You are on page 1of 34

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING

COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY

MODULE 5: AIRCRAFT GENERAL STANDARDS


ENGINEERING MATERIALS
FERROUS MATERIALS
1.

Properties of Metals. The properties of a metal which influence its suitability


as a material for engineering use are as follows:
a.

Tenacity. Resistance to breakage when the metal is subjected to


tensile (i.e. stretching forces); tensile strength is usually expressed in
tons (or lb.) per square inch of cross-sectional area.

b.

Elasticity. The property of regaining original shape after deformation;


all bodies, even the hardest of metals, tend to undergo a change of
shape when subjected to compressive or tensile stresses or loads, but
they regain their original shapes on removal of the deforming stress or
load, provided the latter has not exceeded certain limits which may
vary according to the nature of the material. If deforming stress
exceeds the elastic limit of the material then the deformation
becomes permanent. Heating lowers the elastic limit of a metal.

c.

Ductability. A ductile metal is one which, when subjected to a tensile


stress in excess of its elastic limit, can be considerably elongated
before it shows signs of fracturing. With many metals ductility
increase rapidly as the metal is heated.

d.

Malleability. The property of being permanently deformed by rolling,


pressing or hammering without sustaining cracks, etc. Very few metals
have good cold malleability, but most become malleable when heated
to a suitable temperature.

e.

Plasticity. The property of assuming a new shape when subjected to


pressure, the new shape being retained after the pressure has been
discontinued. Increases of pressure and/or temperature enhance the
rapidity with which the new shape is assumed.

f.

Toughness. Resistance to fracture by blows, bending or twisting;


tough materials usually have high tenacity combined with good
ductility. Toughness decreases with heating.

g.

Hardness. Resistance to indentation and scratching, this property is


decreased by heating. Standard scales of hardness usually express
the hardness of a material; these generally give high numbers to hard
materials and low numbers to soft materials.

Page 10 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
h.

Brittleness. This is the opposite of toughness; a brittle material breaks


easily under a sharp blow, although it may be capable of withstanding
a large but steady load without difficulty. Brittle materials are neither
ductile nor malleable, but they often process considerable hardness.

Page 11 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
SPECIAL ALLOY STEELS
THE QUALITIES AND USES OF SPECIAL STEELS
2.

Alloy Steels. The term alloy steels is applied to any steel, which owes its
distinctive properties to an additional element or elements used in
conjunction with carbon; such steels generally have a low carbon content.
Many difficult problems in engineering practice arise from the presents of
exceptional tensile, compressive and shear forces, possibly accompanied by
conditions of excessive heat corrosion and vibration, and a very wide range
of special alloy steels has been developed to meet almost all foreseeable
requirements.
a.

Tungsten. This metallic element, which melts at 3400C; is an


essential constituent in high-speed tool steels and the older types of
magnet steels; in the pure state it is used for the filament of electric
lamps, valve heaters, and for arc-resistance contact surfaces.

b.

Manganese Steel. Manganese is present in all steels, since it is


required to counteract the sulphur content of the raw material the
manganese content is greatest in mild steel, and is almost negligible in
tool steels, as these are produced from highly-refined raw materials.

c.

Nickel Steels. Nickel can only be added to steels of low carbon


content as it tends to change iron carbide into graphite when the metal
is undergoing heat-treatment. The addition of nickel increases the
tensile strength of steel and gives increased hardness without loss of
ductility.

d.

Chrome Steel. The tendency of nickel to graphitize the iron


carbide in steel can be counteracted by the addition of chromium,
which stabilises the iron carbide. Chromium tends to promote coarse
grain-structure and renders heat-treatment more difficult, but this
tendency is in turn counteracted by the nickel, which refines the grain
and makes heat-treatment easier. These two elements are, therefore,
often used in conjunction to produce special alloy steels. If the chrome
content is in excess of the nickel content the steel is generally referred
to as chrome steel, no mention being made of the nickel in its
composition. The hardness and tensile strength of chrome steel is
generally higher than that of nickel steel, but there is a notable loss in
ductility.

e.

Nickel-Chrome Steels. This term is applied to alloy steels in which


the nickel content is noticeable higher than the chrome content.
Nickel-chrome steels may be grouped in three distinct classifications:
i.

Mild-Nickel-Chrome Steel.

ii.

Medium Nickel-Chrome Steel.

iii.

Air-Hardening Nickel-Chrome Steel.


Page 12 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
f.

Vanadium Steels. The use of small percentages of vanadium in highspeed tool steels has already been mentioned: this element improves
the grain structure, increase the tensile strength and elasticity without
incurring loss of ductility, and improves the ability to withstand
repeated stresses.

f.

Molybdenum. The physical properties of this element, which melts


at 2450C, are similar to those of iron, although its chemical properties
are those of a non-metal. It is used as an alloying element in several
types of alloy steels. In certain types of high magnetic permeability
alloys and in some high-speed tool-tip alloys, it is also used in the form
of wire, for filament supports and hooks in electric filament lamps,
thermionic valves, etc., and for electrodes of mercury-vapour lamps.

g.

Stainless Steels. The corrosion-resistance of steel is greatly


improved by the addition of not less than 13% chromium, and when
chromium is present in such proportions, hard steel can be produced
with considerably less carbon than is normally required. Stainless
cutlery steel, for example, contains 13% chromium and only 0.3%
carbon, while the stainless used for steam turbine blades contains a
similar proportion of chromium but only 0,1% carbon.

Page 13 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
NON-FERROUS METALS
3.

Uses of non-ferrous metals in its pure state:


a.

Copper. This is the only metal with a red colour; except for gold, all
other pure metals are some shade of silvery grey or silvery white,
tinged with slight shades of blue or yellow in many cases. The melting
point of copper is 1085C; it is tough ductile and malleable, and is thus
amenable to cold-working to such an extent that bars, tubes, wires and
sheets are easily produced. With the sole exception of silver, copper
is the best metallic conductor of electricity and is therefore used very
extensively for electrical purposes. It is also corrosion-resistant to
many mildly corrosive agents, such as salt water and pulluted air, and
is consequently of great importance for protective sheathings and
pipes, etc., that are exposed to such corrosion. Copper can be brazed
or soldered with ease, but the normal commercial grades do not weld
satisfactorily. Apart from the pure-state uses already mentioned,
copper also forms base metal of brasses and bronzes, and is also
used as an alloying agent in other non-ferrous alloys.

b.

Aluminium. This metal is obtained from bauxite, a clay-like substance


that contains varying percentages of aluminium hydroxides, from which
the pure metal is precipitated by electrical processes. Except for
magnesium and beryllium, aluminium is the lightest of the metallic
elements its weight is approximately one-third that of iron- and it
forms the base metal of almost all light alloys. It has good electrical
conductivity, and aluminium cables, re-inforced with steel, are widely
used for overhead electrical transmission lines. It is also a good
conductor of heat, and this particular property is exploited in pistons
and cylinder heads for internal combustion engines, where it is used in
alloy form. The tensile strength of aluminium is low and it has poor
machining qualities; it is, however, very ductile and can be effectively
worked by such processes as rolling, stamping, spinning, drawing and
the like. Most aluminium is produced as sheet, bar, wire and tube.

c.

Lead. This, the heaviest of the common metals, is bluishgrey in colour


and melts at 327C. Lead is very malleable and ductile, but it is
extremely weak and is so soft that it will leave a black streak when it is
rubbed on paper. It is unusually acid-resistant and is an excellent
material for sheathing surfaces, which come into contact with acids. It
forms the raw material for the plates of secondary batteries. It is used
as the base metal for the alloy used in sheathing some types of
electrical cable, and it is also a major constituent in solders, bearingmetal alloys, etc.

Page 14 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
d.

Tin. This rather costly metal is white in colour with a distinctive


yellowish tinge. It melts at 232C, is soft and malleable, and
possesses good properties of resistance to corrosion. A large
proportion of the available supplies of tin is used as tinplate, produced
by coating steel sheet very thinly with the more expensive metal. It is
also used in the manufacture of electric cables as a coating for the
copper conductors to prevent the sulphur in the insulating sheath
attacking the copper. Its low melting point makes it a most important
constituent in many types of solder, and it is also of major importance
in some alloys used as bearing metals.

e.

Zinc. Pure zinc is white with a bluish tinge. It melts at 419C, and is
ductile, malleable, and very resistant to atmospheric corrosion. Its
chief use in the pure state is in protective coating for steel sheet
(galvanising and sherardizing). It is the major alloying element in
brasses and it constitutes the base metal of die-casting alloys used in
the mass-production of small miscellaneous articles.

4.

The properties and uses of non-ferrous light alloys.


a.

5.

Certain non-ferrous metals, such as copper, lead and aluminium, are


used in the commercially pure state for specialised engineering
purposes, usually in the form of sheets, tubes and wires, or as thin
coatings on other metals. Precious metals, such as platinum and
silver, are used in very small quantities for highly-specialised work,
e.g. in the highest grades of electrical instruments. Nickel, chromium,
cadmium and zinc are used in the form of electrically- deposited
coatings on other metals to minimise corrosion. Tin and zinc coatings
on steel sheets are made by dipping the sheets into the molten metal.
Zinc and some other non-ferrous can be sprayed on to metallic
surfaces to form protective coatings. Mercury, the only metal that is
liquid at room temperatures, is used in thermometers and certain types
of barometers and pressure gauges.
Properties and uses of non-ferrous metals:

a.

Brass. Alloys, which make use of copper as the base metal and zinc
as the chief alloying element, are classified under the generic name of
brasses. These alloys generally possess good anti-wear and antifriction characteristics and are corrosion-resistant.

Page 15 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
b.

Bronze. The simplest type of bronze is an alloy of copper and tin.


Such an alloy possesses qualities that are very similar to those
apparent in straight brasses, but it work-hardens much more rapidly
than any brass. The tin content of simple bronze oxidises very quickly
when the metal is hot, thus rendering the bronze rather brittle and
scratchy various de-oxidising agents such as zinc or phosphorus,
are added to combat this tendency.

c.

Phosphor-Bronze. This alloy contains up to 12% tin, with a little


phosphorus added as a de-oxidiser. Phosphorus hardens bronze; with
5% to 10% tin and not more than 0.5% phosphorus the alloy is suitable
for machining purposes and for casting, while 10% to 12% tin and 1%
phosphorus produces an alloy that is suitable for gear wheels and
heavily-loaded bearings.
High-tin phosphor-bronze resists acidcorrosion very well.

d.

Solders. Low-temperature solder is an alloy of tin and lead to which a


little antimony is often added. Lead melts at 327C and tin melts at
232C; when pure lead or pure tin is heated, the physical change from
solid to fluid occurs entirely at the melting-point temperature, the
temperature of the metal hesitating until the change is completed
the reverse change when cooling is similar. The alloy behaves in an
entirely different manner; its melting-point decreases with increasing
tin content until, at 62% tin, it has fallen to 183C, much lower than the
melting-points of either of the parent metals- it begins to rise again.
The behaviour of the alloy when it is allowed to cool from the molten
state is equally unexpected. The transition from the fully fluid to the
solid state, in the case of pure tin or pure lead, occurs almost
completely at the melting-point, but the same transition, in the case of
the tin/lead alloy, begins at the melting-point and is completed at about
180C. During this transition period the alloy is pasty and highly
plastic. Electricians solder contains 60% tin and melts at 185C; its
plastic range is thus only a few degrees, and it solidifies quickly as it
cools.

e.

White Metal. This term is usually used to indicate a tinbase alloy


containing various proportions of copper and antimony a typical
white metal for heavily-loaded high-speed bearings is composed of
86% tin, 10% antimony and 4% copper. The term is also applied to
lead-based alloys containing antimony and tin; these are suitable for
lightly-loaded bearings, and a typical example of this lead-based form
of white metal contains 80% lead, 15% antimony and 5% tin.

Page 16 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
f.

Silver Solder. The tin/lead solder mentioned in the previous paragraph


all melt at temperatures below 250C and have very poor mechanical
strength; they are not, therefore, suitable for joints that are exposed
either to stress or heat. Spelters or nickel-silver are much better in this
respect, but their melting-point range of 650C to 875Cmay render
them impracticable in some circumstances. A silver-based alloy
containing 29% copper and 10% zinc has a melting-point of 625C and
forms a joint with good mechanical strength, and this alloy meets many
specialised requirements. Other silver-solders vary somewhat in their
composition to provide a slightly lower melting-point, but all are silverbased; they are, naturally, expensive, and they should not be used if a
soft solder or a brazing brass can be effectively employed.

Page 17 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
BOLTS, NUTS, STUDS AND SCREWS
INTRODUCTION
6.
In the design, production, and maintenance of aircraft or any other device for
which specific quality and performance requirements are established, it is necessary
that standards be selected and specifications be prepared to assure that the aircraft
or other device will meet its requirements.
7.
Generally speaking, standards and specifications establish quality, size,
shape, performance, strength, finish, materials used, and numerous other conditions
for the manufacture and design of aircraft and their components. Because of the
almost infinite number of sizes, shapes, materials, etc., involved in mechanical
devices, a wide variety of standards and specifications have been developed
covering hardware, metals, plastics, coatings, non-metallics, and manufactured
components.
8.
In order to provide measures of uniformity, the military services, technical
societies, manufacturers, and other agencies have attempted to establish uniform
standards that would be universally acceptable for particular materials, products,
dimensions, etc.
9.
In the normal performance of their duties technicians will encounter an
extensive array of standards establishing the characteristics of the materials and
components that they may use from day to day in repair and maintenance work.
These standards are abbreviated as:
BSF - British Standard Fine

UNF - Union National Fine

BA -

British Association

UF -

AF -

Air Force

MS - Military Standard

NAS - National Aerospace Standard

SI -

Union Fine

System International

Page 18 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
BOLTS
10.
Bolts are used primarily to hold parts together. In serving this purpose, a bolt
may be subjected to tension, shear, or both. The stresses on a bolt may be great or
small or somewhere in between. In any event, the bolt must be adequate to
withstand all the loads imposed upon it with a margin for safety.
11.
MS standard bolts may be made of cadmium-plated alloy steel,
corrosion-resistant steel, or aluminium alloy. The bolt heads are coded to indicate
the type of metal from which the bolt was made. These codings are shown below.

12.
In some cases, bolts must provide a tight fit in order to develop the structural
strength and vibration resistance required. For this purpose, close-tolerance bolts
are used. These bolts are machined to finer tolerance than general-purpose bolts
and must be driven into the drilled or reamed holes where they are installed. These
bolts are manufactured with hexagonal heads and recessed heads for the insertion
of an internal wrench. A close tolerance bolt is identified by a triangle marking on the
head.
NUTS
13.
Plain Nuts. Though not the most widely used nut in aircraft construction,
there are two plain nuts that may be used. The AN 315 nut is a plain,
cadmium-plated steel nut designed to take tensile loads. The AN 316 is a check nut.
It is used only to serve as a double nut for locking a plain nut on a bolt or for an
application where the bolt is subject to shear loads only.
14.
Castle nuts. In the early days of aviation, before self-locking nuts were
perfected, almost all nuts were safe-tied on the bolt by using a cotter pin through the
bolt shank and through notches in the top of a castle nut. These have been
superseded in a large way with self-locking nuts but the castle nut is still used in
many applications. All of these nuts have fine threads.

Page 19 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
15.
Self-locking nuts. It is not always convenient to use a drilled shank bolt with
a cotter pin to safety a nut, and for this reason, self-locking nuts have become
popular. There are several methods of locking the nut onto the threaded bolt or stud.
One method is to use a fibre or plastic insert in the top of the nut. The hole in the
fibre is slightly smaller than the diameter of the bolt. After passing through the
threads in the nut, the bolt must force its way into the fibre whose resilience grips
and holds the threads. Self-locking nuts with fibre or plastic inserts are usable for
low temperature applications only.

Page 20 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
STUDS
16.
Studs are metal rods, threaded at each end. Where it is not desirable or
possible, to drill through the parts for the fitting of bolts, studs are inserted to locate
and secure the component. One end of the stud is screwed to the end of its thread
into a tapped hole in one of the parts, and the other part is held in position by a nut
screwed on to the other end of the stud. Standard studs of the type illustrated are
made of high tensile steel.

17.

Special studs, for use where the standard type is unsuitable, are as follows:
a.

Waisted. The diameter of the plain portion of the waisted stud is


reduced to the core diameter of the threaded ends making the stud
lighter in weight, without impairing its ultimate strength.

b.

Stepped. This type is made with one threaded end of larger diameter
than the other. The large end screws into the job, which is usually of
soft metal, so providing greater holding power. Stepped studs are also
used as replacements for damaged studs where the stud hole in the
job, which may also have been damaged, has to be drilled and tapped
to a larger diameter.

Page 21 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY

c.

Shouldered. The integral shoulder machined on the plain portion of


the stud, seats firmly on the surface of the job into which the stud is
screwed, providing a more rigid assembly than could be obtained with
the use of an ordinary stud.

WASHERS
18.
Plain washers (AN 960). These washers are made of cadmium-plated carbon steel and are used under nuts to protect the metal from being scratched when
the nut is turned down. They may also be used to shim under a nut to compensate
for a bolt that is slightly long.
19.
Lockwashers. There are several designs of lock washers that may be used
to hold the nut under tension on a bolt to prevent its turning. The most common is
the AN 935 split lock washer which is made of heavy spring steel, split, and twisted.
There are two types of AN 936 lock washers made of much thinner spring steel, one
having teeth cut into its inner circumference and the other with teeth in its outer
circumference.

Page 22 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY

Page 23 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
SPLIT PINS
20.
Clevis pins. Clevis pins, often called flat head pins, are used as control
hinge pins. They are made of heat-treated alloy steel and are cadmium-plated.
These pins are installed in a hinge, and a washer is slipped over the end and held in
place with a cotter pin.
21.
Cotter pins. These are one of the more familiar pieces of aircraft hardware,
and are used to safety castle nuts onto drilled shank bolts. They are made of either
corrosion-resistant steel or cadmium-plated, low-carbon steel.
22.
For proper installation, these pins are passed through the bolt hole and the
slots in the nut, pulled tight, and one side of the pin bent down and cut off just short
of the bottom of the bolt. The other end is bent back over the top of the bolt, and cut
off so it is slightly short of the edge.

Page 24 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY

Page 25 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
LOCKING DEVICES
23.

When subjected to vibration and varying loads, a nut is apt to slacken.


Various locking devices have been designed with the object of preventing this
happening and those in common use are listed.
a.

b.

Split pin (use once).

i.

Used with a castellated or a slotted nut.

ii.

The pin must be a good fit both in the hole and in the slot. The
legs must firm in every way after they have been opened and
bent into position.

Self-Locking Plate (Anchor Nuts).


Page 26 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
i.

c.

Tab Washer (Use once).

i.

d.

In many assemblies for aircraft, it is desirable that nuts be


permanently attached to a part of a structure. Atypical location
is inside a metal wing at inspection openings, where the use of
nuts makes it possible to remove inspection plates merely by
unscrewing the attaching screws. For this purpose, plate or
anchor nuts were designed.

A tab washer is a thin metal washer with two or more tabs or


projections. One of the tabs is bent over the job, or into a hole in
the job, while another tab is bent up against the face of the nut.

Spring Washer (Use more than once).

i.

These are a single (exceptionally double) coil of square section


spring with sharp ends. When the nut is tightened the sharp
ends dig into the nut and the bedding face to hold the nut in
position. To prevent damage to the face of the component a
plain washer is always fitted under the nut.

ii.

Provided the washers remain springy and retain their sharp


ends, they may be used over and over again.

Page 27 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
e.

Locking Plate (Use more than once).

i.

f.

This thin metal plate is fitted over a nut after it has been
tightened and is then secured to the job. As a locking plate may
be used repeatedly, it is used in preference to a tab washer
where servicing will require a nut to be removed frequently.

Lock Nut (Use more than once).

i.

This is thinner than the standard nut and is screwed down


tightly on the ordinary nut or against the face of the part into
which the male thread fits, thus wedging the thread. This
device has the advantage of locking a nut at any position.

Page 28 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
g.

h.

Locking Wire (Use once).

i.

Where it is intended to use locking wire as a locking device the


nuts or bolt heads are supplied already drilled. When the
thread has been tightened the wire is passed through the holes
and is secured to a companion nut or bolt on to the job.

ii.

The lay of the wire must be such that the wire comes under
tension, as the nut tends to slacken.

Circlips (Use more than once).

i.

These are made of spring steel and are used to lock ring nuts
and similar items. The circular portion of the circlips fits into a
groove or channel and the short bent end of the circlip enters
aligned radially drilled holes in two items to be locked. A circlip
may also be used to prevent axial or endwise movement by
being sprung into a groove from which it partially projects.

Page 29 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
i.

Peening (Use once).

i.

j.

Where it is inconvenient to lock or locate a part by one of the


foregoing methods, peening may be used. Peening consists of
burring or distorting a small amount of the surrounding metal so
as to form a lock. This method is seldom used on aero-engines.

Stiffnuts (Use more than once).


i.

Stiffnuts are so designed that the friction between the threads of


the nut and that of the bolt on which it is threaded is so heavy
that the nut may be considered self-locking. Several types have
been designed and the following 4 types are now standardised
for use at approved points on aircraft where the temperatures
do not exceed 200C.

Page 30 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
1)

Nyloc. This nut is counter bored and spun over to hold a


nylon ring. The ring is not threaded initially and has an
internal diameter slightly less than the diameter of the
bolt to which it is fitted. On assembly, the bolt distorts the
nylon to form a thread and the friction set up between the
nut and the male thread locks the two together.

2)

Oddie. The upper extentions formed on this nut are bent


inwards to form a circle with the diameter slightly less
than that of the bolt root diameter. As the nut is screwed
on, the threads of the bolt distort the extentions and the
friction between the threads is increased.

Page 31 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
3)

Philidas. This nut has a circular crown in which two slots


are cut, one above the other, each with an arc of about
270 degrees. The unsupported sectors thus formed are
depicted to produce a locking friction

4)

Aerotight. This nut is similar to the Philidas but has an


additional cut across the diameter of the crown, which
frees one end of each sector. The resulting arms are
then depitched to increase the thread friction.

Page 32 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
COWLING FASTENERS
24.
Dzus fastener. Engine cowling and many inspection access doors, must be
opened frequently. Consequently, they are closed with special types of fasteners
that require only a quarter of a turn to lock or unlock. Dzus fasteners are one of the
more commonly used types. A hard steel spring wire is riveted over the opening on
the fixed part of the cowling, and a stud is held in the door by a metal grommet.
When the door is closed, a slot in the stud straddles the spring and a quarter of a
turn with a screwdriver, or with the wings built into some of the studs, locks it into
place as the spring passes over a hump cut into the slot.

Page 33 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY

Page 34 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
25.
Camlock (Oddie) fastener. Another popular type of cowling fastener is the
Camlock, in which a stud assembly with a hardened steel in is held in the movable
part of the cowling with a grommet similar to that used on the Dzus fastener. This
stud slips into a receptacle in the fixed portion of the cowling and a quarter turn
locks it over the cam-shaped end of the receptacle. A coil spring in the stud
assembly holds the pin tight in the grooves of the receptacle.

Page 35 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY

Page 36 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
26.
Airloc (Amal) fastener. This is another form of patented cowling fastener
which uses a hardened steel rollpin which locks in a sheet-steel, spring-type
receptacle riveted to the fixed part of the cowling.

NOTE: ALL LOCKING DEVICES WHICH ARE BENT IN USE, SUCH AS SPLIT
PINS, CIRCLIPS AND LOCKING WIRE MUST BE USED ONCE ONLY. TO
ENSURE THIS, SUCH LOCKING DEVICES ON REMOVAL SHOULD BE BROKEN
OR BENT TO MAKE THEM USELESS.

Page 37 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY

Page 38 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
LOCKING WIRE
27.
Non-corrodeable steel wire is used for locking purposes on aircraft
components. The lay of the wire must be such as to resist any tendency of the
locked part or parts to unscrew. Safety wire shall be used once only. When removal
is necessary, the wire shall not be re-used. Avoid while installing safety wire to make
dents or keen bends. Locking wire shall be of the shortest length and shall be
routed as direct as possible.
28.
Install lock wire so that the wire will be in tension if the part loosens. The pigtail at the
end of the wiring shall have three to six twists and shall be bent back or under the part in order
to prevent harmful projections. It is recommended that the wire be routed around the part to
be secured. The wiring may also be passed over the part provided that binding with other
components and possible breakage of wire is prevented.

SAFETY METHODS
29.
Safetying is the process of securing all aircraft, bolts, nuts, screws, pins,
and other fasteners so that they do not work loose due to vibration. A familiarity with
the various methods and means of safe tying equipment on an aircraft is necessary
in order to perform maintenance and inspection.
30.
There are various methods of safe tying aircraft parts. The most widely
used methods are safety wire, cotter pins, lock washers, snap-rings, and special
nuts, such as self-locking nuts, pal nuts, and jam nuts. Some of these nuts and
washers have been previously described in this module.
SAFETY WIRING
31.
Safety wiring is the most positive and satisfactory method of safetying cap
screws, studs, nuts, bolt heads, and turn buckle barrels, which cannot be safetied by
any other practical means. It is a method of wiring together two or more units in such

Page 39 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
a manner that any tendency of one to loosen is counteracted by the tightening of the
wire.
NUTS, BOLTS, AND SCREWS
32.
Nuts, bolts, and screws are safety wired by the single-wire or double-twist
method. The double twist method is the most common method of safety wiring. The
single-wire method may be used on small screws in a closely spaced closed
geometrical pattern, on parts in electrical systems, and in places that are extremely
difficult to reach. See Figure 5.8.

Figure 5.8: Safety Wiring Methods.


33.
Figure 5.8 is an illustration of various methods, which are commonly used
in safety wiring nuts, bolts, and screws. Careful study of figure 5.8 shows that:
a.

Examples 1, 2, and 5 illustrate the proper method of safety wiring


bolts, screws, square head plugs, and similar parts when wired in
pairs.

b.

Example 3 illustrates several components wired in series.

c.

Example 4 illustrates the proper method of wiring castellated nuts and


stud. (Note that there is no loop around the nut.)

d.

Examples 6 and 7 illustrate a single threaded component wired to a


housing or lug.

e.

Example 8 illustrates several components in a closely spaced closed


geometrical pattern, using a single-wire method.

34.
When drilled-head bolts, screws, or other parts are grouped together, they
are more conveniently safety wired to each other in a series rather than individually.
The number of nuts, bolts or screws that may be safety wired together is dependent
on the application. For instance, when safety-wiring widely spaced bolts by the
double-twist method, a group of three should be the maximum number in a series.

Page 40 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
35.
When safety-wiring closely spaced bolts, the number that can be safetywired by a 24-inch length of wire is the maximum in a series. The wire is arranged
so that if the bolt or screw begins to loosen, the force applied to the wire is in the
tightening direction.
36.
Parts being safety-wired should be torqued to recommend values and the
holes aligned before attempting the safetying operation. Never over torque or
loosen a torqued nut to align safety wire holes.

Page 41 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
ELECTRICAL CONNECTORS
37.
Under conditions of severe vibration, the coupling nut of a connector may
vibrate loose, and with sufficient vibration the connector may come apart. When this
occurs, the circuit carried by the cable opens. The proper protective measure to
prevent this occurrence is by safety wiring as shown in figure 5.10. The safety wire
should be as short as practicable and must be installed in such a manner that the
pull on the wire is in the direction, which tightens the nut on the plug.

Figure 5.10: Safety Wiring Attachment for Plug Connectors.

Page 42 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09

MANUAL FOR APPROVED PERSON TRAINING


COURSE MATERIAL FOR GENERAL AIRCRAFT THEORY
GENERAL SAFETY WIRING RULES
38.
When using the safety wire method of safetying, the following general
rules should be followed:
a.

A pigtail of to inch (three to six twists) should be made at the end


of the wiring. This pigtail must be bent back or under to prevent it from
becoming a snag.

b.

The safety wire must be new upon each application.

c.

When castellated nuts are to be secured with safety wired, tighten the
nut to the low side of the selected torque range, unless otherwise
specified, and if necessary, continue tightening until a slot aligns with
the hole.

d.

All safety wires must be tight after installation, but not under such
tension that normal handling or vibration will break the wire.

e.

The wire must be applied so that all pull exerted by the wire tends to
tighten the nut.

f.

Twists should be tight and even, and the wire between the nuts as taut
as possible without over-twisting.

g.

The safety wire should always be installed and twisted so that the loop
around the head stays down and does not tend to come up over the
bolthead, causing a slack loop.

Page 43 of 44
Issue date: 2004/02/09