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Holly Turner

11521803
Teaching For Diversity

StudentNameHollyTurner
StudentNumber11521803

SubjectNameMathematicsinthePrimary
Years
SubjectCodeEMM410
LecturerFionaCollins

AssessmentItem1
EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years

Holly Turner
11521803
Teaching For Diversity

TeachingforDiversity
MaleStudents
Discussionofmalestudentsintheclassroom
Researchhasfoundthatboyslearnmathematicsinaveryparticularway,butdespitethefindings,
manyclassroomsstillemployaclassroomclimate,instructionalstyles,learningstyles,andlearning
activitiesthatdonotaddresstheneedsofboysortheircountergender(Forgasz&Leder,1996;
Geist&King,2008).
Teachersneedtobeawareofthepreferredlearningstyles,anddiverseneeds,ofboys,andensure
thattheirclassroomandteachingreflectsthisknowledge.Boystendtobedeductiveintheir
conceptualizations,reasoningfromthegeneraltotheparticular,orfromthecausetotheeffect
(Geist&King,2008;Gurian&Stevens,2011).Thisgendersabilityforabstractthinking,being
abletocalculateaproblemwithoutseeingortouchingit,suchasmathematicalproblemsposedona
whiteboard,togetherwiththeirdeductivereasoning,allowsboystooftendowellonmultiple
choicetests(Geist&King,2008;Gurian&Stevens,2011).PetersonandFennema(1985)statethat
engagementincompetitiveactivitiesispositivelyrelatedtoboysmathematicalachievements.
Findingshaveshownthatboysoftenprefercompetitiveactivitiesratherthancooperativeones,as
competitionactsasamodeofinteraction(Forgasz&Leder,1996;Geist&King,2008).Within
groupsettings,boysmaydesignateindividualrolesandattempttocompletetheirrolefirst,or
obtainabetterresultthantheremainderoftheirgroup.Thisisoftenbecauseboysliketobe
rewardedindividuallyfortheirachievements(Geist&King,2008).Asboysaremore
individualisticandoftenliketoworkaloneincompetitionwiththemselvesorothers(Geist&
King,2008,p.48),independent,silentworkispreferred.Boysarealsoveryphysicallyactive,and
arefoundtoengageinmorehandson,exploratoryplay,usingtheirbodiestolearn.Asboyslearn
byusingmorephysicalspace,boystendtousealargeareawhenlearningmathematics(Geist&
King,2008;Gurian&Stevens,2011).Boysalsousetheirmovementtoexpressthemselves,asthey
areoftenunabletoverbalisetheirthoughtprocesses.GurianandStevens(2011)believethat:
Movementseemstohelpboysnotonlystimulatetheirbrainsbutalsomanageandrelieve
impulsivebehaviour.Movementisalsonaturaltoboysinaclosedspace,possiblyaresultof
EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years

Holly Turner
11521803
Teaching For Diversity
theirhigherlevelsofspinalfluidmovingbetweenthebrainandthebodyandhigher
metabolism,whichcreatesfidgetingbehaviour(p.47).
Furtherresearchhasalsofoundthatboysareverylikelytobecomeboredandengageinofftask
behaviour,sowillquiteoftenrequirestimulantstokeeptheirattention,aswellasparticipatingin
tasksthattheywillfindrelatableandinteresting(PetersonandFennema,1985).Forthisreason,
short,challengingtasks,withtheinclusionofvisual/spatialelements,suchassymbolsandpictures,
arecritical(Geist&King,2008;Gurian&Stevens,2011;Siemon,Beswick,Brady,Clark,Faragher
&Warren,2011).Whenplanningamathematicslessonforboys,ithasalsobeenfoundthatboys
tendtorespondbettertostructuredactivity,withclearlydefinedobjectivesandinstructions,anda
logicalandanalyticalapproachtolearning(HouseofRepresentativesStandingCommitteeon
EducationandTraining,2002).
TeachingStrategiesformalestudentsintheclassroom
Basedontheunderstandingofhowboyslearn,inparticulartheirneedformovementandphysical
activity,ateachingstrategythatcouldbeusedinaStage3classroomcouldbetoreinforcemath
skillswithgames(NationalCenteronEducationalOutcomes,2002).Mayoh(2014)detailshow
learningmathematicswhileexercisingimprovesastudentsbrainpower,andassiststhemtolearn
thesubjectbetter.Therefore,bycombiningMathematicswithPhysicalEducation,theboysinthis
classwillbeofferedanengagingandeducationalexperience.Thisstrategycanbeutilizedby
developingactivitieswherebystudentsmakesenseofrealworldmathematicsusedincertainsports,
orwherebythestudentsthemselvesformaproblemusingexercise(Battista,1994).
ClassroomActivities

FindtheMeasurements
Asaneffectofmalestudentspreferencetolearnmathematicsinacompetitivemannerinwhich
physicalactivityandmovementareinvolved(Forgasz&Leder,1996),anappropriateactivity
wouldbetosetstudentsachallengewherebytheycandemonstratetheirlearningfromtheprevious
lessonsinaninteractivemanner.Withinthislesson,eachstudentworksindependentlytotryto
completethetaskandachieveasmanycorrectresponsesastheycan.Thislessonallowsstudents
freedomintheirmovements,whilealsoofferingstudentstheopportunitytoextendthemselvesand
theirabilities.

EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years

Holly Turner
11521803
Teaching For Diversity
Outcomes:
MA39MG:Selectsandusestheappropriateunitanddevicetomeasurelengthsand
distances,calculatestheperimeters,andconvertsbetweenunitsoflength.
MA310MG:Selectsandusestheappropriateunittocalculateareas,includingareasof
squares,rectanglesandtriangles.
Lesson
Teacherprovideseachstudentwiththeworksheetoftasks,andexplainsthechallenge:Eachstudent
istousetheentiretyoftheschoolyardtofindobjects,equipment,andareasthatarecloseto,orare
theexactmeasurements,listedontheirworksheet.Studentswillbesuppliedwitharuler,atape
measure,andatrundlewheel.
Informstudentsthatifyoufindanobjectorareathatistheexactmeasurement,youwillreceive
fivepoints.Anyobjectorareafoundtobeclosetothemeasurementreceivesonepoint.Youcan
measure,andrecord,anunlimitedamountofobjectsandareasforeachmeasurement.Youdonot
havetohaveananswerforallofthemeasurements.TheBonusChallengeisoptional.
Setthestudentsatimelimitoftwentyminutes.Ifanystudentislatereturningtoclass,theywill
losefivepoints.
Observethestudentsduringthetask.Aseachstudentreturns,collecthisorherworksheet.Whenall
studentshavereturned,addupthepoints,andrevealtheresultsasawholeclass.Discussthe
results,andreflectonanychallengestherewereincompletingthetask.
Worksheet
FIND THE MEASUREMENTS
Within our schoolyard, find objects and/ or areas that are equal to, or close to,
these measurements:
2 centimetres________________________________________________________________
20 centimetres_______________________________________________________________
2 metres____________________________________________________________________

EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years

Holly Turner
11521803
Teaching For Diversity
10 metres___________________________________________________________________
50 metres___________________________________________________________________
1 kilometre__________________________________________________________________
BONUS CHALLENGE
Find the area of the tennis
court_________________________________________________
References
Battista,M.T.(1994).Teachers beliefs and the reform movement in mathematics education. Phi
Delta Kappan, 75(6), 462
Forgasz, H.J. & Leder, G.G. (1996). Mathematics classrooms, gender and affect, 8(2), 153-173.
Geist,E.A.&King,M.(2008).Different,NotBetter:GenderDifferencesinMathematicsLearning
andAchievement.JournalofInstructionalPsychology,35(2),4352.
Gurian,M.&Stevens,K.(2011).Boys&GirlsLearnDifferently!SanFrancisco,CA:JosseyBass.
HouseofRepresentativesStandingCommitteeonEducationandTraining.(2002).Boys:GettingIt
Right.ReportontheInquiryintotheEducationofBoys.Retrievedfrom
http://www.aph.gov.au/parliamentary_business/committees/house_of_representatives_com
mittees?url=edt/eofb/report.htm
Mayoh,L.(October20,2014).Learningmathswhileexercisingmeansbetterresultssays
UniversityofSydneyresearch.TheDailyTelegraph.Retrievedfrom
http://www.dailytelegraph.com.au/news/nsw/learningmathswhileexercisingmeansbetter
resultssaysuniversityofsydneyresearch/news
story/66ce53aa4b76b42e67fa402abbca7675
NationalCenteronEducationalOutcomes.(2002).GlossaryofTeachingStrategies.Retrievedfrom
http://www.cehd.umn.edu/nceo/presentations/nceolepiepascdglossary.pdf
Peterson,P.L.&Fennema,E.(1985).EffectiveTeaching,StudentEngagementinClassroom
EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years

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Activities,andsexRelatedDifferencesinLearningMathematics.AmericanEducational
ResearchJournal,22(3),309335.
Siemon,D.,Beswick,K.,Brady,K.,Clark,J.,Faragher,R.&Warren,E.(2011).Teaching
Mathematics:FoundationstoMiddleYears.SouthMelbourne:OxfordUniversityPress.

AboriginalorTorresStraitIslanderStudents
Discussion
StudentswhoidentifyasbeingAboriginalorTorresStraitIslanderhavebeenfoundtoreceive
lowereducationallevelsthanotherAustralianstudents,withAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander
peoplebeingthemostunemployedandleasteducatedpeopleinAustralia(HowardandPerry,
2003).Asagroup,AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderpeoplehavebeendescribedasthemost
educationallydisadvantagedgroupinAustralia.Thus,educationalequityforthesestudentshas
beenidentifiedasapriority(Frigo,1999;Matthews,Howard&Perry,2003).
ThereasonsforpooreducationaloutcomesforAboriginal(andTorresStraitIslander)childrenasa
grouparemanyandcomplex(Frigo,1999,p.6),therefore,teachersneedtobeawareofsomeof
thedifficultiesthesestudentsmayencounterintheclassroom.Acompoundingissueforstudents
whoidentifyasbeingAboriginalorTorresStraitIslanderwhenlearningmathematicsislanguage,
asmanyofthesestudentsareEAL,andEnglishmaybethestudentssecondorthirdlanguage
(Frigo,1999;Siemonetal.,2011).Mathematicalreasoningandproblemsolvingarecloselylinked
tolanguage,soalackoflanguageproficiencyresultsinstudentsbeingincapableofunderstanding
basicmathvocabularyandproblems(Dale&Cuevas,1992).Another significant factor that affects
Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander students mathematics education is the clash of cultures. These
children experience an education from predominately non-Indigenous teachers, causing concern for
potential cultural conflicts between the beliefs and views of the students, and the teacher (Frigo,
1999; Howard & Perry, 2003).

EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years

Holly Turner
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Teaching For Diversity
In an attempt to cater for the needs of these students, Perso (2003) outlines the importance of
getting to know the child prior to trying to teaching them, in an effort to understand and respect
their backgrounds and prior knowledge: Enhanced educational quality and equity for Indigenous
students can only occur through purposeful curriculum change, quality teaching, increased student
participation and the engagement of the Indigenous community (Howard, Cooke, Lowe & Perry,
2011, p. 366). Yunkaportas (2009) Eight Ways of Learning outlines eight interconnected
pedagogies that allow teachers to include Indigenous Australians perspectives and learning
techniques. Yunkaporta (2009) details that Indigenous Australians learn effectively through sharing
stories, visual learning maps, non-verbal techniques, the use of symbols and images, links to the
land, non-linear ways of learning, deconstructing and reconstructing information, and links to the
community. By introducing Yunkaportas (2009) Eight Ways of Learning into the classroom,
students who identify as being Aboriginal or Torres Strait Islander will receive an education that is
relevant to their culture and community, as well as one that supports their EAL needs.
TeachingStrategies
AsaresultofYunkaportas(2009)findingsthatIndigenousAustralianslearneffectivelythrough
imagesandsymbols,ateachingstrategythatcouldbeusedinaStage3classroomistheuseof
visuals,suchasaMetricConversionchart(seeFigure1).Aboriginalpeoplesthinkingisoftendone
inimagesorshapes,soIndigenousAustralianstudentstendtorelyonvisualratherthanauditory
cuesforlearning(Seimonetal.,2011;Yunkaporta,2009).

EMM410 Mathematics in the Primary Years

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Figure1.MetricConversionChart.Source:
https://www.det.nsw.edu.au/eppcontent/glossary/app/resource/factsheet/4020.pdf
ClassroomActivities

DesignAMap
AsitisnecessaryforteacherstobuildapartnershipwiththeirAboriginalandTorresStraitIslander
studentsandtheircommunities,alearningactivitywherebystudentsuseimagesandsymbolsto
representtheirviews,andwheretheycomefrom,intheformofamap,canensurethatthese
studentsbeliefsandculturesarebeingrespectedandincludedwithintheireducation.Withinthis
lesson,studentswillcreateamapthatusesagridreferencesystem,designinganyareaorplacethey
wish,andformingthekeywithanydesignsorsymbolstheydesire.Throughthisactivity,
AboriginalandTorresStraitIslanderstudentswillhavetheopportunitytouseanumberofthe
strategiesintheEightWaysofLearningprogram,includingStorysharing,NonVerbal,Symbols
andImages,LandLinks,andCommunityLinks(Yunkaporta,2009).
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Outcomes
MA317MG:Locatesanddescribespositiononmapsusingagridreferencesystem.
Lesson
Theteacherexplainsthetask:Eachstudentwillindividuallycreateamapusingagridreference
system.Themapcancontainanyinformation,images,orsymbolstheywish.Studentsmustattacha
keytotheirmap.
Whenstudentscompletecreatingtheirmap,theymustidentifythelocationofcertainsymbols
(selectedbytheteacher),todemonstratetheirunderstandingofthegridreference.Whenall
studentshavecompletedthetask,theteacherwillthenwriteaJourneyonthewhiteboard,
accompaniedbysymbols,whichstudentsmustfollowontheirmaps.Anexampleofsuchajourney
is:StartatA1,MoveEast2squares,moveNorth3squares,andsoon.Whenstudentshave
completedtheirJourney,theymustshowtheteachertheirfinaldestination.
Studentsreflectonthetask,andthepurposeofusingagridreferencesystem.

References
Dale, T. C. & Cuevas, G. J. (1992). Integrating mathematics and language learning. In P. A.

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Richard-Amato & M. A. Snow (Eds.), The Multicultural Classroom: Readings for ContentArea Teachers. White Plains, NY: Longman, Inc.
Frigo, T. (1999). Resources and Teaching Strategies to Support Aboriginal Childrens Numeracy
Learning: A review of the literature. Retrieved from
http://pandora.nla.gov.au/pan/24526/200204160000/www.boardofstudies.nsw.edu.au/aboriginal_research/aborchildnum_litreview.pdf
Howard, P., & Perry, B. (2003). Issues in Teaching Mathematics to Aboriginal Students. Retrieved
from http://bilby.unilinc.edu.au:1801/webclient/StreamGate?
folder_id=0&dvs=1458719313320~926&usePid1=true&usePid2=true
Howard, P., Cooke, S., Lowe, K. & Perry, B. (2011). Enhancing Quality and Equity in Mathematics
Education for Australian Indigenous Students. In B. Atweh, M. Graven, W. Secada & P.
Valero (Eds.), Mapping Equity and Quality in Mathematics Education (pp. 365-378). Doi:
https://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-90-481-9803-0
Matthews,S.,Howard,P.&Perry,B.(2003).WorkingTogethertoEnhanceAustralianAboriginal
StudentsMathematicsLearning.Retrievedfrom
http://www.merga.net.au/documents/Keynote_MatthewsEtAl.pdf
Perso,T.(2003).ImprovingAboriginalNumeracy:YearsK9.Adelaide,SA:Australian
AssociationofMathematicsTeachers.
Siemon,D.,Beswick,K.,Brady,K.,Clark,J.,Faragher,R.&Warren,E.(2011).Teaching
Mathematics:FoundationstoMiddleYears.SouthMelbourne:OxfordUniversityPress.
Yunkaporta, T. (2009) Aboriginal pedagogies at the cultural interface. Retrieved
from
http://researchonline.jcu.edu.au/10974/2/01thesis.pdf

GiftedorTalentedStudents
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Discussion
Giftedandtalentedstudentsaredefinedasthosethatdemonstrateexceptionalabilities,andwhoare
workingsignificantlyaheadoftheirpeers(Goodhew,2009).Commonly,giftedandtalented
studentsdemonstratethattheyhavethecapacitytolearnatfasterrates,tofindandsolveproblems,
andtomakeconnectionsandmanipulateabstractideas(NSWBoardofStudies,2012).Giftedand
talentedstudentsareentitledtorigorous,relevantandengaginglearningopportunities(Australian
Curriculum,n.d.,para.1),however,oftenwithinamixedabilityclass,thesestudentsarenot
appropriatelycateredfor(Shayshon,Gal,Tesler&Ko,2014).
Teachersneedtobeawareofthediverseneedsofgiftedandtalentedstudents,andensurethattheir
teachingreflectsthisknowledge.Itiscrucialthatgiftedandtalentedstudentsreceiveadequate
supportfromtheirteacherandtheschoolcommunity,asresearchhasfoundthatalackofnurturing
fromtheteachercancausethesestudentstohaveanegativeviewtowardsmathematics(Hassan,
Ching&Hamizah,2012).Characteristicsofgiftedlearnersvaryincognitive,attitudinal,and
behaviouralabilities(Manzone,2013).Asaresult,giftedandtalentedstudentsrequire
differentiation,inthemeansofassessment,curriculummaterials,instructionaltechniques,and
groupingmodels(Johnson,2000).Thiscanbedonethroughprovidingmoreenriching
opportunities,usingmultipleresources,usinginquirybasedanddiscoverylearning,usinghigher
levelquestions,andhavinghighexpectations(Johnson,2000).Archambault,Westberg,Brown,
Hallmark,Emmons,andZhang(1993)state,Whenanappropriatedifferentiatedcurriculumis
implemented,giftedstudentsareabletoexplorecontent,ideas,problemsorthemesingreater
breadthanddepththatinpossiblethroughtheregularcurriculum,touseresourcesnotnormally
availabletothem,andtodeveloptheiruniquetalentsandinterests(p.ix).Itisalsoimportantthat
teachersareawarethatgiftedandtalentedstudentsaresignificantlymorelikelytoprefer
independentstudy,projects,andselfinstructionalmaterials(Rogers,2007).Giftedandtalented
studentsalsooftendesiretoknowthereasoningbehindmathematicsproblemsandtolearna
mathematicsconceptindepth,thusitisimportantthatthesestudentsareassignedtasksthatwill
adequatelychallengetheirthinking,andallowthemanopportunitytoproblemsolve(Ayebo,2010).
Afurthermeanstosupportgiftedandtalentedstudentsistoprovideactivitiesandproblemsthat
extendbeyondthetypicalcurriculum,allowingthesestudentstoexpandtheirknowledge,andhave
furtherlearningopportunities(Johnson,2000).Hassan,Ching,HamizahandIbrahim(2012)also
detailtheneedforavarietyofmaterials,inanefforttokeepgiftedandtalentedstudentsstimulated.
Suchmaterialsincludevariousbooksandresources, as well as a range of technology materials,
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Teaching For Diversity
such as videos and games. Technology is vital in supporting gifted and talented learners, as it can,
provide a tool, an inspiration, or an independent learning environment(and) is often a means to
reach the appropriate depth and breadth of curriculum and advanced product opportunities
(Johnson, 2000, para. 10).
TeachingStrategies
Basedontheresearchofhowtoappropriatelysupportandassistgiftedandtalentedstudentsintheir
education,anappropriateteachingstrategythatcouldbeusedinaStage3classroomisaccelerated
orindividualizedmath(NationalCenteronEducationalOutcomes,2002).Thisstrategyallows
giftedandtalentedstudentstoworkindependently,andatalevelthatisappropriatefortheir
abilities.Rogers(2007)foundthatatthisagelevel,independentlearningallowsgiftedandtalented
studentstoobtaingrowthinselfreliance,abilityandtoidentifyacleartopicfocus,increased
creativethinking,criticalthinking,andconceptualdiscussion.
ClassroomActivities

Mathletics
Duetogiftedandtalentedstudentsneedtoworkattheirownindividuallevelofability,andtheir
desiretoworkwithtechnology,anappropriatelessonwouldbetoholdaMathleticslesson,
wherebystudentsworkontheirownMathleticsaccounttocompleteproblemsandactivitiesabout
MeasurementandGeometry.TheonlineprogramofMathleticsproducesindividualizedlessons,
providingarangeofinteractiveactivitiesandtasksthatareappropriateforstudentsofalllevels
(McKeown&McGlashon,2012).
Outcomes
MA39MG:Selectsandusestheappropriateunitanddevicetomeasurelengthsand
distances,calculatesperimeters,andconvertbetweenunitsoflength.
MA310MG:Selectsandusestheappropriateunittocalculateareas,includingareasof
squares,rectanglesandtriangles.
MA311MG:Selectsandusestheappropriateunittoestimate,measureandcalculatevolumes
andcapacities,andconvertsbetweenunitsofcapacity.

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Holly Turner
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Teaching For Diversity
MA312MG:Selectsandusestheappropriateunitanddevicetomeasurethemassesof
objects,andconvertsbetweenunitsofmass.
Lesson
TheteacherallowsstudentstouseacomputerorlaptoptoaccesstheirMathleticsaccount.Students
continueworkingthroughtheirdesignatedlevelinMeasurementandData.Theteacherobserves
studentsastheywork,andholdsaoneononediscussionwitheachstudenttogainanunderstanding
ofhowtheprogramisassistingtheirlearninganddevelopment.

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Teaching For Diversity

References
Archambault, F.X., Westberg, K.L., Brown, S.W., Hallmark, B.W., Emmons, C.L. & Zhang, W.
(1993). Regular Classroom Practices With Gifted Students: Results of a National Survey of
Classroom Teachers. Retrieved from http://files.eric.ed.gov/fulltext/ED379845.pdf
Australian Curriculum. (n.d.). Gifted and Talented Students: Introduction. Retrieved from
http://www.australiancurriculum.edu.au/studentdiversity/gifted-and-talented-students
Ayebo, A. (2010). Teachers Perspectives on Teaching Mathematics to Gifted/ Talented Students.
Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC.
Goodhew, G. (2009). Meeting the Needs of Gifted and Talented Students. London: Continuum
International Publishing Group.
Hassan, N., Ching, K.Y. & Hamizah, N.N. (2012). Gifted Students Affinity towards Mathematics.
Retrieved from
https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Nasruddin_Hassan/publication/235631089_Gifted_Stu
dents_Affinity_towards_Mathematics/links/0fcfd5120ab1a83c4b000000.pdf
Hassan, N., Ching, K.Y., Hamizah, N.N. & Ibrahim, N. (2012). Factors That Influence Gifted
Students Attitude against Mathematics. Retrieved from.
https://www.researchgate.net/publication/235631140_Factors_That_Influence_Gifted_Stude
nts'_Attitude_against_Mathematics
Johnson, D.T. (2000). Teaching Mathematics to Gifted Students in a Mixed-Ability Classroom.
Retrieved from http://www.vtaide.com/png/ERIC/gifted-Math.htm
Manzone, J.A. (2013). The Elements of a Differentiated Curriculum for Gifted Students: Transfer
and Application Across the Disciplines. Ann Arbor, MI: ProQuest LLC
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McKeown, S. & McGashon, A. (2012). Brilliant Ideas for Using ICT in the Inclusive Classroom.
Abingdon, OX: Routledge
NationalCenteronEducationalOutcomes.(2002).GlossaryofTeachingStrategies.Retrievedfrom
http://www.cehd.umn.edu/nceo/presentations/nceolepiepascdglossary.pdf
NSW Board of Studies. (2012). Mathematics K-10 Syllabus. Sydney: Author.
Rogers, K.B. (2007). Lessons Learned About Educating the Gifted and Talented: A Synthesis of the
Research on Educational Practice. Gifted Child Quarterly 51(4), 382-396.
Shayshon, B., Gal., H., Tesler, B. & Ko, E. (2014). Teaching mathematically talented students: a
cross-cultural study about their teachers views. Retrieved from
http://download.springer.com.ezproxy.csu.edu.au/static/pdf/656/art
%253A10.1007%252Fs10649-014-9568-9.pdf?originUrl=http%3A%2F
%2Flink.springer.com%2Farticle%2F10.1007%2Fs10649-014-95689&token2=exp=1458865568~acl=%2Fstatic%2Fpdf%2F656%2Fart
%25253A10.1007%25252Fs10649-014-9568-9.pdf%3ForiginUrl%3Dhttp%253A%252F
%252Flink.springer.com%252Farticle%252F10.1007%252Fs10649-014-95689*~hmac=2b89a063f4487636152774801180071d72e8faf45af38529603a6d7619ef8813

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