Submerged Surfaces

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Submerged Surfaces

© All Rights Reserved

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You are on page 1of 6

(MM1TF1) Lecture 4

submerged in liquids at rest.

Because the pressure is distributed over the submerged

surface, the force is too.

For design calculations we want the equivalent point

force and its line of action.

We can calculate the forces and moments acting on the

flat or curved walls of submerged structures and

retaining walls.

Lecturer: Dr Cheah Siew Cheong

Room: BB76 (Block B)

Phone: +6(03) 8924 8115

E-mail: cheah.siew-cheong@nottingham.edu.my

1

P29

Recap so far

For a liquid column:

pbottom

ptop

gh

small element 10m

below the surface will

be very different to

that acting at 1 m

below the surface.

To find the resultant

force on a submerged

surface integration

will be required

along a horizontal plane

Conservation of mass applies to fluids!

walls of a dam

thicker at the

bottom?

P29

as a summation process

P29

Area integral

distance h from apex, of width w and

thickness h :

dA wdh

dA

A

2b h 2

a 2

w dh

h1

2b

h dh

a

0

w dh

area

A

h

h

Area

2b

h2

w dh

1

2

2b a 2

a 2

2b

ab

base height

P29

a

Area integral

P30

w dh

0

Why?

function of h.

a

h

h

w k1h k 2

Boundary conditions

when h 0, w 0

k2 0

when h a, w 2b

k1 2b/a

w

2b

h

a

2b

Where does

General

this comeexpression

from?

for a straight

line

For a 3-D body the centre of gravity is the point

at which all the mass can be considered to act.

For a 2-D lamina (thin, flat plate) the centroid is

the centre of area, the point about which the

lamina would balance.

To find the location of the centroid, take

moments (for area) about a suitable reference

axis.

you chose

6

P30

P31

Centroid

Split the lamina into elements

O

element is

. The sum of

moments of all the elements is

equal to the moment (M) obtained by

assuming all the area is located at

the centroid.

y dA

area

of a plane rectangular lamina.

y

yc

1

A

M y A yb y

d

b y dy

but M

so yc

y2

2

area yc

1 bd 2

bd 2

d

2

yc

d

bd 2

2

y

bd yc

similarly, xc

b

2

b

11

P30

Centroid

P32

Horizontal submerged surfaces

O

y

yc

A yc

or

yc

area

1

A

y dA

Liquid surface

h

area

y dA

hydrostatic forces,

Of course there are

arising from hydrostatic pressures,

must

act normal to

equal

and opposite

forces on the other side

the surface.

y dA is known as the

A

Area A

Hydrostatic force

here we are concerned

only with one side.

10

12

P32

P34

Common-sense approach:

Liquid surface

lamina

Centre of pressure will coincide with centre of

area

Total force equals pressure times area

not uniform over the area

because pressure increases

with depth. The centre of

pressure P and the centroid C

are not coincident. For a

vertical plate the centre of

pressure is always below the

centroid.

Hydrostatic

forces

perpendicular to the lamina.

13

15

P33

Fp

O

P

yp

Liquid surface

centre of pressure

and centroid (centre of

area) are coincident.

P34

A

h

F

yp

equal to the pressure

multiplied by the area.

Fp

w

O

14

submerged

lamina

16

P34

P35

Force acting on small element is :

F p A

gh A

gh w h

A

h

and 3m high. The upper edge of the gate is level with

the water surface. Taking = 1000 kg/m3 and g = 9.81

m/s2 determine the net force on the gate and the depth

of the centre of pressure.

hinge

h2

Fp

gh dA

pghw dh

area

water

h1

Fp(net)

air

hp

3m

2m

stop

17

19

P34

Find the line of action of the force by taking moments about OO :

M OO

Fh

gh A h

gh

Solution strategy

Write expression for force on a small element

gh w h

h2

M OO

gh 2 dA

Fp y p

area

yp

M OO

Fp

gh 2 w dh

O h

h1

O

F

element about OO

Integrate to find total moment (18 g)

yp

distributed force to find line of action (2m below

surface)

Fp

18

20

Find the force acting on a small element :

Fp

gh w h

gh 2 h

3

h2

2 g h dh 2 g

2

0

Fp

9 g

0

88.3 kN

21

To find the line of action of the force find the moment

of force on the small element :

M OO

Fp h

gh 2 h h

3

MOO

2 g h dh

0

h3

2 g

3

18 g

0

due to equivalent point force, therefore :

Fp hp

MOO

hp

18 g

9 g

2m

22

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