[a general investigation and maybe a solution]

bY Paul Henrickson, Ph.D.

The title of this piece comes from the one recommendation for a possible solution to the problems described herein. There are three interacting and reoccurring main subjects on this essay which are: (1)WEBSITE OPPORTUNITIES FOR EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS, (2) FACULTY SELECTION AND TREATMENT POLICIES, (3) POLITICALLY MOTIVATED INTERFERENCE IN EDUCATIONAL AIMS. Originally, my main objective in writing this piece was to simply record my experiences, an act, perhaps, not unlike that of “confession”, another version of which might be the autobiography that serves the purpose of bringing closure, in the psychological sense, to one’s life path. Not until I started getting what appeared to be rather weird reactions to an earlier essay on Mozart did there seem to be some other factor at play. Not until I checked the background of a professor from Purdue who seemed not to understand why he should have received the essay on Mozart, in spite of the fact that the reasons were stated at the outset, that I became aware of a growing paranoia among educators in the United States. This paranoia seems to be centered on the “No Child Left Behind” federal program which seems in the minds of some, to be emphasizing reading and mathematics at the expense of other educational experiences, despite the fact that there is clearly provision for other fields being included in the core curriculum. Aside from the fact that there are inherent dangers in the often characteristic response of over-responding to federal programs conceptualized to solve problems on an emergency basis, there is, as well, the attitude of patriotic obedience attached to any federally sponsored educational pronouncement….as though those non-teachers in bureaucracies are, somehow, aware of more applicable subtleties than those who daily face the learner. I have never fully understood the psychological mechanism that allows one to over rule experience in favor of outside authority. Unless, of course, the pull of consensual validation and the phobia of being alone combine to make independent judgment impossible I have never known a successful farmer to be so seduced. In any “organic” organization, and the field of education might well be considered one of those, there are other and contrary, also organic, interests going on which conscientiously focus on thriving on the rich productions of those who are the real educators. They seem unceasingly inventive in mystifying most observers. You can not know them by what they say, for they are most orthodox, but can best identify where they have been by the disappearance of the most creative and most sincere members of the faculty who have lacked the required defences. The “rule by rumor” or “deceive through dissemblance” behaviors even in the rather small department as the art department was at The University of Northern Iowa on the late 60’s, there appeared disturbing manifestations of malicious intent regarding an individual’s research procedures. These did not surface honestly, but were used to maneuver the then head, Harry Guillaume, who was basically an honest and wellmeaning, but naïve fellow, into reducing the psychological support of a project by allowing himself to believe something he should have known to be false. He has been provided with incorrect information regarding both the gender and the nature of the work of important researchers in the field, such as J.P. Guilford.

The resulting display of ignorance demolished the trust that had existed and the researcher, unable to deal with the damaged ego of his superior, joined those political influences that replaced the department head with a less worthy, but even more galling deceiver, Kenneth Lash, a situation which ended, eventually, with a seriously fractured educational environment and all of these results made possible because of the exceedingly high levels of expectation, the incredibly broad levels of ignorance, and the pervasive mask of pretence, deceit, chutzpah and false pride which characterizes most of those in the field of education. Humility knows no shelter in academia amidst the din of self-acclaim. It is this dependence on an abstract authority that will turn the NCLB program into a fascist tool, and, in the process, make fools of otherwise sensitive perceivers amounting to a tragedy in the classic sense. This situation, now in late 2007, is also apparent among certain public school districts which, unwisely, have allowed their webmasters to make decisions regarding what is and what is not SPAM, decisions which, appropriately, should be left up to the professional educator. They, and not the ego-centric technocrat should be in a position to make decisions as to what is good or not good educational material. This situation reminds me of one a friend of my father’s told me when I was about eight in which he described a horse race in which the point was to discover which horse would run the slowest. Well, the horses didn’t run at all. At eight years old I saw no point in the race nor to the request that I predict what the men involved in this horse race decided to do since even then I sort of knew that horses lined up to start a race, would want to start the race and might just do that. Eventually, this friend of my father told me the solution. It was for the riders to change horses. Well, the point, I imagine, of this somewhat ridiculous situation is that if something doesn’t work one changes the rules. Following rules laid down by webmasters will not advance the goals of education. Of course, that may actually be the point. It is from this background that I make the following observations concerning a truly valuable technological advance that promises to change the social structure of the entire planet for the better if it is employed toward that end. In any event some changes will take place and if one doesn’t do what one can and maybe should, then someone else will do it their way. In the final analysis make the contribution and leave the choices up to those who feel able to make one.


I had been retired, so to speak, for several years from any formal daily contact with educational institutions when I thought it of potential value to consult internet resources. I thought I may have lost contact with current educational mindsets, events and opportunities. At first, I thought it a local lack of awareness when an institution, if it maintained a website on the internet at all, failed to present an orderly and comprehensive picture of what it thought itself to be. It took me awhile to come to the conclusion that administrations of institutions simply didn’t know what instrument for education they had at their disposal… and that they were, regrettably, also unwilling to learn.

However, after a few years of e-mailing statements of professional interests, items that normally would have been welcomed in professional circles, and in the process learning how the internet itself behaved my awareness of this reality was maturing. There are several developments that now, after some thought, I find seriously frightening. EXPANDING DISAPPOINTMENT In fact, in some instances, it is beginning to appear as though either the institution has hired (outsourced) a web site designer who is notably unaware of what an educational institution is, what it purports to be, or what it has the potential of becoming. The technician, however, may be doing the best he can under those circumstances, having been given no insight of what else might be done. One might deduce from this that those who commissioned the website designer also did not know what should be done, and that these people, in turn, had been given an assignment by those who knew little enough about any of the fields involved to do very little more than to exercise their power to give orders…and to appear important. COMMUNICATION BETWEEN DISCIPLINES The website designer may have even less awareness of what a university is than having the general impression that it is a group of large buildings with a lot of people running around exhibiting self-pride. A friend of mine was once employed by a radio station in West Virginia, some fifty years ago, as an announcer and she boarded with a local family. The family was curious about where and how this new tenant worked so she invited them to take a look at something they’d never seen before. The radio station with its transmitter was located on a remote hill and when they approached the site the little girl, aged about 5 years, seeing the small building next to the large building blurted out the observation: “Thaz the cutes lill oll pee house ah’ eva don seen!” Well, after a half century I suppose we can tell the difference between a pee house and a radio transmitter. This outsourced technician can not be blamed for not understanding that this institution, the vast educational edifice, as we in the west know it today, brought our world out of the ignorance of the dark ages through a mighty risky and tortuous route and that, perhaps, today, it stands balanced on the edge of the abyss once again in danger of toppling back into darkness through a combination of malicious, stupid and neglectful behaviors. I should add, at this point, that there are a few, but a very few, institutions which have shown some understanding that the internet is a valuable contact with the outside world and have some idea of its

power to affect events favorably for both themselves and those who respond to their presentation, but the percentage appears low. AN EDUCATIONAL BREAKUP There are many fault areas which suggest potential breakups in the structural integrity of contemporary education. Some of the more obvious faults in websites are to be seen in the ways that faculty may be mentioned, if they are mentioned at all. In some instances they are not called “faculty” but “staff”. In several instances faculty lists with appropriate addresses and telephone numbers are not found under a major faculty heading but might be found under the appropriate school, college or department. That has its logical reasoning, but it is not precisely logical to have two listings for faculty without referring to them as a list where one can locate and identify faculty as opposed to a list of contact offices faculty members need when making contacts within the university. Conflicts of this sort suggest that the website designer was not informed and no one saw to it that he was. Although he does the best he can, which is not enough, and the university gets a bad image and the website designer fails to augment his professional reputation favorably . FAULTY DESIGN OR MALICIOUS P0LITICAL INTENT In other cases staff and faculty are listed in the same list alphabetically without, distinction as to how their functions might differ. The image that that design projects is one either of an ignorant website designer, or of a university administration that sees itself as preeminent over faculty. It is entirely possible that both are the causes and many faculties will recognize that state institutions are run as agents of politicians. An intelligently designed website will make it apparent that the functions of staff are not the same as those of faculty. Perhaps my conception of the differences in function between a secretary and a professor, or even an instructor, is faulty but I would normally expect a secretary to behave differently from the way a professor behaves and while I grant that the functions of a secretary may be, or, at last, should be, of vital interest to the professor, they, in no way can be thought of as the same…in fact, they are, properly, quite dissimilar. But one would not think so from the ways in which some websites have been structured. My reaction to a website that fails to indicate a significant difference between staff and faculty is an institution too dominated by a misapplication of democracy to make a meaningful contribution to education. If the function of a university is to maximize the intellectual and the creative talents of individuals regardless of race, color, creed

or gender, it will then value what the staff does as it values what the faculty does separately and individually for the end result that it hopes to achieve. WEBSITE UPKEEP What has happened occasionally when academic material is sent out to an institution which lists email addresses and does distinguish between secretaries, office administrators, janitors and professors one often finds the emails….sometimes all of them, but, on average 1/3 of those listed … being returned as having been faultily addressed. This, additionally, indicates that there is no one in attendance on the computer’s automated behavior. The system in operation has rejected the emails perhaps because the basic address has been changed, or the turnover at the institution is so great that no one thought to maintain the site so that that proper and correct information was available. It seems that maintenance has not been in effect and that the sponsoring unit, the University, doesn’t care. It is more difficult to believe that someone wishing to send out information to 80 or 100 people would consistently make a typing error of that magnitude. Although it is, of course, possible. APPEALS TO THE PURIENT High on the list of academically disheartening observations of institutionallysponsored notices are not only mention at the top of the lists of the institutions accomplishments the facts. endlessly detailed and illustrated with erotically tinged photographs of straining gladiators, evidences of their team’s glorious accomplishments on the football, baseball or basketball arena, but there are those which draw the reader’s attention to social events, clubs, fraternities or “in your face” informing

readers that interracial fraternization is not only tolerated but encouraged. My concern is not that interracial fraternization takes place, my concern is that an educational institution is taking a socio-political and a nonacademic (read: non-scientific or non-creative) investigatory position on a touchy political issue. In one particular example, equally blatant as some but outstanding for the interracial, faculty-student physical closeness seemingly supportive of homosexual contact, an

over-weight cherubically smiling white man of thirty has his arm wrapped around the lean shoulders of a cowering, apprehensive black youth presumably from a foreign

what an obscenity!!! But not because of the sex, rather because of the misplaced emphasis. If the institution involved wishes to act the pimp it is guilty of fraud if it claims to be an academic institution.

country, a country where quite possibly such intimate contact, regardless of the sex involved, is never exhibited. I could name, off hand, a few such places. I am not judging sexual experiences as such, by this comment, homosexual or heterosexual, only that I do not accept the behavior of an institution of higher education playing the role of pimp. On the other hand it is possible for me to accept incidents of erotic involvement of an older person with a younger one within the general setting of an educational institution but not as part of its advertised or subliminally suggested extra-curricula activities. That is a matter of personal behavior. Were I a student seeking guidance in the development of mental perceptions I would avoid such an institution as I would the plague. It raises, however, the question as to how many higher education graduates have achieved success not because they were intellectually or creatively competent but merely because they were a good lay. AREAS OF LEADERSHIP WITHIN A CULTURE Some of the same sorts of perplexingly unprofessional behaviors also occur in government, where they shouldn’t. But, because it does occur, it may be a reason why it also occurs in the educational institution. However, in the hierarchy of importance I hold a professor in somewhat higher esteem, generally speaking, than I do a politician, especially, for example, a senator, Pete V. Domenici, from a sovereign state such as New Mexico who allowed someone appointed to be his Director of Correspondence, a charming, affable and adept Danish woman, just the sort of northern European which would attract a southern European, to deny a meeting to a constituent on the grounds

that the constituent had been an embarrassment to the Senator’s office (as though senators need help in performing acts they should find embarrassing). How could this be? How might it possibly be that a constituent could embarrass a Senator unless the Senator had done something thoughtless, wrong or stupid? …or had it done for him? As serious as such breaches of concept are in the political arena they are even more serious, I suspect, when educational institutions fail to understand who they are supposed to be. The Senator is supposed to represent the thought of his constituency. The educational institution is expected to develop the individual’s intellectual abilities, analytical talents, and creative insights, a potentially far more influential behavior. The assumed importance of our political leaders over the importance of those involved in the development of mental abilities in the young is one of the grossest errors of our epoch. Politicians are the mountebanks of civilization. FACULTY SELECTION AND TREATMENT As we seem, somehow, to have drifted in our discussion on disagreeable behaviors by our traditionally more august institutions, the very institutions upon which we depend for a more bountiful and peaceful future, we now arrive at a look at one of the more pivotal procedures in the selection and the treatment of an academic faculty. It is a given that someone filling a particular position within an academic department know enough of the subject matter of his discipline as to be able to teach others and to conduct related research in the field. Beyond that other behaviors such as personal, social, political, religious, sexual should be of less concern for an administration, but this is not always the case. It is the administration’s responsibility to provide the resources, equipment, supplies, and general environment so that success in the faculty members’ efforts might be realized.

Given the above description of a standard faculty and a standard academic environment the following descriptions, which come from my own experience, do appear to be grossly out of place and detrimental to our stated goals as a profession and as a nation. A professional, an ethical academic, a creative thinker would not, ordinarily, succumb to the temptation of accepting a job offer on the basis of anything other than those conditions which augment his talents as a teacher, thinker or producer of creative products. Anything that detracts from those legitimate and highly desirable

outcomes of professional activity in the field are as out of place as spilled food on a shirt, blouse, or lap. Yet, in my necessarily narrow and limited experience the history of my applications for academic positions have been highlighted by inappropriate approaches on the part of the official leaders of educational institutions, (a private school in Santa Fe, New Mexico), where it later developed that I was expected to perform the functions of lover for the director’s wife; department heads, (a Florida State University) where my willingness to perform oral sex was the only requirement for employment; an offer of a position at a Wisconsin State University had been accompanied with the condition that I and my wife be open to faculty group sex. In other instances, where sex seemed not to play a role in the hiring process, the interview was marred by a clumsy display of psychological one-upmanship where the so-called professional head of the psychology department, (Worcester, Massachusetts) sat behind the applicant and out of view during an interview in order to gage the applicant’s submissiveness to authority. At The University of Southern Illinois the President (1961) informed the applicant who had just arrived after several hours of commercial travel that he would be picked up at his motel room in thirty minutes. The President was absolutely on time, if not a minute or two early, and the applicant had been unable to dry off from the shower he had thought he might have time to take, but hurriedly dressed to accommodate the President who had some additional administrator drive them to the reception room where hung the scores of signed photographs of notables, performers, celebrities testifying to the magnificence of this unenlightened state-appointed showoff. During the interview it became apparent that the only hurdle to surmount was the one of being impressed by the President himself, as I was of course, but not the way he would have liked. One’s academic or creative insights had nothing whatever to do with qualifying the applicant for the position of Head of the Art Department. An Art faculty member, a sculptor, who was also present at the interview was aware of the ridiculousness of the event and, in an exchange of apologetic eye contact, let the applicant know it. In Radford, Virginia, the interviewing President, Charles Knox Martin, informed the applicant that he would NOT have friends of color and when the applicant wondered what he was to do with the ones he already had the interview was nearly terminated. His employment was terminated two years later when at a faculty meeting he, as head of

the department, advised the President, that the newly imposed rule that faculty members had to agree on the selection of one text for all of the multi-sectioned courses was an abridgment of the rule of intellectual freedom. Then, as a diversion from the real issue, the President acted as the originator of libelous gossip, released to the news media, intended to discredit me in the eyes of the community. Six years later the President was removed in a shower of professional and social disapproval, but at what cost to the six classes of graduating students? Later, that president’s wife, who had shown no special interest in art, was done the honor of having a university art gallery named after her. This was a most perplexing outcome of indifference. Interestingly enough the only two positions I’ve held where I have been outstandingly successful were those where the administration had left me entirely alone. One of these was at Valley City (ND) University where I had orchestrated a significant international art exhibition and multicultural event ,THE VALLEY CITY FINE ARTS FESTIVAL that continued on for at least another 25 years. The second is discussed in the following section. POLITICS AND EDUCATIONAL INSTIUTIONS The second experience with success occurred at The University of Guam in the Marianas Islands where the only time the President, Antonio C. Yamashita, aught not to have left me alone and undefended was when I was under surreptitious attack, according to the then Governor of the Island, Manuel Leon-Guerrero, by a highly politically ambitious woman named, Madeleine Zeien Bordallo now representing her area in the United States Congress, whose early political associates included two convicted governors, one of them her husband, and the President of The Philippines, Ferdinand Marcos. She, a little Jewish girl from a small town in Minnesota became the President of the Asian Women’s Association with a membership of 5,000,000. through, one might assume, the advice given by Meyling de la Cruz who, as the aunt of Ferdinand Marcus, was the family advisor in political matters and the director of what advertised itself as The Guam Academy of Music and Art, but which functioned more as a “marriage bureau” for single Philippinas in their search for United States Citizenship. Madelein’s later connivance, with an academically inept, but clever falsifier, Marvin Montvel Cohen, whose son, Even, has, in the not so distant past, been associated with a major defrauding of a charitable organization, (Gloria Wise Boys and Girls Club in The Bronx- $875,000) and, in some way, a significant broadcasting organization (Multicultural Radio Broadcasting $1,500,000) to a total of something over two million dollars..thus illustrating that leopards do not change their spots;

that duplicity is the way to achievement by those who lack the appropriate talent; and that the effects of bad behavior last from one generation to another effectively denying success to us as a people… all in the cause of selfish ego-enhancement of and by the mediocre… and this process is supported by local, state and national governments and the politically compromised, would-be educators, appointed to administrative positions. Madeleine, according to the then Governor, evidently felt she needed to rid Guam of what she thought was her major competition. She was mistaken for our aims were not at all the same, although I seemed unable to keep from pointing out to her, her ridiculous affectations. However, her efforts to discredit me, included having the then District Attorney bring in, by the bus loads, students to discover who among them I had seduced. The grape vine told me that not one, of the 150, had claimed to have been seduced by me. How awesome! I either had a bevy of loyal lovers or no lovers at all, from the point of view of the Attorney General, that is. In the short run The University of Guam, and Guam as a territory, probably could not detect the difference between the progress that has been made, after forty years, and the progress that would have been made had Madeleine’s selfish political interests not been at stake and in competition with the more idealistic goals of an academician. Had she been insightful enough to have made room for differing talents and motivations rather than having supposed that everyone is motivated by the same sorts of ambitions as she, Guam might really have turned into a real beacon of Western thought just a stone’s throw from Hong Kong. It would have taken, perhaps, the personality, character and resources of a John Crosby who established the now internationally famous Santa Fe Opera in a rocky mountain village in New Mexico, some 7,000’ above sea level to have turned the University of Guam into the beacon of intellectual and creative insight it might have become. I will say this, out of respect for the facts as they are, it may be debatable whether there is any long term benefit to be gained from the imposition of a more sophisticated culture upon a relatively primitive rural culture. On the other hand we might also ask whether or not there is a real difference between peoples, as groups, that might account for some developing a culture and others simply living the one they find themselves in. EDUCATION AND POLITICS –THE IDEAL AND THE POSSIBLE In any event that episode represents a long-time defeat for Dr. Antonio C. Yamashita, the then President of The University of Guam, and

everyone else associated with the effort to create a viable educational environment. In that assessment I include the generations of students who have subsequently graduated from the University of Guam who have had their horizons blocked by the limited perceptions of Madeleine Bordallo That event also represents what at the moment amounts to basis of the public opinion that Representative Madeleine

Zeien Bordello has done “some good things for Guam”. Very little has been pointed out that these “good things” are the results purely of that representative’s limited perception …and very much defined by that. In this there should be a

lesson for all of us. From this experience I would judge that it is in the best interest of educational effort for university administrations to act the role of an effective patron for their faculty and to protectively fence off from attack faculty members who are particularly susceptible to manipulations from outside, and very selfish, interests. A more current example of that is the rather public argument between Professor Samuel Huntington of Harvard and Rodolfo de la Gaza of Colombia over Huntington’s claim that there is developing in the United States a “clash of civilizations” in this instance between the Anglo and the Hispanic. SCHOLARLY RESEARCH AND POLITICAL AGENDA When the occasional faculty disagreements reach the attention of the general public as they recently have in the issue between Samuel Huntington and de la Garza over Huntington’s published piece “The Clash of Civilizations” wherein Huntington outlines the cultural importance of the increase in the Hispanic population through illegal immigration among other means. Professor Rodolfo de. La Garza has criticized the research, on the grounds of Huntington not having referenced opposing opinions, this de la Gaza regarded as inappropriate even for a student, one, had the student been his, he tells me, he “would have failed”. This assertion rather perplexed me since soon after having made that statement he is scheduled to give a talk at High Point University in North Carolina on the subject of the Latino creating a political community. There appears to be some illogic abounding here where on the one hand de la Gaza criticizes Huntington for outlining a cultural conflict between the Anglo and the Hispanic and then, on the other, urges the Hispanic community to organize politically. Such behavior seems to be fulfilling Huntington’s prognosis. Such advice as offered by de la Garza may be seen mainly as merely a tactical threat, most especially in a nation that publicly claims it eschews racist philosophies, but were the concept to be found attractive to the mischief maker it would, in its most extreme, be the end of a democratic society. There may well be those who feel that in the democratic system as it has existed for the last century not all races have had their achievements recognized and to have received a just reward for them. I would take exception to the claim and may later cite examples, but even if the claim were true, the suggested solution that programs of positive action be instigated is, at its very roots, racist….to single out a specific group for advancement on the basis of its earlier periods of deprivation and on its racial origins, although I sympathize with the

aims, does severe injury to the discipline in the area of achievement involved and onerous injury to the general concept of achievement. One achieves because one is black or Latino and fails because one is not is an unacceptable solution to historic maltreatment. It is a form of bread-pudding, made of leftover stale bread soaked in milk a sop containing no great amount of nourishment and a minimum of delight. It may fill the stomach for the moment but fails to provide a memorable experience. As a child, though, I loved bread pudding. As an adult, I also enjoyed steak. It may be a difficult fact to accept but changing long standing standards of excellence takes a great deal of effort, hard work, a constantly developing and ever sharpened exposition of new insights and values over the established ones. Without that the victory, if there is one, is indeed a hollow one and not at all real. That understanding has some relationship to this present essay. It takes time to change behavior, it seems, if reason is required and no time at all, it seems, to subvert it. For me, the value of the internet is demonstrated by this Huntington/de la Garza controversy for without it I might never have known about it except that the Santa Fe New Mexican, a daily, picked the story up and presumably because of the density of Hispanics in the area thought it timely. Unfortunately, only de la Garza responded to my questions, Huntington did not. Huntington is fortunate , perhaps, to have refrained from answering questions originating with an individual intimately familiar with views of what is considered proper academic behavior at Harvard, within and without the university, and understood his reticence. By and large, however, it was not a decision consistent with the idealistic goals of education, and in the present milieu of the fourth estate a response of “no comment” often misleads the reader. It would seem that, once again, we are faced with socio-political problems of some magnitude and the support, either willing, forced, or contributed ignorantly, of those who give voice to a culture and are required to smooth the way for those changes desired by others. For those with a contrary mindset perhaps the benefits of the internet for the development of educational potential might be looked at more closely. ONE APPROACH TO A SOLUTION Considering all the above mentioned threats to the sanctity of the educational process to say nothing of the dignity of its institutions, it

occurs to me that the internet may be the most evident solution, and one readily at hand, to frustrate pressures for behavioral conformity and for the profession of educator to come into its fill promised blossom which is to bring out, as a midwife does a child, the emergent self. The child aught not to be conceived of as a collection of fleshy molecules that is acquiescent to being pressed into a reading or mathematical mold, or any other “mold” for that matter. Now that the technology is at hand that will allow an individual with a curious mind to seek out its own appropriate expression let those of us who exist at some point along that continuum of sophistication lay out our contribution to the banquet through the internet. One of the more focused criticisms of existing internet educational programs is that they have not used its technical flexibility and the physical remoteness it encourages to the advantage of the learning process, but has merely transposed what takes place in the traditional classroom to film, tape or electronic impulse and the more immediately personal interests of the students in the subject are held at even greater remove. The concerns of the individual student in aspects of the material being taught are submerged in a class room of 30-70 or more and if any questions are encouraged, or even allowed, they must, out of consideration for the group’s interest be limited in scope and very factual in nature. All fascinating nuance is vacuumed from any teacher student interaction. The e-mail, on the other hand, maintains the proper physical distance but allows for as detailed expression as those involved wish to give. It is a form of private tuition but it is superior to private home lessons because all other attendant environmental or physical concerns no longer play a role. Either participant can do what needs to be done in pajamas and slippers. The student is not bound by a class scheduled meeting time and place and neither is the instructor, but most important of all is that the student’s question can receive a highly detailed response from the mentor that, in a class room, others might have little concern. Tuition fees and the structure for paying them are largely already set up and in use by retailers and service providers. A student desiring a degree from a particular institution may seek the opportunity to be tested on his command of the subject as part of the process of applying for advanced course credit. In the final analysis one should achieve an enriched product

IMPLICATIONS OF OUTSOURCED INSTRUCTION The most immediate result of outsourcing instruction would, I believe, be a marked increase in the exercise of flexible thinking brought about by the increased focus by both instructor and student on individual concerns and a decrease in the number of responses by students which mainly reflect the very generalized responses acceptable in most classrooms. The key to understanding The importance of this conclusion lies in the underlined words, “flexible” and “generalized”. Where “flexible thinking” encourages a search for knowledge, a Generalized, or politically correct, response is an expression of minimum satisfaction unacceptable in an educated person. I could continue, but I shall not, enough is enough already. Paul Henrickson