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# ABIA STATE POLYTECHNIC, ABA

P.M.B

7166

## ELECTRICAL ELECTRONICS ENGINEERING

DEPARTMENT

PROJECT ON ELECTRONICS

(EEC 234)

## TITLE: 5V DC REGULATED POWER SUPPLY

(FULL WAVE RECTIFIER)

GROUP F

MAY

2016

DEDICATION

We dedicate this practical work to God almighty for His grace and
enablement during this
Practical work.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENT
We express our profound gratitude to God Almighty for His grace and care
towards us in the period of this practical work.
Our special thanks go to our practical lecturer and our Head of Department,
Engr. Chineye Uchegbu for his guidance and support.
Finally, we thank our beloved and lovely parents for their parental care, love,
prayers, and financial support towards the effective and progression of our
education.

Dedication
Acknowledgement
Title: 5v regulated dc power supply
Aim
Discussion
Circuit diagram
Components used
Procedures
Observation
Precaution
Conclusion
Problems encountered

## TITLE: 5V REGULATED DC POWER SUPPLY

AIM: TO DETERMINE A 5V REGULATED DC POWER SUPPLY
DISCUSSION:
A regulated power supply can convert unregulated an ac (alternating
current or voltage) to a constant dc (direct current or voltage). A regulated
power supply is used to ensure that the output remains constant even if the
input changes. A regulated DC power supply is also called as a linear power
supply; it is an embedded circuit and consists of various blocks. The
regulated power supply will accept an ac input and give a constant dc
output.

CIRCUIT DIAGRAM:

5V DC REGULATED POWER
SUPPLY

COMPONENTS U0SED

## STEP DOWN TRANSFORMER 9V: the step down transformer

was used to step down the voltage from the ac mains to the required
voltage level. The turns ratio of the transformer is so adjusted such as
to obtain the required voltage value. The output of the transformer is
given to the rectifier circuit.
RECTIFIER (DIODES): is an electronic circuit consisting of diodes
which carries out the rectification process. Rectification is the process
of converting an alternating voltage or current into corresponding
direct (dc) quantity. The input to a rectifier is ac whereas its output is
unidirectional pulsating dc. Usually a full wave rectifier or a bridge
rectifier is used to rectify both the half cycles of the ac supply
(full wave rectification).
REGULATOR (IC 7805) This is the last block in a regulated DC
power supply. The output voltage or current will change or fluctuate
when there is change in the input from ac mains or due to change in
load current at the output of the regulated power supply or due to
other factors like temperature changes. This problem can be
eliminated by using a regulator. A regulator will maintain the output
constant even when changes at the input or any other changes occur.
Transistor series regulator, Fixed and variable IC regulators or
a zener diode operated in the zener region can be used depending on
their applications. ICs like
78XX and 79XX are used to obtained fixed values of voltages at the
output.
CAPACITOR (CI 470uF 50V): as the instantaneous voltage
starts increasing till the waveform reaches its peak value. When the
instantaneous value start reducing the capacitor starts discharging
exponentially and slowly through the load (input of the regulator in this
case). Hence, an almost constant dc value having very less ripple
content is obtained.
CAPACITOR (C2 & C3 0.01uF): this capacitor of this range of
values is being connected at the output and input to address input
noise and output transients.
LED: light emitting diode is being used in circuit to know if there is
flow of current in the circuit.
RESISTOR: a resistor is being used in the circuit to limit the amount
of current flowing into the light emitting diode.
CIRCUIT BOARD: it is a board which is used for electronic
connections. It is usually dotted or line, the components are placed on

the plain side of the board, with their leads protruding through the
holes. The leads are then soldered to the copper tracks on the other
side of the board to make the desired connections, and any excess wire
is cut off.
AC PLUG: this is a plug that is being connected to the primary part
of the transformer and the other two leg of the plug to the power
supply so that there will be flow of current from the transformer to the
circuit

PROCEDURES:
We cut our board to the desired shape
We placed our transformer on top of our board and screwed it to
it.
We connected our four diodes (rectifier) according to their
polarities.
We connected the positive terminal of our capacitor 470uF to
positive terminal of our rectifier and the negative terminal to the
negative terminal of our rectifier.
We connected our capacitor 2 0.01uF, the positive to the positive
terminal of the rectifier and the negative to negative part of the
rectifier.
We connected our regulator the positive side to our capacitor two
and the negative side to our ground terminal and the other
positive terminal as our output.
We connected the positive terminal of the transformer to the one
side of the diode and the negative terminal to the other end.
Then we connected the primary output of the transformer to the
power supply.
We measured our output with a multimeter and we got 5v

PROBLEMS ENCOUNTERED
During the practical we encountered many problems like, in a situation
whereby we connected and soldered our components on our board and
powered the circuit. So we measured our output and we found out that we
were having an output of 7-8v instead of 5v so we carried out our
troubleshooting by testing all the components on the board and found out
that our regulator was connected wrongly and for the wrong connection it
got damaged, so we changed it to a new one. After connecting the new one
we measured our output and we got 5v.

GROUP F
MATRIC NUMBER
1. 2014NDM/00285
2. 2014NDM/00286
3. 2014NDM/00287
4. 2014NDM/00288
5. 2014NDM/00289
6. 2014NDM/00290
7. 2014NDM/00291
8. 2014NDM/00292
9. 2014NDM/00293
10. 2014NDM/00294
11. 2014NDM/00295
12. 2014NDM/00296
13. 2014NDM/00297
14. 2014NDM/00298
15. 2014NDM/00299
OBSERVATIONS
We observed that after the bridge diode connection, the AC
voltage was changed to DC voltage.

## We also observed that the IC regulated an output of 5v

We noticed that we got an output of 8v due to faulty IC which
when was changed we got an output of 5v.

PRECAUTION
We ensured we used the specified components
We ensured proper connections to avoid short circuit
We made sure we handled the components with care so not to
damage it
We ensured we used heat sink while soldering the components to
avoid damage of the components due to over heat
We ensured we tested the connections for continuity before
powering the circuit
We ensured we measured the output with a DC voltmeter to avoid
damage to the device.

CONCLUSION:
After the practical, we were able to connect and understand how
to convert AC voltage to DC voltage using the four bridges diodes.

ABSTRACT

## A full-wave rectifier converts the whole of the input

waveform to one of constant polarity (positive or negative)
at its output. Full-wave rectification converts both polarities
of the input waveform to pulsating DC (direct current), and
yields a higher average output voltage.