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Code No: R05310306 Set No. 1


III B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007
THERMAL ENGINEERING-II
( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
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1. (a) State the methods of improving the thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle.
(b) In a Rankine cycle the steam at inlet to turbine is saturated at a pressure of
30 bar and the exhaust pressure is 0.25 bar. Determine
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
the pump work
turbine work
Rankine efficiency
condenser heat flow
dryness at the end of expansion [4+12]

2. (a) Explain the working of


i. water level indicator
ii. high steam and low water safety valve with the help of neat sketches.
(b) Describe briefly the advantages which you would expect to be gained from
incorporating an economizer, an air pre-heater and super heater in a steam
generating plant and indicate their positions in a typical boiler plant. [8+8]

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3. (a) Explain the terms“over expanding” and “under expanding” as applied to a
fluid flow through a nozzle.
(b) Describe the changes which occur in a convergent divergent nozzle as the back
pressure is slowly increased from the design pressure up to the pressure at
entry. [8+8]

4. A stage of an impulse turbine has two rows of moving blades separated by a row of
fixed guide blades. The moving blades have tip angles of 380 and the blade speed,
nozzle and fixed blade angles are designed on the assumption that the velocity
of discharge from the nozzle is 540 m/s. The relative velocity of steam drops by
10% during passage through each ring of blades and the final discharge is axial.
Determine the blade speed and the blade efficiency. [16]

5. In a reaction turbine the fixed and moving blades are of the same shape but reversed
in direction. The angle of receiving tip is 350 and the discharging tip is 200 . Find
the power developed per pair of blades for the steam consumption of 2.5 kg/s, when
the blade speed is 50 m/s. If the enthalpy drop in the pair is 12 kJ/kg. Also find
the efficiency of the pair. [16]

6. (a) What are different types of cooling towers? Explain with suitable figures.
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Code No: R05310306 Set No. 1


(b) The air entering a steam condenser with steam is estimated at 6 kg/hr. The
temperature at the inlet to air cooler section is 30 0 C and at the outlet is 26
0
C. The vacuum in the shell is essentially constant throughout and is 721 mm
of Hg, while the barometer reads 758 mm of Hg. Calculate
i. the volume of air entering the cooling section per hour
ii. the mass of moisture contained in the air
iii. the mass of steam condensed per hr in the cooling section. [16]

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7. (a) Explain the working principle of gas turbine along with p-v and T-s diagrams.
(b) Describe the differences between closed cycle gas turbine and open cycle gas
turbine. [8+8]

8. (a) With a neat sketch and T-s diagram, explain the working of pulsejet engine
and also derive the expression for thrust developed.
(b) Explain the working principle of liquid propellant engines? What are the
important requirements for the liquid propellant engines? [8+8]

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Code No: R05310306 Set No. 2


III B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007
THERMAL ENGINEERING-II
( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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1. (a) State the methods of improving the thermal efficiency of a Rankine cycle.
(b) In a Rankine cycle the steam at inlet to turbine is saturated at a pressure of
30 bar and the exhaust pressure is 0.25 bar. Determine
i.
ii.
iii.
iv.
v.
the pump work
turbine work
Rankine efficiency
condenser heat flow
dryness at the end of expansion [4+12]
2. (a) Define equivalent evaporation and boiler efficiency.
(b) A boiler is to provide 7000 kg/hr of steam with superheated by 40 0 C at a
pressure of 20 bar. The temperature of water is 600 C. If the thermal efficiency
of the boiler is 75%, how much fuel oil will be consumed in one hour? The
calorific value of oil used is 45000 kJ/kg. Take specific heat of superheated
steam as 2.093 kJ/kg K and also calculate the equivalent evaporation from
and at 100 0 C. [4+12]
3. (a) Explain the terms“over expanding” and “under expanding” as applied to a

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fluid flow through a nozzle.
(b) Describe the changes which occur in a convergent divergent nozzle as the back
pressure is slowly increased from the design pressure up to the pressure at
entry. [8+8]
4. A velocity compounded impulse turbine has two rows of moving blades with a fixed
row of guide blades between them. The steam leaves the nozzle at 900 m/s in a
direction at 180 to the plane of rotation. Blade speed is 150 m/s and the blade
outlet angles for first moving blade 240 , fixed blade 260 and second moving blade
300 . Friction factor is 0.9 for all rows. Determine thrust and power developed for
the steam supply of 1.25 kg/s. [16]
5. The blade angles of both fixed and moving blades of a reaction steam turbine are
350 at the receiving tips and 200 at the discharging tips. At a certain point in the
turbine, the drum diameter is 1.37 m and the blade height is 127 mm. The pressure
of steam supply to a ring of fixed blades at this point is 1.25 bar and the dryness
fraction is 0.925. Find the work done in next row of moving blades for 1 kg of
steam at 600 rpm. Assume the efficiency of 85% for the pair of rings of fixed and
moving blades, find the heat drop in the pair and the state of steam at entrance to
the next row of fixed blades. [16]
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Code No: R05310306 Set No. 2


6. (a) Draw the schematic diagram of low level counter flow jet condenser and explain
its working principle.
(b) What are the advantages and limitations of surface condensers over jet con-
densers? [8+8]

7. (a) Explain the working principle of gas turbine along with p-v and T-s diagrams.
(b) Describe the differences between closed cycle gas turbine and open cycle gas

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turbine. [8+8]

8. (a) What is meant by thrust? Derive its equation of turboprop engine from the
first principles.
(b) Explain the advantages and disadvantages of bipropellants used in rocket en-
gines over monopropellants. [8+8]

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Code No: R05310306 Set No. 3


III B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007
THERMAL ENGINEERING-II
( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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1. (a) Describe the working of Orsat apparatus for determining the volumetric com-
position of dry flue gases with the help of neat sketch.
(b) The dry exhaust gases from a petrol engine contained 2 percent by volume
of CO and negligible hydrogen. If the fuel contained 84% carbon and 16%
hydrogen by weight, all hydrogen is burnt and all carbon may be assumed to
burn either to CO2 or to CO calculate
i. mass of air supplied per kg of fuel.
ii. proportion of carbon burn to CO2 .
2. The following data pertains to a steam boiler: pressure = 14 bar, capacity = 5000
[8+8]

kg/hr, fuel consumption = 675 kg/hr, CV of fuel = 29680 kJ/kg, inlet temp. of
water to economizer = 30 0 C, exit temp. of water from economizer = 130 0 C,
quality of steam produced in the boiler = 0.97, temperature of steam produced in
superheater = 3200 C. Calculate
(a) equivalent evaporation kg/hr
(b) overall efficiency of the plant
(c) boiler efficiency

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(d) economizer efficiency
(e) super heater efficiency. [16]
3. (a) Explain the terms“over expanding” and “under expanding” as applied to a
fluid flow through a nozzle.
(b) Describe the changes which occur in a convergent divergent nozzle as the back
pressure is slowly increased from the design pressure up to the pressure at
entry. [8+8]
4. What is compounding? Describe various ways of compounding impulse turbines
and give their merits and demerits. [16]
5. The blade angles of both fixed and moving blades of a reaction steam turbine are
350 at the receiving tips and 200 at the discharging tips. At a certain point in the
turbine, the drum diameter is 1.37 m and the blade height is 127 mm. The pressure
of steam supply to a ring of fixed blades at this point is 1.25 bar and the dryness
fraction is 0.925. Find the work done in next row of moving blades for 1 kg of
steam at 600 rpm. Assume the efficiency of 85% for the pair of rings of fixed and
moving blades, find the heat drop in the pair and the state of steam at entrance to
the next row of fixed blades. [16]
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Code No: R05310306 Set No. 3


6. (a) How the steam condensers are classified? Explain with basic principle and
operation.
(b) What are the sources of air leakage in steam condensers? Explain the effect
of air leakage on condenser performance. [8+8]

7. (a) Prove that the efficiency of Brayton cycle corresponding to maximum work
done by the cycle is given by 1- √1t , where t is the ratio of maximum temper-

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ature to minimum temperature of the cycle.
(b) The specific work output of a turbine is 336.5 kW and the exhaust gases leave
the turbine at 700 K. Calculate the turbine pressure ratio. [10+6]

8. (a) Discuss the advantages and limitations of turboprop engine over turbo jet
engine.
(b) What is the operating principle of a rocket engine. Discuss the advantages
and disadvantages of rocket engines. [8+8]

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Code No: R05310306 Set No. 4


III B.Tech I Semester Regular Examinations, November 2007
THERMAL ENGINEERING-II
( Common to Mechanical Engineering and Automobile Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
⋆⋆⋆⋆⋆

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1. (a) Explain with the help of neat diagrams a Regenerative cycle. Derive also an
expression for its thermal efficiency.
(b) In a regenerative cycle the inlet conditions are 40 bar and 4000 C. Steam is
bled at 10 bar in regenerative heating. The exit pressure is 0.8 bar. Neglecting
pump work, determine the efficiency of the cycle. [6+10]

2. (a) Give relative merits and demerits of natural draught over artificial draught,
(b) A boiler is equipped with a chimney 25 meters high. The temperature of
outside air is 25 0 C and the average temperature of flue gases in the chimney
is 3200 C. If the boiler is supplied with 20 kg of air per kg of fuel burnt, calculate
the theoretical draught created in terms of
i. mm of water column
ii. meter of column of hot gas. Also calculate the velocity of flue gases in
chimney, if 60% of the draught is lost in friction at grate and passages.
[4+12]

3. (a) Explain the terms“over expanding” and “under expanding” as applied to a

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fluid flow through a nozzle.
(b) Describe the changes which occur in a convergent divergent nozzle as the back
pressure is slowly increased from the design pressure up to the pressure at
entry. [8+8]

4. What is compounding? Describe various ways of compounding impulse turbines


and give their merits and demerits. [16]

5. At a stage in a reaction turbine, the mean blade ring diameter is 1 m and the
turbine runs at a speed of 50 rps. The blades are designed for 50% reaction with
exit angles 300 and inlet angles 500 . The turbine is supplied with a steam at a rate
of 6 ×105 kg/hr and stage efficiency is 85 %, determine the power output. [16]

6. The air leakage into the surface condenser operating with a steam turbine is esti-
mated as 84 kg/h. The vacuum near the inlet of air pump is 700 mm of Hg when
barometer reads 760 mm of Hg. The temperature at inlet of vacuum pump is 20
0
C, calculate

(a) the minimum capacity of the air pump in m3 /h


(b) the dimensions of the reciprocating pump to remove the air if it runs at 200
rpm take L/D ratio as 1.5 and
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Code No: R05310306 Set No. 4


(c) mass of vapour extracted per minute. [16]

7. (a) What are different assumptions made in evaluation of thermal efficiency of


Brayton cycle and derive thermal efficiency equation.
(b) A gas turbine plant is supplied with air at a pressure of 1 bar and 300 K. The
air is then compressed to a pressure of 5 bar and then heated to 8500 C in the
combustion chamber. Calculate the thermal efficiency of the cycle. [8+8]

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8. (a) How to evaluate different efficiencies of jet propulsions? Derive their equations.
(b) What are the major differences between air breathing engine and rocket engine.
[8+8]

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