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# P29

## Thermodynamics & Fluid Mechanics 1

(MM1TF1) Lecture 4

## Hydrostatic pressure exerts forces on surfaces

submerged in liquids at rest.
Because the pressure is distributed over the submerged
surface, the force is too.
For design calculations we want the equivalent point
force and its line of action.
We can calculate the forces and moments acting on the
flat or curved walls of submerged structures and
retaining walls.

## Horizontal & vertical submerged surfaces

Lecturer: Dr Cheah Siew Cheong
Room: BB76 (Block B)
Phone: +6(03) 8924 8115
E-mail: cheah.siew-cheong@nottingham.edu.my
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Recap so far
For a liquid column:

pbottom

ptop

gh

## The force acting on a

small element 10m
below the surface will
be very different to
that acting at 1 m
below the surface.
To find the resultant
force on a submerged
surface integration
will be required

## For a static fluid pressure does not vary

along a horizontal plane
Conservation of mass applies to fluids!

walls of a dam
thicker at the
bottom?

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## Just to get you thinking about integration

as a summation process

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Area integral

## Area of small element at

distance h from apex, of width w and
thickness h :
dA wdh

dA
A

2b h 2
a 2

w dh
h1

2b
h dh
a
0

w dh
area

A

h
h

Area

2b
h2

w dh

1
2

2b a 2
a 2

2b

ab

base height

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a

Area integral

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w dh
0

Why?

function of h.
a

h
h

## Linear relationsh ip, so

w k1h k 2

Boundary conditions
when h 0, w 0
k2 0
when h a, w 2b
k1 2b/a
w

2b
h
a

2b

Where does
General
this comeexpression
from?
for a straight
line

## Centroid (centre of area)

For a 3-D body the centre of gravity is the point
at which all the mass can be considered to act.
For a 2-D lamina (thin, flat plate) the centroid is
the centre of area, the point about which the
lamina would balance.
To find the location of the centroid, take
moments (for area) about a suitable reference
axis.

you chose
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## Worked example (5)

Centroid
Split the lamina into elements
O

element is
. The sum of
moments of all the elements is
equal to the moment (M) obtained by
assuming all the area is located at
the centroid.

y dA

area

## Determine the location of the centroid

of a plane rectangular lamina.

y

yc

1
A

M y A yb y
d

b y dy

but M
so yc

y2
2

area yc
1 bd 2
bd 2

d
2

yc
d

bd 2
2
y

bd yc
similarly, xc

b
2

b
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Centroid

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## Horizontal submerged surfaces

Horizontal submerged surfaces

O
y

yc

A yc
or

yc

area

1
A

y dA
Liquid surface
h
area

y dA

## Stationary, no shear forces, therefore

hydrostatic forces,
Of course there are
arising from hydrostatic pressures,
must
act normal to
equal
and opposite
forces on the other side
the surface.

y dA is known as the
A

Area A

Hydrostatic force

## of this lamina but

here we are concerned
only with one side.

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## Vertical submerged surfaces

Common-sense approach:

Liquid surface

## Same pressure acts over entire surface of

lamina
Centre of pressure will coincide with centre of
area
Total force equals pressure times area

## For a vertical plate pressure is

not uniform over the area
because pressure increases
with depth. The centre of
pressure P and the centroid C
are not coincident. For a
vertical plate the centre of
pressure is always below the
centroid.

Hydrostatic
forces

## No shear forces, so all hydrostatic forces are

perpendicular to the lamina.
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Fp

O
P
yp

Liquid surface

## For a horizontal lamina

centre of pressure
and centroid (centre of
area) are coincident.

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A
h

F
yp

## The total force acting is

equal to the pressure
multiplied by the area.

Fp
w

O
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submerged
lamina

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## Find the total force acting on the element :

Force acting on small element is :
F p A
gh A
gh w h

A
h

## The wall of a reservoir contains a vertical gate, 2m wide

and 3m high. The upper edge of the gate is level with
the water surface. Taking = 1000 kg/m3 and g = 9.81
m/s2 determine the net force on the gate and the depth
of the centre of pressure.
hinge

h2

Fp

gh dA

pghw dh

area

water

h1

Fp(net)

air

hp

3m

2m
stop
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## Vertical submerged surfaces

Find the line of action of the force by taking moments about OO :
M OO

Fh

gh A h

gh

Solution strategy
Write expression for force on a small element

gh w h

h2

M OO

gh 2 dA

Fp y p
area

yp

M OO
Fp

gh 2 w dh

O h

h1

O
F

## Write expression for moment for a small

Integrate to find total moment (18 g)

yp

## Equate moment for point force with moment for

distributed force to find line of action (2m below
surface)

Fp

18

20

## Worked example (6)

Find the force acting on a small element :
Fp

gh w h
gh 2 h

3

h2
2 g h dh 2 g
2
0

Fp

9 g
0

88.3 kN
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## Worked example (6)

To find the line of action of the force find the moment
of force on the small element :
M OO

Fp h

gh 2 h h
3

MOO

2 g h dh
0

h3
2 g
3

18 g
0

## Moment due to distribute d force must equal moment

due to equivalent point force, therefore :
Fp hp

MOO

hp

18 g
9 g

2m
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