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School of Mechanical, Materials and Manufacturing Engineering


Continuity, Bernoulli
6.1 The open tank shown in Figure Q6.1 contains water and is being filled
through section 1 at v1 = 3 m/s and through section 3 at V3 = 0.01 m3/s. If
the water level h is constant determine the exit velocity v2.

d1 = 5 cm

d2 = 7 cm

Figure Q6.1
[ 4.13 m/s]

6.2 Oil of specific gravity 0.91 enters at section 1 in Figure Q5.4 at a flow of
25 kg/hour to lubricate a thrust bearing. The steady oil flow exits
radially through the narrow clearance (2mm) between thrust plates.
a. the outlet volume flux in ml/s, and
b. the average outlet velocity in cm/s.

= 10 cm
Two circular discs

h = 2 mm

Figure Q6.2
[ a) 7.63 ml/s, b) 1.21 cm/s

University of Nottingham, Malaysia campus

1 = 3 mm


6.3 Water (density 1000 kg/m3) flows through a pipe (1) of diameter 37 mm
at a mean speed of 2.9 m/s and a pressure of 1.1 bar.]
a) Calculate the volume flowrate.
b) The pipe contracts to a diameter (2) of 28 mm. Find the velocity and
pressure in this section of pipe assuming that the density is constant
c) The smaller diameter section of pipe then rises by 3 m. Find the
velocity and pressure in the pipe at this height (3).

2 Figure Q6.3

[ 3.1210-3 m3/s, 5.06 m/s, 1.01 bar, 5.06 m/s, 72 kPa]

6.4 Petroleum of density 750 kg/m3 flows upwards through a venturimeter

with a vertical axis (see Figure Q6.4). The inlet diameter is 300 mm, the
throat diameter is 150 mm and the discharge coefficient is 0.97. A
differential pressure transducer is fitted between, tappings at the inlet
and at the throat, the vertical distance between the tappings being
750 mm. What will be the reading on the transducer when the mass flow
rate is 60 kg/s?

Figure Q6.4
[ 13.17 kPa]

University of Nottingham, Malaysia campus

6.5 An orifice plate flow meter is placed in a vertical pipe carrying water, as
shown in Figure 2. The pressure tappings 1 and 2 are connected by small
bore pipes filled with water to a vertical U-tube manometer containing
mercury (density 13600 kg/m3). The mass flow rate of water is 20 kg/s and
the flow coefficient of the orifice is 0.6 with the given geometry.
a) Using the orifice mass flow rate equation, evaluate the change of
piezometric head from plane 1 to plane 2.
b) Calculate the pressure difference p2 p1.
c) Show that the change of piezometric head,

H PZ = z m m 1, where m and w , are the densities of mercury and

water respectively.

d) Evaluate z m

0.1 m

0.1 m

0.05 m

0.07 m
Figure Q6.5

[ a) 2.91 m b) 30 kPa

d) 0.231 m]

University of Nottingham, Malaysia campus


6.6 A pitot-static tube is placed at the centre of a 200 mm diameter pipe

conveying methane ( M methane = 16). The pressure differential is to be read on
a U-tube manometer containing a paraffin of density 755 kg/m3. The
methane pressure is 4.5 bar and its temperature is 20C; the mass flow rate
is 1.5 kg/s. If the mean velocity in the pipe is 0.8 times the centreline
velocity, what will the manometer reading be? As pressure differences are
small you may assume the density of methane to be constant and should
calculate it using the Perfect Gas Law.
[ 81.7 mm]

University of Nottingham, Malaysia campus