Moluccan archipelago under his control (Pisano, 1992, 28).

89

From Groeneveldt, Notes on Malay Aicchipelago and Malacca; and from Trubner, Essays Relating to Indo-China,
vol. i. p. 166).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 67

In 1485, the Tondo Kingdom (Tungdu in Cantonese), the capital of the Luzon Empire,
had so strongly monopolized the China trade that forces of Sultan Bulkia of Brunei
attacked Todno, and then established on the opposite bank a Bruneian satellite-state named
Selurong90 (now Manila). To weaken the House of Lakandula of Tondo, Sultan Bolkia Islamized
Rajah Salalila and established the Salalila dynasty (Kasumi, 2009).
In 1513 until 1533, Buyers (2011) says that the reign of Sultan Bolkiah Shah Alam saw
Brunei becoming a great Imperial power in the region and extended its influence over large
parts of Borneo and the Philippines, including the sultanates of Sulu and Maguindanao (2011).

3.2.14 1540: Japan Invades the Philippines


In the 16th century, as mentioned elsewhere in this section, China allowed Japan to trade
once every 11 years only. Japanese traders felt so threatened by the flourishing Luzon trade that
strong measures were taken. Japanese merchants had to attack the ships of the Luzon Empire to
obtain much sought-after Chinese products such as silk and porcelain (Pangilinan, 2009a).
Merchants and tea connoisseurs such as Shimai Soushitsu () and Kamiya
Soutan () opened trading offices in Luzon (, 1937). One Japanese merchant even
changed his family name of Naya () and became Luzon Sukezaemon (Miyamoto, 1975;
Pangilinan, 2009a).
In 1540, the Japanese attempted to invade the islands but failed.
In 1560 or thereabouts, Japanese pirates tried to sack Manila but Filipinos repulsed them
In 1572, when the Spaniards arrived in Manila, they found Japanese settlements in N
Luzon. Afterwards, Juan de Salcedo led a force to repel three Japanese pirate ships off the coast
of Pangasinan. In 1582, Spanish Governor-General Ronquillo ordered soldiers to remove a
Japanese settlement in Luzons Cagayan Valley (Zaide, 1939, 44-45; Pisano, 1992, 29-30).

3.2.15 1500s: Europe Discovers the Philippines


The end of the precolonial narrative begins with the European discovery of the islands
of Ma-i, particularly the Genoese Tome Pires, and the Portuguese Ferdinand Magellan.
In the 16th century, in the first written European reference to Ma-i, the Genoese pilot
Tome Pires wrote about the Lucoes (Loo-zos), believed to be Luzon, and connected details of the
90

Or Kota Seludong

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 68

islands with Borneo as well as confirmed that India then governed Luzon: (Pisano, 1992, 28-29;
Scott, 1994; Pangilinan, 2009a).
The Lucoes are about ten days sail beyond Borneo. They are nearly all heathen;
they have no king, but they are ruled by groups of elders. They are a robust people,
little thought of in Malacca. They have two or three junks, at the most. They take the
merchandise to Borneo and from there they come to Malacca.
The Borneans go to the lands of the Lucoes to buy gold, and foodstuffs as well,
and the gold which they bring to Malacca is from the Lucoes and from the
surrounding islands which are countless; they all have more or less trade with one
another. And the gold of these islands where they trade is of a low quality indeed
very low quality. The Lucoes have in their country plenty of foodstuffs, and wax and
honey; they take the same merchandise from here as the Borneans take.
They are almost one people; in Malacca there is no division between them. They
never used to be in Malacca as they are now; but the Tomunguo whom the Governor
of India appointed here was already beginning to gather many of them together, and
Figure 12: The Dutch Trade Route ca. 1650 (ireneses.files.wordpress.com)

they were already building many houses and shop (Cortesao, 1944, 133-134; Pisano,
1992, 29).
The preceding quote validates three points: Indias use of Borneo to govern Maritime
Asia, that the Philippines was then under India, and that Malacca -Philippines migrations and
trade was continuing91 (Pisano, 1992, 29).

91

For instance, Pires writes how Philippine trade to Malacca included trading outposts in Borneo.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 69

The preceding sections show how the Sri-Vishayan Empire governed the Philippines
through its vassal states in Borneo. Indias hold over the Philippines lasted until the arrival of the
Spaniards, which begun the Philippine colonial narrative. This precolonial narrative shows more
than 800 years of Hindu colonization prior to the Spanish regime. As Pisano (1992 citing Beyer,
1932, 131; and Craig, 1914, 12) points out:
The ties between Brunei and their Philippine dependencies were maintained
throughout the Madjapahit, Chinese, and Islamic periods. When the Portuguese
arrived in the Moluccas, and the Spaniards in the Philippines, the Brunei Sultanate
was their most influential rival in the region (28).
According to the Virtual Museum of the Museo Galileo, Ferdinand Magellan was not
even Spanish, and his island finds were accidental rather than calculated. The entry goes thus:
Ferdinand Magellan, 1480-1521: A Portuguese navigator employed by Spain,
Magellan believed in the existence of a passage from the West to the Indies.
Convinced Charles V (1500-1558) to fund the search. On September 20, 1519, left on
an expedition to the southern part of the American continent. Discovered Patagonia
and Tierra del Fuego. On November 28, 1520, crossed the strait that was later named
after him, venturing into a vast ocean where no westerners had ever sailed before. For
the entire three months of north-westerly navigation, the ocean remained calm,
prompting the travelers to call it the Pacific. Magellan sailed on to the Philippines,
where, on April 27, 1521, he was killed by natives on the small island of Mactan.
Nevertheless, he claimed the islands for his patron, and that ended any historical
possibility of the Filipinos to continue being Animist Buddhist or being Hindunized Moslems; or
to be known by some other name other than Filipino, the people of Felipe, the king of Spain.
Thus ended the prehistoric and the precolonial narratives of the archipelago we now
know as the Philippines.

3.3 Elements of Literary Tradition


The next chapter (Elements of Literary Tradition) is omitted for technical reasons. The
omitted chapter discusses elements of literary tradition such as practices, languages, and writing
systems as well as folk beliefs and superstitions prevalent in precolonial Philippines.

3.3.1 Language
The omitted chapter discusses precolonial literacy, Indic cultural influences, and a survey
of Philippine languages so as to trace the transfer of Sanskrit words via the Champa Empire,
which is linked to the Harappan culture of the first Indus Valley civilization.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 70

Although the chapter is omitted, the table of 216 Philippine languages in the Appendix
shows those which can be traced not only to Austronesian roots, but also to those related to the
languages of the ancient empires of India (See: Languages of the Philippines).

3.3.2 Writing System


The omitted section on writing systems includes the Asian abugidas, the scripts of the
Hanunoo as well as the Islamic, Sanskrit, Arabic, Pallava, and Kawi scripts. Also discussed are
the Surat Mangyan, the Sulat Kapampangan, the buid, baybayin, alibata, and the Eskayan script.

3.3.3 Precolonial Literature


The chapter on Precolonial Literature is omitted for the same technical reasons. The
chapter describes the variety of literary forms in precolonial Philippines, mostly oral traditions
such as riddles, proverbs, poetry, folk songs and narratives including folk epics. Overviews of
the folk epics of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao are presented. Literary elements that contain
influences from Hindu sources are discussed.
This omitted chapter discusses the epics of Luzon such as the Banna Bidian, the Kalinga
Ulalim; the Gaddang Lumalindaw; the Ifugao Hudhud and the Ifugao Alim, the Aliguyon nak
Amtalaw and the Aliguyon nak Binenwahen, the Bugan an imbayaga, the Bugan nak
pangaiwan, the Ilocano Biag ni Lam-ang, the Bicol Ibalon, the Gisumbi, the Dulimanan, and
the Biuag at Malana.
Also discussed are ancient Eastern Visayan literary forms such as the Waray candu,
haya, ambahan, canogon, bical, balac, siday and awit; the narratives susmaton and posong, the
W Visayan bangianay, hurobaton, paktakun, sugidanun and amba in Old Kinaray-a, and epics
such as the Hinilawod, Maragtas, and the Cebu Aginid: Bayok sa Atong Tawarik which relates
how a minor prince of the Chola dynasty, a Sri Lumay, established the Rajahnate of Cebu
(Abellana, 1952).

3.3.4 Moslem Philippines


Yet another omitted chapter titled Moslem Philippines discusses precolonial culture, with
a focus on customs, traditions, and folk beliefs.
The omitted section on the ancient epics of Mindanao discusses the tarsila of the
Magindanao, the Manobos religious ballads and literature including epics such as the Uwaging,
the Agyu, the Bukidnon Matabagka Nalandagan, the S Agusan Manobo Kamanduan, the

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 71

Subanon Sondayo and the Ag Tubig Nog Keboklogan; the Maranao kaiju, Bidasari, Darangen
Bantugan, Indarapatra Sulayman, and the Maharadia Lawana; the Tausug parang sabil, tigumtigum, masala, daman, pituwa, malikata, tilik, tarasul, katakata, salsila, parang sabil, the
Kaawin Kissa, Usula Kissa, the Kissa Parang Sabil ni Panglima Hassan, and the Panglima
Munggona; as well as literary traditions of the Jama Mapun, Samal, Badjao, Yakan, and Palawan
Moslem tribes. Arabic-inspired literature for use in rituals was in this omitted section.
The repercussions of omitting these chapters are discussed in the chapter on Humanistic
Analysis.
The next section, Empirical Analyses, explains the use of objective approaches to create a
rich body of textual analysis and literary criticism. Text samples included ethnographic as well
as literary texts. Intangibles such as superstitions and filial piety as well as other values were
included. Finally, procedures, instructions, and exercise charts / tables for skills practice in
mixed-methods research were provided.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 72

EMPIRICAL ANALYSES

This chapter explains the use of basic statistical procedures to examine


intangible elements in supersitions and in regional folk epics to analyze
intangible elements such as superstitions in ethnographic or in literary texts.

The pros and cons of applying empirical approaches to literary analysis have been
exhaustively debated in other published works. This chapter will focus on showing how
statistical procedures can be used to elicit meaningful data from selected ethnographic as well as
literary text samples. This is offered as a step prior to humanistic analysis, which is discussed in
the next chapter.
The ethnographic text samples include textual descriptions of 206 superstitions. Literary
text samples are summaries of epics from the literary traditions of precolonial Philippines.

4.1 Filial Piety


In Filipino culture, the family is the core social unit. Filipino folk beliefs include ideas
that are related to love of family. As a family-centric society, Filipinos consider it their duty to
take care of their familys safety and unity. Family members are preferred to run a company.
Clans would rather live in the same area (Anon. n. d., The Making of a Filipino, 8).
In this way, the family can offer support, strength, guidance, and role models. Elders live
in their childrens homes, where they are treated with care and respect. Nursing homes for the
elderly are considered only in extreme and exceptional cases, and only in recent history. Aside
from blood kinship, social kinships can be just as strong:
In the Philippines this family cohesiveness is extended in two ways (a) through
compadrazco, a network of ritual kinship of godparents, or sponsors, and (b) through
bayanihan, the spirit of neighborliness or solidarity, which are elevated above the
personal and material ambition (Ahimsa-Putra , 2012).
In this paper, the term filial piety refers to unconditional love of family which involves
unquestioning obedience of elder siblings and relatives, veneration of parents and ancestors, and
putting the family above others, according to their seniority. On the other hand, folk beliefs or
superstitious beliefs, are long-held ideas that reflect customs, traditions, and mores particularly
those that are based on faith, opinions, old or popular practices particularly the ways that
people view the unknown and the means to appease the gods that control the future (Cruz,
1996).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 73

The following table summarizes the information of the findings regarding the frequency
of the values of filial piety as reflected in current folk beliefs in the Philippines.
Table 16: Values of Folk Beliefs in the Philippines

1st
2nd
3rd
3rd
4th
4th
5th
6th
6th
7th
7th
7th

Other Folk Beliefs


Illness & Death
The Body
Love, Courtship & Marriage
Food & Eating
Bad & Good Luck
Home & Family
Numbers & Colors
Numbers & Colors
Infants & Children
Money & Wealth
Pregnancy & Childbirth

TOTALS
RANK

11
7
0
9
3
7
0
5
8
1
1
1
53
1st

2
2
5
3
1
1
9
3
0
0
8
0
34
2nd

0
7
0
5
0
0
0
1
0
10
0
7
30
3rd

7
5
2
0
0
3
4
0
3
0
0
0
24
4th

15
3
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
21
5th

7
1
0
0
4
3
0
1
0
0
0
3
19
6th

2
0
14
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
18
7th

0
0
0
5
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
9
8th

0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
3
9th

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
10th

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
th
10

Total

Awareness of
Nature
Unknown or
Uncertain
Health and
Safety
SelfAwareness
Proper
Behavior
Hospitality or
Charity
Family and
Marriage
Routines or
Traditions

Filial Piety

Folk Beliefs

Uncertainty
Avoidance
Positive
Outlook

Rank

Values

44
25
22
22
15
15
13
12
12
11
11
11
206

Adapted from Cruz, 1996

Overall Frequency Rank: 3rd. The preceding table indicates that Filial Piety is a
relatively important value in Filipino folk beliefs. Overall, it ranks third in frequency,
after Uncertainty Avoidance, and Positive Outlook; higher than the values of Awareness
of Nature, Health and Safety, proper behavior, and tradition.

Group Frequency Rank: 1st. The table shows that Filial Piety ranks highest in folk
beliefs related to Infants and children, second in Pregnancy and Childbirth, and third in
Love, Courtship, and Marriage. Other findings include:

Frequency Rank 1st: Filial Piety ranks first in frequency in folk beliefs related to:
Pregnancy (See Table: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Pregnancy); Childbirth (See
Table: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Childbirth); Infants (See Table: Beliefs &
Superstitions Related to Infants); Children (See Table: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to
Children); and Death (See Table: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Death).

Frequency Rank 2nd: Filial Piety ranks second in frequency in folk beliefs related to
Love, Courtship, and Marriage. (See Table: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Love,
Courtship, & Marriage).

Frequency Rank 4th: Filial Piety ranks fourth in folk beliefs related to Numbers and
Colors (See Table: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Numbers & Colors) and the Human
Body (See Table: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to the Human Body).

Zero Frequency: Filial Piety does not appear in this set of folk beliefs related to Luck,
Numbers & Colors, Money and Wealth, or Food and Eating.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 74

4.2 Superstitions
As of this writing, folk beliefs or superstitions remain alive not only in the hinterlands
and the provinces but also in the most modern areas of large cities.
The perceived powers of these beliefs remain the same, whether the Filipino has Chinese
or animist ancestors. Superstitions survive for their power to attract and increase positive forces
as well as to ward away negative forces.
Filipinos have a number of folk beliefs about life, family, luck, wealth, etc.. The
Tagalog terms for folk beliefs and superstitions are: paniniwala (beliefs), kasabihan ng mga
matatanda92, and pamahiin93 (Cruz, 1996).

4.3 Empirical Analysis of Superstitions


The ethnographic samples are mostly from the collection provided in Dont Bathe on a
Friday: Philippine Superstitions and Folk Beliefs by Neni Sta. Romana-Cruz, (1996). The
electronic document is available at www.seasite.niu.edu
This paper does not attempt to validate effectiveness of such beliefs, but rather measures
the prevalence and frequency of occurrence of such intangibles in ethnographic and in literary
texts. Ethnographic text sampling is limited to superstions, which are folk beliefs that can be
classified as explicit and implicit.
The explicit beliefs prescribe behavior, thus the label explicit-prescriptive. On the other
hand, the implicit beliefs imply meaning via symbols, thus the label implicit-symbolic. The
research does not attempt to a content analysis of these two classifications; that is best left to
future research.

4.3.1 Filial Piety in Superstitions


The cultural values found in a sample of 219 folk beliefs and superstitions in the
Philippines today are detailed in Table: Values in Beliefs & Superstitions. The following table
summarizes the information.94

92

what the old people say


superstitions
94
Much has been debated about the strengths and weaknesses as well as the uses and limitations of statistical
procedures, which are better discussed by other papers (Carr, 1994). This statistical evaluation of Filipino beliefs
and superstitions is limited to formulationg overall views of frequency, emphasis, importance, and particularly to
determine the frequency of filial piety in current folk beliefs.
93

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 75

Table 17: Values of Folk Beliefs in the Philippines

TOTALS
RANK

11
7
0
9
3
7
0
5
8
1
1
1
53
1st

2
2
5
3
1
1
9
3
0
0
8
0
34
2nd

7
5
2
0
0
3
4
0
3
0
0
0
24
4th

15
3
0
0
0
0
0
2
1
0
0
0
21
5th

7
1
0
0
4
3
0
1
0
0
0
3
19
6th

2
0
14
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
18
7th

0
0
0
5
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
9
8th

0
0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
1
0
3
9th

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
10th

0
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
1
10th

Computed from tables adapted from Cruz, 1996

4.3.2 Frequency of Values in Folk Beliefs


Out of a total of 219 sample folk beliefs, Filial Piety occurs 22 times (11%) ranking
fourth. The highest frequencies of values are: Uncertainty Avoidance (24.5%); Positive Outlook
(16.5%); and Awareness of Nature (12%). Ranking fifth are Other Superstitious Beliefs (10.5%),
which appear to have Unknown or Uncertain, or unclear pragmatic bases.

%
RANK

Others

24

23

21

19

18

Routines or
Traditions

Filial Piety

34

Family and
Marriage

Awareness of
Nature

53

Health and
Safety
SelfAwareness
Proper
Behavior
Hospitality or
Charity

Positive
Outlook

FOLK
BELIEFS

Uncertainty
Avoidance

Table 18: Summary of Values Frequency in Filipino Folk Beliefs

Total

206

25.7 16.5 11.6 11.2 10.29 9.2 8.7 4.4 1.4 0.5 0.5
1st 2nd 3rd 4th
5th 6th 7th 8th 9th 10th 10th

From the frequency counts in the preceding table, it can be argued that folk values in the
Philippines today place much importance on Uncertainty Avoidance, which includes mental
preparations for possibilities, probabilities, and likelihoods, regardless of whether or not these
would happen.
This argument is directly related to maintaining equanimity also known as coping or
sanity in complex and uncertain environments. Equanimity can be argued as a primary goal for
keeping a Positive Outlook, which ranks second in frequency after Uncertainty Avoidance.

Total

0
7
0
5
0
0
0
1
0
10
0
7
30
3rd

Health and
Safety
SelfAwareness
Proper
Behavior
Hospitality
or Charity
Family and
Marriage
Routines or
Traditions

Others

Other Folk Beliefs


Illness & Death
The Body
Love, Courtship & Marriage
Food & Eating
Bad & Good Luck
Home & Family
Numbers & Colors
Numbers & Colors
Infants & Children
Money & Wealth
Pregnancy & Childbirth

Awareness
of Nature

Folk Beliefs

Filial Piety

1st
2nd
3rd
3rd
4th
4th
5th
6th
6th
7th
7th
7th

Uncertainty
Avoidance
Positive
Outlook

Rank

Values

44
25
22
22
15
15
13
12
12
11
11
11
206

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 76

That the most unpredictable and uncontrollable elements are those of nature appears to
be tacitly acknowledged by the Filipino culture as reflected in its value system, where the values
of respect for natural forces rank third in frequency
In this connection, the geography and meteorology of the Philippine Archipelago
includes extreme winds, heat, drought, as well as heavy rainfall and volcanic-tectonic events in
addition to tsunamis and annual typhoons.
Secondary in power but higher in frequency are negative human behaviors such as crime,
corruption, abuse of power, and human errors; as well as increasing populations and decreasing
resources and opportunities. All these require a higher level of equanimity than living in other
locations, thus the highest frequencies of Uncertainty Avoidance and Positive Outlook in the
preceding table.
Folk beliefs can be of two types: explicit-prescriptive (Dos and Donts) which comprise
a high 61.5%; and implicit-symbolic (signs and portents) which comprise a low 38.5% of the
sample of 219 folk beliefs. It can thus be argued that practical beliefs are 23% more frequent
than purely superstitious beliefs.

4.3.3 Explicit-Prescriptive Folk Beliefs


In the sample of 219 folk beliefs analyzed in the study, at least 59.7% are implicitsymbolic notions, also called Dos and Donts. The highest frequencies of Dos and Donts are:
Uncertainty Avoidance (21.1%); Filial Piety (16.3%), and two equally third-ranking values of
Health and Safety and Positive Outlook (15.4%).
An analysis of elements such as prioritization or preferences can be discussed and proven
by numerical data that proves how the element Awareness of Nature precedes the element SelfAwareness in the ranked frequency listing of explicit or prescriptive folk beliefs. In this
connection, it could also be noted that there are no explicit or prescriptive folk beliefs under
Family and Marriage, or Traditions.

Filial Piety

Health and
Safety

Positive
Outlook

Others

Awareness
of Nature

Proper
Behavior

SelfAwareness

Hospitality
or Charity

Family and
Marriage

Routines or
Traditions

Dos &
Donts
%
RANK

Uncertainty
Avoidance

Table 19: Values Frequency in Filipino Explicit-Prescriptive Folk Beliefs


Out of
206

26

20

19

19

15

13

123

21.1
1st

16.3
2nd

15.4
3rd

15.4
3rd

12.2
4th

10.6
5th

5.7
6th

2.4
7th

0.8
8th

0.0

0.0

59.7%

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 77

4.3.4 Implicit-Symbolic Folk Beliefs


In the sample of 219 folk beliefs analyzed in the study, at least 39% are implicit-symbolic
notions that can be described as signs and portents. The following table illustrates the data.

%
RANK

SelfAwareness

Positive
Outlook

Awareness of
Nature

Others

Hospitality or
Charity

Proper
Behavior

Filial Piety

Family and
Marriage

Routines or
Traditions

Health and
Safety

signs &
portents

Uncertainty
Avoidance

Table 20: Values Frequency in Filipino Implicit-Symbolic Folk Beliefs

Out of
206

27

15

15

11

81

33.3 18.5 18.5 13.5 7.4


1st 2nd 2nd 3rd 4th

2.5
5th

2.5
5th

2.6
6th

1.2
6th

1.2
6th

0.0

39.3%

The highest ranking signs and portents are: Uncertainty Avoidance (33.3%); SelfAwareness and Keeping a Positive Outlook in negative or uncertain situations (18.5% each), and
Awareness of Nature (13.5%). Filial Piety ranks sixth after hospitality and proper behavior, but
ranks the same as family and marriage, tradition, as well as Health and Safety. The preceding
tables indicate that filial piety is more explicit-prescriptive than implicit-symbolic.95
This preceding table lays the argument for equanimity as a strong element of a culturally
survivalist-pragmatic mindset in terms of implicit or symbolic folk beliefs. These highestranking frequencies of Uncertainty Avoidance, Self-Awareness, and Keeping a Positive Outlook
are contributive factors to mental equanimity, as well as to a pragmatic-survivalist set of
behavioral frameworks.

4.3.5 House, Home, and Family


There are fifteen (15) samples of superstitions or folk beliefs related to house, home, and
family. This includes two (2) implicit-symbolic signs and portents that can be said to support or
promote the values of Awareness of Nature (See details in Signs & Portents Related to
Constructing a House); as well as thirteen (13) explicit-prescriptive Dos and Donts that can be
said to support or promote the values of Positive Outlook [9], Awareness of Nature [2], and
Uncertainty Avoidance [2] (See details in Dos & Donts Related to Constructing a House).
The following table summarizes the information.

95

As stated before, the traditional core unit of Filipino society is the family rather than the individual. This
importance accorded to the family unit means that folk beliefs would instead of leaving family roles and
relationships to chance or to subtexts clearly explicate family structures, roles, and functions.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 78

Table 21: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to House, Home, and Family
Rank
1st
2nd
3rd
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Positive Outlook
Awareness of Nature
Uncertainty Avoidance
Self-Awareness
Health and Safety
Proper Behavior
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Filial Piety
Unknown or Uncertain
Total
%

Signs &
Portents
0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
13.33

Dos & Donts

Total

9
2
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
13
86.67

9
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

60.00
26.67
13.33
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

15

100

With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to house, home, and family,
the ranked frequency values are Positive Outlook (60%), followed by Awareness of Nature
(26.67%), and then by Uncertainty Avoidance (13.33%). Filial Piety does not appear in this set
of folk beliefs related to house, home, and family.

4.3.6 Food and Eating


There are sixteen samples of (16) superstitions or folk beliefs related to food and eating.
This includes six samples of (6) implicit-symbolic signs and portents that can be said to support
or promote the values of hospitality, marriage & family, of tradition or expected behavior, of
Proper Behavior [2], and of Positive Outlook in negative situations (See detailed Signs &
Portents Related to Food & Eating); as well as ten (10) explicit-prescriptive Dos and Donts
that can be said to support or promote the values of safety [4], Uncertainty Avoidance [3],
hospitality [2], proper behavior, and Self-Awareness (See detailed Dos & Donts Related to
Food & Eating). The following table summarizes the information.
Table 22: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Food and Eating
Rank
1st
2nd
2nd
3rd
3rd
3rd
3rd
3rd
0
0
0

Values
Health and Safety
Uncertainty Avoidance
Proper Behavior
Self-Awareness
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Positive Outlook
Filial Piety
Awareness of Nature
Unknown or Uncertain
Total
%

Signs & Portents


0
0
2
0
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
6
42.85

Dos & Donts


4
3
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
8
57.15

Total
4
3
3
1
1
1
1
1
0
0
0

%
28.60
20.20
20.20
06.00
06.00
06.00
06.00
07.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

14

100

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 79

With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to food and food
consumption, the ranked frequency values are safety first, followed by Uncertainty Avoidance,
and then by expected behaviors. Filial Piety does not appear in this set of folk beliefs related to
food and eating.

4.3.7 Money and Wealth


In a country where most of the population lives below poverty level, the importance of
Money and Wealth lies not only in terms of survival, but also of self-identity, social standing,
self-worth, as well as significant in terms of social acceptance or breaking social barriers for
advancement or relationships.
There are eleven (11) samples of superstitions or folk beliefs related to Money and
Wealth. This includes four (4) implicit-symbolic signs and portents that can be said to support or
promote the values of Positive Outlook in negative situations (See detailed Signs & Portents
Related to Money & Wealth); as well as nine (9) explicit-prescriptive Dos and Donts that can
be said to support or promote the values of Positive Outlook in negative situations [4] SelfAwareness, Uncertainty Avoidance, and Hospitality or Charity (See detailed Dos & Donts
Related to Money & Wealth).
With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to Money and Wealth, the
ranked frequency values are Positive Outlook in negative situations (74.5%), followed by
Uncertainty Avoidance, Self-Awareness, and Hospitality or Charity (8.5% each). Filial Piety
does not appear in this set of folk beliefs related to Money and Wealth. The following table
summarizes the information.
Table 23: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Money & Wealth
Rank
1st
2nd
2nd
2nd
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Positive Outlook
Self-Awareness
Uncertainty Avoidance
Hospitality or Charity
Health and Safety
Proper Behavior
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Filial Piety
Awareness of Nature
Unknown or Uncertain
Total
%

Signs & Portents


4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
36.36

Dos & Donts


4
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
63.63

Total
8
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

%
74.50
08.50
08.50
08.50
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

11

100

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 80

4.3.8 Love, Courtship, and Marriage


There are twenty-two (22) samples of folk beliefs related to Love, Courtship, and
Marriage. This includes six (6) implicit-symbolic signs and portents that can be said to support
or promote the values of Uncertainty Avoidance [4], Filial Piety, and of Positive Outlook (See
details in Signs & Portents Related to Marriage); as well as sixteen (6) explicit-prescriptive Dos
and Donts that can be said to support or promote the values of Uncertainty Avoidance [5],
Proper Behavior [5], Filial Piety [5], and Positive Outlook [3] (See details in Dos & Donts
Related to Gift-giving; in Dos & Donts Before Weddings; Dos & Donts on the Wedding Day;
and in Dos & Donts Related to Marriage.
With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to Love, Courtship, and
Marriage, the ranked frequency values are Uncertainty Avoidance (40.9%), followed by proper
behavior and Positive Outlook (22.72% each). Filial Piety ranks second in frequency in folk
beliefs related to Love, Courtship, and Marriage. The following table summarizes the
information.
Table 24: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Love, Courtship, & Marriage
Rank
1st
1st
2nd
3rd
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Uncertainty Avoidance
Proper Behavior
Filial Piety
Positive Outlook
Self-Awareness
Health and Safety
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Awareness of Nature
Unknown or Uncertain
Total
%

Signs & Portents


4
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
27.27

Dos & Donts


5
5
4
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
16
72.72

Total
9
5
5
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

%
40.90
22.72
22.72
13.63
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

22

100

4.3.9 Pregnancy
There are eight (8) samples of superstitions or folk beliefs related to Pregnancy. This
includes two (2) implicit-symbolic signs and portents that can be said to support or promote the
values of Filial Piety and of Uncertainty Avoidance (See detailed Signs & Portents Related to
Pregnancy); as well as six (6) explicit-prescriptive Dos and Donts that can be said to support or
promote the values of Filial Piety, Health and Safety, and of Uncertainty Avoidance (See
detailed Dos & Donts Related to Pregnancy).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 81

With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to Pregnancy, the ranked
frequency values are Filial Piety (5%), Health or Safety (37.5%), and Uncertainty Avoidance
(12.5%). The following table summarizes the information.
Table 25: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Pregnancy
Rank
1st
2nd
3rd
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Filial Piety
Health and Safety
Uncertainty Avoidance
Positive Outlook
Self-Awareness
Proper Behavior
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Awareness of Nature
Unknown or Uncertain
Total
%

Signs & Portents


1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
25.00

Dos & Donts


3
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
6
75.00

Total
4
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

%
50.00
37.50
12.50
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

100

4.3.10 Childbirth
The phenomenon of lower population rates among more educated or wealthier people has
long been discussed but never empirically proven. In this analysis, it would seem that Childbirth,
though fraught with danger and pain, could be considered less urgent or more routine than other
values examined in the research.
There are three (3) samples of superstitions or folk beliefs related to Childbirth. This
includes no (0) implicit-symbolic signs and portents; as well as three (3) explicit-prescriptive
Dos and Donts that can be said to support or promote the values of Filial Piety (See detailed
Dos & Donts Related to Childbirth).
With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to Childbirth, only values of
filial piety are indicated. There seems to be no other values in this group of folk beliefs. The
following table summarizes the information.
Table 26: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Childbirth
Rank
1st
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Filial Piety
Positive Outlook
Self-Awareness
Uncertainty Avoidance
Health and Safety
Proper Behavior
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines

Signs & Portents


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Dos & Donts


3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Total
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

%
100.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 82

Rank
0
0

Values
Awareness of Nature
Unknown or Uncertain
Total
%

Signs & Portents


0
0
0
00.00

Dos & Donts


0
0
3
100.00

Total
0
0

%
00.00
00.00

100

4.3.11 Infants
The ethnological data shows considerable attention to Infants in relation to Uncertainty
Avoidance and in training them in family values.
There are seven (7) samples of superstitions or folk beliefs related to Infants. This
includes no (0) implicit-symbolic signs and portents. However, there are seven (7) explicitprescriptive Dos and Donts that can be said to support or promote the values of Filial Piety (6)
and Uncertainty Avoidance. (See detailed Dos & Donts Related to Infants).
With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to Infants, the ranked
frequency values are filial piety first (85.72%) followed by uncertainty avoidanc (14.28%). The
following table summarizes the information.
Table 27: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Infants
Rank
1st
2nd
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Filial Piety
Uncertainty Avoidance
Positive Outlook
Self-Awareness
Health and Safety
Proper Behavior
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Awareness of Nature
Unknown or Uncertain
Total
%

Signs & Portents


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
00.00

Dos & Donts


6
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
7
100.00

Total
6
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

%
85.72
14.28
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

100

4.3.12 Children
There are four (4) superstitions or folk beliefs related to children. This includes no (0)
implicit-symbolic signs and portents but includes four (4) explicit-prescriptive Dos and Donts
that can be said to support or promote the values of Filial Piety (4; See detailed Dos & Donts
Related to Children).
With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to children, the ranked
frequency values are Filial Piety (100.00%). The following table summarizes the information.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 83

Table 28: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Children


Rank
1st
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Filial Piety
Positive Outlook
Self-Awareness
Uncertainty Avoidance
Health and Safety
Proper Behavior
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Awareness of Nature
Unknown or Uncertain
Total
%

Signs & Portents


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
00.00

Dos & Donts


4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
100.00

Total
4
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

%
100.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

100

4.3.13 The Body


The data seems to indicate a high level of attention to the Human Body, whether in the
self or in others. Further ethnological studies might connect this with the Puritanism of North
American culture during the American Occupation, or the Roman Catholic regulations and
prohibitions of the Spanish Occupation years.
There are twenty-three (23) samples of superstitions or folk beliefs related to the Human
Body. This includes twenty-three (23) implicit-symbolic signs and portents that can be said to
support or promote the values of Uncertainty Avoidance (14), Positive Outlook (5), Awareness of
Nature (2), hospitality or charity, and Filial Piety (See details in Signs & Portents Related to the
Human Body; and in Signs & Portents Related to Behavior). There are no explicity-prescriptive
Dos and Donts related to the Human Body.
With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to the Human Body, the
ranked frequency values are Uncertainty Avoidance (60.87%), Positive Outlook (21.74%),
Awareness of Nature (8.69%), Hospitality or Charity (4.35%), and Filial Piety (4.35%). The
following table summarizes the information.
Table 29: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to the Human Body
Rank
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
4th
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Uncertainty Avoidance
Positive Outlook
Awareness of Nature
Hospitality or Charity
Filial Piety
Self-Awareness
Health and Safety
Proper Behavior
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines

Signs & Portents


14
5
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

Dos & Donts


0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Total
14
5
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

%
60.87
21.74
08.69
04.35
04.35
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 84

Rank
0

Values
Unknown or Uncertain
Total
%

Signs & Portents


0
23
100.00

Dos & Donts


0
0
00.00

Total
0

%
00.00

23

100

4.3.14 Illness and Disorders


There are six (6) samples of superstitions or folk beliefs related to illness and disorders.
This includes two (2) implicit-symbolic signs and portents that can be said to support or promote
the values of Self-Awareness, and Health and Safety (See details in Signs & Portents Related to
Illness and Disorders). There are four (4) explicit-prescriptive Dos and Donts that can be said
to support or promote the values of Awareness of Nature (2), Positive Outlook and 1 Unknown or
Uncertain value (See details in Dos & Donts Related to Illness and Disorders).
With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to illness and disorders, the
ranked frequency values are Awareness of Nature (33.36), followed by Positive Outlook,
Unknown or Uncertain value, Self-Awareness, health and safet (16.66% each). Filial Piety does
not appear in this set of folk beliefs related to illness and disorders. The following table
summarizes the information.
Table 30: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Illness and Disorders
Rank
1st
2nd
2nd
2nd
2nd
0
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Awareness of Nature
Positive Outlook
Unknown or Uncertain
Self-Awareness
Health and Safety
Uncertainty Avoidance
Proper Behavior
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Filial Piety
Total
%

Signs & Portents


0
0
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
50.00

Dos & Donts


2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
4
50.00

Total
2
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

%
33.36
16.66
16.66
16.66
16.66
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

100

4.3.15 Death
There are twenty-one (21) samples of superstitions or folk beliefs related to death. This
includes ten (10) implicit-symbolic signs and portents that can be said to support or promote the
values of Uncertainty Avoidance [6], Filial Piety, Awareness of Nature, Unknown or Uncertain,
Positive Outlook, and of Health and Safety (See details in Signs & Portents Related to Death;
and in Signs & Portents Related to Wakes); as well as eleven (11) explicit-prescriptive Dos and
Donts that can be said to support or promote the values of Uncertainty Avoidance, Filial Piety
[6], Awareness of Nature [2], and an Unknown or Uncertain value (See details in Dos & Donts

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 85

Related to Death; in Dos & Donts Related to Wakes; and in Dos & Donts Related to
Funerals).
With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to death, the ranked frequency
values are uncertainy avoidance and Filial Piety (33.33% each), followed by Awareness of
Nature (14.28%), one Unknown or Uncertain value, and then by Positive Outlook and Health
and Safety (4.76% each. The following table summarizes the information.
Table 31: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Death
Rank
1st
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
4th
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Uncertainty Avoidance
Filial Piety
Awareness of Nature
Unknown or Uncertain
Positive Outlook
Health and Safety
Self-Awareness
Proper Behavior
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Total
%

Signs & Portents


6
1
1
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
47.62

Dos & Donts


1
6
2
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
11
52.38

Total
7
7
3
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0

%
33.33
33.33
14.28
09.54
04.76
04.76
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

21

100

4.3.16 Numbers and Colors


There are twelve (12) samples of superstitions or folk beliefs related to Numbers and
Colors.
This includes ten (10) implicit-symbolic signs and portents that can be said to support or
promote the values of Uncertainty Avoidance [5], Positive Outlook [2], Unknown or Uncertain
value [2], and of Filial Piety (See details in Signs & Portents Related to Numbers; in Signs &
Portents Related to Colors; as well as two (2) explicit-prescriptive Dos and Donts that can be
said to support or promote the values of Positive Outlook and Health or Safety (See details in
Dos & Donts Related to Numbers).
With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to Numbers and Colors, the
ranked frequency values are first, Uncertainty Avoidance (41.67%); second, Positive Outlook in
negative or uncertain situations (25%) and then; third by Health or Safety and Filial Piety
(8.33% each).
The following table summarizes the information.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 86

Table 32: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Numbers & Colors


Rank
1st
2nd
3rd
4th
4th
0
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Uncertainty Avoidance
Positive Outlook
Unknown or Uncertain
Health and Safety
Filial Piety
Self-Awareness
Proper Behavior
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Awareness of Nature
Total
%

Signs & Portents


5
2
2
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
83.33

Dos & Donts


0
1
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
16.67

Total
5
3
2
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0

%
41.67
25.00
16.67
08.33
08.33
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

12

100

4.3.17 Numbers & Colors


There are twelve (12) samples of uperstitions or folk beliefs related to Animals. This
includes ten (10) implicit-symbolic signs and portents that can be said to support or promote the
values of Uncertainty Avoidance [8], Awareness of Nature, and an Unknown or Uncertain value
(See details in Signs & Portents Related to Numbers & Colors); as well as two (2) explicitprescriptive Dos and Donts that can be said to support or promote the values of Awareness of
Nature (See details in Dos & Donts Related to Numbers & Colors).
With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to Animals, the ranked
frequency values are Uncertainty Avoidance (66.67%), Awareness of Nature (25%), and an
Unknown or Uncertain value (8.33%). The following table summarizes the information.
Table 33: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Numbers & Colors
Rank
1st
2nd
3rd
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Uncertainty Avoidance
Awareness of Nature
Unknown or Uncertain
Positive Outlook
Self-Awareness
Health and Safety
Proper Behavior
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Filial Piety
Total
%

Signs & Portents


8
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
83.33

Dos & Donts


0
2
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
2
16.67

Total
8
3
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

%
66.67
25.00
08.33
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

12

100

4.3.18 Bad and Good Luck


There are fifteen (15) samples of superstitions or folk beliefs related to Good and Bad
Luck. This includes five (5) implicit-symbolic signs and portents that can be said to support or

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 87

promote the values of Uncertainty Avoidance [2], and of Awareness of Nature [3] (See details in
Signs & Portents Related to Bad & Good Luck); as well as ten (10) explicit-prescriptive Dos
and Donts that can be said to support or promote the values of Uncertainty Avoidance [5],
Health or Safety [3], Positive Outlook, and proper behavior (See details in Dos & Donts
Related to Good & Bad Luck).
With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to Good and Bad Luck, the
ranked frequency values are Uncertainty Avoidance (469.66%), Health or Safety and Awareness
of Nature (20% each), Positive Outlook and proper behavior (6.67% each). Filial Piety does not
appear in this set of folk beliefs related to Good and Bad Luck. The following table summarizes
the information.
Table 34: Beliefs & Superstitions Related to Bad & Good Luck
Rank
1st
2nd
2nd
3rd
3rd
0
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Uncertainty Avoidance
Health and Safety
Awareness of Nature
Positive Outlook
Proper Behavior
Self-Awareness
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Filial Piety
Unknown or Uncertain
Total
%

Signs & Portents


2
0
3
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
5
33.33

Dos & Donts


5
3
0
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
10
66.67

Total
7
3
3
1
1
0
0
0
0
0
0
15

%
46.66
20.00
20.00
06.67
06.67
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
100

4.3.19 Other Folk Beliefs

There are forty-four (44) samples of other superstitions or folk beliefs. This includes
three (3) implicit-symbolic signs and portents that can be said to support or promote the values of
Unknown or Uncertain value, Uncertainty Avoidance, and of Self-Awareness (See details in
Signs & Portents Related to Sleeping & Dreaming; and in Signs & Portents Related to Some
Days); as well as forty-one (41) explicit-prescriptive Dos and Donts that can be said to support
or promote the values of Unknown or Uncertain value [14], Uncertainty Avoidance [10], Health
or Safety [7], Awareness of Nature [7], Positive Outlook [2], and Self-Awareness (See details in
Dos & Donts Related to Sleeping & Dreaming; in Dos & Donts Related to Nightfall; in Dos
& Donts Related to Some Days; in Dos & Donts Related to Bathing & Showering; and in
Other Dos & Donts).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 88

With regards to folk beliefs or superstitions that are related to Other Folk Beliefs, the
ranked frequency values are Unknown or Uncertain value (34.10%), Uncertainty Avoidance
(25%), Health or Safety and Awareness of Nature (15.9% each), Positive Outlook and SelfAwareness (4.55% each). Filial Piety does not appear in Other Folk Beliefs. The following table
summarizes the information.
Table 35: Other Folk Beliefs & Superstitions
Rank
1st
2nd
3rd
3rd
4th
5th
0
0
0
0
0

Values
Unknown or Uncertain
Uncertainty Avoidance
Health and Safety
Awareness of Nature
Positive Outlook
Self-Awareness
Proper Behavior
Hospitality or Charity
Family and Marriage
Tradition, Routines
Filial Piety
Total
%

Signs & Portents


1
1
0
0
0
1
0
0
0
0
0
3
06.82

Dos & Donts


14
10
7
7
2
1
0
0
0
0
0
41
93.18

Total
15
11
7
7
2
2
0
0
0
0
0

%
34.10
25.00
15.90
15.90
04.55
04.55
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00
00.00

44

100

How the results of the preceding empirical analyses can be used with the humanistic
approach to examine intangibles such as filial piety or superstitions in selected precolonial
Philippine folk epics will be explained in the next chapter (Humanistic Analysis).
Prior to that, however, the next section (Value Frequency Counts) shows how simple
statistical procedures can be used to not only elicit but also examine and prove intangible
elements in literary texts.

4.4 Value Frequency Counts


The relationship between empirical and humanistic analysis in academic research can be
illustrated in a microsection. For instance, the empirical approach in this paper uses frequency
counts of values found in randomly-selected literary texts.
Statistical procedures such as frequency counting allow researchers to see hidden patterns
and relationships in a complex or large body of material. Such objective data can be included in
the subjective analysis in order to create a richer evaluation.
The following table is how a summary of the 34 literary text samples randomly selected
for the study would look like. The hyperlinks lead to sections that provide examples and
explanatory details.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 89

Table 36: List OF Values Frequency Charts

01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22

Title or Label

Alim (10 lines)


Biag ni Lam-ang (30 lines)
Biag ni Lam-ang (43 lines)
Bidasari (24 lines)
Bidasari (43 lines)
Darangen Bantugan (07 lines)
Darangen Bantugan (23 lines)
Darangen Bantugan (85 lines)
Hudhud ni Aliguyon (13lines)
Hudhud ni Aliguyon (23 paragraphs, bilingual)
Ibalon (15 lines)
Ibalon Iling (25 liness, bilingual)
Indarapatra at Sulayman (06 lines)
Indarapatra at Sulayman (22 lines)
Indarapatra at Sulayman (70 lines)
Kamanduan (37 paragraphs)
Keg Sumba neg Sondayo (08 lines)
Keg Sumba neg Sondayo (08 paragraphs)
Keg Sumba neg Sondayo (53 lines)
Matabagka at Nalandagan (04 lines)
Tuwaang (33 lines)
Ulalim Banna (03 lines)

Values Frequency Counts


Supers- Filial
Other
Totals
tition
Piety Values

3
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC

3
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC

8
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC

14
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC
TBC

The derivations of the summary data in the preceding table are detailed in each of the
sections that follow.

4.5 Empirical Analysis of Literary Text


The epics of the Philippines are mostly magical, wondrous, and tells of ancient customs,
practices, hopes, and aspirations born out of the difficulties and inspirations that people
experienced in those times, an expression of a collective wish for the advent of better times,
accurate but embellished accounts of a peoples social institutions, value systems, and historical
aspirations (Maranan, et. al. 2015).
In the precolonial literary tradition of the Philippines, folk epics are called guman
(Subanon), darangen (Maranao), hudhud (Ifugao), or ulahingan (Manobo) to mention a few.
Epics are either sung or chanted during communal affairs such as harvest, weddings, or
funerals, by bards chosen for their wisdom or age. Sometimes, the performance of an epic is
accompanied by musical instruments and dancing (D. Eugenio).
Literary analysis has been either qualitative or quantitative, with a few delving into
mixed-methods research. However, understanding the effective use of mixed-methods
approaches for literary analysis can be more effectively understood if presented with examples.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 90

The primary goal of this chapter is the exemplification of the mixed-methods approach in
literary analysis. On the assumption that analysis of folk literature in English usually involves the
analysis of with English translations rather than original text, it is also assumed that truncated
versions or modified texts are available to most researchers.
Between what is lost in translation and what can be lost by using statistical processes on
literary texts, there is reason to argue against mixed methods research approaches in literary
analyses.
However, the following sections will show that even a researcher with minimal literary
knowledge can create richer, more in-depth textual analyses from the hidden patterns and
relationships that are revealed by simple frequency counts of selected elements or values in a
body of text, regardless of textual length, tone, or language.
It is for this reason that this research precludes the explication of more sophisticated
statistical procedures. Rather, the discussion is limited to simpler numbers processing such as
tabulation, frequency counting, addition, and averaging. The purpose is a gentle introduction to
meaningful use of statistics among the nonmathematical population of researchers.

4.5.1 Darangen Bantugan (23 lines)


To start with a simple, and more focused tabulation, one might limit the frequency count
to only two variables: Folk Beliefs and Filial Piety, for example. It might be asked:

Question: How would the table look like if only two elements are being analyzed?
Answer: The table would look like the table that follows.

Question: What is the purpose of the column Other Values in the other examples?
Answer: Those values can be used to create another table that identifies all the possible
values that can be found in the texts being examined.

Question: If the text is different from the examples in this paper, will the procedure
differ? Answer: The procedure will be the same as described here. However, the results
will differ from the examples in this paper.
To exemplify the preceding answers and questions, the following summary of Darangen

Bantugan with 23 sentences or lines is used in the next table, which is unlike one example with
83 sentences, or another example with seven (07) sentences.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 91

The process of tabulation and scoring is as as previously described. However, in this


example, only two values are being analyzed: all instances of folk beliefs (FB) and of Filial Piety
(FP) are scored.
Table 37: Frequency of Folk Beliefs and Filial Piety in Darangen (23)
#
01

02

03

04
05
06

07

08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16

17
18
19

Darangen Bantugan - Maranao


The king of beautiful Bumbaran was saddened upon hearing from Captain Gambayolan
that his brother Bantugan went courting in Babalay Anonan. With great sadness the king
went back to the castle and slept for 5 days under 10 colored mosquito nets.
On the 5th day all the lords of the land were summoned by the Prime Minister Ranga-ig. On
that meeting, the king ordered them never to speak to Bantugan again once he returns.
Everyone was saddened by the decree; Sabarat, Lord Lumbatan, and the young Prince
Mabaning of Gadong tried to reason politely to the King but to no avail.
And so, when Bantugan arrived, signaled by the bell on his campilan, he found unusual
quietness in every house and street of Bumbaran and upon reaching the palace. No one
would speak to him. Not even his dear friends Sabarat and Prince Lumbatan.
Prince Bantugan with his campilan (sword), kris (dagger) and kalasag (shield). The
Tower of Dinandingan
Because of the rude treatment, Bantugan left the palace after speaking to his nephew,
Da`romim`bang. Then he went to the tower of Dinandingan where he told his son,
Baratamai Lumna, to follow after playing.
At the tower, he found his sister, Princess Liaminna who oiled and combed his hair, and
prepared Betel nut for him.
When Baratamai Lumna arrived, Bantugan told him of his plan to leave Bumbaran until he
ends his grief. Baratamai Lumna wished to come along; however, he was told by Bantugan
to stay.
And so, Bantugan left and arrived at a river bank where he sat on a rock and decided
where to go. He wandered on until he reached a little grove and saw a cota beside a little
lake. There, a violent pain struck his heart. Bantugan went further until he reached a Baliti
tree where the pain struck him unconscious.
Bantugans Diwata, Magaw; The tower window of Princess Timbang
When he woke up, Bantugan was tremendously weakened. So he decided to call his
diwata (daimon), Magaw, who flew him to Princess Timbang`s tower. With his last strength,
Bantugan declared his wish to stay at the castle.
At the castle of Natangkopan a Ragat (The Land Between Two Seas) Princess Pinantaw
and Princees Timbang, took care of Bantugan.
All the best doctors and sorcerers of Natangkopan a Ragat were summoned to find a cure
for Prince Bantugan, but alas, he dies. Princess Timbang is saddened, saying she would
have been glad to talk to him before he died.
Meanwhile, all the people of Natangkopan a Ragat were called to gaze at Bantugans dead
body to find someone who knows his identity. But no one knew him.
Meanwhile, a parrot from Bumbaran just heard from five other parrots of the fate of his
master, Bantugan, and so it flew to Natangkopan a Ragat and turned out to be the only one
who could reveal Bantugan`s identity.
The King of Natangkopan a Ragat decided to send Bantugan`s body back to Bumbaran. To
avoid surprising the Kingdom, Princess Timbang sent her own parrot in advance to tell
them the bad news.
In Bumbaran, Princess Lawanan (Liamina) told the nobles of her dream where Prince
Bantugan was carried by the angel of death to the sky. This omen was later confirmed true
when Princess Timbang`s parrot arrived at the castle of Bumbaran.
With great haste, all left for Natangkopan a Ragat for Bantugan except for Princess
Mabaning and Madali who took off with their flying kalasag to the sky.
For 15 days Mabaning and Madali flew until they reached the gate of the sky and 30 days
later reached a second gate. On both gates, they told the inquisitive keepers that they
came to ask the angel of the dead when they will die. Then, they arrived at the abode of the
angel of the dead.
Mabaning, disguised as a beautiful woman, went to talk to the angel of the dead and tricked
him into leaving to ask some questions to the king of heaven in exchange for their
marriage.
When the angel was gone Mabaning looked for and took the large blue bottle imprisoning
Prince Bantugan`s soul. And with lightning speed, they went back to Bumbaran.
Reunited with his soul, Bantugan revived, bringing joy to everyone but for his enemies led
by Miscoyaw, who thought he was dead and were advancing towards Bumbaran.

FB

FP

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 92

#
20
21
22
23

Darangen Bantugan - Maranao


Bantugan was angered by the invaders, so he launched assaults and war soon exploded.
Bantugan faced his enemies for one day and one night with his campilan, his diwatas, as
well as his friend spirit Crocodile.
War went on until Bantugan grew weary and was locked up by opponents inside the cabin
of Miscoyaw`s ship. The invaders then went away leaving young men to guard the cabin.
Bantugan awoke and freed himself from the cabin. He then called his spirit to blow the ship
from land to land to collect his would-be wives: Maginar of Babalay, Anonan Minoyod of
Sun Girina, Ginar Manginawan of Bagumbayan, Luna Bolontai a Pisigi of Solauan a
Rogon, Datimbang of Natangkopan A Ragat by the whole realm.
Bantugan courted 40 other ladies. Then he returned to Bumbaran where he was met with
kisses. (Cortez, 2010)
TOTAL

1.1.1.8.

FB

FP

10

Table Labels

The Darangen is tabulated and numbered (#) by sections for ease of analysis and
reference. The sections are divided according to content, not according to tradition. In addition:

The penultimate column is for scoring all obvious or currently recognizable instances of
superstitions or Folk Beliefs (FB).

The ultimate column is for scoring all obvious or currently recognizable instances of
Filial Piety (FP).

Each occurence is scored as one (1). The ultimate row shows the total frequencies of folk
beliefs and filial piety.
Analysis refers to the number of each section on the first column (#). These descriptions

are shown in the table Frequency of Folk Beliefs and Filial Piety in the Darangen Epic.
1.1.1.9.

Elements of Filial Piety

The clear elements of Filial Piety in the text of the summary of Darangen Bantugan
include respect for elders and siblings. This is when Prince Bantugan leaves his kingdom in
sadness, accepting the proclamation of his brother, King Agaanon Dalinan. Another instance is
when the King asks for Prince Bantugans forgiveness at the end of the tale.
The objective analysis shows three instances of Filial Piety or filial love in the Darangen
Bantugan.
The first instance is when Bantugan left the palace, respecting his brother, the kings
edict of silence (#4).
The second instance is when he spoke to his nephew Daromimbang and his son
Baratamai Lumna before beginning his journey (#5).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 93

The third instance is when his sister, Princess Liaminna, oils and combs his hair, then
prepares his betel nut; while his son Baratamai Lumna who wishes to come along, obeys his
order to stay (#6).
1.1.1.10.

Elements of Superstitions

The elemnts of Supersittions in the Darangen Bantugan include folk beliefs in sorcery, in
magic and in magic spells, in dreams and omens, in life after death, and in the angel of death.
The objective analysis shows ten (10) instances of folk beliefs or superstitions in the
Darangen Bantugan. One instance is when Bantugan calls on his diwata Magaw who flies him
to the tower of Princess Timbang (#8). Another instance is when sorcerers of Natangkopan a
Ragat were among those summoned to find a cure for Prince Bantugan (#10).
Another example is when Princess Lawanan dreams of Prince Bantugan being carried by
the angel of death to the sky, and this omen is later confirmed true (#14). Other examples include
in the belief of a place in the sky for the departed (#14, 16, 17, 18) as well as in heroic virility of
warriors, as well as in polygamy and the preeminence of males over females (#22, 23).
1.1.1.11.

Other Cultural Values

Aside from Filial Piety, at least nine other values are in the epic: social peace,
responsibility in leadership, acting upon ones errors, magnanimity, faithfulness, social
responsibility, loyalty, beauty, and right triumphs over wrong (see Table: Frequency of Folk
Beliefs and Filial Piety in the Darangen Epic).
1.1.1.12.

Tabulation of Bilingual Text

One advantage of a table containing bilingual text is that a bilingual reader can spot
errors in translation, which can be colored for ease of identification. In the following table, the
cells are left blank to be used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring skills in using
the empirical approach in literary analysis.
The procedural explanations are in preceding sections: tabulation method, gross
qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Preceding sections include examples of
statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of elements of superstitious
beliefs, and other elements in literary works.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 94

Table 38: Darangen Analysis Chart (Bilingual)


#

01

02

03

Darangen (Pilipino)

The Darangen Epic

Mayroong isang hari sa isang malayong kaharian


sa Mindanao ang may dalawang anak na lalaki.
Ang nakatatanda ay si Prinsipe Madali at ang
nakababata ay si Prinsipe Bantugan.
Sa murang edad ay nagpakita si Prinsipe
Bantugan ng magagandang katangian na higit sa
kanyang nakatatandang kapatid na si Prinsipe
Madali.
Laging sinasabi ng kanilang guro sa kanilang
ama na si Prinsipe Bantugan ay napakatalino.
Mabilis siyang matuto, kahit sa paggamit ng
espada at palaso.

There was a king in a faraway kingdom


in Mindanao who had two sons. The
elder was Prince Madali and the
younger one was Prince Bantugan.
At a very early age, Prince Bantugan
had shown superior qualities over his
elder brother Prince Madali.

Taglay niya ang lakas na kayang makipaglaban

04 sa tatlo o limang tao sa mano-manong labanan.

05

Ang unang tanda na siya ay magiging isang


magaling na sundalo ay nang makita siya nang
mapatay niyang mag-isa ang isang malaking
buwaya na nakapatay sa ilang taong-bayan.
Hindi makapaniwala ang mga taong-bayan sa

06 kanilang nakita pagkatapos ng pagtutuos.


07

08

Napakalakas niya! ang sabi ng isang matandang


lalaki nang makita ang patay na buwaya. Paano
nakaya ng isang tao na ganito kabata na patayin
ang buwaya?
Sinasapian siguro siya ng mga diyos! Sabi
naman ng isa. Halika, pasalamatan natin ang
prinsipe sa pagpatay niya sa halimaw! Sabi ng
pinuno ng bayan.

Their tutors would always tell their


father that Prince Bantugan was very
intelligent. He was a fast learner, even
in the use of sword and bow and
arrow.
And he possessed such great strength
that he could subdue three to five men
in hand-to-hand combat.
The first indication that he would soon
be a formidable soldier was seen when
he single-handedly killed a big and
ferocious crocodile that had killed
several villagers.
The villagers could not believe their
eyes after the very short struggle.
He is so strong! An old man blurted out
upon seeing the dead crocodile. How
could a man so young as he kill a killer
crocodile?
He must be possessed by the gods!
Another villager said in awe. Come on;
lets thank the prince for killing the
beast! The chieftain of the place said
to all the villagers.

Total

Filial
Piety

Superstition

Other
Values

Adapted from kapitbisig.com

The preceding section begins by explaining the use of an empirical approach in literary
analysis by using simple statistical processes such as counting, recording, totaling, and
averaging. As well, the preceding section describes the tables, how they are labeled, and how
they are used.
How the statistical results are used in analyzing intangible elements in literary works are
exemplified in the analysis of filial piety, of superstitions belifes, as well as of other cultural
values that might happen to be identifiable in the text.
In the following section, a longer summary of the same epic, Darangen Bantugan, is
taken from another source and then analyzed in the same manner. However, two concepts are
introduced: the use of gross qualitative analysis, and the use of pure qualitative analysis.

4.5.2 Darangen Bantugan (85 lines)


In the southern regions of the Philippine archipelago the Maranao people live in the Lake
Lanao region of Mindanao. Their ancient epic song, the Darangen, is said to have 72,000 lines

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 95

organized in 17 cycles (UNESCO, n. d.) that requires several nights of performances to be


completed:
The Darangen celebrates episodes from Maranao history and the tribulations of
mythical heroes. In addition to offering compelling narrative content, the epic explores
the underlying themes of life and death, courtship, politics, love and aesthetics through
symbol, metaphor, irony and satire. The Darangen also encodes customary law,
standards of social and ethical behaviour, notions of aesthetic beauty, and social
values specific to the Maranao. To this day, elders refer to this time-honored text in
the administration of customary law (UNESCO n. d. Darangen Epic of the Maranao
People of Lake Lanao).
Darangen (Maranao, to narrate in song) is a Maranao oral tradition that existed before
the 14th century when Islam was introduced to the Philippines and is connected to early Sanskrit
and pre-Islamic cultural traditions (UNESCO, ibid.) Maranao family heirloom manuscripts in
ancient Arabic-based writing systems record parts of the epic. Furthermore:
Specialised performers of either sex sing the Darangen during wedding
celebrations that typically last several nights. Performers must possess a prodigious
memory, improvisational skills, poetic imagination, knowledge of customary law and
genealogy, a flawless and elegant vocal technique, and the ability to engage an
audience during long hours of performance. Music and dance sometimes accompany
the chanting (UNESCO n. d. Darangen Epic of the Maranao People of Lake Lanao).
According to Wikipedia, the Darangen is one of the oldest and longest (25 chapters)
Philippine epics that is recited in stately language and requires several nights to be completed
(en.wikipedia.org). The following table analyzes a summary of the Darangen epic by using
frequency tabulation.
To analyze such a long and complex body of text would require another research paper.
In this research, summaries are used to conduct a text analysis. The method is described in the
next paragraph.
1.1.1.13.

Tabulation Method

The first column (##) numbers each row. In the second column (Summary) each sentence
of the epic is separated at one sentence per row. The third column (Superstition) and the fourth
column (Filial Piety) is used to score the frequency of each element, at 1 point per occurrence.
The last column (Other Values) is used to identify other cultural and literary values, not by
scoring but by textual description. These descriptive paragraph and the instructions therein are
exemplified in the following table.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 96

Table 39: Darangen (85) Summary Practice Chart


##
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21

Summary: Darangen Bantugan


Before the Spaniards occupied the island of Mindanao, there lived in the
valley of the Rio Grande a very strong man, Bantugan, whose father was
the brother of the earthquake and thunder.
Now the Sultan of the Island had a beautiful daughter, whom Bantugan
wished to marry, but the home of the Sultan was far off, and whoever went
to carry Bantugans proposal would have a long and hazardous journey.
All the head men consulted together regarding who should be sent, and at
last it was decided that Bantugans own son, Balatama, was the one to go.
Balatama was young but he was strong and brave, and when the arms of
his father were given him to wear on the long journey his heart swelled with
pride.
More than once on the way, however, his courage was tried and only the
thought of his brave father gave him strength to proceed.
Once he came to a wooden fence which surrounded a stone in the form of
a man, and as it was directly in his path he drew his fighting knife to cut
down the fence.
Immediately the air became as black as night and stones rained down as
large as houses.
This made Balatama cry, but he protected himself with his fathers shield
and prayed, calling on the winds from the homeland until they came and
cleared the air again.
Thereupon Balatama encountered a great snake in the road, and it
inquired his errand.
When told, the snake said: You cannot go on, for I am guard of this road
and no one can pass.
The animal made a move to seize him, but with one stroke of his fighting
knife the boy cut the snake into two pieces, one of which he threw into the
sea and the other into the mountains.
After many days the weary lad came to a high rock in the road, which
glistened in the sunlight.
From the top he could look down into the city for which he was bound. It
was a splendid place with ten harbors.
Standing out from the other houses was one of crystal and another of pure
gold.
Encouraged by this sight he went on, but though it seemed but a short
distance, it was some time before he at last stood at the gate of the town.
It was not long after this, however, before Balatama had made known his
errand to the Sultan, and that monarch, turning to his courtiers, said:
You, my friends, decide whether or not I shall give the hand of my
daughter to Bantugan in marriage.
The courtiers slowly shook their heads and began to offer objections.
Said one, I do not see how Bantugan can marry the Sultans daughter
because the first gift must be a figure of a man or woman in pure gold.
Well, said the son of Bantugan, I am here to learn what you want and to
say whether or not it can be given.
Then a second man spoke: You must give a great yard with a floor of
gold, which must be three feet thick.
All this can be given, answered the boy.
And the sister of the Princess said: The gifts must be as many as the
blades of grass in our city.
It shall be granted, said Balatama.
You must give a bridge built of stone to cross the great river, said one.
And another: A ship of stone you must give, and you must change into
gold all the cocoanuts and leaves in the Sultans grove.
All this can be done, said Balatama. My uncles will give all save the
statue of gold, and that I shall give myself. But first I must go to my fathers
town to secure it.

Supers- Filial
tition Piety
1

Other Values

Democratic
consultation

0
0

0
0

Value of
youthful
abilities

Democratic
rule,
consultation

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 97

##
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30
31
32
33
34
35

36

Summary: Darangen Bantugan


At this they were angry and declared that he had made sport of them and
unless he produced the statue at once they would kill him.
If I give you the statue now, said he, there will come dreadful storms,
rain, and darkness.
But they only laughed at him and insisted on having the statue, so he
reached in his helmet and drew it forth.
Immediately the earth began to quake. A great storm arose, and stones as
large as houses rained until the Sultan called to Balatama to put back the
statue lest they all be killed.
You would not believe what I told you, said the boy; and now I am going
to let the storm continue.
But the Sultan begged him and promised that Bantugan might marry his
daughter with no other gifts at all save the statue of gold.
Balatama put back the statue into his helmet, and the air became calm
again to the great relief of the Sultan and his courtiers.
Then Balatama prepared to return home, promising that Bantugan would
come in three months for the wedding.
All went well with the boy on the way home until he came to the fence
surrounding the stone in the form of a man, and there he was detained and
compelled to remain four months.
Now about this time a Spanish general heard that Bantugan was preparing
to marry the Sultans daughter, whom he determined to wed himself.
A great expedition was prepared, and he with all his brothers embarked on
his large warship which was followed by ten thousand other ships.
They went to the Sultans city, and their number was so great that they
filled the harbor, frightening the people greatly.
Then the Generals brother disembarked and came to the house of the
Sultan.
He demanded the Princess for the General, saying that if the request were
refused, the fleet would destroy the city and all its people.
The Sultan and his courtiers were so frightened that they decided to give
his daughter to the General, the next full moon being the date set for the
wedding.

In the meantime Bantugan had been preparing everything for the marriage
which he expected to take place at the appointed time.
But as the days went by and Balatama did not return, they became
38
alarmed, fearing he was dead.
After three months had passed, Bantugan prepared a great expedition to
39 go in search of his son, and the great warship was decorated with flags of
gold.
As they came in sight of the Sultans city, they saw the Spanish fleet in the
40 harbor, and one of his brothers advised Bantugan not to enter until the
Spaniards left. They then brought their ship to anchor.
But all were disappointed that they could not go farther, and one said,
Why do we not go on? Even if the blades of grass turn into Spaniards we
41
need not fear.
37

Another said: Why do we fear? Even if the cannon-balls come like rain, we
can always fight.
Finally some wanted to return to their homes and Bantugan said: No, let
43 us seek my son. Even though we must enter the harbor where the
Spaniards are, let us continue our search.
So at his command the anchors were lifted, and they sailed into the harbor
44 where the Spanish fleet lay.

42

45

Now at this very time the Spanish general and his brother were with the
Sultan, intending to call upon the Princess.

Supers- Filial
tition Piety

Other Values

Democratic
counsel

Freedom to
share
personal
perspectives

Valor, courage

A win by the
underdog

Foreign threat;
fearful natives
Literary
element:
Complication
of the
narrative

Literary
element: rising
action

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 98

##

Summary: Darangen Bantugan


As the brother talked with one of the sisters of the Princess they moved

Supers- Filial
tition Piety

46 toward the window, and looking down they saw Bantugans ships entering

47

the harbor. They could not tell whose flags the ships bore.
Neither could the Sultan when he was called.

Then he sent his brother to bring his father who was a very old man, to see

45 if he could tell.

The father was kept in a little dark room by himself that he might not get
hurt, and the Sultan said to his brother: If he is so bent with age that he
49 cannot see, talk, or walk, tickle him in the ribs and that will make him young
again; and, my Brother, carry him here yourself lest one of the slaves
should let him fall and he should hurt himself.
So the old man was brought, and when he looked out upon the ships he
saw that the flags were those of the father of Bantugan who had been a
50 great friend of his in his youth.

51

52
53
54
55
56
57
58

And he told them that he and Bantugans father years ago had made a
contract that their children and childrens children should intermarry, and
now since the Sultan had promised his daughter to two people, he foresaw
that great trouble would come to the land.
Then the Sultan said to the General: Here are two claimants to my
daughters hand. Go aboard your ships and you and Bantugan make war
on each other, and the victor shall have my daughter.
So the Spaniards opened fire upon Bantugan, and for three days the earth
was so covered with smoke from the battle that neither could see his
enemy.
Then the Spanish general said: I cannot see Bantugan or the fleet
anywhere, so let us go and claim the Princess.
But the Sultan said: We must wait until the smoke rises to make sure that
Bantugan is gone.
When the smoke rose, the ships of Bantugan were apparently unharmed
and the Sultan said:
Bantugan has surely won, for his fleet is uninjured while yours is badly
damaged. You have lost.
No, said the General, we will fight it out on dry land.

So they both landed their troops and their cannon, and a great fight took
place, and soon the ground was covered with dead bodies.
And the Sultan commanded them to stop, as the women and children in
60
the city were being killed by the cannon-balls, but the General said:
If you give your daughter to Bantugan we shall fight forever or until we
61
die.
62 Then the Sultan sent for Bantugan and said:
We must deceive the Spaniard in order to get him to go away. Let us tell
63 him that neither of you will marry my daughter, and then after he has gone,
we shall have the wedding.
Bantugan agreed to this, and word was sent to the Spaniards that the
64
fighting must cease since many women and children were being killed.
So it was agreed between the Spaniard and Bantugan that neither of them
65
should marry the Princess.
66 Then they both sailed away to their homes.
Bantugan soon returned, however, and married the Princess, and on the
67
way back to his home they found his son and took him with them.
For about a week the Spanish general sailed toward his home and then he,
68
too, turned about to go back, planning to take the Princess by force.
When he found that she had already been carried away by Bantugan, his
69 wrath knew no bounds.

59

70

He destroyed the Sultan, his city, and all its people.

Other Values

Wisdom of the
aged
Value of
traditional
knowledge

Literary
element:
Complication
of the
narrative

Literary
element of
Flasback

Vivid imagery

Native
cunning

Literary
element of
foreshadowing

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 99

##
71
72
73
74
75
77
78

79

80
81
82
83
84
85

Summary: Darangen Bantugan

Supers- Filial
tition Piety

And then he sailed away to prepare a great expedition with which he


should utterly destroy Bantugan and his country as well.
One morning Bantugan looked out and saw at the mouth of the Rio Grande
the enormous fleet of the Spaniards whose numbers were so great that in
no direction could the horizon be seen.
His heart sank within him, for he knew that he and his country were
doomed.
Though he could not hope to win in a fight against such great numbers, he
called his headmen together and said:
My Brothers, the Christian dogs have come to destroy the land. We
cannot successfully oppose them, but in the defense of the fatherland we
can die.
So the great warship was again prepared, and all the soldiers of Islam
embarked, and then with Bantugan standing at the bow they sailed forth to
meet their fate.
The fighting was fast and furious, but soon the great warship of Bantugan
filled with water until at last it sank, drawing with it hundreds of the Spanish
ships. And then a strange thing happened.
At the very spot where Bantugans warship sank, there arose from the sea
a great island which you can see today not far from the mouth of the Rio
Grande. It is covered with bongo palms, and deep within its mountains live
Bantugan and his warriors.
A Moro sailboat passing this island is always scanned by Bantugans
watchers, and if it contains women such as he admires, they are snatched
from their seats and carried deep into the heart of the mountain.
For this reason Moro women fear even to sail near the island of Bongos.
When the wife of Bantugan saw that her husband was no more and that
his warship had been destroyed, she gathered together the remaining
warriors and set forth herself to avenge him.
In a few hours her ship was also sunk, and in the place where it sank there
arose the mountain of Timaco.
On this thickly wooded island are found white monkeys, the servants of the
Princess, who still lives in the center of the mountain.
On a quiet day high up on the mountain side one can hear the chanting
and singing of the waiting-girls of the wife of Bantugan.

TOTALS

Other Values

Human
emotion

Self-sacrifice

Nationalism

Unequal
gender roles

Houris in a
Moslem
paradise

10

21

An example of a gross qualitative analysis can involve looking at the totals only. For
instance, the totals can be processed by using percentage averaging: each total can be divided by
the number of sentences (83) to elicit a percentage (of total). The figures can be ranked in order
of highest to lowest percentages. The result would be similar to the tabulated display in the
following table:
Table 40: Darangen Bantugan Percentage Averages of Totals

Rank

Total sentences

83

Of Total

1st

Total sentences containing literary elements

16

19.27%

2nd

Total sentences containing elements of filial piety

10

12.04%

3rd

Total sentences containing elements of superstitions or folk beliefs

08.43%

4th

Total sentences containing other cultural values

06.02%

TOTAL

38

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 100

1.1.1.14.

Gross Qualitative Analysis

In the phrase gross qualitative analysis, the term gross refers to looking at the totals
only, which gives an overall view, not a detailed (or fine) view. Qualitative analysis refers to the
interpretation of numbers into sentences that describe qualities. In this manner, a qualitative
report includes statistical data to support each assertion. For instance, the preceding table can
support qualitative statements such as:

The epic Darangen Bantugan is primarily designed for entertainment. The sentences
containing obvious literary elements rank first, outranking the second element by 7.23%.

The second rank includes sentences containing elements of filial piety. This would seem
to be giver more importance (12.04%) than superstitions (08.43%), a difference of
3.61%.

Above all, the Darangen Bantugan is designed for storytelling. Of the 83 sentences
summarizing the narration, only 38 (or 45.78%) contain cultural values, folk beliefs, or
literary elements. More than 54% of the text is devoted to advancing the tension and
action, describing the literary characters, or resolving the dramatic conflict.
1.1.1.15.

Pure Qualitative Analysis

In the phrase pure qualitative analysis, the term pure refers to the analysis of text-based
qualities that do not involve numerical measures, or number values. Qualitative analysis refers to
the discussion of qualities that are not measurable.
For instance, a qualitative analysis of this epic might take issue with the UNESCOattributed source giving the tale a prehispanic provenance despite Spanish soldiers and ships
figuring prominently in the story. In terms of believable visualization, or for the essential
element of fiction called willing suspension of disbelief, one might ask why one sinking ship
would draw in all other ships to sink as well: are there strings involved, or a whirlpool? In
terms of logical consistency, one might ask: if the hero can destroy the sultan, his city, and all its
people, why could he not destroy a riverful of uncountable ships? Is there a need for the dramatic
element of self-sacrifice to tug at the audience heartstrings?

4.5.3 Darangen (07 lines)


Seventeen different songs of the Maranao epic Darangen have been recorded, but most are
about what ancient heroes and heroines do in ancient, mythical Maranao kingdoms. One of the
most celebrated characters among the royalty and nobility is Bantugen (or Bantugan), a skilled
warrior, charismatic leader, and virile captivator of women that he takes home to Bembaran
Kingdom (Maranan, et. al. 2015).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 101

The following short summary (seven lines) can be used to practice the method described in
the preceding sections. For familiarity, the summary is still of the same epic, Darangen
Bantugan.The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring
skills in using the empirical approach in literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in
preceding sections: tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis.
Preceding sections include examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial
piety, of elements of superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works.
Table 41: Darangen (07) Summary Practice Chart
##
01
02
03
04
05
06
07

Summary: Darangen Bantugen


Bantugen dies after displeasing his brother, the King of
Bembaran, for having courted Babali Anonan.
His soul is placed in a bottle, but a warrior named
Mabaning releases his soul; Bantugen lives again.
Meanwhile, enemies attack, having heard that Bantugen
has died.
But the resurrected hero leads his people to victory.
Later, having fully regained his strength, he sails on a ship
to other lands where he finds his wives: Maginar, Princess
Minoyod, Princess Maginawan, Princess Timbang,
Bolontai a Pisigi.
Apart from them, he attracts 40 other women.
With his company of princesses and ladies, he sails back
to Bembaran, warmly welcomed by his people
TOTAL

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

4.5.1 Ullalim Banna (03 lines)


In Northern Luzon, the Ullalim epic of the Kalinga was said to have been recorded by the
priests, Lambrecht and Billiet. The ullalim is a series of ballads recounting the fantastic deeds
of the Kalinga heroes such as the lovers Banna and Laggunawa. Among the northern Kalinga,
these narratives are called gassumbi; the hero is Gawan. Among the western Kalinga, they are
called dangdang-ay and the hero can be either Magliya or Cono (Maranan, et al, 2015).
The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes required in the
empirical approach of literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding sections:
tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Other sections include
examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of elements of
superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. For ease of use, the literary text in the
following table has been separated into lines, and each line is numbered. For convenience, the
column headings are pre-labeled. This three-line summary of Ullalim Banna is from Maranan, et
al (2015).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 102

Table 42: Ullalim Banna (03) Summary Practice Chart

##

Ullalim Banna

Laggunawa sends her lovers Banna and Dungdunan


on a kayaw (headhunt).
While Banna slays the inhabitants of Bibbila, a giant,
02 and a powerful warrior, his rival idles, thinking that
Banna will not succeed.
Banna wins Laggunawas hand, but Dungdungan
03
marries Bannas sister
01

TOTAL

Supers- Filial
tition
Piety

Other Values

Justice,
Fairness

4.5.1 Matabagka at Nalandagan (04 lines)


The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes required in the
empirical approach of literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding sections:
tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Other sections include
examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of elements of
superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. For ease of use, the literary text in the
following table has been separated into lines, and each line is numbered. For convenience, the
column headings are pre-labeled. This 4-line summary of Matabagka at Nalandagan is
unattributed to a specific writer.
Table 43: Matabagka at Nalandagan (04) Summary Practice Chart
##

Summary: Matabagka at Nalandangan

Agyu is worried Imbununga will attack. He has the Ipo-ipo in


01 a basket, Taklubu, and Baklaw. Sister Matabagka says she
will take care of it.
She takes her handbag (libon) and flies away on a magic hat
that can turn into a flying thing (sulinday). Agyu sends
02 Tomulin to look for her and bring her back. She lands right
next to Imbununga. He traps her into being his wife. And he
controls the wind!
Fast forward a bit. She drugs his nganga and flies away with
the ipo-ipo in a basket, but she crashes when he wakes up.
03 He sends men to get her without hurting her(sweet naman
xD). She kills a lot. She also gets darker (No reason given).
Tomulin and co. rush in.
She gets home, tells her story, and Agyu decides he would
like to have Imbununga as an ally. Agyu and his dad
Pamulaw go and negotiate with Imbununga. He agrees as
04 long as he finds out who stole his stuff. He lols when they
say it was Matabagka. They unleash the ipo-ipo to kill all the
fighting men and resurrect them by spitting on them/putting
nganga in their mouths
TOTAL

4.5.2 Alim (10 lines)

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 103

The next summary is almost as short (10 lines), and can be used to practice the method
described in the preceding sections. This time, the summary is of an Ifugao epic, the alim, a part
of the Hudhud epic cycle of north Philippines. It is sung rather than chanted. The primary subject
of the alim is the Ifugao pantheon of gods of the Ifugao culture (ICHCAP; Oxford Reference,
Alim Epic).
According the table detailing Indic elements in Philippine precolonial literature, the alim
includes elements from Indian literary tradition, particularly the Mahabharata (Sanskrit word for
great story). For instance, Balituk obtained water from a rock with his arrow, as did Arjuna in
the Hindu Mahabharata (Khatnani, 1969; Reyes & Perez III, n. d.).
The epic Alim is always chanted in an all-night a ritual and celebration that involves
much merriment and drinking of fermented rice wine drawn from stone jars (ICHCAP. n. d.).
The following summary used the informal English skills of a student.
The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring skills
in using the empirical approach in literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding
sections: tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Preceding
sections include examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of
elements of superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works.
Table 44: Alim (10) Summary Practice Chart
##
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10

Summary: Alim
The gods got pissed because people were asses and sent a
great flood to kill everyone and everything.
Siblings Wigan and Bugan survived by climbing Mt.
Amuyaw and Mt Kalawitan respectively.
Wigan stayed on his mountain til the waters subsided and
found Bugan half-buried.They built a home by the shore and
ate fish.
Bugan got pregnant! O.o She was going to drown herself
when their god Makanungan appeared and told her not to.
He married them and they had 5 boys and 4 girls.
There was a famine and they sacrificed a rat to Makanungan.
It didnt work, so they sacrificed the bunso Igon.
The famine stopped and Makanungan said they were crazy for
sacrificing a kid.
He then spread them to the four corners of the earth and they
now fight every time they get near each other as punishment
TOTAL

4.5.3 Biag ni Lam-ang (30 lines)

Supers
-tition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 104

The next exercise is is a 30-line summary. The table can be used to practice the method
described in the preceding sections. This time, the summary is of an Iloco epic, the Biag ni Lamang, which comes from unknown origins. Unlike the preceding examples, this is neither chanted
nor sung but recited in the style of the dallot, a poetic debate between the sexes (Maranan, et.
al. 2015). The following summary is by Daniel-Jay Pascual (2007).
The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring skills
in using the empirical approach in literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding
sections: tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Preceding
sections include examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of
elements of superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works.
Table 45: Biag ni Lam-ang (30) Summary Practice Chart
##

Summary: Biag ni Lam-ang

01 The story begins by introducing the parents of Lam-ang.


Namongan (Lam-angs Mother) and Don Juan (Lam-angs
02
Father) had recently been unified in marriage.
Shortly after, Namongan became pregnant and Don Juan
03
performed the various tasks needed to prepare for the birth.
Don Juan sets out to engage into a fight with the checkered
04
Igorots.
Namongan gives birth to a baby boy who is able to speak and
05
requests to be named Lam-ang.
At nine months, Lam-ang discovers that his father, Don Juan,
06
has been gone and sets out to search for him.
Lam-ang brings various magic stones on his journey as well as
07
weapons.
Eventually, Lam-ang encounters an Igorot gathering and learns
08
that his father was killed and head severed.
Lam-ang then engages into battle and wins the fight with the
09
Igorots of the various Igorot towns and villages.
Lam-ang then returns home and achieves various tasks, such
10 as cleaning the barn, washing his hair, and defeating the
crocodile.
Lam-ang then determines that he would like to visit Dona Ines
11
Kannoyan of Kalanutian and attempt to court her.
Dona Ines Kannoyan is described as a perfect woman who
12
has many suitors.
13 She is the daughter of Unnayon.
Against the wishes of his mother, Lam-ang travels to
14
Kalanutian to meet Kannoyan.
During his journey he encounters two people, a man named
15 Sumarang, a man killed by Lam-ang who shared the same task
as Lam-ang, and Saridaadan, a woman Lam-ang ignores.
Upon arriving in Kalanutian, Lam-ang observes various suitors
16
of Kannoyan.
The Animals Lam-ang travel with create a disturbance and
17
therefore achieves Kannoyans attention.
Lam-ang finds that Kannoyan has been expecting him and
18
moves on to meet the parents.
19 Lam-ang asks for the permission to marry Kannoyan.

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 105

##

20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27

28

29
30

Summary: Biag ni Lam-ang

Kannoyans parents allow it only if Lam-ang is capable of


producing the same wealth the family possess.
Lam-ang proves his prosperity and a wedding is planned.
Lam-ang travels home to prepare for the wedding and returns
to Kalanutian with his mother, townspeople, and wedding
supplies.
Lam-ang and Kannoyan get married in a church on a Monday
and a celebration takes place shortly after.
The townspeople of the bride and groom, as well as the family
members, travel on the two ships of Lam-ang to Lam-angs
home town where another chain of festivities take place.
Afterward, Kannoyans parents leave Kannoyan to live with
Lam-ang and the couple begins their lives together.
The town head delegates a task to Lam-ang in which he must
fish for raring.
Lam-ang attains a premonition of an incident in which the
berkakan, a monster fish, consumes his entire body.
The premonition also includes an omen in which, a dancing
staircase and the kasuuran breaking into pieces. Undoubtedly,
the premonition and omen become true, and Lam-ang is
devoured by a berkakan.
Kannoyan has seen the omen and searches for a diver to
locate the bones of her husband.
Kannoyan brings the Animals of Lam-ang to the bones and the
white rooster, hen, and hairy dog perform a ritual on the bones
which bring Lam-ang back to life.
TOTAL

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

4.5.4 Biag ni Lam-ang (43 lines)


The epic Biag ni Lam-ang dramatizes elements such as bravery and courage with elements
of fantasy and magic, of adventures, heroic death and resurrection.As Rotor 2012, from Bauzon,
1991) puts it:
Historians believe that Biag ni Lam-ang is an epic drawn out from oral tradition
handed down through countless generations. Historians like H. Otley Beyer, Fox, FayCooper Cole and Jose R. Calip believe in the pre- Hispanic origin of the poem.
Through a long, slow evolutionary process, it floated from one century to another, and
grew into several versions retaining a lucid mirror of the people of the past, reflecting
their own values, environment and culture (Rotor, 2012).
According to Rotor, the following synopsis is from a recitation sometime in 1947, as
memorized by Francisco Magana, an old farmer from Bangui, Ilocos Norte, and transcribed by
Jose Llanes. The poem is said to date back to the early Spanish colonization period, and has been
attributed to the blind Ilocano poet Pedro Bucaneg. However, Rotor (2012) says that Maganas
recitation includes ethnic elements that are closer to the Iloco culture, and is richer with
indigenous and pagan influences, so it could well be older than Bucanegs hispanized version.

The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring skills
in using the empirical approach in literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding
sections: tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Preceding

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 106

sections include examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of


elements of superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works.
Table 46: Biag ni Lam-ang (43) Summary Practice Chart
##

Summary: Biag ni Lam-ang

Superstitions

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

01

This series of adventures started with his search for his lost father who
was murdered by the head-hunting Igorots in the Igorot country.

This encounter led to another when he met a nine-headed serpent


04 who, like Sumarang earlier tried to dissuade him from going any
further.

05

The serpent having been ignored challenged him into a fight which
cost the serpent its heads.

06

Lam-ang went on until he found it necessary to rest and take a short


nap.

07

While asleep, he dreamed of his fathers head being an object of


festivities among the Igorots.

08

He immediately arose and continued his journey until he found the


Igorots indeed feasting over his fathers head.

He asked the Igorots why they killed his father, but the Igorots instead
09 advised him to go home if he did not want to suffer the same fate
which his father suffered.

This was accompanied by a challenge to a fight, despite their obvious


numerical superiority.

But Lam-ang, armed with supernatural powers, handily defeated them,


giving the last surviving Igorot a slow painful death by cutting his
11
hands and his ears and finally carving out his eyes to show his anger
for what they had done to his father.

12 Satisfied with his revenge, he went home.

While on his way, he met a certain Sumarang, whose name connotes


02 obstruction, who tried to dissuade him from proceeding and who

taunted him into a fight.


03

10

The fight that ensued proved fatal to Sumarang as he was blown


three kingdoms away with a spear pierced through his stomach.

13

At home, he thought of taking a swim in the Cordan River with the


company of Cannoyan and her lady-friends.

14

So he proceeded to Cannoyans place in the town of Calanutian,


disregarding her mothers advice to the contrary.

15

On his way, he met a woman and named Saridandan, whose name


suggests that she was a woman of ill repute.

16

He resisted her blandishments, for his feeling for Cannoyan was far
greater for anyone to take.

17

When he reached Cannoyans house, he found a multitude of suitors


futilely vying for her hand.

18

With the help of his pets - the cock and the dog - he was able to catch
Cannoyans attention.

19 He asked her to go with him to the river along with her lady-friends.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 107

##

Summary: Biag ni Lam-ang

20 She acceded.

Superstitions

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

While washing himself in the river, the river swelled, and the shrimps,

21 fishes and other creatures in the river were agitated for the dirt washed

from his body was too much.


22

As they were about to leave the river, Lam-ang noticed a giant


crocodile.

23

He dove back into the water and engaged with the creature in a fierce
fight until the creature was subdued.

24

He brought it ashore and instructed the ladies to pull its teeth to serve
as amulets against danger during journeys.

25

Back at Cannoyans house, he was confronted by her parents with an


inquiry as to what his real intention was.

He had to set aside his alibi that he went there to ask Cannoyan and
her friends to accompany him to the river, and told them, through his
26
spokesman - the cock - that he came to ask for Cannoyans hand in
marriage.
27

He was told that if he desired to marry Cannoyan, he must first be able


to match their wealth, for which he willingly complied.
Having satisfied her parents, he went home to his mother and enjoined

28 her and his townspeople to attend his wedding which was to take

place in Cannoyans town.


29

The wedding was elaborate, an event that involved practically


everyone in town.

30

There were fireworks, musical band, and display of attractive items like
the glasses, the mirror, the slippers, clothes and nice food.

31

After the wedding, Lam-angs party plus his wife and her town mates
went back to their town of Nalbuan, where festivities were resumed.

32

The guests expressed a desire to taste a delicacy made of rarang fish.

33

Lam-ang was obliged to go to the sea and catch the fish.

34

Before going, however, his rooster warned that something unpleasant


was bound to happen.

35

This warning proved true, as Lam-ang was swallowed by a big


bercacan, or shark-like fish.

36

Cannoyan mourned and for a while she thought there was no way to
retrieve her lost husband.

37

But the rooster indicated that if only all the bones could be gathered
back, Lam-ang could be brought to life again.

38

She then enlisted the aid of a certain diver named Marcus, who was
ready to come to her aid to look for the bones.

39

When all Lam-angs bones were gathered, the rooster crowed and the
bones moved.

40

The dog barked, and Lam-ang arose and was finally resurrected.

41

Cannoyan embraced him.

42

For his deep appreciation for the help of his pets - the cock and the
dog - and of Marcus the diver, he promised that each other would get
his or its due reward.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 108

##

43

Summary: Biag ni Lam-ang

Superstitions

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

And they lived happily ever after.


TOTAL

4.5.5 Bidasari (24 lines)


The Maranao epic Bidasari shares many similarities with the Malayan romance Syair
Bidasari (Putman, 2012). This tale also shares familiar elements with the more modern tales such
as Cinderella, of Sleeping Beauty, as well as of Snow White.
The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring skills
in using the empirical approach in literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding
sections: tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Preceding
sections include examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of
elements of superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works.
Table 47: Bidasari (24) Summary Practice Chart
#
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18

Summary of Bidasari
The people in Kembayat were fussed in a giant bird
that eats human.
When the giant bird came back, they all hid out of fear.
The sultana, whos pregnant, however, was lost in the
woods.
Out of fear, she gave birth and forgot about the baby
when she left.
Luckily, a merchant saw the baby and a bowl
containing a live goldfish.
The merchant realized that the life of the baby was
attached to the live goldfish.
If the fish leaves the water, the baby will die.
The merchant adopted the baby.
Later on, the baby grew up into a very beautiful young
woman.
In the kingdom, the king has just remarried a beautiful
woman named Permaisuri.
Permaisuri was afraid that the king will fall in love with
someone else.
When the queen found out about Bidasari, she was
brought in the castle.
There, she became a slave but Permaisuri wasnt
satisfied.
So, when she found out about the secret of Bidasari,
she took the fish and made it into a necklace.
Thus, Bidasari died and was put in a beautiful tomb
located in the woods.
One day, the king went hunting in the woods and saw
the beautiful tomb.
He went inside and saw Bidasari sleeping.
The king waited Bidasari to wake up for two days.

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 109

#
19
20
21
22
23
24

Summary of Bidasari
Meanwhile, in the palace, the queen was taking a bath
and the fish managed to break free.
Thus, Bidasari was awakened.
The king talked to Bidasari and she told everything to
the king.
The king was so enraged.
Later on, the king took Bidasari and they got married.
Thus, Bidasari became the new queen of the kingdom
TOTAL

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

4.5.6 Bidasari (43 lines)


The following summary of an English translation of Bidasari is by Reokoii (2013). It
differs on many points from the preceding summary, but, again, the familiar elements of the
aforementioned fairy tales in a Maranao epic would seem to indicate connections with PersianArabian folk tales. The following summary is by Reokoii (2013). The following table can be
used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring skills in using the empirical approach in
literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding sections: tabulation method, gross
qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Preceding sections include examples of
statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of elements of superstitious
beliefs, and other elements in literary works. The following practice table is a summary of
Hudhud ni Aliguyon in 13 sentences. The use of informal English is evident.
Table 48: Bidasari (43) Summary Practice Chart
##

Summary of Bidasari

When a simple merchant, his young son and mute servant are
01 out in the woods, they chance upon a drifting boat, in which
there is a baby girl and a bowl containing a live goldfish.
The merchant realises that the baby is unusual because her life
02 is bonded to the fish: if the fish leaves the water, she stops
breathing.
The merchant adopts the baby as his own and names her
03
Bidasari.
Years later Bidasari grows up into a beautiful young woman
04
while the merchant has prospered into a wealthy businessman.
At the royal palace of this kingdom, the King has just remarried
05
a beautiful woman, the Permaisuri (Queen).
The Permaisuri is a proud woman who secretly practises
06
witchcraft.
Hidden in her chambers is a magic mirror that can show her
07
anything she asks.
08 She uses it to ask who the most beautiful in all the land is.
One day when she asks the mirror this question, the image of
09
Bidasari appears in it.
She is enraged by this and carries out a search to find who
10
Bidasari is.
11 Her search leads her to the merchant's house.

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 110

##

Summary of Bidasari

Under the guise of kindness, the Permaisuri asks the merchant


12 for permission to bring Bidasari to the palace to be her
companion.
Although the merchant is reluctant to part with his beloved
13
daughter, he lets her go.
But once Bidasari arrives at the palace, she is sent to the
14 kitchens as a servant, where she is starved and given the
dirtiest jobs.
After the Permaisuri is satisfied that Bidasari has been ruined,
15 she once again asks her magic mirror who is the most beautiful
in the land.
When the mirror shows Bidasari yet again, the Permaisuri flies
16 into a rage and runs to the kitchen where she grabs burning
pieces of firewood which she tries to burn Bidasari's face with.
She is shocked when the fire goes out and Bidasari's face is
17
left untouched.
Bidasari, who has by now realised that the Permaisuri's malice
is targeted only at her and will never stop, begs for mercy and
18
explains her life is bonded to that of a fish that is kept in a bowl
in her father's garden.
The Permaisuri has a servant steal the fish for her from the
19 merchant's garden, and as soon as the fish leaves the water,
Bidasari collapses and stops breathing.
Satisfied that Bidasari's life is in her hands, the Permaisuri
20
hangs the fish around her neck as a trophy.
When she asks the mirror who is the most beautiful in the land,
21
the mirror shows her own image.
The merchant realises that the fish is missing, and is told that
22
Bidasari died mysteriously at the palace.
Her body is returned to him and he builds a small tomb for her
23
in the woods where her body is laid out in peace.
Meanwhile, the Permaisuri's stepson the Prince has been
24
having dreams about Bidasari, although he has never met her.
The dreams plague him even in his waking hours, despite his
25
father's advice that such a beautiful woman cannot exist.
The Permaisuri sees her stepson acting this way and plants a
26
painting of Bidasari in his room.
The Prince finds the painting, which leads him to the merchant
27 who explains the sad tale of Bidasari's death and the
mysterious disappearance of the fish.
The Prince decides to visit Bidasari's tomb to see her beauty
28
with his own eyes.
Coincidentally at this time, back at the palace the Permaisuri is
29
having a bath in the royal bathing pool.
The fish manages to break free of its locket and drops into the
30
water where it starts swimming.
31 This causes Bidasari to wake up right before the Prince's eyes.

32
33
34
35
36
37

Bidasari tells him of what the Permaisuri did to her, which


confirms the Prince's suspicions of his stepmother.
When the Permaisuri finishes her bath, she discovers that the
fish has gotten free.
She manages to catch it just as the Prince is about to help
Bidasari leave the tomb, causing her to fall unconscious again.
The Prince places Bidasari back in the tomb and promises to
make things right.
The Prince returns to the palace in a fury, demanding that the
Permaisuri give him the fish.
The Permaisuri pretends not to know anything, and when the
King listens to the Prince's explanation, the King declares that
his son has gone insane and calls the royal guards.

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 111

##

Summary of Bidasari

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

38

A fight ensues, during which the Permaisuri is injured and dies.

39
40
41
42
43

Just before the Prince is about to be captured, the merchant


and the Prince's loyal manservants arrive with Bidasari on a
stretcher.
The merchant explains that the story about the fish being
bonded to Bidasari's life is true.
The Prince takes the fish from the locket around the
Permaisuri's neck and puts it into a bowl of water.
As soon as the fish enters the water, Bidasari comes back to
life.
The King apologises to his son, and the Prince and Bidasari
are married.
TOTAL

4.5.7 Hudhud ni Aliguyon (13 lines)


The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring skills
in using the empirical approach in literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding
sections: tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Preceding
sections include examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of
elements of superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. The following practice
table is a summary of Hudhud ni Aliguyon in 13 sentences. The use of informal English is
evident.
Table 49: Hudhud ni Aliguyon (13) Summary Practice Chart
##
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13

Summary: Hudhud ni Aliguyon


Amtalao, Aliguyons dad, taught him how to use the spear
and shield, and told of his own stories about love and war.
He made a top and taught Aliguyon how to break the tops of
his playmates, and how to make runo (toy?) spears.
Aliguyon listened to the priests/priestesses and learned the
magic words.
He became the leader of all the kiddies.
In his teens, he got his friends, and went to fight Pangaiwan
of Daligdigan (he made sure it was a good idea by praying to
a rooster, cutting it open then praying to the Idao bird), found
his son Pumbakhayon.
They fought.
Three years later Fight is nowhere near ending, so they
made a peace pact, Pangaiwans idea.
While there, Aliguyon sees Bugan, Pumbakhayons hot sister,
or at least she will be.
He brings kiddie Bugan home, where she grows to become
hott.
They get married, and Pumbakhayon visits for the wedding.
They had plenty kiddies.
Aliguyons sister Aginaya then courts Pumbakhayon.
Then he wait what? (Iep, 2012
TOTAL

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 112

4.5.8 Hudhud ni Aliguyon (23 paragraphs, bilingual)


The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring skills
in using the empirical approach in literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding
sections: tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Preceding
sections include examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of
elements of superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. The following practice
table is a summary of Hudhud ni Aliguyon, of a long tale chanted during the harvest in Ifugao, in
23 sentences, slightly longer than the preceding exercise table. This use of a bilingual table to
spot inaccuracies in translation is exemplified by the text marked in red in the next table. It
cannot be stressed enough that such inaccuracies must be rectified before any statistical analysis
commences.
The following bilingual chart shows translation inaccuracies in red. The text sample is
from Anon., n. d. Hudhud: Summary of the tale of Aliguyon.
Table 50: Hudhud ni Aliguyon (23) Bilingual Summary Practice Chart
##

Pilipino

Isang araw, noong unanang


panahon, sa nayon ng
Hannanga, ang mag01
asawang Amtalao at
Dumulao ay nabiyayaan ng
isang anak na lalaki.
Ang pangalan niya ay
02
Aliguyon.
Siya ay matalino at masipag
03 matuto ng ibat ibang bagay.

04

05

06

07

Katunayan, ang napagaralan niyang mahahalaga


mula sa mga kasaysayan at
pangaral ng kanyang ama ay
marami.
Natuto siya kung paano
makipag-bakbakan nang
mahusay, at paano umawit
ng mga mahiwagang
gayuma.
Kaya kahit nuong bata pa,
tiningala na siya bilang
pinuno, at hanga ang mga
tao sa kanya.
Nang mag-binata si
Aliguyon, ipinasiya niyang
sagupain si Panga'iwan, ang
kaaway ng kanyang ama, sa
nayon ng Daligdigan.

English

Once upon a time, in a village


called Hannanga, a boy was
born to the couple named
Amtalao and Dumulao.

He was named Aliguyon.


He was an intelligent, eager
young man who wanted to
learn many things, and
indeed, he learned many
useful things, from the stories
and teachings of his father.

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

He learned how to fight well


and chant a few magic spells.

Even as a child, he was a


leader, for the other children of
his village looked up to him
with awe.
Upon leaving childhood,
Aliguyon betook himself to
gather forces to fight against
his fathers enemy, who was
Pangaiwan of the village of
Daligdigan.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 113

##

Pilipino

Subalit ang sumagot sa


08 kanyang hamon ay hindi si
Panga'iwan.
Ang humarap sa kanya ay
09 ang mabangis na anak nito,
si Pumbakhayon,
marunong ng hiwaga at
10 bihasa rin sa labanan tulad
niAliguyon.
Hindi naaling, pinukol ni
11 Aliguyon ng sibat si
Pumbakhayon.
Kasing bilis ng kidlat,
umiktad si Pumbakhayon
upang iwasan ang sibat at,
12
kagila-gilalas, sinalo sa
hangin ang sibat ng isa
niyang kamay!
Wala pang isang kurap ng
mata, binaligtad ni
13
Pumbakhayon ang sibat at
hinagis pabalik kay Aliguyon.
Umiwas din si Aliguyon at
sinalo rin ng isang kamay sa
14 hangin ang humahagibis na
sibat.
15

16

17

18

19

Binaliktad din niya at ipinukol


uli kay Pumbakhayon.
Pabalik-balik at walang tigil,
naghagisan at nagsaluhan
ng sibat si Aliguyon at
Pumbakhayon hanggang
umabot ng 3 taon, hindi pa
rin tumigil ang bakbakan, at
walang nagpakita ng pagod
o pagsuko.
Subalit sa bangis at dahas
ng kanilang paghahamok,
kapwa sila humanga sa
giting at husay ng kalaban,
at pagkaraan ng 3 taong
bakbakan, natuto silang
igalang ang isat isa.
Biglang bigla, tumigil sina
Aliguyon at Pumbakhayon at
nahinto, sa wakas, ang
bakbakan.
Nag-usap at nagkasundo sila
ng kapayapaan ng kanilang
nayon ng Hannanga at
Daligdigan.

Buong lugod na sumangayon lahat ng tao sa 2


20
nayon, at ipinagdiwang nila
ang kampihan ng 2 bayani.
Sa paglawak ng
21 katahimikan, umunlad ang
dalawang nayon.

English

But his challenge was not


answered personally by
Pangaiwan.
Instead, he faced Pangaiwans
fierce son, Pumbakhayon.
Pumbakhayon was just as
skilled in the arts of war and
magic as Aliguyon.

Their battle was a tedious one,


and it has been said that they
both used only one spear!

And then Pumbakhayon threw


the spear back to Aliguyon,
who picked it just as neatly
from the air.
Aliguyon had thrown a spear
to his opponent at the start of
their match, but the fair
Pumbakhayon had caught it
deftly with one hand.

The two of them battled each


other for three years, and
neither of them showed signs
of defeat.

At length Aliguyon and


Pumbakhayon came to
respect each other, and then
eventually they came to
admire each others talents.

Their fighting stopped


suddenly.

Between the two of them they


drafted a peace treaty
between Hannanga and
Daligdigan, which their
peoples readily agreed to.
It was fine to behold two
majestic warriors finally side
by side.
as peace between their
villages flourished.

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 114

##

Pilipino

English

Naging matalik na
22 magkaibigan sina Aliguyon
at Pumbakhayon.
Nang sapat na ang gulang ni
Aliguyon, pinili niyang asawa
23 si Bugan, ang batang-batang
kapatid na babae ni
Pumbakhayon.
Inalagaan niya sa bahay si
Buganhanggang lumaki itong
24
napaka-gandang dalaga.

Aliguyon and Pumbakhayon


became good friends,
When the time came for
Aliguyon to choose a mate, he
chose Pumbakhayons
youngest sister, Bugan, who
was little more than a baby.
He took Bugan into his
household and cared for her
until she grew to be most
beautiful.
Pumbakhayon, in his turn, took
for his wife Aliguyons younger
sister, Aginaya.

Ang pilining asawa naman ni


Pumbakhayon ay ang
25
kapatid na babae ni
Aliguyon, si Aginaya.
Ang dalawang pamilya ay
The two couples became
26 yumaman at iginalang ng
wealthy and respected in all of
lahat sa Ifugao.
Ifugao.
TOTAL

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

4.5.9 Ibalon (15 lines)


The Ibalon epic is believed to have come from a fragment of 60 stanzas, and is said to be
first transcribed by Spanish friars who heard the original oral tradition form from the Bicolanos.
The story is a cautionary tale of man ignoring nature and forgetting to find a balance between
conquests and living peacefully in harmony with nature (Ask, n. d.).
Handiong is responsible for domesticating creatures in order to survive, but he
learns this through his wife, Oryol. Oryol is a snake woman who is the god of the
underworld. When she sees all of the destruction that Handiong is doing and all of the
harm that is coming to the Animals, she cuts off her tail and agrees to marry him in
order to help domesticate the Sarimao creatures ensuring that they live (Ask, n. d.).

The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring skills
in using the empirical approach in literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding
sections: tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Preceding
sections include examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of
elements of superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. The use of informal
English in this summary is evident.
Table 51: Ibalon (15) Summary Practice Chart
##

Summary: Ibalon

Baltog, from the land of Botavora and the Lipod clan came to
01 Ibalon because there were lots of monsters, kinda like
Beowulf.

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 115

##

Summary: Ibalon

02 He makes a gabi field and the giant boar Tandayag ruins it.
He hunts it down and wrestles it, and kills it with his bare
03
hands, kinda like Beowulf.
He hangs the jawbones on a tree outside his house, kinda
04
like Beowulf.
05 The had a feast, kinda like Beowulf.
People from the Panikwason and Asog came to see the
06
jawbones.
07 Handyong comes into the story, fights a lot.
Notable events: Ponong, a three necked, one eyed monster,
Triburon, flying sharks, tamed tamaraws, drove away the
08
Sarimao, giants with huge fingernails, giant crocs as big as
boats and the savage monkeys got scared of all the blood.
09 He and his men couldnt kill Oryol.
10 It could shapeshift.
He spent days tracking it, then it helped him kill other
11
monsters.
12 Handyong puts up the town in Ligmanan.
13 Laws are same for slaves and masters.
14 They named the rice after him.
Handyong invents the boat, Kimantong made the plow and
other farming stuff, Hablom made the abaca loom, Dinahing,
15
an Agta that made the stove, pot, clay jar and other kitchen
stuff, and Sural who started writing
TOTAL

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

4.5.10 Ibalon: Yling (25 lines, bilingual)


Fray Bernardino de Melendreras (1815-1867), a Franciscan missionary in Ginobatan,
Albay, wrote down 60 stanzas of Ibalong, a full-length folk epic, from a minstrel named
Kadungung. Put afterwards into Spanish by Melendreras, these 60 stanzas are all that we have of
the Ibalong (Saminovic, 2010). The following is the introduction to the Ibalong epic, the Iling,
which implores the bard to tell the story (translation by Calleja-Reyes, 1968, p. 329).
The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring skills
in using the empirical approach in literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding
sections: tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Preceding
sections include examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of
elements of superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. The following practice
table is designed to analyze a bilingual set of excerpts from the introduction to the Ibalon. The
numbering refers to the original stanzas, but may be modified for ease of reference.
Table 52: Ibalon Yling (25) Bilingual Summary Practice Chart
##
01

Yling
Usipi kami, Kadunung

Iling
Tell us, Cadunung, the history

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 116

##
01b
01c
01d
05
05b
05c
05d
09
09b
09c
09d
13
13b
13c
13d
17
17b
17c
17d
21
21b
21c
21d

Yling
si kaidtong panahon ni Handyong
gamit sa imong barimbaw
awiton awit na mahamis ni Aslon.
Ika sana minaawit
na magayon asin mabansa
si kaidtong mga usipon
na libot an satuyang runa.
Mga hadi awiton
isog ninda pinahiling
iriwal na uminagi
sagkod nadaog si Uryol
Agi-agi mo isabi
usipon kan gurang na Asog
an aki na Masaraga
an anuyon na Isarog.
Marhay na parasaysay
mahamis na pararanga
danaw saimong nahiling
dumian si Takay buswak na.
Nagdadangog kami
Sa imong magayon na awit
ngunyan tukaw naman kami
sa limpoy kaining daod.

Iling
of the times of Handiong
with that silver lyre
sing the sweet song of Aslon.
That you alone can sing
So beautifully and with feeling
the various mysterious events
that surround this region.
Sing and tell us of their kings
of lineage and courage
and the war that took place
until the defeat of Oriol.
Give us also your knowledge
of the history of old Asog,
of the youthful Masaraga
and of ancient Isarog.
You are the affable poet
the sweetest and seductive
many times you have seen the lake
where Tacay is blooming.
Sing, then, we are attentive
to your beautiful narration
while we are here seated
under the shadow of a daod.

Totals

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0
0

This table is adapted from Reyes, 1969, pp. 329-330

4.5.11 Indarapatra at Sulayman (06 lines)


The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring skills
in using the empirical approach in literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding
sections: tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Preceding
sections include examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of
elements of superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. The following practice
table is a short summary of Indarapatra at Sulayman, in only six (06) lines.
Table 53: Indarapatra at Sulayman (05) Summary Practice Chart
##

Summary: Indarapatra at Sulayman

Rajah Indarapatra, who rules a golden land to the west


might this have referred to Malacca or one of the old
01 Malay kingdoms like Pattani or Srivijaya? hears of the
monster infestations and sends his younger brother
Sulayman to deal with it.
Sulayman battles and slays the first three monsters, but
02 Pah in its death throes crushes the valiant prince with
its wings.

Superstition

Filial Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 117

##

03

04
05
06

Summary: Indarapatra at Sulayman

Superstition

Filial Piety

Other
Values

Indarapatra learns of Sulaymans death from the death


of a tree whose fate he bonded to his brothers, and
swearing vengeance, girds on his weapons and flies to
Mindanao.
There he finds the corpses of Kurita, Tarabusaw and
Pah, and under Pahs wing the bones of Sulayman.
He resurrects Sulayman with some enchanted water,
and then goes on to slay Kuraya.
The two have more adventures, winning royal maidens
and founding new kingdoms.
TOTAL

4.5.12 Indarapatra at Sulayman (22 lines)


The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes for acquiring skills
in using the empirical approach in literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding
sections: tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Preceding
sections include examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of
elements of superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. For ease of use, the
literary text in the following table has been separated into lines, and each line is numbered. All
column headings are labeled. The following practice table is a summary of Indarapatra at
Sulayman in 22 lines. It was written by M. J. Diasanta (n .d.). The use of informal English is
evident.
Table 54: Indarapatra at Sulayman (22) Summary Practice Chart
##

Summary: Indarapatra at Sulayman

01 In Matanpuli, Indarapatra was the king.


He heard stuff about Big Birds and wild Animals on the loose
02
outside his kingdom.
03 He sent his bro Sulayman to go play Monster Hunter.
Before Sulayman left, Indarapatra planted a plant by the
04
window that will show whatever happens to Sulayman.
Sulayman rode on the wind and arrived at Kabilalan and saw
05
a monster Kurita.
They fought and he killed it after a long battle (Sulayman
06
used Kris!).
Sulayman rode on the wind and arrived at Matutum and saw
07
a monster Tarabusaw.
They fought and he killed it after a long battle (Tarabusaw
08
used Tree! Sulayman used Sword!).
09 Sulayman rode on the wind and arrived at Mt.
10 Bita and saw a monster Big Bird Pah.
They fought and he killed it after a long battle Then it fell
11 on him and killed him with a dead wing and the plant died,
Indarapatra got emo.
12 Indarapatra looked for Sulayman, following the same path.
13 He saw the dead monsters.
14 He checked under Pah and saw his bro.

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 118

##

15
16
17
19
20
21
22

Summary: Indarapatra at Sulayman

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

He prayed and magic water appeared which he sprinkled to


bring him back to life
Indarapatra sent Sulayman home, and went to Mt. Gurayu.
He found the feared 7-headed-giant-bird-with-no-name.
EPIC BATTLE SCENE.
He kills it right away with his magic sword JURIS PAKAL!
End of battle scene.
Indarapatra sees a pretty girl getting water, she hides.
Indarapatra announces that he and Sulayman killed all the
monsters and its safe.
He then gets to marry the kings daughter who turns out to be
the pretty girl from before
TOTAL

4.5.13 Indarapatra & Sulayman (37 paragraphs)


The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes required in the
empirical approach of literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding sections:
tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Other sections include
examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of elements of
superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. For ease of use, the literary text in the
following table has been separated into lines, and each line is numbered. For convenience, all
column headings are pre-labeled.
The following practice table is designed for a summary of Indarapatra at Sulayman in 37
paragraphs instead of lines. The source is TCC (2007).
Table 55: Indarapatra at Sulayman (37) Summary Practice Chart
##

Summary: Sulayman and Indarapatra (By Paragraph)

Long ago, before the days of Kabungsuwan, Magindanao96 was


covered by water and the sea extended all over the lowlands and
01 nothing could be seen but mountains. The people lived on the
highlands on both sides. They were numerous and prosperous,
and many villages and settlements arose everywhere.
But their prosperity and peace did not last very long. There
02 appeared in the land pernicious monsters which devoured every
human being they could reach.
One of these terrible Animals was called Kurita. It had many limbs
03 and lived partly on land and partly in the sea. It haunted Mount
Kabalalan97 and extirpated all animal life in its vicinity.

96

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

The term Magindanao can also refer to the dynasty which ruled in Mindanao to distinguish it from the one
which ruled in Bwayan. The Magindanao rulers originally held its capital in the Magindanao settlement. At various
times, the capital was the old Simway.
97
The word Kabalalan means the place of the rattan, because the rattan plant used to grow abundantly on the
mountain and its base.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 119

##

04

05

06

07

08

09

10

11

12

13

14

98

Summary: Sulayman and Indarapatra (By Paragraph)

The second was called Tarabusar. This ugly creature had the form
of a man, but was very much larger. It was extremely voracious
and spread terror far and wide. It haunted Mount Matutun and its
neighborhood.
The third was a monstrous bird called Pah.98 This bird was so large
when on the wing that it covered the sun and produced darkness
underneath. It was as large as a house. It haunted Mount Bita and
the eastern Ranao region. It devoured the people and devastated
the land.
The fourth was a dreadful bird, also, which had seven heads. It
lived in Mount Gurayn and the adjacent country.
The people were awe-struck, and those who escaped hid
themselves in the caves of the mountains. The havoc was
complete and the ruin of the land was awful. The sad news found
its way to strange and far lands, and all nations felt sorry for the
fate that befell Mindanao. (Saleeby, p.8; 26)
When the news reached Raja Indarapatra, the King of Mantapuli, it
grieved him very much and filled his heart with sympathy. Raja
Indarapatra called his brother. Raja Sulayman99 and asked him to
come to Mindanao to save the land from those destructive Animals.
Raja Sulayman was moved with sorrow, mingled with enthusiasm
and zeal, and consented to come. Raja Indarapatra handed to his
brother his ring and his kris, Juru Pakal,100 and wished him safety
and success.
But before they parted Raja Indarapatra took a sapling and planted
it in the ground in front of his window. This he thought was a sure
sign by which he could tell what would happen to Sulayman after
his departure. He said to Sulayman, If this tree lives, you will live
also; and if this tree dies, you will die too.
Raja Sulayman left Mantapuli101 102 and came over to Mindanao in
the air. He neither walked nor used a boat.
The first place he reached was Kabalalan. There he stood on the
summit of the mountain and viewed the land and the villages, but
he could not see a single human being anywhere. The sight was
woeful, and Raja Sulayman exclaimed, Alas, how pitiful and
dreadful is this devastation!
As Sulayman uttered these words the whole mountain moved and
shook, and suddenly there came out of the ground a dreadful
animal which attacked Sulayman and fixed its claws in his flesh.
The minute Sulayman saw the Kurita he knew that it was the evil
scourge of the land, and he immediately drew his sword and cut
the Kurita to pieces.
From there Sulayman went to Matutun.103 There he saw greater
devastation and a more awful condition of affairs. As he stood on
the mountain he heard a noise in the forest and saw a movement
in the trees. Soon there appeared Tarabusaw, which drew near
and gave a loud yell. It cautioned Sulayman and threatened to
devour him. Sulayman in his turn threatened to kill Tarabusaw.

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

This word may be a corruption of the name of the bird Rock or Rokh, mentioned in the Arabian Nights.
Solomon
100
This word is a corruption of the Arabic word Thul-Fakar, the name of the famous sword of the Caliph Ali. Ali
was a noted warrior.
101
Mantapuli can be found in the west of Mindanao, in the far land where the sun sets (translated by researcher)
(Cambronero, 2011).
102
"Mantapuli is a place in Borneo in Indonesia" (Ganz, 2010).
103
There is a Mount Matutum that can be seen from the Dole Pineapple Plantation in Polomolok in South
Cotabato.
99

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 120

##

Summary: Sulayman and Indarapatra (By Paragraph)

15

16

17

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

25

26

104

The animal said to Sulayman, If you kill me, I shall die the death of
a martyr, and as it spoke, it broke large branches from the trees
and assailed Sulayman. The struggle lasted a long while until, at
last, the animal was exhausted and fell to the ground; thereupon
Sulayman struck it with his sword and killed it.
As the animal was dying it looked up to Sulayman and
congratulated him on his success. Sulay man answered and said,
Your previous deeds brought this death on you (Saleeby, 1905. p.
9; 27).
The next place Sulayman went to was Mount Bita. Here the
devastation was worse still. Sulayman passed by many houses,
but they were all vacant and not a soul lived there. Alas, what
havoc and what misfortune has befallen this country! he
exclaimed, as he went on.
But suddenly there came a darkness upon the land and Sulayman
wondered what it could mean. He looked up to the sky and beheld
a wonderful and huge bird descending from the sky upon him. He
at once recognized the bird and understood its purpose, and as
quick as he could draw his sword he struck the bird and cut off its
wing. The bird fell dead, but its wing fell on Sulayman and killed
him.
At this same time Raja Indarapatra was sitting in his window, and
he looked and saw the little tree wither and dry up. Alas! he said,
Raja Sulayman is dead; and he wept.
Sad at heart but full of determination and desire for revenge, he got
up, put on his sword and belt, and came over to Mindanao to
search for his brother. He traveled in the air with wonderful speed
and came to Kabalalan first. There he looked around and saw the
bones of the Kunta and concluded that his brother had been there
and had gone.
At Matutun he saw the bones of Tarabusaw, but Sulayman was not
there.
So he passed on to Mount Bita and resumed the search. There he
saw the dead bird lying on the ground, and as he lifted the severed
wing, he saw the bones of Sulayman, and recognized them by
means of the sword that was lying by their side. As he looked at
the sword and at the bones he was overwhelmed with grief and
wept with tears.
Raising up his head he turned around and beheld a small jar of
water near him. He knew that the jar was sent down from heaven,
so he took it and poured its water on the bones of his brother, and
his brother came to life again.
Sulayman stood up, greeted his brother, and talked with him. Raja
Indarapatra had thought that Sulayman was dead, but Sulayman
assured him that he had not been dead, but that he had been
asleep. Raja Indarapatra rejoiced and life and happiness filled his
heart.
Raja Sulayman returned after that to Mantapuli, but Raja
Indarapatra continued his march to Mount Gurayn. There he met
the dreadful bird that had seven heads and killed it with his sword,
Juru Pakal.104 This sword was given by the Prophet Muhammad to
his cousin and son-in-law Ali as a gift.
Having destroyed all these noxious Animals, and having restored
peace and safety to the land, Raja Indarapatra set himself
searching for the people that might have escaped destruction. He
was of the opinion that some people must have contrived to hide in
the earth and that they might be alive yet.

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

From Zul Figar, Arabic for The lord of the vertebrae of the back (Saleeby, 1905. p. 10; 28)

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 121

##

Summary: Sulayman and Indarapatra (By Paragraph)

One day during his search he saw a beautiful woman at some


27 distance, and as he hastened to meet her she disappeared quickly
through a hole in the ground where she was standing.
Having become tired and pressed with hunger, he sat down on a
rock to rest. Looking around for food, he saw a pot full of uncooked
28 rice and a big fire on the ground in front of it. Coming to the fire he
placed it between his legs and put the pot over his knees to cook
the rice.
While so occupied he heard a person laugh and exclaim, Oh, what
a powerful person this man is! He turned around and, lo, there
29
was an old woman near by looking at him and wondering how he
could cook his rice on a fire between his legs.
The woman drew nearer and conversed with Raja Indarapatra,
who ate his rice and stood talking to her. He inquired of her about
30 her escape and about the inhabitants of the land. She answered
that most of them had been killed and devoured by the pernicious
Animals, but that a few were still alive.
She and her old husband, she said, hid in a hollow tree and could
not come out from their hiding place until Raja Sulayman killed the
awful bird. Pah. The rest of the people and the datu, she continued,
31
hid in a cave in the ground and did not dare to come out again. He
urged her to lead him to the cave and show him the people, and
she did so.
The cave was very large, and on one side of it were the apartments
of the datu and his family. He was ushered into the presence of the
datu and was quickly surrounded by all the people who were in the
32
cave. He related to them his purpose and his mission and what he
had accomplished and asked them to come out and re-inhabit the
land.
There he saw again the beautiful girl whom he had observed at the
opening of the cave. She was the daughter of the datu, and the
33
datu gave her to him in marriage in appreciation of the good he had
done for them and the salvation he had brought to the land.
The people came out of the cave and returned to their homes,
34 where they lived in peace and prosperity again. At this time the sea
had withdrawn and the lowland had appeared (Saleeby, p.11 (29)
One day as Raja Indarapatra was considering his return home he
remembered Sulaymans ring and went out to search for it. During
the search he found a net near the water and stopped to fish to
35
replenish his provisions for the continuation of the march. The net
caught a quantity of buganga fish, some of which he ate. Inside
one of the first he found his ring.
This cheered Raja Indarapatras heart and completed his joy. Later
36 he bade his father-in-law and his wife good-bye and returned to
Mantapuli pleased and happy.
Raja Indarapatras wife was pregnant at the time of their parting
37 and a few months later gave birth to twins, a boy and a girl. The
boys name was Rinamuntaw and the girls name was Rinayung.105
TOTAL

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

4.5.14 Indarapatra & Sulayman (70 lines)


The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes required in the
empirical approach of literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding sections:
tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Other sections include
105

These two persons are supposed to be the ancestors of some of the Ranao tribes or datus.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 122

examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of elements of


superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. For ease of use, the literary text in the
following table has been separated into lines, and each line is numbered. For convenience, all
column headings are pre-labeled.
The following practice table is designed for a summary of Indarapatra at Sulayman in 70
lines. For text completenes, this summary was combined from two sources: Diasanta (n. d.) and
Quioge (2013).
Table 56: Indarapatra at Sulayman (70) Summary Practice Chart
##

Summary: Indarapatra and Sulayman

A long, long time ago, Mindanao was covered with water, and
01 the sea covered all the lowlands so that nothing could be
seen but the mountains jutting from it.
There were many people living in the country and all the
02
highlands were dotted with villages and settlements.
For many years the people prospered, living in peace and
03
contentment.
Suddenly there appeared in the land four horrible monsters
04 which, in short time has devoured every human being they
could find (Diasanta, n d.).
Kurita, a terrible creature with many limbs, lived partly on the
land and partly on sea, but its favorite haunt was the mountain
05
where the rattan palm grew; and here it brought utter
destruction on every living thing.
The second monster, Tarabusaw, an ugly creature in the form
06
of a man, lived on Mt.
Matutum, and far and wide from that place he devoured the
07
people, laying waste the land.
The third, an enormous bird called Pah, was so large that,
08 when on the wing, it covered the sun and brought darkness to
the earth.
09 Its egg was as large as a house.
Mt. Bita was its haunt; and there the only people who escaped
10
its voracity were those who hid in the mountain caves.
The fourth monster was also a dreadful bird, having seven
11
heads and the power to see in all directions at the same time.
Mt. Gurayan was its home and like the others, it wrought
12
havoc to its region (Diasanta, n d.).
"The fourth monster, Kuraya, was a dreadful bird also, having
13 seven heads and the power to see in all directions at the
same time (Quiogue, 2013).
So great was the death and destruction caused by these
terrible creatures that at length, the news spread even to the
14
most distant lands - and all nations grieved to hear the sad
fate of Mindanao (Diasanta, n d.).
Now far across the sea, in the land of the golden sunset, was
15 a city so great that to look at its many people would injure the
eyes of men.
When tidings of these great disasters reached this distant city,
the heart of King Indarapatra was filled with compassion, and
16
he called his brother, Sulayman, and begged hem to save the
land of Mindanao from the monsters (Diasanta, n d.).

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 123

##
17
18
19

20

21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

31
32
33
34
35
36
37
38
39
40
41
42

Summary: Indarapatra and Sulayman


Sulayman listened to the story and as heard it, was moved
with pity.
I will go, zeal and enthusiasm adding to his strength, and
the land shall be avenged, said he (Diasanta, n d.).
King Indarapatra, proud of his brothers courage, gave him a
ring and a sword as he wished him success and safety.
Then he placed a young sapling by his window and said to
Sulayman By this tree I shall know your fate from the hour
you depart from here, for if you live, it will live; but if you die, it
will die also (Diasanta, n d.).
So Sulayman departed for Mindanao, and he neither waded
nor used a boat, but went through the air and landed on the
mountain where the rattan grew.
There he stood on the summit and gazed about on all sides.
He looked on the land and the villages, but he could see no
living thing.
And he was very sorrowful and cried out: Alas, how pitiful and
dreadful is this devastation (Diasanta, n d.).
No sooner had Sulayman uttered those words than the whole
mountain began to move and then shook.
Suddenly out of the ground came the horrible creature Kurita.
It sprung at the man and sank its claws at his flesh.
But, Sulayman knowing at once that this was the scourge of
the land, drew his sword and cut Kurita to pieces (Diasanta, n
d.).
Encourage by his first success, Sulayman went on to Mt.
Matutum, where conditions were even worse.
As he stood on the heights viewing the great devastation,
there was a noise in the forest and a movement in the trees.
With a loud yell, Tarabusaw forth leaped.
For the moment they looked at each other, neither showing
any sign of fear.
Then Tarabusaw used all his powers to try to devour
Sulayman, who fought back.
For a long time, the battle continued, until at last, the monster
fell exhausted to the ground and Sulayman killed him with his
sword (Diasanta, n d.).
The nest place visited by Sulayman was Mt. Bita.
Here havoc was present everywhere, and though he passed
by many homes, he saw that not a single soul was left.
As he walked, sudden darkness fell over the land, startling
him.
As he looked toward the sky he beheaded a great bird that
swooped upon him.
Immediately he struck, and the bird fell dead at his feet; but
the wing fell on Sulayman and he was crushed (Diasanta, n
d.).
Now at this very time King Indarapatra was sitting at his
window, and looking out he saw the little tree wither and dry
up (Diasanta, n d.).
Alas! he cried, my brother is dead and he wept bitterly.

Then although he was very sad, he was filled with a desire for
revenge.
Putting on his sword and belt, he started for Mindanao, in
44
search for his brother.
He, too, traveled through the air with great speed until he
45
came to the mountain where the rattan grew.

43

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 124

##

Summary: Indarapatra and Sulayman

There he looked about, awed at the great destruction, and


46 when she saw the bones of Kurita he knew that his brother
had been there.
He went on till he came to Matutum, and when he saw the
47 bones of Tarabusaw, he knew that this, too, was the work of
Sulayman (Diasanta, n d.).
48 Still searching for his brother, he arrived at Mt.
Bita, where the dead bird lay on the ground, and when he
49 lifted the severed wing he beheld the bones of Sulayman with
his sword by his side.
His grief now so overwhelmed Indarapatra that he wept for
50
some time.
51 Upon looking up, he beheld a small jar of water by his side.
This, he knew had been sent from the heaven, and he poured
52
the water over the bones, and Sulayman, came to life again.
They greeted each other and talked animatedly for great
53
length of time.
Sulayman declared that he had not been dead but asleep,
54
and their hearts were full of joy (Diasanta, n d.).
After some time Sulayman returned his distant home, but
55 Indarapatra continued his journey to Mt. Gurayan where killed
the dreadful bird with the seven heads.
After these monsters had all been killed, peace and safety
had been restored to the land: Indarapatra began searching
56
everywhere to see if some of the people who hid in the earth
were still alive (Diasanta, n d.).
One day, in the course of his search, he caught sight of a
57
beautiful woman at a distance.
When he hastened toward her she disappeared through a
58
hole in the ground where she stood.
Disappointed and tried, he sat down on a rock to rest when,
59 looking about, he saw near him a pot uncooked rice with a big
fire on the ground in front of it.
60 This revived him and he proceeded to cook the rice.
As he did so, however, he heard someone laugh near by, and
61
turning he beheld an old woman watching him.
As he greeted her, she drew near and talked to him while he
62
ate the rice (Diasanta, n d.).
Of all the people in the land, the woman told him, only few
63 were left, and they hid in a cave in the ground from whence
they never ventured to come out.
As for herself and her old husband, she went on, they had
hidden in a hollow tree, and this they had never dared to
64
leave until Sulayman killed the voracious bird Pah (Diasanta,
n d.).
At Indarapatras request, the old woman led him to one such
65
cave.
66 There he met the headmen with his family and some people.
They all gathered about the stranger, asking many questions,
67 for this was the first time they had heard about the death of
the monsters.
When they found out what Indarapatra had done for them, the
headman gave his daughter to him in marriage, and she
68
proved to be beautiful girl whom Indarapatra had seen at the
mouth of the cave (Diasanta, n d.).
Then the people all came out of their hiding places and
69 returned to their homes where they lived in peace and
happiness.
And the sea withdrew from the land and gave the lowlands to
70
the people

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 125

##

Summary: Indarapatra and Sulayman


TOTAL

Superstition
0

Filial
Piety
0

Other
Values
0

4.5.15 Kamanduan (21 paragraphs)


The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes required in the
empirical approach of literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding sections:
tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Other sections include
examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of elements of
superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. For ease of use, the literary text in the
following table has been separated into lines, and each line is numbered. For convenience, all
column headings are pre-labeled. The following practice table is designed for a summary of
Kamanduan in 21 paragraphs instead of lines. The summary is by Sabuyakan (2011). The
purpose is to determine if it is easier to assess paragraphs than lines. If it is more difficult, then
lines should be recommended for use. If it is easier, then paragraphs should be recommended for
use.
Table 57: Kamanduan (21) Summary Practice Chart
##

01

02

03

04

Summary: Kamanduan
In this upper portion of Agusan, the brave Taghimayats was ruled by Apo
Todow, a shaman, a war general and Chief Justice of the village (babaylan,
bagani and an Apo Manigaon.) His shirt was very colorful with backdrop of
white and badges of red and black. He has a beautiful, charming,
intelligent, obedient, industrious wife, Bae Sabuyakan Tisay. Tisay is as
sweet as the red bush roses that grow along the ever powerful Agusan
River in the Adgawan portion.
The couple has two kids- a boy called Uto ay and a girl named
Kamanduan. These two kids are the life and light of the village. They are
the future leaders of Adgawan. Uto ay was around four summers old,
Kamanduan, older by two summers. Of course, there is no winter in
Agusan, but they have rainy days, and much more heavier rainy days.
Summer is always a welcome time when the sun is always up the whole
day, passionately kissing over the vast woodlands.
Uto-ay and Kamanduan played a lot, roaming freely around the village and
they are well loved by the tribe. Bae Sabuyakan Tisay stayed in the house,
being the first wife and the queen of the tribe. She is being tended to be the
other four wives of Apo Todow, all relatives and two are sisters of
Sabuyakan. Duway (plural marriage of one man and four women is an
institution among Manobos, the fact that the tribe has more women than
men.
Men being early death casualties in constant warfare engaged in by the
tribe.) The four other wives of Datu Todow serve in the palace as cooks,
laundrywomen, housekeeper, care for the children, entertain guest and
visitors if any and attend to the need of Datu Todow if the Queen is
indisposed to do so. Other Baganis and men in the village practice duway
as this is their customary law regarding marriage. A man must be
responsible for the tending of at least five women in the tribe.

Superstitions

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 126

##

Summary: Kamanduan

So, every afternoon, when the sun is not anymore hot Uto-ay and
05 Kamanduan go to the stump of a dead tree overlooking the river. From this
stump, they took turns in jumping to the deep still river of the Agusan.
This activity of the kids has become daily ritual for the entire summer
months. All the nature surrounding Agusan including the favor of the
Diwatas, the good spirits has known this activity and apparently approves
06 together with the nodding of the heads of the little cicadas and crickets on
top of the Durian and the marang trees and the different varieties of birds
including the migratory birds from other countries hopping lazily from twig
to branches of the trees in the vast woodland.
Then, one day, the sun appears gloomy. Cloud formation seems to
threaten the smile of the happy sun, foretelling that something foreboding
unwanted event might happen seemingly Uto ay and Kamanduan did not
07
bother to care to notice the change in scenery around them for going to
that stump of the tree during summer had been an addiction and a ritual for
the two kids. Apparently, the day will not be complete without it.
So, Uto ay was the first to dive. While Kamanduan waited for Uto ay to
emerge out from the deep river. Then once Uto ay get out from the water,
Kamanduan takes the turn to dive. This has been the process of the game.
Then it was Kamanduans turn to dive, and she did. Uto ay waited for her to
get out of the waters. Uto ay waited and waited..waited and waited.. the
seconds turn to minutes.. the minutes to hours Uto ay was already
08
apprehensive. What has happened to her sister? Why has she not got out
of the waters till now? Is she drowned? Is she dead? Many questions play
in Utos mind. But the sun was about to set and no Kamanduan has got out
of the waters. The vicinities and surrounding areas starts to darken. Uto
was afraid, running home with fear. What will father and mother do now?
Wheres his sister?
Bae Sabuyakan Tisay met Uto halfway down the road. Her colorful skirt
bearing colors of red, black and white telling of stories of warfare and how
09 the family had escaped and survived swayed reaching the ground as she
ran toward Uto asking him questions of what had happened. What took
them so long to return home and where is Kamanduan?
Uto has a hard time opening his mouth and between sobs and falling tears
with shaking body, he said that Duan dove from the stump of the tree, he
waited for her to come out of the waters but that was the last time he saw
10
her. She never got out of the waters again. The sun was halfway down the
sky when Duan dove and now the sun has set and Duan never emerged
again.
Bae Sabuyakan Tisay run to where her husband was, together with the rest
of the Apos and the Baganis and told them of Duans predicament. The
whole village was in commotion. The gong was beaten informing the
inhabitants that something bad has happened in their village. The
manigaons and the minonas gathered together seeking wisdom from the
diwatas and from each other as to what to do and how this issue be
addressed. Then Apo Suday, a minona said: we will have to ask Datu
11
Buada of the nearby village, to do the task for us- for among all datus, he is
the only one with the power, the skill to swim to that deepest part of the
river and stayed there for long and to know where and what happened to
Duan. So, emissaries were sent to Datu Buada telling him of the
predicament of Duan and asking him if he could help, that whatever it is he
will ask as payment for this gigantic task of finding Duan will be given to
him with additional offers attached to the award.
Datu Buada met Datu Todow with their men and conglomerated near the
stump of the tree where Duan dove. A ritual was made invoking the spirits
of the crocodile of the river, from there Buada dive. Buada spent many
hours under water. Many of the villagers were weeping, crying out loud,
12 and invoking the Diwatas for the safety of Kamanduan. The sound of the
gongs and the drums continued till the wee hours in the morning. Nobody
slept in the village except for the small kids and children. The men and
women were in full alert, heart beating in anticipation as to what has
happened to their little princess.

Superstitions

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 127

##

Summary: Kamanduan

13

14

15

16

17

106

It was about early morning that Buada came out of the river , in his arms
lay the limp but alive body of Kamanduan.
The people shouted with joy! It was a great day for every body! How the
people rejoiced. They praised Datu Buada for a feat unsurpassed, which is
bringing the life back of their beautiful little princess. The gongs and drums
beat now joyfully announcing to one and all that the princess is found and
there is a reason for great rejoicing in the village!!! The Manigaons,
minonas, baganis of the two tribes gathered around Datu Buada ready to
listen to what transpired under water. Datu Buada was given buyot (bettle
nut for chewing put in between his right teeth protruding in the lower lip),
started to narrate his escapade under water. Under the influence of the
Buada Spirit (spirit of the crocodile god) the Datu narrated the event in a
form of a chant (tud-om): Oh oh oh down under, I saw Kamanduan
in the lap of a very big lumod (mermaid of the river, the spirit of the river
Agusan). The lumod was singing lullaby to the princess for her to go to
sleep. Soon Kamanduan fell asleep, but it took a long time for the lumod to
fall asleep. She was watching Kamanduan carefully it was about dawn
when the lumod fall asleep. I, Buada hid in the under water bushes, when I
saw that the Lumod had fallen asleep. I immediately swam silently towards
where Kamanduan was, carefully I snatched her from the lap of the lumod
who was soundly snoring, and brought her up towards the surface of the
waters limp but very much alive The village men started chanting thanks
to the good diwatas of the river agusan and the woodlands.. Datu Todow
asked Datu Buada what will be the prize for such conquest , twenty boars,
twenty chicken, twenty sacks of gabi (taro). Twenty women slaves... what
will satisfy Buada? Datu Buada shook his majestic head and said: I dont
want any of what you offer me. All I want is that when Kamanduan reaches
womanhood indicated by menarche I want that she be wedded to my son
Sundi. Datu Todow just like any gentleman sealed the pact of agreement
with Datu Buada, giving honor to his word that whatever be the prize that
Buadawould like to get after he is able to save Kamanduan will be granted
to him. So the pact was sealed. In due time Kamanduan was to marry
Prince Sundi of the Buada Tribe. The ritual for betrothal was performed
offering the lives of the two children to the Diwatas that in appropriate time
they will become man and woman and the Tribes of the Taghimayat and
the Buadas will be one.
After that heart palpitating incident, time and seasons became normal once
again for the Manobos of Agusan. Uto now growing to manhood, and soon
being recruited to the baganiship. Young Kamanduan however, every night
is being visited by the lumod, the god of the river agusan telling her to go
back to the stump of the tree for in it is an oil which she has to use
everyday for her hair and for her skin. At first Kamanduan was very
apprehensive, but she cannot anymore contain the instructions of the
lumod but to comply for it appeared nightly in her nightmarish dreams.
Kamanduan found a jar of oil at the foot of the stump. Religiously,
Kamanduan followed the lumads instruction that is to apply the oil to her
skin and to her hair every time she bathe in the vast Agusan River. Thus,
Kamanduan grow up to be so white skinned that even the food she ate
could be seen passing through her throat. Her hair so long that it reaches
to the ground, which she formed into a beautiful bun hanging at the right
side of her face and bangs of hair on the forehead indicating that the girl is
a virgin. For if the bun is on the left side the girl now is married to one
husband and if the bun is at the back indicating that she is married by
duway.106
Princess Kamanduan then was the most beautiful girl found in the
Manoboland that time. Many men were enthralled by her and would like to
pursue her with ardor. But alas, her fate had been sealed for in proper time
she would be wedded to Sundi the only son of Datu Buada.

second, third or fourth wife of the Datu

Superstitions

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 128

##

18

19

20

21

22

23

24

Summary: Kamanduan
But who can ever dictate the heart? Kamanduan fell in love not with Sundi
but with Sundey, the son of Datu Mati. The love was so ardous that even
the birds and the bees want to join with the two when ever they went
around the highly forested lands of Agusan. The flowers bloomed
whenever the two passed by. And as they say, affairs like this can never be
kept a secret. At first, whispers went around the village Psst, Do you
know, Kamanduan and Sundey are in love with each other.. OH Apo,
Diwatas... what will be the reaction of Datu Buada and Prince Sundi if they
learned this? The whispers became loud voices of antagonism. No, this
cannot happen. The gods will not allow this to happen. This is injustice to
the Buada Tribe a breach of contract, and indespicable act. And so as
the tale went on, Buada came to hear of the news
He stomped his feet in a savaged outrage. Todow should not allow this to
happen. What has happened to the contract made the time Kamanduan
was saved by Buada under water that she was to marry Prince Sundi. So,
the Buadas planned a magahat against the tribe of Todow. The order was
to kill all of Todows people. But like all Manobos that time, all children are
betrothed but parents left alone their children most of the time and very little
parental concern is being given to their kids. Todow was the last person to
know of Kamanduans affair, but too late No amicable settlement could
be made for in the baganis law... any injustices committed by any Manobo
should always be punished with death.
So, the warfare started, killings were made in the name of the tribe, Buada
killing Todows men. Todows men killing Buadas people... men, women,
children, not sparing any one including their Animals.
Agusan was in bad shape; even those belonging to other tribes cannot
contain the warfare. Todow decided to put Kamanduan into auction.. Duan
was put into public bidding, but no man will take her now. She was
considered accursed Buada will not take her for the Buadas believed that
only her death can pay the honor and dignity of the tribe besmirched by her
reputation of falling in love with another man and not to his betrothed.
Knowing this predicament of Kamanduan, Prince Sundey faced all the
obstacles of warfare and hatred, took her beloved Kamanduan and
together they fought for their love and together they died in the hands of
the Buadas. The tragedy did not end with the death of the lover. Now the
tribe of Sundey are in red and black... the warfare escalated... blood for
blood...honor for honor justice for justice in the name of love and tribal
dignity
Many in Agusan so tired of the warfare moved out of the vast Agusan
Valley. Those who reached Lake Lanao became the Maranaws. Those who
reached Cotabato became the Maguindanaos, others went to Butuan and
became the Lapaknons. There were those who went to far Davao and
became the Bagobo.
To this date, warfare is still in the blood of the Manobos in Agusan.. A little
injustice against their domain will cause bloodshed for still in their veins run
the blood and deep desire for justice and revenge. If there is no justice in
this earth except warfare, then in death there is, for even how many people
had been killed by a Manobo, there is no concept of hell.. In death, All will
go to paradise, where the god Maubuyan lives, near Bukidnon..Where food
abound, lanzones as big as the head of a baby, corn found aplenty, rice,
mud fish, everything provided for and there is no need to fight .True love,
real love is in paradise with Maubuyan and as the tale ends, there
Sundey and Kamanduan lived happily ever after
TOTAL

(Sabuyakan, 2011)

4.5.16 Keg Sumba neg Sandayo (8 lines)

Superstitions

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 129

The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes required in the
empirical approach of literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding sections:
tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Other sections include
examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of elements of
superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. For ease of use, the literary text in the
following table has been separated into lines, and each line is numbered. For convenience, the
column headings are pre-labeled. This 8-line summary of Keg Sumba neg Sandayo is from
Maranan, et al (2015).
Table 58: Keg Sumba neg Sandayo (08L) Summary Practice Chart
##
01
02
03
04
05
06
07
08

Summary: Keg Sumba neg Sandayo

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0

0
0

0
0

Keg Sumba neg Sandayo describes an ancient kingdom


frequently threatened by invaders.
Sandayo, the son of Bae Salaong and Datu Salaria of
Liyasan, is born from his mothers hair.
When he matures, he attends the grand buklog in Lumanay
with Datu Daugbolawan.
There, he develops an affair with Bae Bolak Sonday and
engages a rival datu in a duel which lasts for years.
Asog, the Supreme Being, intervenes and reveals that the
two are long-lost brothers.
Later, Sandayo falls ill and dies.
But Bolak Sonday finds his spirit and revives him.
When Bolak Sonday wounds herself and dies, Sandayo
looks for her spirit and resurrects her

Total

4.5.17 Keg Sumba neg Sondayo (08 paragraphs)


This guman (epic) is a Subanon folk narrative. The Sondayo is sung during festive
occasions like a buklog, a ritual feast, or a wake. It is chanted for a week from nine to ten in the
evening to three in the morning. The complete epic has 6,455 lines, repetitious episodes and
scenes involving endless fighting, journeying, ritual drinking and bouts of sleep (Peralta, 2007).
The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes required in the
empirical approach of literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding sections:
tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis.
Other sections include examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of
filial piety, of elements of superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 130

For ease of use, the literary text in the following table has been separated into lines, and
each line is numbered. For convenience, the column headings are pre-labeled. This 8-paragraph
summary of Keg Sumba neg Sandayo is from Peralta (2007).
One goal of using a practice using thick paragraphs is to determine the level of ease or of
difficulty of assessing the selected values. If ease is significantly high, this can be adopted for
standard use. If difficulty is significantly high, the sentences can be separated, as shown in the
other examples.
Table 59: Keg Sumba neg Sandayo (08P) Summary Practice Chart
##

01

02

03

04

05

Summary: Guman Sondayo (By Paragraph)


Sondayo is the son of Datu Salaria, the chief of Tubig Silayan, and his wife,
Salaong. One day, while bathing in the magical streams of Silayan, Salaong felt
heavy after dipping seven times, even if she is not pregnant. Upon returning
home, she combs her hair to dry and from it, a child falls out. This was how
Sondayo was born. A magical child, he matures very fast. Within a short period,
he asks his parents permission to go on a quest. His father gifts him with a
mighty sword, while his mother provides him with beautiful raiments. However,
a pigeon, limmon, gives him a dire warning not to embark on this journey. He
ignores the warning and goes off flying on a magical scarf, monsala, into the
center of the sun with the aid of lightning.
He encounters two datus, Daugbolawan and Lemolak, and causes their
enchantment. After several days, he hears the sound of the pounding beat of a
buklog festival which enticed him to go and join the festivities. He and the two
datus go there in spite of a warning again by a limmon, the omen bird. While
chewing on his betel-nut quid, mama, he dreams of two ladies, Bae Bolak
Sonday and Benebong. In his dream, the ladies offer him their own mama. He
accepts that of Bolak Sonday and declines Benebong. In the festival, he
actually meets the two ladies. A rivalry among the men ensues, especially when
one of the datus was favored by the ladies. Sondayo becomes jealous and
engages the datu in a duel that goes on for two years. Dire phenomena ensue
when the waters dry out, forcing life there (like the giant eels) to seek refuge on
land.
The deity, Asog, grows tired of witnessing the battle. On the third year, he
intervenes and stops the fight. He reveals to them that they are brothers who
both fell from the hair of Salaong. The two are reconciled and travel to
Balatakan.
Sondayo invites his brother to visit their parents in Liyasan, but he refuses
because he is the guardian of Balatakan. Sondayo puts him to an enchanted
sleep, while he cuts off the hills of Balatakan and brings these to Liyasan. Thus,
the brothers are reunited with their parents in a huge celebration.
Much later on, Datu Salaria asks Sondayo to accompany his cousins,
Daugbolawan and Lemolak, to Manelangan. They intend to propose marriage to
Bolak Sonday and Benebong. While traveling, they meet Bae Pigdindingan
who confronts them. They kill her but revive her at night. Reaching Manelangan,
they see that Bolak Sonday has many suitors. The parents of Bolak Sonday,
however, demand so many gifts which the suitors could not provide. Sondayo,
with his magic, is able to comply with all the demands for his cousin. They are
finally accepted. Datu Lumalab and the other datus engage them in battle.
Sondayo leaves his spear to fight on its own, defeating the datus after several
months of fighting. The cousins, using a golden bridge, return home bringing
their wives.

Supers- Filial Other


tition
Piety Values

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 131

##

Supers- Filial Other


tition
Piety Values

Summary: Guman Sondayo (By Paragraph)

Sondayo falls ill when he returns to Liyasan. He asks his magical scarf,
monsala, to fetch Bolak Sonday and Benebong, but they arrive too late.
Sondayo is already dead. Bolak Sonday looks for his spirit in the underworld,
while Benebong searches the upper world. Three weeks pass but they could
not find him. Benebong then searches the heavens, while Sonday focuses on
earth. But still they fail. Finally, two birds tell them that they should search for
Sondayos soul in Tubig Piksiipan, where he is a captive of amazons. They ride
06
on their own magical monsala with the help of lightning. They fight the amazons
for two months for Sondayos spirit and defeat them. They wake Sondayo up
from his deathly sleep and quench his thirst with the sweat of the sun which he
asked for. They bring it to him in a golden cup then they all return
home.Disaster befalls Bolak Sonday when she cuts herself while preparing
betel-nut quid. She dies. In return, Sondayo and his kindred search for her
spirit.
The two birds again reveal that her spirit is in Katonawan, a prisoner of a datu.
Sondayo battles the datu and frees the spirit of Sonday. He revives her and
they both return to Liyasan where everyone celebrates. Later, his cousins
07
request for his assistance in obtaining the dowry needed for Datu Tulog to
marry Lengotubig. He goes to Tubig Sumina. Sondayo, with his magic, obtains
the dowry.
He returns to Liyasan. There, he dreams of a buklog being celebrated. He
wakes and gets his kin and wives to go with him to join in the celebration. They
08 ride their monsala to Manelangan where the buklog is being held. The buklogan
rises entirely to heaven and when it descends again, Sondayo and his relatives
are not in it anymore. They have remained in heaven.
TOTAL

4.5.18 Keg Sumba neg Sondayo (53 lines)


The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes required in the
empirical approach of literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding sections:
tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Other sections include
examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of elements of
superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. For ease of use, the literary text in the
following table has been separated into lines, and each line is numbered. For convenience, the
column headings are pre-labeled. This 53-line summary of Keg Sumba neg Sandayo is from
Peralta (2007).
Table 60: Keg Sumba neg Sandayo (53) Summary Practice Chart
##
01
02
03
04
05

Summary: Guman Sondayo


Sondayo is the son of Datu Salaria, the chief of Tubig
Silayan, and his wife, Salaong.
One day, while bathing in the magical streams of Silayan,
Salaong felt heavy after dipping seven times, even if she is
not pregnant.
Upon returning home, she combs her hair to dry and from
it, a child falls out.
This was how Sondayo was born.
A magical child, he matures very fast.

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0

0
0

0
0

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 132

##

Summary: Guman Sondayo

34

Within a short period, he asks his parents permission to go


on a quest.
His father gifts him with a mighty sword, while his mother
provides him with beautiful raiments.
However, a pigeon, limmon, gives him a dire warning not to
embark on this journey.
He ignores the warning and goes off flying on a magical
scarf, monsala, into the center of the sun with the aid of
lightning.
He encounters two datus, Daugbolawan and Lemolak, and
causes their enchantment.
After several days, he hears the sound of the pounding
beat of a buklog festival which enticed him to go and join
the festivities.
He and the two datus go there in spite of a warning again
by a limmon, the omen bird.
While chewing on his betel-nut quid, mama, he dreams of
two ladies, Bae Bolak Sonday and Benebong.
In his dream, the ladies offer him their own mama.
He accepts that of Bolak Sonday and declines Benebong.
In the festival, he actually meets the two ladies.
A rivalry among the men ensues, especially when one of
the datus was favored by the ladies.
Sondayo becomes jealous and engages the datu in a duel
that goes on for two years.
Dire phenomena ensue when the waters dry out, forcing life
there (like the giant eels) to seek refuge on land.
The deity, Asog, grows tired of witnessing the battle.
On the third year, he intervenes and stops the fight.
He reveals to them that they are brothers who both fell from
the hair of Salaong.
The two are reconciled and travel to Balatakan.
Sondayo invites his brother to visit their parents in Liyasan,
but he refuses because he is the guardian of Balatakan.
Sondayo puts him to an enchanted sleep, while he cuts off
the hills of Balatakan and brings these to Liyasan.
Thus, the brothers are reunited with their parents in a huge
celebration.
Much later on, Datu Salaria asks Sondayo to accompany
his cousins, Daugbolawan and Lemolak, to Manelangan.
They intend to propose marriage to Bolak Sonday and
Benebong.
While traveling, they meet Bae Pigdindingan who confronts
them.
They kill her but revive her at night.
Reaching Manelangan, they see that Bolak Sonday has
many suitors.
The parents of Bolak Sonday, however, demand so many
gifts which the suitors could not provide.
Sondayo, with his magic, is able to comply with all the
demands for his cousin.
They are finally accepted.

35

Datu Lumalab and the other datus engage them in battle.

36

Sondayo leaves his spear to fight on its own, defeating the


datus after several months of fighting.
The cousins, using a golden bridge, return home bringing
their wives.
Sondayo falls ill when he returns to Liyasan.

06
07
08
09
10
11
12
13
14
15
16
17
18
19
20
21
22
23
24
25
26
27
28
29
30

31
32
33

37
38

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 133

##

Summary: Guman Sondayo

39

He asks his magical scarf, monsala, to fetch Bolak Sonday


and Benebong, but they arrive too late.
Sondayo is already dead.

40
41
42
43
44
45
46
47
48
49
50
51
52
53
54
55
56
57
58
59
60
51
52
53

Bolak Sonday looks for his spirit in the underworld, while


Benebong searches the upper world.
Three weeks pass but they could not find him.
Benebong then searches the heavens, while Sonday
focuses on earth.
But still they fail.
Finally, two birds tell them that they should search for
Sondayos soul in Tubig Piksiipan, where he is a captive of
amazons.
They ride on their own magical monsala with the help of
lightning.
They fight the amazons for two months for Sondayos spirit
and defeat them.
They wake Sondayo up from his deathly sleep and quench
his thirst with the sweat of the sun which he asked for.
They bring it to him in a golden cup then they all return
home.Disaster befalls Bolak Sonday when she cuts herself
while preparing betel-nut quid.
She dies.
In return, Sondayo and his kindred search for her spirit.
The two birds again reveal that her spirit is in Katonawan, a
prisoner of a datu.
Sondayo battles the datu and frees the spirit of Sonday.
He revives her and they both return to Liyasan where
everyone celebrates.
Later, his cousins request for his assistance in obtaining
the dowry needed for Datu Tulog to marry Lengotubig.
He goes to Tubig Sumina.
Sondayo, with his magic, obtains the dowry.
He returns to Liyasan.
There, he dreams of a buklog being celebrated.
He wakes and gets his kin and wives to go with him to join
in the celebration.
They ride their monsala to Manelangan where the buklog is
being held.
The buklogan rises entirely to heaven and when it
descends again, Sondayo and his relatives are not in it
anymore.
They have remained in heaven.
TOTAL

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

4.5.19 Tuwaang (33 lines)


The following table can be used for practicing the statistical processes required in the
empirical approach of literary analysis. The procedural explanations are in preceding sections:
tabulation method, gross qualitative analysis, pure qualitative analysis. Other sections include
examples of statistically-supported text analysis of elements of filial piety, of elements of
superstitious beliefs, and other elements in literary works. For ease of use, the literary text in the
following table has been separated into lines, and each line is numbered. For convenience, the

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 134

column headings are pre-labeled. This 33-line summary of Tuwaang is from an unattributed
source.
Table 61: Tuwaang (33) Summary Practice Chart
##

Summary: Tuwaang

01 In Kuaman, Tuwaang makes stuff.


02 Leglets, rings and chains.
He calls his sister (who has the nganga) and tells her he had
03
gotten a message.
The wind told him a pretty maiden arrived in Batooys
04
country and wouldnt talk to anyone.
05 They wanted Tuwaang to come.
06 His sis was scared.
07 He goes with his gear, rides lightning to Pinaggayungan.
He becomes a chick magnet there, so he goes to the house
08
of *drum roll* the Dude from Pangabukad.
09 They go to Batooys house.
10 Tuwaang then falls asleep near the maiden.
She wakes up, talks, pulls a hair from Tuwaang and then
11
they introduce each other.
12 The Maidens story:
13 Shes running away from the Dude from Pangumanon.
14 Hes a giant, and he wants to marry her.
15 She said no, he destroyed her town.
16 Epic timing.
Dude from Pangumanon arrives covered in fire and starts
17
killing people.
18 Dude from Pangavukad dies after a lot of other people.
19 He and Tuwaang fight.
Their shields, spears, swords and daggers all break and the
20
bits become trees.
21 They wrestle.
Then the giant then gets a long iron bar(patung), makes a
22
circle, then plays ring toss with Tuwaang.
23 As the target.
24 One point for the giant.
25 Then the ring goes on fire.
26 Tuwaang raises his right arm and the fire goes away.
Tuwaang pulls out his golden patung, and calls the wind to
27
help and the fire kills the giant
Tuwaang revives the good guys by spitting on them (This
28
will be a recurring theme)
Tuwaang gets the maiden, puts her on his shoulders and
29
rides lightning back home.
30 Five days later -a stranger comes and kills people.
He and Tuwaang fight, Tuwaang wins then spits on dead
31
people again.
Five more days and they all ride the Sinalimba, a golden
32
flying boat that takes them to Katuusan.
33 Its where people dont die

TOTAL

Superstition

Filial
Piety

Other
Values

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0
0
0

0
0

0
0

0
0

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 135

The next section on Humanistic Analysis examines the literary texts in terms of human
elements: the writer and the reader or, in this case, the writer of the literary text and the writer of
the summary. More significantly, the discussion focuses on mixed methods analyses that
combine literary and statistical data to produce well-rounded research.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 136

HUMANISTIC ANALYSIS

This is a research study on the prevalence of Indic elements, folk beliefs


(superstitions) and filial piety in the pre-colonial literature of the Philippines,
their origins and influences on the regional literature, particularly the literature
of Moslem Philippines.

This research on Philippine literature is in partial fulfillment of the requirements of the


degree Ph. D. in English. The humanistic approach to literary analysis considers the human
aspects of the origins, formative elements, and influences of selected literary works.
We find, for instance, instances of flood myths in Philippine folk epics that can be traced
back to the inundation of Sundaland during the melting of glaciers during the last Ice Age.
Another example is the prevalence of magic in conquering distance in narratives that
require long travels. Although the traditional mythologies resort to dramatization by using
superhuman powers, the equivalent of the Western notion of seven-league boots, flying boats
and objects, these can be interpreted as common desires to travel fast, an aspiration that can be
traced back to the long treks of the first human ancestors out of Africa, by land to Mainland Asia,
and then by rafts and boats to Maritime Asia after the Neolithic Period.
Yet another example is the prevalence of adventure, of conquering foreign lands or rival
tribes, and of local heroes getting the upper hand. These notional aspirations reflect the
constancy of fears and threats present in the daily lives of people of those ancient times. Their
desires for security and safety can be traced, again, to prehistoric and precolonial experiences
that are transmitted to succeeding generations, taking form in the oral literary traditions as
dramatic elements that are used to elicit not only wonder and commonality, but also to touch
emotional wellsprings common to young and old, male and female, native and visiting
audiences. The precolonial narrative shows how larger empires attempted to colonize the
Philippine islands even before its colonial period; these can be attributed as cultural elements that
helped shaped the local literary forms and traditions.

5.1 Procedural Challenges


However, the third phase of this research that uses humanistic analysis is severely
hampered by the chapters omitted due to technical limitations. The contents of the three omitted
chapters contain essential human elements that are critical factors in the analysis.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 137

For instance, the omitted chapter Elements of Literary Tradition discusses elements of
literary tradition such as community practices, languages, and writing systems as well as folk
beliefs and superstitions prevalent in precolonial Philippines. The chapter discusses precolonial
literacy, Indic cultural influences, and a survey of 216 Philippine languages so as to trace the
transfer of Sanskrit words via the Champa Empire, which is linked to the Harappan culture of the
first Indus Valley civilization. The omitted section on writing systems includes the Asian
abugidas, Hanunoo, Islamic, Indic, Arabic, Pallava, and Kawi scripts; the Surat Mangyan, Sulat
Kapampangan, Buid, Baybayin, Alibata, Ambahan, and Eskaya scripts.
These elements of literary tradition are essential in the humanistic analysis of literary
works, particularly in illuminating what can be found and what has been lost. However, a
precursor survey of Philippine languages is included as a table in the Appendix (See: Languages
of the Philippines). This table shows the 216 languages used in the Philippines, the tribes that use
them and where they are located. More significantly, it shows how many are extinct, how many
are nearly extinct, and which ones can be traced to prehistoric sources.
For the same reason, the omitted chapter titled Precolonial Literature is important. The
chapter describes the variety of literary forms in precolonial Philippines, mostly oral traditions
such as riddles, proverbs, poetry, folk songs and narratives including folk epics. Overviews of
the folk epics of Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao are presented. Literary elements that contain
influences from Hindu sources are discussed. This omitted chapter discusses the epics of Luzon
such as the Banna Bidian, the Kalinga Ulalim; the Gaddang Lumalindaw; the Ifugao Hudhud
and the Ifugao Alim, the Aliguyon nak Amtalaw and the Aliguyon nak Binenwahen, the Bugan an
imbayaga, the Bugan nak pangaiwan, the Ilocano Biag ni Lam-ang, the Bicol Ibalon, the
Gisumbi, the Dulimanan, and the Biuag at Malana. Also discussed are ancient Eastern Visayan
literary forms such as the Waray candu, haya, ambahan, canogon, bical, balac, siday and awit;
the narratives susmaton and posong, the W Visayan bangianay, hurobaton, paktakun, sugidanun
and amba in Old Kinaray-a, and epics such as the Hinilawod, Maragtas, and the Cebu Aginid:
Bayok sa Atong Tawarik which relates how a minor prince of the Chola dynasty, a Sri Lumay,
established the Rajahnate of Cebu (Abellana, 1952).
The humanistic analysis of selected literary texts would be incomplete without the
inclusion of such background material, which is interwoven with the precolonial narrative.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 138

The omitted section on the ancient epics of Mindanao discusses the tarsila of the
Magindanao, the Manobos religious ballads and literature including epics such as the Uwaging,
the Agyu, the Bukidnon Matabagka Nalandagan, the S Agusan Manobo Kamanduan, the
Subanon Sondayo and the Ag Tubig Nog Keboklogan; the Maranao kaiju, Bidasari, Darangen
Bantugan, Indarapatra Sulayman, and the Maharadia Lawana; the Tausug parang sabil, tigumtigum, masala, daman, pituwa, malikata, tilik, tarasul, katakata, salsila, parang sabil, the
Kaawin Kissa, Usula Kissa, the Kissa Parang Sabil ni Panglima Hassan, and the Panglima
Munggona; as well as literary traditions of the Jama Mapun, Samal, Badjao, Yakan, and Palawan
Moslem tribes. Arabic-inspired literature such as those used in rituals.
Yet another omitted chapter titled Moslem Philippines discusses precolonial culture, with
a focus on customs, traditions, and folk beliefs. The repercussions of omitting the
aforementioned chapters are discussed in the final chapter (Conclusions and Recommendations).
These last two chapters are particularly relevant in the analysis of oral literary traditions
of Moslem Philippines. However, future research can explore the connections between events
and ideas, and how these connections influenced surviving literature.

5.2 Recapitulation
Chapter 1 presents the research assignment; a prcis of the answers to the research
questions; operational definitions of the key terms used in the research, and the organization of
the paper. The period of Philippine literature relevant to the study is presented in relation to the
entirety of the field.
The discussion on Research Methodology presents the methods and tools for examining
selected intangible elements such as superstions and filial piety. The objects of the study are a
sample of 200+ Filipino superstitions. The method for applying to procedure to a literary
tradition, such as a folk epic, is explained.
The discussion on Empirical Analyses shows how objective procedures can be used to
analyze intangibles such as filial piety and superstitions. More specifically, text analysis is
carried out on selected ethnographc materials related to filial piety and folk beliefs as well as on
selected folk epics from precolonial Philippines.
In the chapter on Narrative Reconstruction the lost narrative of Philippine prehistory is
reconstructed through the lenses of palenteology, maritime science, genetic analysis, language

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 139

analysis, and archaeological artifacts indicate that the first humans and inhabitants of the
Philippines came from Africa by way of mainland Asia, travelling via land bridges as well as by
sea when melting ice caps and tectonic shifts caused Sundaland to be indundated by rising sea
levels, which created the islands of Maritime Asia and, for generations, isolated the early human
communities there.
The chapter on Humanistic Analysis shows how statistical proof can be used to create a
richer humanistic approach when examining intangibles such as filial piety or superstitions in
selected ethnographic or literary texts.

5.3 Ethnographic Analysis


The empirical analysis focuses on a sample of 200+ superstitions in the Philippines
today, and exemplifies the analysis of intangible elements such as filial piety in these folk
beliefs. The same method can be modified for use in analyzing intangibles such Hindu influences
in folk beliefs or superstitions. As well, the same method can be used in analyzing intangibles
such Hindu influences in folk literature. Finally, superstitions in Philippine folk literature as well
as in Muslim communities and Moselm literature are presented.

5.4 Research Procedure


This research examines the prevalence of folk beliefs or superstitions as well as filial
piety in precolonial Philippine literature. For comparative relevance, this chapter analyzes
superstitions and filial piety in current folk beliefs:
The term filial piety refers to unconditional love of family while folk beliefs or
superstitions refer to beliefs that are based on faith, opinion, and tradition instead of empirical
proof and logic.
The phrase explicit-prescriptive folk beliefs is used to mean Dos and Donts. The term
implicit-symbolic folk beliefs is used to mean signs and portents.
The cultural values reflected in a sample of 219 folk beliefs are tabulated and ranked.
This statiscal approach to analysis is limited to eliciting general frequency counts of filial piety
in superstitions. The folk beliefs are classified into 12 groups: the alphabetized list follows:

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 140

Numbers & Colors

Infants & Children

Bad & Good Luck

Love, Courtship & Marriage

Food & Eating

Money & Wealth

Home & Family

Numbers & Colors

Human Body

Other Folk Beliefs

Illness & Death

Pregnancy & Childbirth

The values found in the folk beliefs or superstitions are classified into 11 groups. In
alphabetical order, the groups are:

Awareness of Nature

Proper Behavior

Family or Marriage

Routines or Tradition

Filial Piety

Self- Awareness

Health or Safety

Uncertainty Avoidance

Hospitality or Charity

Unknown or Uncertain (Others)

Positive Outlook
Details are in the Table: Values in Beliefs & Superstitions.
The research includes three phases. The first phase involves the reconstruction of lost
narratives, which includes prehistoric and precolonial accounts. The second phase uses the
empirical approach to prove that intangible elements in text samples can be objectively
examined. This was proven by examining ethnographic texts (superstitions) for instances of filial
piety. To apply the procedure to literary analysis, selected samples of regional literary works
were examined for instances of superstitions and filial piety. In the process, charts of several folk
epics were created for future practice in mixed-methods analysis of literary works. The third
phase of humanistic analysis is severely hampered by the omission of several key chapters due to
technical and technological limitations.

5.5 Prehistoric Narrative


To summarize the prehistoric narrative, although some archaeologists claim that MalayoPolynesians came by sea from Taiwan (Bureau of East Asian and Pacific Affairs. 2010) between
3,000 and 1,500 B.C.E. (Bowman, 2000, 226), others hypothesize about the first settlers of the
Philippine archipelago based on linguistic, archeological, and genetic studies. Some of these
theories are:

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 141

An origin from mainland South China107 (Ko, et. al., 2014, pp. 426436; Ho, 2002, 17
19);

An origin from the Sundaland continental shelf prior to the sea level rise at the end of the
last glacial period (c. 10,000 BC; Anon., 2008; Donohue & Denham, 2010, 223-256) or

A combination of the two108 which advocates cultural diffusion rather than a series of
linear migrations (Wilhelm, 2002, 3966).
Although the rising seas buried the land bridges and isolated the migrants into island

societies, they were not without foreign contact. As ancient empires rose on Mainland Asia, their
need for power, people, and products meant that they extracted tribute from increasing numbers
of colonies, as well as from increasingly distant trading outposts. Thus, the islands were touched
by foreign cultures due to seafarers seeking new lands, new products, and new converts.
Another strong factor of cultural formation is foreign contact. Filipinos come from
Austronesian blood with various degrees of Indian, Arab, Spanish, and Chinese lineages, most
plausibly related to early cultural influences in the Philippines that have mostly been from
Hindunized Islam, Indic, and Chinese cultures. As Pisano puts it:
The inhabitants of the Philippines are among the most racially heterogeneous
group in SE Asia. They are predominantly of Malayan origin but, due to oceanic
migrations, possess Negrito, Indonesian, Hindu, Chinese, Japanese, Arabic, American,
and European blood (1992, 7).
Negrito, proto-Malay, and Malay peoples were the first inhabitants of the Philippine
archipelago. The Negritos are believed to have migrated by land bridges some 30,000 years ago,
during the last glacial period. Later migrations were by water and took place over several
thousand years in repeated movements before and after the start of the Christian era (Country
Studies).

5.6 Precolonial Narrative


After the land bridge migrations, prehistoric migrations continued by sea in the initial
stages of the maritime trade in SE Asia. The pygmy Negritos continued to keep to themselves
but the other races homogenized to become the Malayo-Polynesians that spread over most of the
Philippine, the Malay, and the Indonesian archipelagos (Schliesinger, 2016, 69-70).

107

linking them to the Liangzhu culture and the Tapengkeng culture, later displaced or assimilated by the
expansion of Sino-Tibetan peoples
108108
the Nusantao Maritime Trading and Communication Network hypothesis

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 142

While it would seem that Chinese trade enabled transfer but not exchange, the absence of
records is not proof that Filipino culture did not influence Chinese culture. Any lesser culture can
introduce minute and therefore unarticulated elements that can be indigenized by a dominant
culture in unnoticed ways. Meanwhile, historical records have focused on depicting lesser
cultures in the role of receivers.
During the precolonial period, the archipelagos inhabitants were not unified. They were
a collection of independent or loosely affiliated coastal communities with a local leader (Pisano,
1992, 30). The occasional dominion of foreign powers over any of these communities focused
mainly on collecting tribute or continuing trade. These foreign conquests or affiliations focused
on a small percentage of the archipelago; only the richest and most populated communities were
affected (Pisano, 1992, 30). The rest went about their lives without foreign incursions.
The earliest relations between the Philippines and the Indian empires of Sri-Vishaya and
Majapahit were commercial. At that time, the Philippines traded with Borneo, Celebes, Java,
Sumatra, and other countries of SE Asia that were vassal states of these two empires. However,
due to large geographic separation and the difficulty of travel in precolonial times, early
Philippine contacts with India were indirect. Sources assert that early contact between India and
the Philippines were decidedly indirect, via Malaysia (Shivavishnu, 1969; Reyes & Perez III,
n. d.).
In Chapter 3 (Narratives Reconstruction), the discussion on the prehistory of the
Philippine Archipelago is in two sections: (1) the first humans and (2) the first inhabitants of the
Philippines. The lost narrative of Philippine prehistory is reconstructed through the lenses of
palenteology, maritime science, genetic analysis, language analysis, and archaeological artifacts
indicate that the first humans and inhabitants of the Philippines came from Africa by way of
mainland Asia, travelling via land bridges as well as by sea when melting ice caps and tectonic
shifts caused Sundaland to be indundated by rising sea levels, which creating the islands of
Maritime Asia and, for generations, isolating the early human communities there.
The migrants developed and the rudiments of hunting, farming, seafaring, cooking, tooluse, communication, and warfare. Although there is no proof that writing, literacy, or literature
was developed, various cultural elements developed over centuries and spread over huge
distances of foot travel to later affect cultures and literatures, from areas to be later known as

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 143

Mainland and Maritime Asia including India, China, Japan, Taiwan, Borneo, and Brunei, to
mention a few. These elements shaped the foundations of precolonial Philippine culture.
Although the aforementioned studies suggest that population explosion caused the mass
migrations, other studies suggest that this was caused by the rising sea levels that submerged the
Sunda shelf at the end of the last ice age (Gray et al, 2009). Moreover, instead of migrations
from Taiwan to the Philippines, studies suggest that sea migrations happened from Maritime SE
Asia to the Philippines, and thence to Taiwan.
These studies suggest that, between 150,000 BP and 17,000 BP, ancient
shorelines fluctuated, connecting the Malay Archipelago area with Maritime SE Asia
and the Philippines. The resulting land bridges between 50,000 BP and 13,000 BP
couild have enabled ancient migrations from Maritime SE Asia into the Philippines
(Voris, 2000, 11531167).
Gray et al (2009) suggest that this was a two-pronged expansion: one moved north
through the Philippines and into Taiwan, while another migration wave moved east along the
New Guinea coast and into Oceania and Polynesia.
In the precolonial focus on tracing the development of active trading centers on some
islands in the Philippine archipelago, their commercial ties with Hindu and Hindu-Arabic traders,
and the various cultures that migrated to, traded with, attacked, governed, or preached to the
inhabitiants of the islands that would later be known as the Philippine Archipelago. Forays from
Brunei, Borneo, Portugal, China, and Japan are discussed. The cultural elements prevalent in
precolonial Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao are summarized.
During the discussed prehistoric points of the reconstructed narrative, there seem to be no
source indications of the use of scripts for recording literary tradition. However, later history
would show the development of early scripts for recording numbers of goods, slaves and
products in a rudimentary form of accounting, as well as for taxation in emerging empires. Later
narratives would show that, as religions and folk beliefs are established, basic symbols for
divination and oraculation preceded the development of scripts for liturgy. However, the absence
of written literature is not indicative of the absence of literature. Oral traditions later narratives
would include various literary forms, ranging from simple riddles, to more complex verbal jousts
to even more complex legends, myths, and folk epics
While literacy in precolonial Philippines can be proven, the same cannot be said
regarding the factual provenance of oral literary traditions. Early cultures, civilizations, and

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 144

empires that affected trade, invasion, governance, and religion include China and Japan, but
mostly India through its vassal states Brunei and Malaysia, and then again mostly via migrants or
traders. After the initial waves of migration and then indirect Indic governance, events of
invasion and religion were minimal.
The input of Indic literary elements can only be surmised due to the absence of written
literature, which can be attributed to the destructive forces of culture, geography, climate, and the
use of perishable materials for writing. In addition, this loss was exacerbated by the misinformed
zeal of the Spanish.
The precolonial narrative of the history of the Philippines ends in 1521 when Ferdinand
Magellan claimed the islands for Spain109 (Bergreen, 2003). In the years just prior, most pygmy
Negritos living on the coasts and along main tributaries had been replaced by Austronesians and
Malayo-Polynesians whose initial harbor towns, plutocracies, and maritime trading centers had
already become competing thalassocracies: kingdoms, rajahnates, principalities, confederations
and sultanates (Wikipedia).
The precolonial narrative traces the development of active trading centers on some
islands in the Philippine archipelago, their commercial ties with Hindu and Hindu-Arabic traders,
and the various cultures that migrated to, traded with, attacked, governed, or preached to the
inhabitiants of the islands that would later be known as the Philippine Archipelago. Forays from
Brunei, Borneo, Portugal, China, and Japan are discussed. The cultural elements prevalent in
precolonial Luzon, Visayas, and Mindanao are summarized.
After centuries of indirect trade relations, two Indian vassal states, Borneos
Bandjarmasin and Brunei, obeyed Indias orders to colonize the Philippines (Pisano, 1992). The
nature of this colonial activity was primarily trade and tax collection. At the time, the two vassal
states were Hindu, as were most of the larger settlements in the Philippines.

5.7 Hindu-Budhhist-Arab Influences


As preceding discussion on early Arab contacts with the Philippines indicates, it was not
pure Arabic but Hinduinized Arabic culture that first introduced cultural, economic, political and
religious elements to the archipelago that is now known as the Philippines. As Great says:

109

now part of Guiuan, Eastern Samar province

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 145

There is not much evidence found by archeologists that proves the direct
influence of India to the Philippines. But during the reign of the two empires in India
(Sri-Visjaya & Majapahit), there are evidences that the Filipino culture was indeed
had been influenced by India (2014).
Before the 10th century, the Sri-Vishayan Empire ordered its vassal states Brunei and
Borneo to to colonize Mai-i and its neighboring countries. The rule of India over the Philippines
lasted until the arrival of the Spaniards in 1621, which marked the start of the so-called
Philippine colonial era.
The Malay empires of Srivijaya and Malacca covered modern day Indonesia,
Malaysia, the Philippines, and Singapore while the Burmese, Vietnamese and Khmer
peoples governed much of Indochina. Wikipedia, History of SE Asia)
As of this writing, teachers in Philippine schools tell every student that Philippine history
begins on March 16 1521, when Spain began its stranglehold of the Philippine islands for 333
years. This research, however, shows that a historical narrative of about 600 years of Hindu
colonization of the Philippines that began in the 900s until the 1500s some 600 years of distant
rule via Brunei and Borneo. Records supporting this notion are available, such as:
In 670 AD, the Buddhist Empire of SriVishaya assumed complete control of the
maritime trade routes between India and China and remained in control for about 640
years (Muoz, 2006). Its capital in Suwarnadwipa (Sumatra) became the center of
learning in Tantric (Vajrayana) Buddhism in the Far East. Now Tantric Buddhism
exists in Tibet and Japan, thanks to Atisha who studied in SriVishaya under Serlingpa
(Dharmarakshita; Pangilinan, 2009, 7-8).
Each new migration with better weaponry or more complex societies and social
organizations prevailed over previous residents. Intermarriages are followed by more immigrants
from China, Japan, and Arabia. These populations comprised the people found by the Spaniards
when they first arrived in the Philippines iun 1521 (Zaide, 1939, 30-31; Beyer, 1932, 129;
Pisano, 1992, 11).
Sometime around 900, the efforts of the Champa, Sri-Vishayan, and Madjapahit empires
to colonize SE Asia and Malaysia pushed more migrations from mainland Asia to Maritime Asia
(Pisano, 1992, 10).
The first intances of cultural influences from India to the Philippines can be traced to
Hindunized Malays from India who brought cultural customs with them, along with the Sanskrit

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 146

and Hindu styles of writing110 to the Pallava Kingdoms vassal states, colonies, and trading
outposts, and then on to the archipelagos.
Later, when Islam supplanted the Indic power, the Islamic empires of Malacca and
Borneo created settlements in the Philippine islands and increased Hindunized Muslim
influences there (Zaide, 1939, 27-28).
There is insufficient data to indicate that the Sanskrit and Hindu styles of writing were
used to record oral literature. However, sources attest to the use of these scripts in religious
communitites, but most records of the period dealt with trade from the islands to other countries.
On the other hand, destructive forces might have contributed to this dearth.

5.8 End of Precolonial Narrative


Just before the Spaniards arrived, the Portuguese had smashed the MohammedanMalayan Empire of Malacca. The only foreign power over these semi-autonomous
communities was weak, emanating from Brunei (Pisano, 1992, 31).
Muslim immigrants introduced a political concept of territorial states ruled by sultans
with power over the datu. The sedentary rice farmers of Luzon had a limited territorial concept
framed by the fields they cultivated. However, these notions of political states or territoriality did
not spread (Country Studies).
When the Spaniards arrived in the 16th century, the majority of the estimated 500,000
people in the islands still lived in barangay settlements (Country Studies). The Muslim areas
were only about 30% of the entire archipelago: the Sulu Archipelago, western Mindanao, and
central-western Luzon.
Before either Islam or Catholicism reached the islands, the Philippines like its southern
neighbors (Malaysia and Indonesia) was a Hindu, Buddhist and Animistic nation. (Small, N. D.).
The decline of Hinduism in the Philippines started with the arrival of Islam in the
Philippines. Islam was brought to the Philippines by traders and proselytizers from the
Indonesian islands. By 1500 Islam was established in the Sulu Archipelago and spread from
there to Mindanao; it had reached the Manila area by 1565 (Country Studies).

110

to record goods, transactions, and trade reports

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 147

After the Spanish conquest of the Philippines, Hinduism was already a small minority in
the Christian Philippines. It had declined through the centuries. However, Indian culture and
literature has traces in Filipino life especially in the ideas, language, and the arts and literature of
the Filipinos (UNESCO ICT).
Islam never had a predominant hold of the Philippines and even before Spain came, it
was still a minority religion, outside of Mindanao and the Sulu Archipelago (Small, N. D.).
The non-Muslim areas of Visayas, Palawan, and the rest of Mindanao and Luzon,
comprising about 60% to 80% of the islands, resisted Islam and continued to practice a mixture
of Hinduism, animist, and Buddhism, particularly the Visayan rajahnates who hated the
Muslims. The Ilocanos and Kalingas of the far north as well as the Palawanos remained staunch
Buddhists or animists (Small, N. D.).
The Muslims of Luzon were converted by the Spanish missionaries because Islam arrived
in Luzon only a few decades before Spain discovered the Philippines. In Mindanao and Sulu,
Islam had already existed for for several centuries (Small, N. D.).

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 148

CONCLUSIONS

This is a research study on the prevalence of folk beliefs (superstitions) and filial piety in
the literature from the Philippine pre-colonial period.
It would seem that nothing is truly original. In tracing the first human populations to the
last migrations, trade, and conquests, the research shows that, at the onset, there was no culture
present in the group of islands later known as the Philipines. Everything seems to have been
imported, first by the Negritos some 57,000 yeas ago and by Austronesians some 44,000 years
ago during the prehistoric eras; then by traders from various outposts of a series of Hindu
empires, China, Japan, and Arabia, Portugal, and Borneo during the precolonial eras.
In the chapter on narratives reconstruction, anthropologists theorize that Filipino origins
can be traced to a series of of human migrations as proven by archaeology and genetic analysis.
The theory posits that the first Filipinos were Paleolithic migrations over land bridges some
250,000 years ago (Zaide, 1949, 24).111 Among the discovered fossil remains and artifacts
recovered are crudely made hand axes indicating that economic life was directed by hunting and
gathering (Fox, 1959, 12-13) but it is not known if they used fire or other tools (Jocano, 1967,
140; Pisano, 1992, 7-8). In addition, there seems to be no proof indicating the use of any writing
system.
correcting the errors made in the recording of our history as a people. As a result of
his researches, Dr. Abella laments (1966) what he refers to as the sad state of Philippine
historiography where:
instead of consulting the actual historical and archeological records, many
Filipino historians prefer to quote the works of other Filipino authors to suit their own
biases or preferences.
This has caused what Dr. Abella refers to as a profusion of errors in Philippine history,
which need to be rectified, since many reputable foreign scholars and our own students, have
been led astray on some facts of Philippine history (Rausa-Gomez, 97).
One intervening variable is English, the lingua franca used by most scholars, which can
account for the predominance of eurocentric writings of SE Asian historigraphy (Rausa-Gomez,
97).
111

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 149

there is a danger of bias in one direction or the other when it comes to the
assessment of European imperialism in the area. The bulk of readily assessible
materials are those of the European colonizers themselves; this increases the danger
that the historic events of the period will be seen only in terms of Western values. Or
else a Westem historians bias might affect his assessment of which factors have been
significant in shaping the course of events. Thus, if SE Asian history is seen from the
viewpoint of the European there will be a natural tendency to judge the event of the
period in terms of Western standards, and also to view the influence of Europeans as
having been the decisive factors in determining the historic course of events. (RausaGomez, 97-98).
This problem is particulary endemic among Asian historians who, in their treatment of
regional or area histories of SE Asia, tend to accept Western categories of historical judgments,
while they reject the value judgments of their Western colleagues (Rausa-Gomez, 98). As
Morgenthau so correctly stated in his introduction to Darling (1965:3):
Scholarship... must perform the function of a collective memory. It must remind
statesmen and public of the historic roots of contemporary propositions and
alignments. By doing this, it sereves not only historic truth but also the political
interests of the nation. (Rausa-Gomez, 99).

6.1 Findings
The research finds three concepts of significant to the field of Philippine literature:

that there are no original or indigenous literary elements or traditions; everything is


imported and then indigenized;

that Indic cultural elements have been found in Philippine literature; parallels to Indias
Mahabharata and Ramayana have been identified; and

that intangible elements such as filial piety and superstion are not only evident in
Philippine folk literature, they are also measurable.

6.2 Indigenized literary elements


One of the key findings of the research is that there is no indigenous literature in the
Philipines. However, literary elements have been indigenized to create regional and tribal literary
traditions.
At the start of the prehistoric narrative some six million years ago, the Philippines were
not islands but part of Mainland Asia, and were uninhabited. Towards the end of the prehistoric
narrative in the Neolithic Age (ca. 900 B. C.), the Philippines were separated from Mainland
Asia by oceans that covered the Sunda Shelf. There were Negritos and Protomalays who spoke

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 150

Austronesian and lived in small communities. All culture on the islands originated from what
they remembered and practiced from their ancestors.
At the start of the precolonial narrative (ca. 200), the inhabitants of the Philippines as
well as their cultures were all of foreign origins. There are no records of language, writing
systems, or literature in use at that time. However, these elements of literary tradition had begun
to be shaped in these primitive societies. By the middle of the precolonial narrative (ca. 1500),
foreign migrants and traders brought cultural elements into the islands.
All these foreign literary elements have been indigenized to create the existing regional
and tribal literary traditions.

6.3 Indic influence in Muslim folk epics


The origins of the aforementioned literary elements can be traced back to the Sri-Vishaya
Empire (Kadatuan Sriwijaya, 6501377) and to the Majapahit Empire (Karajan Majapahit or
Kerajaan Majapahit, 12931527).
At the onset of the precultural narrative, the agents of transmission were non-Moslem
Arab traders for the vassal states of these two empires. At the end of the precultural narrative, the
agents of transmission were Hindunized Moslem traders and settlers from the same vassal states.
The Moslem proselytizers just before the advent of the colonial narrative may have played
peripheral or negligible roles.
For specific examples of literary works with Indic elements, see Table Indic Elements in
Philippine Literature.

6.4 Recommendations
Aside from future research to include the aforementioned chapters that have been omitted
from this study, some recommendations follow.
Future research could show that, if the Chinese Empire was strong enough to defeat the
Mongol and the Muslim invasions of its borders, the Mussulman Empire would not have made
its way to SE Asia, which would have remained Buddhists under Indic rule. S Philippines could
have land borders with Malaysia today, all with decidedly Indic cultures and literatures.
Further research into later ages could show that, if the Iberian civilizations had a more
positive history with the Moors, Spanish occupation of the Philippines would have been less

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 151

virulent, enough for more prehistoric records to have survived to give the Filipinos a longer
history that begins further back in time, long before Magellans arrival in Limasawa in 1521. As
well, the Spanish Cortez would have continued Filipino representation under a rule that would
have been much more benign, so much so that the North American incursion might have failed.
The attempt to reconstruct the lost narratives of Indic colonization of the Philippines
makes one realize that, but for the twists and turns of nature and fate, Filipinos would be known
by some other name as well as would look less European and more like Indonesians, Malaysians,
or Chinese as they look like today.
Most important in uncovering more empirical truths about the past, the research
recommends a less heterogenic-centered philosophy and approach for future research. Among
other authors, Pangilinan (2009) bemoans the lack of vision and originality in research:
If Sri-Vishayas influence was felt all over SE Asia and reached as far as China,
Japan and Tibet, its absence in Philippine history is a bit frustrating. Despite the
progress made in Philippine archaeology and the wealth of records that can be found
in the archives of neighboring Asian countries, scholarship in Philippine history has
remained Eurocentric and solely dependent on Spanish colonial records. Thus, in
order for anthropologists and linguists to explain the traces of Indian influences in
Philippine languages and culture, they would have to be their own historian (p. 8).

6.5 Original Contributions


The most significant contribution in the research is the construction of a precolonial
narrative that indicates how the Philippine islands were colonized by ancient India for some 600
years prior to the 330 years of Spanish colonization commencing in 1521.
Another contribution to the field is the explication and exemplication of the use of basic
statistical operations such as frequency counting, addition, averaging, and ranking for eliciting
empirical data to support qualitative analyses.
Yet another contribution of the research is the design of preformatted charts that can be
used as practice material for acquiring skills in mixed-method analysis of literary texts. These
tables are supplemented by examples ranging from simple to complex text samples including: by
line, by paragraph, monolingual, bilingual, two values only, other values included, short texts,
and long texts. Along with the examples and practice tables are instructions on tabular labels,
tabulation and scoring, simple statistical procedures such as frequency counts, totals, and
averages. Examples show how qualitative analysis of literary texts are given a scientific cast and

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 152

an objective viewpoint by providing empirical support such as statistical figures to quantify


qualities being examined. This procedure can result in more accurate and authoritative research
findings.
Finally, examples of mixed-methods analysis shows how qualitative textual analysis of
literary samples can be be modified to assess intangible elements in ethnographic texts.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 153

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CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 179

APPENDICES
Table 62: Philippine Timeline Up To 1521
Timeline
25 - 30,000 B.C.
3 - 6,000 B.C.
1,500 B.C.
800 - 500 B.C.

Events
Ancestors of theNegriflJs stan arriving from the south (Borneo) through land bridges.
Austronesians arrive from Indonesia and other parts of SE Asia.
Migrants arrive in northern Luzon from Indochina, South China and Formosa.
Another wave of migrants arrive from SE Asia and South Chinabelieved to be the ancestors
of present-day Kalingas, Apayaos, Ibanags, Tagbanuas, Mandayas, Manobos, Bagobos,
Kulinans, Bilaans, Tirurays, and Subanons.
400 - 100 B.C.
More migrants referred to as the Kalanay and Novaliches people arrive from the coasts
of Indochina and settle in the Visayan islands, Mindoro, Marinduque, the Calamianes
islands, and Palawan.
300 - 200 B.C.
Another group of migratory Mawy people from the westem coast of Bomeo arrive and settle
in Mindanao, parts of Visayas and Luzon. They introduce irrigated agricuIture, smelting,
forging and manufacture of iron and other metals, the art o fweaving on a handloom, and
the manufacture of beads, bracelets and other ornaments.
100 1200 A.D.
Another group of Malays arrive, the ancestors of the llokanos, Tagalogs, Bisayans,
Pampangos, Bicols, Pangasinans.
670 A.D.
The Buddhist SriVishaya Empire controls the maritime trade routes between India and
China for about 640 years
960-1279 A.D.
Recotds indicate contact and trade between China and people in the Philippines during the
Sung Dynasty.
1300 -1390 A.D.
Muslim traders and religious teachers from India and Arabia arrive. Muslim sultanates in
SuIu are established.
1366 1644 A.D.
Records indicate contact between China and people in the Philippines during the Ming
Dynasty.
1400 A.D.
Manila founded as a trading port between Canton, Moluccas and SuIu.
1450 A.D.
A powerful Muslim sultanate is set up in SuIu after marriage between Abu Baker from
Sumatra (Indonesia) and daughter of Rajah Baginda of SuIu.
1520 (Nov. 28)
Magellan and his crew enter the Pacific Ocean for the first time and give it its name.
1521 (March 17)
Magellan's expedition arrives in Suluan island in Samar, the first Europeans to set foot on
Philippine shores. They name the entire archipelago Islas de San Lazaro.
1521 (March 30)
Magellan celebrates Easter Sunday with Mazaua Rajah Siaiu and his brother, Butuan Rajah
Colambu on Limasawa island, the first mass held in the Philippines. Later inthe day, a cross
is erected and MagelIan claims the islands for the king of Spain.
1521 (April 7)
Magellan and his crew reach Cebu and make a blood compact with Rajah Humabon.
OnSunday, 14 April, more than 800 natives, including Rajah Humabon andhis family, are
baptized and given Christian names, and made to recognize Spain's sovereignty over them.
1521 (April 27)
Lapu-lapu and his men kill Magellan and drive off the rest of his forces in a fierce battle on
the island of Mactan. With 18 surviving men aboard, the Victoria arrives in Spain on 8 Nov.
1522, becoming the first Europeans to circumnavigate the world, and proving the existence
of a water route to the Moluccas by sailing west.
Adapted from Alegado, 1992, 34
Table 63: Timele of Origin and Development of Writing Scripts
Est Timeleine

Origin and Development of Writing Scripts

c. 3500 BCE

First written evidence of religion in the world recorded on Sumerian tablets.

3200 BCE

Hieroglyphic script developed in Egypt.

c. 2150 BCE - c. 1400 BCE

The Sumerian Epic of Gilgamesh written on clay tablets.

2000 BCE

Minoan hieroglyphic script is invented.

1700 BCE

Minoan Linear A script.

1600 BCE

Canaanite alphabet.

c. 1400 BCE

Ugaritic alphabet of 30 letters is invented.

1100 BCE

Phoenician alphabet.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 180

Est Timeleine

Origin and Development of Writing Scripts

c. 1000 BCE

Death of Ahiram (or Ahirom) of Byblos, whose sarcophagus bears the oldest
inscription of the Phoenician alphabet.

c. 647 BCE - c. 629 BCE

Extensive collection of clay tablets acquired known as Ashurbanipal's Library at


Nineveh.

c. 350 CE - c. 950 CE

Estimated use of the Ogham script in Ireland and southwestern England.

Adapted from Mark, 2009, Script.

Table 64: The 12 Conventions of the Epic Genre

#
1

Literary Conventions of the Epic Genre


It is a long narrative about a serious or worthy traditional subject.
Its diction is elevated in style. It employs a formal, dignified, objective tone and many figures of
2
speech.
The narrative focused on the exploits of an epic hero or demigod who represents the cultural values of
3
a race, nation, or religious group.
4 The heros success or failure determines the fate of an entire people or nation.
The action takes place in a vast setting; it covers a wide geographic area. The setting is frequently set
5
some time in the remote past.
6 The action contains superhuman feats of strength or military prowess.
Gods or supernatural beings frequently take part in the action to affect the outcome. This supernatural
7
intervention often implies two simultaneous plots.
The poem begins with the invocation of a muse to inspire the poet--i.e., a prayer to an appropriate
supernatural being. The speaker asks that this being provide him the suitable emotion, creativity, or
8
diction to finish the poem. (h.1) Often the poet states a theme or argument for the entire work--such as
arms and the man.
The narrative starts in medias res, in the middle of the action. Subsequently, the earlier events leading
9
up to the start of the poem will be recounted in the characters narratives or in flashbacks.
The epic contains long catalogs of heroes or important characters, focusing on highborn kings and
10
great warriors rather than peasants and commoners.
The epic employs extended similes (called epic similes) at appropriate spots of the story, and a
11
traditional scene of extended description in which the hero arms himself.
Often, the main protagonist undergoes a terrifying journey--sometimes a descent into the underworld-12
i.e., into hell or the realm of the dead.
Adapted from Anon., n. d. What is an Epic? Electronic document available at web.cm.edu

Table 65: The Mahabharata


4

The
Mahabharata

350
BCE

formation of Hindu
identity; panoramic view
of everything from
spirituality to morality

Narrated by the sage Vyasa, the 220,000 line


poem follows a human incarnation of the god
Vishnu as two dynasties fight for supremacy in
the mythical Elephant City. The poem
contains the seminal Hindu text, The
Bhagavad Gita. Its panoramic view of
everything affected Indian society for
thousands of years.

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 181

Table 66: Alphabetical List of Philippine Languages


#
001

Languages
Abaknon

002

Abiyan
Adasen

003
004
005
006
007
008
009
010
011

012

013
014
015

Agta Alabat Island


Agta N Camarines
Agta Casiguran
Dumagat
Agta Central
Cagayan
Agta Dicamay
Agta Dupaninan
Agta Isarog
Agta Mt. Iraya
Agta Mt. Iriga
Agta Remontado
Agta Umiray:
Dumaget
Agta Villa Viciosa
Agta, Pahanan
Agutaynen
Alangan

Also:
Also: Capul, Capul Samal, Capuleno,
Inabaknon, Inbaknon, Kapul, Sama
Camarinas Norte Agta (See: Manide)
Also: Addasen, Addasen Tinguian, Itneg
Adasen
Also: Alabat Island Dumagat (Nearly extinct)
Also: Casiguran Dumagat
Also: Labin Agta
Also: Dicamay Dumagat (Extinct),
Also: Dupaningan Agta, Eastern Cagayan
Agta (Threatened)
(Nearly Extinct)
Also: Inagta of Mt. Iraya, Itbeg Rugnot, Lake
Buhi, Rugnot of Lake Buhi East
Also: Lake Buhi West, Mount Iriga Negrito,
San Ramon Inagta
Also: Umiray Agta, Umirey Dumagat
(Extinct)
Pahanan, Palanan Agta
Also: Agutayno, Agutaynon

Location
Capul Island, NW Samar, facing the San Bernardino Strait

Note
Visayas

N Camarines Prov., Santa Elena & Labo munis.


NE Abra to W Apayao

Luzon
Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

E of Quezon Prov., C Alabat Island


See: Manide
E coast; Isabela Prov., Dinapigue Muni.; down coast, Aurora Prov., past
Casiguran City to Dipaculao Muni.; Quirino Prov., thin border strip
Cagayan Prov., inland area, E & NE fr Baggao

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

C Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

NE Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,

Isabela Prov., Jones Muni., SE of Santiago City


Cagayan & Isabela Prov.s, fr below S Divilacan Bay to N Palaui Island

Luzon
NE Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Bicol region, Camarines Sur Prov., Mt Isarog E of Naga City


Bicol region, Camarines Sur, Mt Buhi area E of Lake Buhi

Luzon
Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Bicol Region, Camarines Sur, E of Iriga City, W of Lake Buhi.

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

E Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

S Philippines

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

See: Dumagat Remontado


Philippine Sea coast, Aurora & Quezon Prov.s; small border areas inland,
Nueva Ecija & Bulacan.
See: Ayta Villaviciosa
Isabela province east coast, between Divilacan bay and Dinapigue town,
inland to San Mariano.
Agutaya Island, Palawan, 5 surrounding Islands; Roxas, San Vicente, &
Brookes Point, Palawan Prov. munis.; Mindoro, Taytay, Linapacan, &
Manila.
Mangyan: N C Mindoro; Mindoro Occidental, Sablayar Muni.; Mindoro
Oriental, Naujan & Victoria munis.

Classification

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

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018
019
020
021
022
023
024
025
026
027
028
029
030
031
032
033
034
035

Languages
Alta, Northern

Also:
Also: Edimala

Alta, Southern

Also: Ita, Kaboloan, Kabulowan, Kabuluen,


Kabuluwan, Kabuluwen

Applai

Also: Appais; Kankanan-ey; Katangnan;


Lepanto Igorot; Sagada Igorot
(Nearly Extinct)
Also: Aromanon, Arumamen, Ilianen,
Liringanen, Manobo, Manuvu

Arta
Arumanen
Ata
Ati or Inati
Atta Faire
Atta Pamplona
Atta Pudtol
Attaw

(Nearly Extinct).
Also: Sogodnin in N. Panay (Reportedly
Extinct)
Also: Southern Atta (Threatened)
Also: Atta, Northern Cagayan Negrito
Also: Bagobo, Clata, Diangan, Giangan,
Guingan, Guiangan, Gulanga, Jangan, Klata,
Manobo, Obo

Ayta Abellen
Ayta Ambala
Ayta Bataan
Ayta Mag-anchi
Ayta Magbukun
Ayta Mag-Indi
Ayta Sorsogon
Ayta Tayabas
Ayta Villaviciosa

Also: Mag-antsi
Also: Bataan Ayta, Bataan Sambal,
Mariveles Ayta (Threatened)
Also: Indi Ayta, Mag-Indi Sambal
(Nearly Extinct)
(Extinct)
(Extinct)

Location
Aeta, Negrito: Aurora Province, San Luis municipality, Bayanihan area,
Diteki River
Aeta, Negrito: Quezon Prov. coastal areas, E Nueva Ecija, Sierra Madre,
& San Miguel town; Bulacan Provi, a large community in remote San
Miguel. N of the Umiray Dumaget
W Bontoc; W Bontok, Sabangan, Sagada, Tadian, & Besao

Note
E Luzon

Classification
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

N. Phil

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Philippine, Northern Luzon, MesoCordilleran

Aeta, Negrito:Quirino Prov., Aglipay Muni., Cagayan River area.


N Cotabato-Carmen, Libungan, Arakan, Banisilan, Alamada,
Pigcawayan, Pikit, Banubu
Manobo, Negros Oriental, Mabinay

Luzon
Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Panay

Diff fr Ata
Manobo or
Atta
W Visayas

Rizal, Cagayan,
NW Cagayan Prov., Cordillera
Apayao Prov., Pudtol, & Abulog River Sof Pamplona
Davao Sur, Davao City, Mt Apo E slopes

Luzon
N Luzon
N Luzon
Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

W. Tarlac, Zambales, San Jose, Maamot; Station Juliana, Mayantoc,


Capas.
Zambales, Subic, Olongapo
Mariveles
W. Capas, Tarlac
Bataan Prov., Mariveles

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Luzon
S Luzon
C Luzon
Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Zambales, San Marcelino; Pampanga, barrios & communities in Florida


Blanca & Porac; far northern Bataan
Sorsogon Prov., Prieto Diaz Muni.
Negrito

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

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037
038
039
040
041
042
043
044
045
046
047

Languages
Blaan Koronadal
Blaan Sarangani
Balangao
Balangingi
Bantayanon
Bantoanon
Banwaon
Basque
Batak
Baybayanon
Bicol
Bicolano Buhinon
Bicolano Central

048
049
050

Bicolano Iriga
Bicolano Libon

Also:
Also: Baraan, Bilanes, Biraan, Koronadal
Bilaan, Tagalagad
Also: Balud, Bilaan, Tumanao
Also: Balangao Bontoc, Balangaw, Farangao
or Finallig
Baangingi, Balanguingui, Bangingi,
Bangingih, Bangingih Sama, Northern Sama,
Sama Bangingih, Samal
Reportedly similar to Hiligaynon
Also: Asi, Asiq.
Also: Adgawanon, Banuaonon, Banwanon,
Higaonon-Banwaon, Manobo
Also: Euskara (Language Isolate)

Location
E of S Cotabato & Sarangani Prov.s; Sultan Kudarat Prov., Lutayan area;
Also: in Davao del Sur Prov.
Sarangani Prov.; S Cotabato Prov., Gen Santos & N; Davao Sur across
Sarangani N border
C Mountain Prov.; into Kalinga Prov., Tanudan Muni.

Note
Mindanao

Classification
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

N Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

NE of Jolo, Zamboanga coast peninsula & Islands; Basilan Island. N


Sama dialect: Luzon, White Beach near Subic bay; Lutangan dialect:
Olutangga Island.
Cebu Province, Bantayan and surrounding islands
Banton, Cebu; Romblon Prov. Dialects: Banton, Calatravanhon,
Odionganon, Sibalenhon (Sibale), Simaranhon.
Agusan Sur, San Luis, near Maasam, Libang, & Adgawan Rivers

Sulu
archipelago

Well-established community since early 19th century, mostly as business


owners, financiers, etc. Important centers: Zumarraga, Manila, Bicol,
Visayas islands, especially Negros, Panay and Cebu.
Also: Babuyan, Palawan Batak, Tinitianes
Negrito: Palawan, C Palawan, Sulu Sea coast, generally SW fr Malcampo
to Puerto Princesa.
Leyte, Utudnon; Reportedly similar to Waray- Leyte island, Baybay town in Pangasugan River area, Guadalupe (Utod),
Waray
Gabas, Kilim, Patag & Pangasugan villages
(macrolanguage)
Includes: Buhinon Bikol, Central Bikol, Libon Bikol, Miraya Bikol, N
Catanduanes Bikol, Rinconada Bikol, S Catanduanes Bikol, W Albay
Bikol
Bikol Buhi, Bonan, Buhi, Buhinon, Buhi-non Camarines Sur Province, Buhi town
Bikol Buhi, Bonan, Buhi, Buhinon, Buhi-non Reportedly similar to Rinconada Bikol
Also: Bikol Central, Central Bicolano
Bikol Region, E Quezon Prov.,; Camarines Sur, San Miguel Bay, Ragay
Gulf, Caramoan Peninsula to Lagonay Gulf; W Albay incl Legapi; N
Sorsogon, mouth of Sorsogon Bay to inland; N Camarines facing Phil
Sea, fr Basiad Marshes E along coast to Mandao, San Miguel Nay; SW
third, Catanduanes; Masbate, probly Burias & Ticao Islands.
Also: Iriganon
Bicol Province
Also: Libongeo
Albay Province, Libon town

C Visayas
Visayas

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

S Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

E Visayas

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Luzon
Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

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053
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056
057

Languages
Bicolano MIraya
Bicolano N
Catanduanes
Bicolano S
Catanduanes
Bicolano W Albay
Bicolano,
Rinconada
Binukid

050
051
052
053
054
055

Also: Bikol, Daraga


Also: Northern Catanduanes Bicolano,
Pandan
Also: Southern Catanduanes Bikolano, Virac
Also: Bicol, Bikol, Ligaoeo, Oasnun,
Oasnn, Polanguinon
Also: Bicolano, Iriga, Rinconada Bicolano,
Rinconada Bikol
Also: Binokid, Binukid Manobo, Bukidnon.
Reportedly similar to Higaono

Binukidnon

Also: Carolanos, Bukidnon, Magahat (pej.)

Bolinao

Bontoc

Also: Binobolinao, Bino-Bolinao,


Binubolinao, Binubulinao, Bolinao Sambal,
Bolinao Zambal, Bulinaw, Sambal Bolinao
(Threatened)
(macrolangauge)

Bontoc Central

Also: Bontoc, Bontoc Igorot, Bontoc, Central

Bontoc, Eastern

Also: Eastern Bontoc, Finallig, Southern


Bontoc
Also: Bontoc, Bontoc, Central, Bontoc,
Northern (Moribund)

058
059

Also:

Bontoc, Northern
Bontoc, Southern

Also: Bontoc, Southern Bontoc

Bontoc,
Southwestern
Buhid

Also: Bontoc
Also: Bangon, Batangan, Bukil

Location
Albay Prov., Guinobatan, Camalig, Daraga, & Jovellar towns; Sorsogon
Prov., Donsol town
Catanduanes Province, Pandan, Caramonan, Viga, Panganiban, & Bato.

Note
Luzon

Classification
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Catanduanes Prov., S munis.: Virac, San Miguel, San Andres, Gigmoto,


Bato, & Baras.
Albay Prov., Polangui, Oas, Ligao, & Pio Duran towns

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

C Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Camarines Sur Province, Rinconada district, Iriga city, Baao, Bato,


Balatan, Bula, Buhi, & Nabua munis.
C, N Bukidnon Prov.; NE Lanao Norte Prov.; Misamis Oriental Prov.,
Cagayan de Oro area incl SW of Gingoog Bay; very small border strip,
Lanao del Sur.
Negros Oriental, Mt Arniyo near Bayawan, upper Tayaban, Bayawan,
Tanjag, Santa Catalina, & Siaton.
West Pangasinan Prov., Bolinao & Anda munis.

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

NC
Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

S Philippines

Reportedly similar to Higaono

Includes: Central Bontok, Eastern Bontok, Northern Bontok, Southern


Bontok, & Southwestern Bontok
Mountain Province, Bontoc municipality, Bontoc ili, Caluttit, Dalican,
Guina-ang, Ma-init, Maligcong, Samoki, and Tocucan villages (See:
Balangaw, Also: Finallig)
E Mountain Prov. Barlig Muni., Barlig, Kadaklan, & Lias villages (See:
Finallig)
N Mountain Province, Sadanga municipality, Anabel, Bekigan, Belwang,
Betwagan, Demang, Sacasacan, Saclit, & Sadanga Poblacion; some in S
Kalinga Province
Mountain Province, S of Bontoc municipality, Talubin, Bayyo, and Can-eo
towns
Mountain Prov., Bontoc Muni., Alab, Balili, Gonogon & villages in Chico
River Valley, SW of Bontoc, along Halsema Highway
Mangyan: Mindoro: S Mindoro Island, Mindoro Occ & Mindoro Or
provinces, remote C highland area.

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

N Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

N Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

N Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian;
Meso-Cordilleran

N Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

N Luzon

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058
059
060
051
062
063
064
065
066
067
068
069
070
071
072
073

Languages
Bukidnon
Butuanon
Caluyanon
Capiznon
Cebuano
Chavacano
Caviteo
Chavacano
Cotabateo
Chavacano
Davaweo
Chavacano
Emitao
Chavacano
Ternateo
Chavacano
Zamboangueo
Chinese Mandarin
Chinese Min Nan
Chinese Yue
Cuyonon
Davao Chavacano
Davawenyo
Dibabawon

Also:
Also: Binokid, Binukid, Bukidnon, Central
Bukidnon, Manobo
Also: Lapaknon swamp dweller
Also:Caluyanen, Caluyanhon
Also: Capisano, Capiseo
Also Binisaya, Bisayan, Sebuano,
Sugbuanon, Sugbuhanon, Visayan

Also: Chabacano, Chabakano,


Zamboangueo

Also: Hokkien or Fukkien


Also: Cantonese
Also: Cuyo, Cuyono, Cuyunon, Kuyonon,
Kuyunon
Also: Chabakano, Chabakano
Also: Davaoeo, Davaweo, Matino
Also: Dibabaon, Mandaya, Dibabawon
Manobo, Digagaon Mandaya Manobo,
Orang Dibabawon

Location
Bukidnon, Cotabato, Agusan Sur, some in Agusan & Misamis Oriental

Note
Mindanao

Classification

Butuan N, Butuan S, Agusan, Mindoro, Misamis Oriental, Surigao Norte,


Butuan City
Antique; Aklan, Caluya Islands NW.
NE Panay, Capiz; Iloilo, Balasan.
Widespread; throughout Visayas & S Masbate Prov.s; parts of Mindanao

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

W Visayas
W. Visayas
S Philippines

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Cavite

Luzon

Creole, Spanish based

Cotabato City

Mindanao

Creole, Spanish based

Davao

Mindanao

Creole, Spanish based

(Extinct) Ermita near Manila.

Luzon

Creole, Spanish based

Ternate

Luzon

Creole, Spanish based

Zamboanga Sur, Zamboanga City, Zamboanga Norte, Sibugay &


Basilan; scattered groups in Kabasalan, Siay, Margosatubig, Ipil,
Malangas, Lapuyan, Buug, Tungawan, Alicia, Isabela, Lamitan, Maluso,
Malamawi
Chinese groups, nationwide
Chinese groups, nationwide
Chinese groups, nationwide
Palawan coast, Cuyo Islands between Palawan & Panay

Mindanao

Creole, Spanish based

S Luzon

Sino-Tibetan, Chinese
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese
Sino-Tibetan, Chinese
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Creole, Spanish based


Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Davao, Zamboanga (See Chavacano Davaweo)


Davao Oriental & Davao del Sur Provs.
Compostela Valley, Barangay Buhi, Laak, Asuncion, Davao Norte, some
in Kapalong, Davao Norte, Agusan Sur; See: Mandaya

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075

Languages
Dumagat
Remontado
English
Eskayan

076

077
078
079
080
081
082

Also:
Also: Hatang-Kayey, Remontado Agta,
Sinauna, Sinauna Tagalog (Reporedly
Highly Endangered)
Also: Bisayan Declarado, Bisayan Diklaradu,
Bisayan-Eskaya, Eskaya, Ineskaya,
Iniskaya, Iskaya (Dormant)

Filipino
Finallig
Gadang

Also: Baliwon, Gaddang, Ginabwal

Gaddang

Also: Cagayan

Giangan

Also:Clata, Atto, Eto, Guanga, Gulanga,


Jangan
Also: Hanun'o, Hanonoo Dialects:
Gubatnon (Gubat, Sorsogonon), Binli,
Kagankan, Waigan, Wawan, Bulalakawnon
Also: Adgawanon, Banuanon, Bukidnon,
Higanon, Higaonon-Banwaon, Higaonon
Manobo, Misamis Higaonon, Talaandig
Also Hiligainon, Illogo, Ilonggo

Hanunoo
Higaonon

083
Hiligaynon
084

085
086

Ibaloi
Ibanag

Also: Benguet-Igorot, Ibadoy, Ibaloy, Igodor,


Inibaloi, Nabaloi
Also: Ybanag or Ibanak

Location
Quezon Prov., General Nakar, Paimohuan; Rizal Prov., Santa Inez;
Laguna Prov., Santa Maria Muni.
National Statutory working language (1987, Constitution, Article 14(7)).
C Visayas, Bohol Prov, Cadapdapan, Biabas, Lundag, Taytay, and
Canta-ub villages.

National Statutory language 1987 Constitution, Article 14(6)), not used in


all official domains.
See: Bontoc Central
Irray, Baliwon, Paracelis, Potia, Ifugao, Mountain Prov., Paracelis;
Kalinga Prov., Tabuk City; Ifugao Prov., Potia
Isabela, Nueva Vizcaya, Bagabag, Bayombong, Solano; into Ifugao
Province, N of Magat Reservoir; separate small enclave, Isabela Prov.,
along middle branch of Cagayan River, Tuboc area.
Bagobo: Davao City; Davao Sur, E slopes of Mt Apo

Note

Classification
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Created from
Boholoano,
Cebuano,
Spanish,
English
Widespread

Mixed language, CebuanoSpanish-English.

NLuzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

C Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mangyan; Mindoro island, southern tip; Mindoro Oriental Province, area


N from San Pedro; Mindoro Occidental Province, from Ilin island inland

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Manobo: Misamis O, Bukidnon, Agusan N, Bukidnon, Misamis, Lanao N,


Esperanza mts, Iligan City, Camiguin, Gingoog City

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Masbate, Jintotolo peninsula, S of Panguiranan; Almost all of Negros


Occidental; Negros Oriental, Basay, Bayawan, & Canlaon; Panay, fr Iloilo
City NE along Guimaras strait to Binon-an, nearby Islands; W & C Capiz,
& Guimaras Island; Mindanao, C W & E Sultan Kudarat; S Cotabato, fr
NW to Bayabas; N Cotabato, area W of Lake Buluan; Maguindanao,
small border area S of Timbangan.
C & S Benguet Prov., W Nueva Vizcaya Prov.

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

N Luzon

Isabela, Cagayan, Tugegarao

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,

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088
089
090
091
092
093
094
095
096

Languages
Ibatan

Also:
Also: Ivatan, Chirin nu Ivatan

Batanes, N. Philippines

Note
N Luzon

Ifugao Amganad

Also: Amganad, Ifugaw

Ifugao Province, Hungduan & Banaue muns; into SW Mountain Province

Luzon

Ifugao Batad

Also: Ayangan Ifugao, Batad, Ifugaw

C Ifugao Prov.; some in Isabela Prov., E shore, Magat reservoir.

Ifugao Mayoyao

Also: Mayaoyaw, Mayoyao

Ifugao Prov, N Mayoyao, Aguinaldo, & Alfonso Lista munis.112

Ifugao Tuwali

Also: Gilipanes, Ifugaw, Kiangan Ifugao,


Quiangan, Tuwali
Also: Ilokano, Iloko

S Ifugao Prov.

Ilocano
Ilongot
Inabaknon
Inakeanon
Inonhan
Iranun

097

098
099
112
113

Iraya
Isinai

Also: Bugkalut, Bukalot, Lingotes. Dialects:


Abaka (Abaca), Egongot, Ibalao (Ibilao),
Italon, Iyongut. Cf. Bukalot
Also: Abaknon, Abaknon Sama, Capuleo,
Kapul, Sama, Kinapul, Kapulenyo or Sama
Abaknon
Also: Aklan, Aklano, Aklanon, AklanonBisayan, Panay
Also: Inunhan, Looknon, Unhan Loocnon,
Unhan (pej.)
Also: Illanun. Dialects: Abra-De-Ilog, AlagBako, Pagbahan, Palauan-Calavite,
Pambuhan, Santa Cruz
Dialects: Abra de Ilog, Alag Bako,
Pagbahan, Palauan-Calavite, Pambuhan, &
Santa Cruz113
Also: Inmeas, Insinai, Isinay, Isnay

Ifugao dialects: Batad, Amganad, Mayoyao, Tuwali


(iloko.tripod.com)

Location

NW Luzon, La Union & Ilocos; Babuyan Islands; Cagayan valley,


Mindoro, Mindanao
Sierra Madre, Caraballo in E Luzon; most of Quirino Province N of the
Cagayan; E Nueva Vizcaya Province; S Isabela Prov, upper reaches,
Cagayan River
Capul Island, Samar; Northern Samar Prov., San Bernardino Strait,
Capul island, facing E to San Isidro Island; Manila

Widespread

Aklan, N Panay Island, principally Aklan Prov; NW Capiz Prov. border;


Antique Prov. , far N, Libertad & Pandan munis.
Romblon Prov., S Tablas Island; Mindoro Oriental & Mindoro Occidental
Prov.s
Maguindanao Province, Barida, Buidon, Parang, Sultan Mastera, and
Sultan Kudarat municipalities; North Cotabato Province, Alamada,
Banasilan, Carmen, Libungan, and Pigcawayan municipallities; Lanao del
Sur Province, southeasern tip; and Bukidnon Province, Kalilangan
municipality
Mangyan: Mindoro; N Mindoro Island, Mindoro Occidental, Paluan, Abra
de Ilog, N Mamburao & Santa Cruz munis.; Mindoro Oriental, Puerto
Galera & San Teadoro munis.
Nueva Vizcaya Prov., Bambang, Dupax del Sur, & Aritao munis

Classification
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Bashiic
Malayo-Polynesian, MesoCordilleran
Malayo-Polynesian, MesoCordilleran
Malayo-Polynesian, MesoCordilleran
Malayo-Polynesian, MesoCordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Luzon

Malayo-Polynesian, MesoCordilleran

E Visayas

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Greater Barito,

W Visayas

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 188

Languages
Isnag

Also:
Also: Apayao, Dibagat-Kabugao-Isneg,
Isneg, Maragat. Dialects: Bayag, DibagatKabugao, Calanasan, Karagawan
(Daragawan), Talifugu-Ripang (Tawini)
Also: Itawes, Itawis, Tawit, Itawiq, Tawish,
Itawi, Itaves, Itabes. Dialects: Malaweg
(Malaueg), Itawis
Also: Banao, Banaw, Itneg, Timggian,
Tinguian; Dialects: Malibcong Banao, Banao
Pikekj, Gubang Itneg
Also: Tingguian, Tinguian, Tingguian

Location
Northern two thirds of Apayao Prov.; Cagayan Prov., Claveria & Santa
Praxedes munis; Abra & Ilocos Norte provs, scattered areas along
Apayao W border

Kalinga Prov., Balbalan & Pasil munis.; Abra Prov., Daguioman &
Malibcong munis.
Dialects: Banao Pikekj, Gubang Itneg, Malibcong Banao
Ba-ay Valley, Licuan-Baay, Licuan in Abra

Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran

Luzon

Itneg Inlaod114

Also: Inlaod, Tinggian, Tinguian


(Threatened)

N Luzon

Itneg Maeng

Also: Luba-Tiempo Itneg or Southern Itneg

Abra Prov., a few villages in Penarubia, Lagangilang, Danglas, &


Langiden munis.; SW of Binongan Itneg & NW of Masadiit Itneg language
areas.
S Abra Prov., Luba, Tubo, Villavisciosa Munis.

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran

Itneg Masadiit

Dialects: Masadiit Boliney, Masadiit


Sallapada
Also: Tinguian, Moyadan, Tinggian, Tinguian

Abra: Sallapadan, Bucloc, & Boliney munis.; Kalinga Prov., W border strip N Luzon
Abra Prov.

N Luzon

Also: Ibatan, Chirin nu IbatanIvatanen.


Dialects: Itbayaten, Basco Ivatan, Southern
Ivatan.
Also: I'wak or Iwaak

North of Luzon, Batanes Islands. Many relocated to Mindanao near


Bukidnon, Lanao del Sur, and Cotabato; Manila, Luzon, and Palawan
(See: Ibatan)
Benguet Prov., extreme east of Itogon in Tojongan, Bakes, Lebeng,
Domolpos, Bujasjas, Kayo-ko, Salaksak (in Kayapa) villages
Palawan, Cagayan de Sulu, S Palawan.
Bicol Region, Southern N Camarines

N Luzon

100

101
102
103
104
105
106
107

Itawit
Itneg Banao
Itneg Binongan

Itneg Moyadan
Ivatan

108
109
110
111

114

I-wak
Jama Mapun
Kabihug

Also: Orang Cagayan, Tao Cagayan


Also: Abian, Aeta, Agiyan, Agta, Bihug,
Bikol, N Camarines Agta, Manide, Negrito,
Negritoes, Negritos

Not to be confused with Isnag or Isneg

Note
N Luzon

S C Cagayan Prov., Apayao Prov., Conner Muni.

Classification
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

N Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Bashiic
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran

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Languages
Kagayanen

Also:
Also: Cagayano, Kagay-anen, Kinagayanen;
Dialects: Calamian Kagayanen

Kalagan

Also: Kaagan, Kalagan, Minuslim, Kinalagan;


Dialects: Isamal, Western Kalagan, Eastern
Kalagan

Kalagan Kagan115
Kalagan
Tagakaulu

Also: Kaagan, Kagan Kalagan


Also: Kalagan, Mandaya,Mansaka,
Tagakaolo Kalagan, Tagakaulu, Tagakaulu
Kalagan
Also: Ikalahan, Kalangoya, KalangoyaIkalahan, Kallahan, Kayapa; Dialects:
Central Kalanguya (Kayapa), Northern
Kalanguya (Ambaguio, Tinoc), Southern
Kalanguya (Santa Fe), Western Kalanguya
(Benguet)
Also: Butbut

113
114
115

Kalanguya
116

117
118
119
120
121
122

115

Kalinga Butbut
Kalinga Limos
Kalinga Lower
Tanudan
Kalinga Lubuagan
Kalinga Mabaka
Valley
Kalinga
Madukayang

Also: Limos-Liwan Kalinga, Northern


Kalinga;

Location
Manobo: Palawan, Cagayan Island betw Negros & Palawan; Palawan
coastal communities; S Palawan, Balabac Island, Quezon & Rizal areas;
N Palawan, Busuanga, Coron Muni.; Iloilo, Silay, Negros, & Manila.
Davao Sur Prov., SW of Davao city, inland along coast; Compostela
Valley & Davao Norte provs, incl Samal and assoc islands, & inland on E
shores of Davao Gulf; Davao Oriental Prov., highlands; some in N
Cotabato Prov.;
Sirawan, Davao City; Tagum; near Digos City
Sarangani, Davao Sur, Mt. Apo, Malita, Lais, Talaguton Rivers, Malalog

Note
S Luzon

Classification
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

W Nueva Vizcaya; Ifugao Prov., Hungduan Muni.; Benguet Prov., Bokod


Muni.; NE Pangasinan, San Nicolas Muni.

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran

Kalinga Prov., Cordillera Region, Tinglayan & Butbut; Buscalan, Bugnay,


Loccong, & Ngibat; Tabuk City, Lucnang, Pakak, Kataw, & Dinongsay;
Rizal Prov., Annenang, Malapiat, Andaraya, & Bua
Kalinga Prov., Tabuk City, N to border; Apayao Prov., Conner Muni.

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran

Kalinga
Dialects: Guinaang, Balbalasang, AblegSalegseg, Balatok-Kalinga (Balatok-Itneg)
Also: Kal-Uwan, Mabaka, Mabaka Itneg

N Luzon, Kalinga Prov., Cordillera Region, Lubuagan; Tabuk City;


Manila; Baguio City
Apayao Prov., Conner Muni.; W Abra & N Kalinga Prov.s

Also: Kalinga, Madukayang, Majukayong,


Majukayang

SE Kalinga Prov., Tabuk City; Mountain Prov., Paracelis Muni.

They speak a mixture of the Tagakaolo, Tausug, and Maguindanaon

N Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 190

Languages
Kalinga Southern

Also:
Also: Madlango Kalinga, Tinglayan Kalinga

Location
Kalinga Prov., Lubuapan Muni.; Mountain Prov., Sadanga & Sagada
municiplities, 13 villages; some in Tabuk

Kalinga Tanudan

Also: Lower Tanudan, Lower Tanudan


Kalinga, Mangali Kalinga
Also: Lower Tanudan, Lower Tanudan
Kalinga, Mangali Kalinga

S Kalinga Prov., S end of Tanudan valley

123
124
125
126
127
128
129
130
131
132
133
134
135
136
137
138
139

Kalinga, Tanudan
Kallahan Kayapa
Kallahan Keley-I

Also: Antipolo Ifugao, Hanalulo, Keley-i,


Keley-i Kalanguya, Keleyqiq Ifugao
Also: Kinamayo

Kankanaey

Also: Kankanay, Kankanai, Kankana-I or


Kankana-ey; Dialects: Mankayan-Buguias,
Kapangan, Bakun-Kibungan, Guinzadan

Kinaray-a
Lambangian
Lapuyan

Ifugao Prov., Kiangan Muni., Aritao Muni.


Kalinga

Kamayo

Karolanos
Kasiguranin
Katabaga
Kinabalian

N Luzon

Kalinga

Kallahan Tinoc

Kankanay
Northern
Karao

S Kalinga Prov., S end of Tanudan Valley

Note

Also: Kayaw; Karaw


Also: Northern Binukidnon
Also: Casiguranin
(Extinct)
Also: Bisaya, Cabalian, Cabalianon,
Kinabalianon
Also: Karay-a
Also: Teduray-Lambangian, Tiruray
Also: Lapuyen, Subanun Lapuyan,
Margosatubig, Subanon, Subanun,
Subanen, Suban-on, Southern Subanun

Bislig, San Agustin, & Marihatag in Surigao Sur; Boston, Cateel,


Baganga, Caraga, Manay, Mati in Davao Oriental
N Benguet, SE Ilocos Sur, NE La Union
(Lepanto Group) Besao, Sagada, Tadian, Bauko, & Sabangan munis. in
Bontoc
E Nueva Vizcaya Prov., Karao, Ekip, & Bokod areas; into W Benguet
Province, also in Ifugao Province, SW corner
Aeta Negros: Kabankalan, Negros Occidental, N Bukidnon
Aurora Prov., Casiguran Muni.
Negrito: Quezon Prov., Bondoc peninsula
Leyte Island, S Leyte Province, 6 villages in San Juan (Cabalian) town
Antique, Iloilo
See: Tiruray
Zamboanga Sur, Zamboanga Norte, Katipunan, Lapuyan

Classification
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran

Luzon

Luzon
Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

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141
142
143

Languages
Magahat
Maguindanao
Malaynon
Mamanwa
Mandaya

144
145
146
147
148
149

Mandaya
Cataelano
Mandaya Karaga
Mandaya Sangab
Mangkayan
Manide
Manobo Agusan

150

151
152
153
154

Also:
Also: Corolanos, or Southern Binukidnon, a
mix of Hiligaynon & Sugbuhanon

Also: Mamanwa Negrito, Minamanwa


Also: Davawenyo. Dialects: Carraga
Mandaya, Cateelenyo, Manay Mandayan,
Mandaya, Cataelano, Karaga, Sangab,
Mangaragan Mandaya

Also: Abiyan, N Camarines Agta


Also: Higanon, Manuvu; Dialects: Umayam,
Adgawan, Surigao, Omayamnon. 83%
intelligibility of Dibabawon

Manobo Ata

Also: Ata of Davao, Atao Manobo, Langilan.

Manobo
Cinamiguin

Also: Cinamiguin, Kamigin, Kinamigin,


Kinamiguin, Manobo, Cinamiguin
(Threatened)
Also: Dulangan Manobo; Dialects: Tasaday,
Blit
Also: Debabaon, Dibabaon, Mandaya

Manobo Cotabato
Manobo
Dibabawon

Location
Aeta: Basay mountain in Negros

Note

Classification

Maguindanao, Cotabato, South Cotabato, Sultan Kuderat, & Zamboanga


Sur
NW Aklan, Panay lowlands in W Visayas
Agusan Norte, Surigao Norte, Surigao Sur, Panaoan Island, S Leyte
mountains; Lake Mainit area,
Davao Oriental Province, Manay, Caraga, Baganga, and Cateel
municipalities; Davao del Norte Province

E Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

See: Mandaya; Dibabawon

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

See: Mandaya; Dibabawon


See: Mandaya; Dibabawon
See Kankanay
N Camarines, Santa Elena & Labo munis. (See: Kagayanen)
Agusan Sur Prov, W area, SE of Lake Buluan; inland areas, Surigao Sur
Prov.; SW of Lanuza peninsula to Lianga Bay; Agusan Norte Prov., W
area; Compostela Valley & Davao Norte provs, continuous strip along N
borders; Surigao Norte Prov., S tip, inland; scattered small border areas,
Bukidnon & Davao Oriental provs
Kapalong & Talaingod in Davao Norte & in Davao City;, NW Davao del
Norte Prov.; SE Bukidnon Prov.; Compostela Valley Province, NW
border; Davao del Sur Prov. , NW enclave
Camiguin Island, N of Mindanao

Mindanao
Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Luzon
Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Tasaday, Blit: Sultan Kudarat, Kalamansig, Palimbang, Ninoy Aquino


munis.; S Cotabato Prov., TBoli Muni.
N Compostela Valley, upper Agusan River area; Davao Oriental, Boston
& Cateel munis.; Davao Norte, Asuncion Muni., Manguagan

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

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156
157
158
159
160
161
162

Languages
Manobo Ilianen116

Also:
Also: Ilianen. Dialects: Arakan, Livunganen,
Pulangiyan

Manobo
Matigsalug
Manobo Obo

Also: Matig-Salug Manobo

Manobo Rajah
Kabunsuwan
Manobo
Sarangani
Manobo Western
Bukidnon
Mansaka
Manuvu
Mapun

163

164
165
166
167

116

Maranao
Masbatenyo
Molbog
Palawano
Brooke's Pt

Also: Bagobo, Kidapawan Manobo, Manobo,


Obo Bagobo; Dialects: Kidapawan Manobo,
Magpet Manobo, Arakan Manobo, Marilog.
Dialects: Governor Generoso Manobo
Also: Western Bukidnon. Dialects:
Ilentungen, Kiriyenteken, Pulangiyen
Also: Mandaya Mansaka
Also: Bagobo, Kidapawan, Manobo, Obo,
Ubo
Also: Bajau Kagayan, Cagayan, Cagayan de
Sulu, Cagayanen, Cagayano, Cagayanon,
Jama Mapun, Kagayan, Orang, Sama
Mapun
Also: Maranaw, Ranao
Also: Masbateo, Minasbate
Also: Molebugan, Molebuganori,
Molebuganon; Dialects: Balabac Island,
Southern Palawan, Banggi Island
Also:Brookes Point Palawan, Palawan,
Palawanun, Palaweo. Dialects: South
Palawano (Bugsuk Palawano)

Dialects include Arakan, Livunganen, Pulangiyan

Location
N Cotabato, N & C watershed of Mindanao River; Bukidnon, Kandingilan,
Kibawe, & Darnulong munis.; Maguindanao, N Kambutalan & Datu
Montawal munis.
S C Bukidnon, NE Cotabato & NW Davao del Sur

Note
Mindanao

Classification
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

NE slope of Mt Apo, between Davao Sur & N Cotabato

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Davao Oriental, N border SE corner, Agusan Sur; S Surigao Sur, Lingig,


Rajah Cabungsuan
Davao Sur, Jose Abad Santos Muni.; Davao Oriental, Gov Generoso
Muni.; Sarangani Prov., Glan Muni.
S Bukidnon, Dangcagan, Don Carlos, Kitaotao, & especially Maramag
munis.; into N Cotabato, Banisilan Muni.
Davao Oriental, W Baganga Muni.; C, W Compostela Valley; Davao
Oriental, to Pujada Bay
SWCotabato, Data Tabayong, Davao Sur, NE slope Mt Apo, N Cotabato

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Muslim Mindinao autonomous region, Tawi-Tawi, Cagayan de Sulu


(Mapun) Island

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Lanao Sur & Norte, S, N of Lake Lano; NW Maguindanao, Matanog,


Bariya, Buldon, & N Parang munis.; NW Cotabato & WC Bukidnon
Prov.s.
Masbate Prov., 3 Islands.
Balabac Island, other Islands off the coast of Palawan, as far north as
Panakan.

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

SE Palawan, S of Abu Abu to Bataraza, mostly along upland rivers, some


along coast

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

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169
170
171
172
173
174
175
176
177

Languages
Palawano Central
Palawano
Southwest
Pampangan
Pampangan

179

180

Also: Kapampangan, Pampango,


Pampangueo

Pangasinan

Also: Kapampangan, Pampango,


Pampangueo
Also: Pangasinense

Paranan

Also: Palanan, Palanenyo

Porohanon
Ratagnon
Romblomanon

Also: Camotes
Also: Aradigi, Datagnon, Lactan, Latagnun,
Latan
Also: Romblon

Sama Pangutaran

Also: Siyama

Sama Southern
178

Also:
Also: Palawanon, Pinalawan, Palawan,
Palawano, Palawanen, Palaweo, Quezon
Palawano

Also: Sama Tawi-Tawi, Sinama, Southern


Sinama, Tawi-Tawi Sinama; ialects: Sibutu
(Sibutu), Simunul, Tandubas, Obian,
Balimbing, Bongao, Sitangkai, Languyan,
Sapa-Sapa, Sama Sibutu
Sama, Balangingih Also: Baangingi, Balanguingui, Bangingi,
Bangingih, Bangingih Sama, Northern Sama,
Sama Bangingih, Samal
Sama, Central
Also: Bajaw (pej.), Central Sinama, Orang
Laut, Sama Dilaut, Samal, Siasi Sama,
Sinama; Dialects: Sama Deya, Sama Dilaut,
Sama Siasi, Sama Laminusa, Sama
Tabawan

Location
SW Palawan N of Quezon to N of Rizal; E Abu Abu area, mostly along
upland rivers, some along the coast
S Palawan: S of Apu Rauan on the W coast & S of Abu Abu on the E
coast
Mankayan, Bakun, Kubungan, Buguias Munis. & half of Kapangan in
Benguet, Tarlac Prov.; most of Pampanga Prov. W of Pampanga River;
Sw Nueva Ecija Prov.; & Zambales Prov, scattered areas along E border.
Luzon, S half, Tarlac; most of Pampanga W of Pampanga river; SW
Nueva Ecija, & Zambales, scattered areas along E border.
Pangasinan

Note

Classification
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Luzon,
southern half
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Luzon

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Meso-Cordilleran
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

E coast Isabela Prov., betw Divilacan Bay & Dinapigue town & inland to
San Mariano.
Cebu, Camotes Islands (Pacijun, Poro, Ponsoon) betw Cebu & Leyte.,
Mindoro Occidental, S extreme tip, incl Ilin Islands; Mindoro Oriental, S
tip, Bulalacao Muni.
Romblon & Sibuyan Islands, NE of Tablas Island (San Agustin), N of
Panay
W Mindanao, W central Sulu, Pangutaran Island, W of Jolo; S Palawan,
Cagayan de Tawi-Tawi
Muslim Mindanao autonomous region, S Sulu, Tawi-Tawi Simunul,
Sibutu, & other major Islands

Luzon

Sulu archipelago NE of Jolo, Zamboanga coast peninsula & Islands &


Basilan. N Sama dialect: Luzon, White Beach near Subic bay; Lutangan
dialect: Olutangga Island. Possibly on Luzon & Palawan.
Muslim Mindanao, Sulu & Tawi-Tawi, Siasi, Tabawan, Bonggao
Sitangkai, Cagayan de Sulu Island; Basilan Island, Maluso, Malamawi,
Bohe Lobbong; Zamboanga Sur: Rio Hondo, Batuan Lumbayaw, Taluk
Sangay, Sanggali; Zamboanga Norte: Olutangga; Davao City, Isla Verde,
& Sasa; Cagayan de Oro; Visayas, Cebu & Tagbilaran; Palawan, Puerto
Princesa; Batangas

W Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Greater Barito

S Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Greater Barito

C Visayas

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

W Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

S Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Greater Barito
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian,
Greater Barito

S Mindanao

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182

Languages
Sambal
Sambal Botolan
Sangil

183

184
185
186
187
188

Sangir
Sinauna
Sorsoganon,
Northern
Sorsoganon,
Southern
Sorsogon
Spanish

Also:
Also: Sambali, Sambal, Tina (pej.), Tina
Sambal (pej.); Dialects: Santa Cruz,
Masinloc, Iba
Also: Aeta Negrito, Ayta Hambali, Botolan
Zambal, Hambali; Dialects: Ayta Hambali
(Hambali Botolan), Sambali Botolan
Also: Sanggil, Sangire, Sangihe, & Sangir
Pilipinas, Sangir, Sangu, Marore,
Sangirezen, Talaoerezen; Dialects:
Sarangani, Mindanao
Alternate Names: Sangih, Sangirese.
Classification: Austronesian, MalayoPolynesian, Philippine, Sangiric, Northern
Also: Northern Sorsogon, Sorsogon
Bicolano, Sorsogon, Masbate
Bikol Sorsogon, Gubat, Sorsogon, Waray,
Southern Sorsogon

Location
Zambales Prov., north, 5 towns; Tarlac Prov., western border;
Pangasinan Prov., 2 villages, Palawan Island, Quezon, Panitian village

Note

Zambales Prov., Botolan & Cabangan munis. Affected by Mt Pinatubo


eruption.
Balut Island off of extreme southern tip, Sarangani Island

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Mindanao

Subanen Central

Also: Sindangan Subanun; Dialects: Eastern


Kolibugan (Eastern Kalibugan)

Subanen Eastern

Also: Guinselugnen, Salugnen

Subanen Northern

Also: Tuboy Subanon

Subanen Southern

Also: Lapuyen, Margosatubig, Subanen,


Subanun, Lapuyan

191

192
193

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

See: Sangil
See: Dumagat Remontado
Sorsogon Prov., Sorsogon City, Casiguran & Juban.

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

S Sorsogon Prov.

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Masbate
Mainly in Manila and other large cities; Chavacano-speaking areas

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Indo-European, Italic, Romance,
Italo-Western, Western, GalloIberian, Ibero-Romance, West
Iberian, Castilian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

189

190

Classification
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

E Zamboanga Peninsula; Sulu Archipelago; Zamboanga Norte, E half;


Zamboanga Sur, large area W of Molave-Pagadian line; Zamboanga
Sibugay, Kabasalan, Siay, & Diplahan
Zamboanga Norte, Don Victoriano Chiongban Muni., W slopes of Mt
Malindang; Misamis Occidental, border W of Mt Malindang; Zamboanga
Sur, NE corner
Zamboanga Norte, Sergio Osmea & Mutia munis.; inland fr Dipolog &
Dapitan cities; Misamis Occidental, N Subanen: Jose Dalman (Linasan),
Katipunan, La Libertad, Manukan (Linay & Pangandaw), Pinan, Polanco,
Pres Manuel Roxas, Rizal (Disoy) Siayan (Dumugok), & Sibutad
Sibuga, peninsula E of Sibuguey Bay, Malangas City; Zamboanga Sur
Prov., peninsula W of Illana Bay, Margosatubig City

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194

195
196
197
198
199
200
201
202
203
204
205
206
207
208

Languages
Subanon
Kolibugan

Also:
Also: Calibugan, Kalibugan, Kolibugan

Subanon Western

Also: Siocon, Subanen, Subanun

Subanun Lapuyan
Sulod

See: Subanen Southern


Also: Bukidnon, Mondo

Surigaonon

Also: Jaun-Jaun, Sinurigao, Waya-Waya

Tadyawan
Tagabawa

Also: Balaban, Pula, Tadianan


Also: Tagabawa Bagobo, Tagabawa
Manobo
Also: Kalagan, Mandaya,Mansaka,
Tagakaolo Kalagan, Tagakaulu, Tagakaulu
Kalagan
Also: Pilipino, Filipino; Dialects: Lubang,
Manila, Marinduque, Bataan, Batangas,
Bulacan, Puray, Tanay-Paete, Tayabas
Also: Tagbanua, Tagabawa Bagobo,
Tagabawa Manobo, Aborlan, Tagbanwa,
Apurawnon
Also: Unggoy (pej.)

Tagakaulo
Tagalog
Tagbanwa
Tagbanwa
Calamian
Tagbanwa Central
Talaandig
Tandaganon
Taut Batu

Also: Manobo, Higaonon, Tala-Andig,


Talandig
Also: Naturalis, Tagon-on
Also: Taw Batu, Taot Bato, Taot Batu

Location
Zamboanga Peninsula, Sur, head of Sibuguey Bay fr Kabasalan W to Ipil
& inland; Zamboanga Norte, Sulu Sea, coastal band fr Liloy to near
Kanapun, 2nd area further SW, fr Siocon to Sibuco; Zambo City, S fr N
border to Curuan.
Zamboanga Norte facing Sulu Sea, fr Labason town to S border, mostly
inland, on W slopes, Zamboanga Peninsula; Sibugay, Ipil, Rosseler T
Lim, & Tungawan munis., E slopes of peninsula.

Note
Mindanao

Classification
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Capiz Prov., Tapaz; Iloilo Prov., Lambunao; Antique Prov., Valderrama,


Panay
Surigao towns of Carrascal, Cantilan, Madrid & Lanusa.
Surigao Norte, N Agusan Norte, N Surigao Sur
E central Mindoro Oriental, Lake Naujan S
N Cotabato & Davao Sur, Mt Apo slopes W of Davao City.

Visayas

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Southern Phil
Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Sarangani, Davao Sur, Mt Apo, Malita, Lais, Talaguton Rivers, Malalog

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Widespread; Manila, most of Luzon, & Mindoro.

Widespread

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Aborlan, Quezon, N Cotabato & Davao Sur, M Apo slopes W of Davao


City; Palawan, scattered communities fr about 120 km S to 60 km N on
both sides of Puerto Princesa Island; Coron Island
N Palawan, Coron, Busuanga, Culion, & Linapacan munis. (Calamian &
Linapacan Groups), Palawan Island, NE coast, 3 Tagbanwa
communities.
S China seacoast, NW Palawan Prov., Taytay Muni., Malipu Bay area
(Nearly Extinct)
N Cotabato, E Bukidnon, S Agusan, Pantaron-Sumapay-Kubatungan,
Minala mountain ranges
C Surigao Sur, Tandag, Tago, Bayabas, & Cagwait towns
SW Palawan

Mindanao

Malayo-Polynesian

S Luzon

Malayo-Polynesian

S Luzon

Malayo-Polynesian

Mindanao
Mindanao

Malayo-Polynesian

CABRERA, Jaime - Seminar in Philippine Literature 196

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210
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212
213
214
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216

Languages
Tausug
Tawbuid Eastern
Tawbuid Western
T'boli
Tiruray
Waray
Yakan117
Yogad

Also:
Also: Bahasa Sug, Jolohano, Moro Joloano,
Sinug, Sinug Tausug, Sulu, Suluk, Tausog,
Taw Sug
Also: Bangon, Barangan, Batangan,
Binatangan, Fanawbuid, Suri, Tabuid,
Taubuid, Tiron
Also: Batangan Taubuid, Fanawbuid,
Western Taubuid
Also: Kiamba, Tagabeli, Tagabulu, Tboli,
Tibole, Tiboli
Also: Teduray, Tirurai
Also: Binisaya, Samaran, Samareo,
Samarenyo, Samar-Leyte, Waray-Waray
Also: Yacan

Location
Jolo, Sulu Archipelago; Palawan Island; Basilan Island, Zamboanga City
& environs

Note
Mindanao

Classification
Malayo-Polynesian

C Mindoro Island, large area, Mindoro Occidental Province; Mindoro


Oriental Province, adjacent border area

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

C Mindoro, Mindoro Occidental, mainly Sablayan & Calintaan munis.

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

S Cotabato, Kiamba, Maitum, Maasim, Surallah

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Sultan Kudarat & Maguindanao Provs; Maguindanao Prov SW, Datu Blah
T. Sinsuat, N Upi, & S Upi minis; Sultan Kudarat Prov. NW, Lebak Mun
E Visayas, Samar & associated Islands, E Biliran; Leyte, Carigara Bay, S
to Tacloban, along Leyte gulf shore S, inland area W to highlands.
Sulu Archipelago, Basilan, & small surrounding Islands; Sakol Island; W
Mindanao, Zamboanga E coast. Concentrated away fr the coast.
Luzon, Isabela Prov., Echague & nearby towns

Mindanao

Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian
Austronesian, Malayo-Polynesian

Adapted from Ethnic Groups Philippines, 2011; verbix.com; ethnicgroups.philippines.com; and nativeplanet.org.
i

For instance, the 11-page report, Merging Qualitative and Quantitative Data in Miexed Meethods Research: How To and Why Not (Driscoll et al, 2007) has a self-explanatory title. So does the paper,
Practical Strategies for Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Methods: Applications to Health Research (Morgan, 1998). See also Mixed methodology: Combining qualitative and quantitative
approaches (Tashakkori & Teddlie, 1998), and Designing and conducting mixed methods research (Creswell & Clar, 2007).
ii

such as in Mixed methods research: A research paradigm whose time has come (Johnson & Onwuegbuzie, 2004); Advances in mixed methods research: Theories and applications (Bergman, 2008); as well
as Revisiting the quantitative-qualitative debate: Implications for mixed-methods research (Sale, et al, 2002)
iii
such as Frost, et al (2010) in Pluralism in qualitative research: The impact of different researchers and qualitative approaches on the analysis of qualitative data; Clandinin and Murphy (2009) in
Comments on Coulter and Smith: Relational ontological commitments in narrative research; Greenhalgh and Russell (2005) in Narrative methods in quality improvement research; Beach & Hynds (1991) in
Research on response to literature; and by Sandelowski (2000) in Focus on Research Methods: Combining Qualitative and Quantitative Sampling, Data Collection, and Analysis Techniques in Mixed-Method
Studies