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The berlos model follows the smcr model this model is not specific to any particular
Berlos model lives a number of factors under each of the elements :
Source: The source is were the message originates.
Communication skills It is the individuals skill to communicate (ability to read,
write, speak, listen etc)
Attitudes The attitude towards the audience, subject and towards one self for e.g. for
the student the attitude is to learn more and for teachers wants to help teach.
Knowledge The knowledge about the subject one is going to communicate for e.g.
whatever the teacher communicates in the class about the subject so having knowledge
in what you are communicating.
Note: It is not talking about the general knowledge it is all about the knowledge of the
subject, so it is the familiarity of what you are communicating.
Social system The Social system includes the various aspects in society like values,
beliefs, culture, religion and general understanding of society. It is were the
communication takes place.
For e.g. class room differs from country to country like behaviors, how we communicate

Note: We can communicate only to the extent that the social system allows, when we
communicate take social system into account.
Culture: Culture of the particular society also comes under social system.
All to this model, only if you have the above in the proper or adequate proportion v can
Encoder: The sender of the message (message originates) is referred as encoder, so the
source is encoding the message here.
Content The beginning to the end of a message comprises its content for e.g. From
beginning to end whatever the class teacher speaks in the class is the content of the
Elements It includes various things like language, gestures, body language etc, so
these are all the elements of the particular message. Content is accompanied by some
Treatment It refers to the packing of the message. The way in which the message is
conveyed or the way in which the message is passed on or deliver it.
Note: When it is too much treatment also the communication will not happen properly.
Structure The structure of the message how it is arranged, the way you structure the
message into various parts.
Note: Message is the same but if the structure is not properly arranged then the
message will not get to the receiver.
Code The code of the message means how it is sent in what form it could be e.g.
language, body language, gestures, music and even culture is a code. Through this you
get/give the message or through which the communication takes place or being reached.
Note: Only when the code is proper, the message will be clear, improper use may lead
to misinterpretation.
Channel It is nothing but the five senses through this only we do. The following are
the five senses which we use





Whatever communication we do it is there either of these channels.

Hearing: The use of ears to get the message for e.g. oral messages, interpersonal etc.
Seeing: Visual channels for e.g. TV can be seen and the message is delivered.
Touching: The sense of touch can be used as a channel to communicate for e.g. we
touch and buy food, hugging etc.
Smelling: Smell also can be a channel to communicate for e.g. perfumes, food, charred
smell communicates something is burning, we can find out about which food is being
cooked etc.
Tasting : The tongue also can be used to decipher e.g. Food can be tasted and
communication can happen.
Note: Despite not mentioning a medium we need to assume that as communication is
taking place channels can be any of the 5 senses or combination.
Decoder : Who receives the message and decodes it is referred to as decoder.
Receiver: The receiver needs to have all the thinks like the source.
This model believes that for an effective communication to take place the source and the
receiver needs to be in the same level, only if the source and receiver are on the same
level communication will happen or take place properly. So source and receiver should
be similar
For e.g. Communication skills on source side is good then the receiver should equally
have good listening skills.
We cannot say the entire message passed doesnt reaches the receiver has it is because
the receiver may not good in listening, so only for the effective communication the
source and the receiver to be in the same level.
Note: Self image differs from person to person, for communicating the person should
consider the receiver. Keep the receiver in mind, speak accordingly and give them what
they need.
Criticism of berlos smcr model of communication:
No feedback / dont know about the effect
Does not mention barriers to communication
No room for noise
Complex model
It is a linear model of communication
Needs people to be on same level for communication to occur but not true in real


Main drawback of the model is that the model omits the usage of sixth sense as a
channel which is actually a gift to the human beings (thinking, understanding,
analyzing etc).

Berlo's SMCR Model of Communication

In 1960, David Berlo postulated Berlo's Sender-MessageChannel-Receiver (SMCR) Model of Communication
from Shannon Weaver's Model of Communication (1949).
He described factors affecting the individual components in the
communication making the communication more efficient. This
model also focuses on encoding and decoding which happens
before sender sends the message and before receiver receives
the message respectively.

Components of Berlo's Model of

Berlo's Model has mainly, four components to describe the
communication process. They
aresender, message, channel and receiver. Each of the
component is affected by many factors.

S -Sender
Sender is the source of the message or the person who originates
the message. The person or source sends the message to the
receiver. The following are the factor related to sender and is also
the same in the case of receiver:

Communication Skills:
Communication skills of a person is a factor that affects the
communication process. If the sender has good communication
skills, the message will be communicated better than if the
sender's communication skills are not good. Similarly, if the
receiver can not grasp the message, then the communication
will not be effective. Communication skills include the skills to
speak, present, read, write, listening, etc.

The attitude of the sender and the receiver creates the effect of
the message. The person's attitude towards self, the receiver
and the environment changes the meaning and effect of the

Familiarity with the subject of the message makes the
communicated message have its effect more. Knowledge on
the subject matter makes the communicator send the message

Social Systems:
Values, beliefs, laws, rules, religion and many other social
factors affect the sender's way of communicating the message.
It creates difference in the generation of message. Place and
situation also fall under social systems.

Cultural differences make messages different. A person from

one culture might find something offensive which is very much

accepted in another culture.

A message is the substance that is being sent by the sender to
the receiver. It might be in the form of voice, audio, text, video or
other media. The key factors affecting the message are

Content is the thing that is in the message. The whole message
from beginning to end is the content.


Elements are the non verbal things that tag along with the
content like gestures, signs, language, etc.

Treatment is the way in which the message is conveyed to the
receiver. Treatment also effects the feedback of the receiver.

The structure of the message or the way it has been structured
or arranged, affects the effectiveness of the message.

Code is the form in which the message is sent. It might be in
the form of language, text, video, etc.

Channel is the medium used to send the message. In mass
communication and other forms of communication, technical
machines might be used as a channel like telephone, internet,
etc. But in general communication, the five senses of a human
being is the channel for the communication flow and it affects the
effectiveness of the channel.

Hearing- We receive the message through hearing.

Seeing- We perceive through seeing. We also get non-verbal

messages by seeing.

Touching- Many of the non-verbal communication happens

from touching like holding hands.

Smelling- We collect information from smelling.

Tasting- Taste also provides the information to be sent as a


R- Receiver
Receiver is the person who gets the message sent in the process.
This model believes that the thinking pattern and all other factors
mentioned above must be in sync to that of the sender for the
communication to be effective. The message might not have the
same effect as intended if the receiver and sender are not similar.

The receiver must also have a very good listening skill. Other
factors are similar to that of the sender.

Communication skills


Social Systems


Criticisms of Berlo's SMCR Model:

There is no concept of feedback, so the effect is not


There is no concept of noise or any kind of barriers in

communication process.

It is a linear model of communication, there is no two way