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New topic - Submerged surfaces

Thermodynamics & Fluid Mechanics 1


(MM1TF1) Lecture 4

Hydrostatic pressure exerts forces on surfaces


submerged in liquids at rest.
Because the pressure is distributed over the submerged
surface, the force is too.
For design calculations we want the equivalent point
force and its line of action.
We can calculate the forces and moments acting on the
flat or curved walls of submerged structures and
retaining walls.

Horizontal & vertical submerged surfaces


Lecturer: Dr Cheah Siew Cheong
Room: BB76 (Block B)
Phone: +6(03) 8924 8115
E-mail: cheah.siew-cheong@nottingham.edu.my
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Recap so far
For a liquid column:

Pressure varies with depth

pbottom

ptop

gh

The force acting on a


small element 10m
below the surface will
be very different to
that acting at 1 m
below the surface.
To find the resultant
force on a submerged
surface integration
will be required

For a static fluid pressure does not vary


along a horizontal plane
Conservation of mass applies to fluids!

Why are the


walls of a dam
thicker at the
bottom?

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Just to get you thinking about integration


as a summation process

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Area integral

Find area of a triangle by integratio n (rectangle in your notes)

Sum all the small areas to

Area of small element at


distance h from apex, of width w and
thickness h :
dA wdh

obtain the area of the triangle

dA
A

2b h 2
a 2

w dh
h1

2b
h dh
a
0

w dh
area

Area of triangle is the summation of all the elemental areas :


A

h
h

Area

2b
h2

w dh

1
2

2b a 2
a 2

2b

ab

base height

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a

Area integral

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Centroid (more preparatory maths)

w dh
0

Why?

Find the width, w, as a


function of h.
a

h
h

Linear relationsh ip, so


w k1h k 2

Boundary conditions
when h 0, w 0
k2 0
when h a, w 2b
k1 2b/a
w

2b
h
a

2b

Where does
General
this comeexpression
from?
for a straight
line

Centroid (centre of area)


For a 3-D body the centre of gravity is the point
at which all the mass can be considered to act.
For a 2-D lamina (thin, flat plate) the centroid is
the centre of area, the point about which the
lamina would balance.
To find the location of the centroid, take
moments (for area) about a suitable reference
axis.

Boundary conditions must match with the h


you chose
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Worked example (5)

Centroid
Split the lamina into elements
O

element is
. The sum of
moments of all the elements is
equal to the moment (M) obtained by
assuming all the area is located at
the centroid.

y dA

yc The moment of area ( M) of the

Each element has area

area

Determine the location of the centroid


of a plane rectangular lamina.

O parallel to the chosen axis.


y

yc

1
A

Take moments for area about OO


M y A yb y
d

b y dy

but M
so yc

y2
2

area yc
1 bd 2
bd 2

d
2

yc
d

bd 2
2
y

bd yc
similarly, xc

b
2

b
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Centroid

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Horizontal submerged surfaces


Horizontal submerged surfaces

O
y

yc

A yc
or

yc

area

1
A

y dA
Liquid surface
h
area

y dA

Stationary, no shear forces, therefore


hydrostatic forces,
Of course there are
arising from hydrostatic pressures,
must
act normal to
equal
and opposite
forces on the other side
the surface.

y dA is known as the
A

Area A

Hydrostatic force

first moment of area.

of this lamina but


here we are concerned
only with one side.

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Horizontal submerged surfaces

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Vertical submerged surfaces

Common-sense approach:

Liquid surface

Same pressure acts over entire surface of


lamina
Centre of pressure will coincide with centre of
area
Total force equals pressure times area

For a vertical plate pressure is


not uniform over the area
because pressure increases
with depth. The centre of
pressure P and the centroid C
are not coincident. For a
vertical plate the centre of
pressure is always below the
centroid.

Hydrostatic
forces

No shear forces, so all hydrostatic forces are


perpendicular to the lamina.
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Horizontal submerged surfaces

Fp

O
P
yp

Vertical submerged surfaces


Liquid surface

For a horizontal lamina


centre of pressure
and centroid (centre of
area) are coincident.

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A
h

F
yp

The total force acting is


equal to the pressure
multiplied by the area.

Fp
w

O
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submerged
lamina

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Worked example (6)

Find the total force acting on the element :


Force acting on small element is :
F p A
gh A
gh w h

A
h

The wall of a reservoir contains a vertical gate, 2m wide


and 3m high. The upper edge of the gate is level with
the water surface. Taking = 1000 kg/m3 and g = 9.81
m/s2 determine the net force on the gate and the depth
of the centre of pressure.
hinge

h2

Fp

gh dA

pghw dh

area

water

h1

Fp(net)

air

Therefore total force is :


hp

3m

Vertical submerged surfaces

2m
stop
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Worked example (6)

Vertical submerged surfaces


Find the line of action of the force by taking moments about OO :
M OO

Fh

gh A h

gh

Solution strategy
Write expression for force on a small element

gh w h

Integrate to find total force (9 g = 88.3 kN)


h2

M OO

gh 2 dA

Fp y p
area

yp

M OO
Fp

gh 2 w dh

O h

h1

O
F

Write expression for moment for a small


element about OO
Integrate to find total moment (18 g)

yp

Equate moment for point force with moment for


distributed force to find line of action (2m below
surface)

Fp

18

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Worked example (6)


Find the force acting on a small element :
Fp

gh w h
gh 2 h

Integrate to find the total hydrostati c force :


3

h2
2 g h dh 2 g
2
0

Fp

9 g
0

88.3 kN
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Worked example (6)


To find the line of action of the force find the moment
of force on the small element :
M OO

Fp h

gh 2 h h
3

MOO

2 g h dh
0

h3
2 g
3

18 g
0

Moment due to distribute d force must equal moment


due to equivalent point force, therefore :
Fp hp

MOO

hp

18 g
9 g

2m
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