You are on page 1of 39

DECLARATION

Students Declaration
I declare that this is my original work and has not been presented to an award in any
related examination requirement.
To the best of my knowledge the matter contained here is true.

Name : Rael Bosibori Kerini


Signature :

Date :1/3/2012

Supervisor Declaration
This project has been submitted to examination council with approval as the supervisor

Name :
Signature
Date :

DEDICATION
I wholesomely dedicate this work of my study to my loving children.

ACKNOWLEDGMENT
There are several people i would like to pay attribute to with regards to the completion of
this research.
Lots of gratitude and reverence to God Almighty for the gift of life and sustenance.To Mr
Orero,Thank you for choosing me to undertake this noble project may the almighty God
reward you mightily.
To my loving parents Dorcus Kerini and David Kerin Thank you for encouraging me to
be thee best that i can in life.
To Mrs Cathrine Mutai Thank you for the work you did on the original manuscript .
Last but not least special thanks to Kevin Leboo,my dear son for encouraging me to press
on with the research.

ABSTRACT
The main objective of the study is to determine the effect of HV/AIDS on the children's
performance of ECD in the Tea Estate .
The following objectives will form the basis of the research study. Identifying the causes
of HIV AIDS in the tea Estates. Identifying the challenges the HIV and AIDS has caused
in the ECDE centres in the tea Estates suggesting ways of assisting the orphans to curb
with the situations.
To identify the depth the HIV/Aids awareness has taken
The study also tries to identify strengths and weakness of the management of the Tea
Estates as regards to HIV /Aids
A descriptive approach is used as a method of investigation into the phenomenon under
study.
The reasercher will also use questionnaires as research design in collecting data and
analyzing it according
Data will both be collected from primary sources and secondary sources .The primary
sources will mainly be from answers from the questionnaires while the secondary sources
will be from books and other documented materials as well as the web site.
The data obtained will be interpreted by looking at the patterns of relationship existing
among the respondent data and the outcome of the finding will also be explained
The findings in this case will be analyzed so as to simplify The data by trying to confirm
whether the hypothesis has been tested.
The results of the study are therefore recorded and raw data gathered will be presented
using tables and figures.
The researcher shall summarize the effects of HIV /Aids on the children performance in
ECD in a form of research findings ,conclusions and recommendations.

CHAPTER ONE
1.0 Introduction
The chapter shall cater and cover the background of the study, statement of the problem,
objective of the study, research questions, hypothesis, theoretical statement, justification
of the study,scope and limitation of the study and assumptions of the study and
operational definitions.

1.1 Background of the study


HIV Stands for human immune deficiency Virus Aids stands Acquired Immune
Deficiency Syndrome. The Aids stage is the full development of the viral effect of the
HIV virus on the human body .This virus attacks the white blood cells that protect human
from infections ,thus weakening the human body defense mechanism or immunity. As a
result the body cannot fight any disease.
HIV is transmitted through blood, vaginal secretions and semen. These fluids contains a
person with this virus is said to be HIV positive.
This person may not show symptoms of the infection immediately after contracting the
virus but has the virus in the body and can infect others .This virus keeps multiplying
within the body.
These fluids may enter the body through sexual intercourse, injections cuts and blood
transfusion A mother also can infect the baby during delivery or while breast feeding.

1.1.1 Signs and Symptoms of HIV


At least two major signs and one minor signs categorized here below are enough
indicators for one to be declared HIV positive and there advised to go for VCT.
Major signs are Loss of 10%of body weight wither any valid reason Chronic diarrhea for
one month ,night sweats and frequent fever for at least one month cancer of the skin,
meningitis which is very common in HIV Aids patients .The type of meningitis is called
Crytococal.
Minor sins are swelling of lymph nodes ,Herpes simplex infection ,frequent mouth ulcers
with whitish tongue ,frequent herpes zosters ,general itchiness of the skin frequent
unproductive cough that last for a month.
5

1.1.2 Opportunities Infections


When the CD4 cells white cells drop below 200 cells per ml , the person is likely to
develop opportunities infections that arise because a person;s immune system is very
weak .As a result the patient suffers the following first symptoms of an advanced HIV
infection weight loss fever diarrhea fatigue malaise night sweats open wound around the
penis or vagina ,frequent thrush.
With time ,the HIV infection matures to Aids At this stage the immune system gets
destroyed to virus .The patient develops

more serious problems as shown below:

Brain infections of meningitis


Tuberculosis
Pancreases or pneumonocystics carinii pneumonia PCP
Skin cancer.

1.2 Statement of the Problem


In most schools, performance has reduced due to health status of parents or care givers
which has led to the research carried out in the company named as a case study.
Statistics showed that for children to learn effectively and efficiently ,there is need to
meet their psychological needs ,safety and security and love and belonging for then to
perform highly in their academic fields.
Ivan parlovs classical conditioning theory stated that motivation of learners is the
responsibility of the caregivers .This problem has been there for quite some time.
Motivation of children does not only lead to smooth flow of learning and high
achievement in schools but also influence personality by improving in self-esteem.

1.3 The Purpose of the Study


The main objective of the study effects of HIV Aids on the childrens performance in
ECD is to establish the relationship between HIV /Aids and the children's performance in
ECD.
The general objectives
The general purpose are as follows :
To identify the effects of HIV Aids in Ecd centres

To identify the challenges the ECD centres in Tea estates are facing due to HIV/Aids
To identify the depth the HIV/ Aids awareness has taken and their effectiveness
To find out whether the tea estates managements has established ways of assisting
orphans to curb with the situations.

1.4 Objectives of the Study


To find out whether children performing in ECD centres at all levels
To provide a record of each child's performance for the purpose of the study
To identify affected children so that suitable cause of action may be taken.
To let the child know his/her right in whichever himself
To focus attention on individuals performance and find the causes
To identify the strengths and weakness of individuals so that timely steps may be taken to
improve their performances.

1.5 Research questions


What is the relationship between children's performance and the parents health status?
What are the effects of a healthy family towards the performance of the children/
How does motivation from parents affect the performance of the children?

1.6 Significant of the study


The research on HIV/Aids is helpful because it helps in sensitizing school and
community on what is HIV/Aids and its effects.This will enable the teacher to know the
background of each child and the challenges the child has It will also high lighten the
learner on HIV and how to protect themselves from getting the disease.
It will also enable the teacher to set up guidance and counseling in schools hence
monitoring of the child physically and mentally towards holistic.
The study will also assist the existing international bodies for example
Non-Governmental Organizations and Community Based Organizations to encourage and
give support to those children who are infected and affected and vulnerable children.

1.7 Scope and Limitations of the Study


1.7.1 The Scope of the Study
The researcher carried out the research in Kericho County upon visitation of James Finlay
Tea estates
The researcher went to James Finlays Tea estates Chomogonday ,
Kitumbe ,Chamasingi ,Kapsongoi,Bondet and Changana with blank questionnaires and
had a chance to discuss which management and some employees .Later went to James
Central Hospital and had a chance to discuss with the hospital personnel.

1.7.2 limitation of the study


a)

Time factor

Very little time was provided from the management visited which made it difficult

for

the researcher to discuss fully some of the study questions


b) Openness
Some employees were not free enough to discuss matters pertaining HIV Aids.
c) Medical personnel
Some medical personnel were not open to discuss their clients since its against the ethics .
d) Distance
The locality of tea estates visited was quite far hence some distance had to be covered by
traveling to arrive there .The researcher had to spend some amount and time in order to
reach the targeted place and carry out the research so as to achieve her objectives of the
study.
e) Finance
The most limiting factor in the research is the availability of financial resources and for
the research to be carried out effectively their must be a financial backup therefore since
the study was so involving and expensive in terms of fare,lunch and accommodation
during the research period the researcher felt the price especially at this economic crisis
being experienced in the country.
f)

Job security

Employees of the visited company feared to disclose others status .This made the
researcher to move from one person to another and pester them to open up. Some would

not give adequate information as regards to the questionnaire


g) Weather Condition
Kericho is a place which rains frequently and this contributed to poor weather conditions
which hindered the researcher from achieving her objective of the research .The research
would at time arrive late on the stated case study locality and at times she may miss a
chance to meet face to face with the personnel there in order to find out their views
concerning the research topic.

h) State of personality
Some top level managers felt so superior to come to the level of the researcher hence
losing interest on the subject matter of the questions hence end up giving irrelevant
questions .
i)

Lack of knowledge

Some of the workers of James Finlays with less experience and qualification answered
the questionnaires irrelevantly since they could not understand the questions well. This
hindered the researcher from attaining the objectives of the study

1.8 Justification of the study very little has been done in this area
Poor performance is the outcome of children in ECD centres where HIV Aids has
manifested largely. According to Maslow hierarchy of needs theory children are supposed
to be motivated for learning by providing them with psychological needs first. That is
clothing ,food, shelter, water. Parents are either not there to give out this or are ailing due
to HIV /Aids .
Secondly parents are supposed to provide safety and security to the child so that the child
can be intrinsically motivated for learning .The researcher found out that children are the
ones in instead taking care of the ailing parents.
Poor performance also comes as a result of lack of love and belonging .The study also
depicted that given enough love, it motivates them to perform in their schools.
Finally, the foundation of self-esteem is home. A child can only have self-esteem and
confidence in doing school work after gaining the courage from the parents.

1.9 Hypothesis
HIV/Aids infection will always read to poor performance.
Alternative

The conceptual framework.

HIV/AIDS
Sexual intercourse
Blood transfusion
Sharing of objects

Ow infections
Save blood transfusion
Low infection

Abstinence
Screening
Sterilization

High performance of
children

10

1.11 OPERATIONAL DEFINITIONS OF TERMS


Management
Employee
HIV
AIDS
HART
PLWA
Performance
Researcher
Scope
Limitations
Infected
Affected

11

CHAPTER TWO
LITERATURE REVIEW
2.1 Introduction
This chapter analysis literature review,introduction .The main review Theoretical
framework,knowledge of the field effects of HIV/Aids on the children's performance
outcome,creating an enabling environment inside and outside school ECD
centres,vulnerability,Actions for reducing vulnerability.Impacts of HIV/Aids to the
community On employees and productivity and on the caregivers in ECDE centres
critical review and summary.

2.2 The Main Review


According to Friedrich Wilhem Froebel 1782-1852 children are born with the innate
ability to attain perfections .He put emphasis on the importance of environment and
early stimulation He believed that children are garden to be cared for tendered for
carefully so that optimum learning can take place.He went further to emphasize that
children first experiences should be a garden , full of pleasant discoveries ,adventures and
fun.
He further emphasized that children first educational experiences should be a garden full
of pleasant and happy experiences and delightful adventures .The role of the adult is to
provide materials,give children ideas and help them grow and develop at their own pace.
HIV /Aids has hindered what Froebel tried to put across parents are enable to provide for
the learners ,to motivate them intrinsically and extrinsically.
Parents are the first caregivers to stimulate the child towards learning .They act as a
bridge between the home and school.

2.3 Dr Maria Montensor1870-1952


Montensori was the 1st Italian woman doctor to address issues related to ECD and
education of children.She believed that some of the problems of children are sometimes
reduced by providing stimulating educational experiences.
Montesori believed that children learn from birth and more so in the early years She
12

talked of children passing through,sensitive periods in which their natural curiosity makes
them ready to acquire certain skills and knowledge during early childhood .
Children from HIV /Aid infected homes are under conditions that put them at serious
risk in terms of their life.and survival.Unlike other children they are unable to proceed
normally in their learning various factors affect them such as social-cultural economic
and health .As a result these problems related their physiological and psychological
development hence spoor performance in schools /ECD Centres.

2.4 Farrant J.S 1999


Consistency of attitudes
Social psychologist define cognitive consistency as a situations in which people
attitudes often appear to have a kind of internal logic which makes them strive to be
consistent, in their beliefs, attitudes and behaviors Since learning is permanent behavior
change ,child rearing practices influence the development of attitudes. Children who are
likely to have warm, responsive care are likely to have warm accepting attitudes towards
others .They also belive in themselves and their ability to do things, hence performance in
their schools.
HIV/Aids has become an hindrance factor towards good parenting of children A home
where the caregivers are infected or are absent due to the phenomenon The children are
deprived of love and become withdrawn or strong attention seekers These children
develop low self-esteem hence lack of motivation which leads to low performance in
their schools / ECD centres.

2.5 Theories of motivations


Maslows Theory of Hierarchy of motives
According to Maslows theory human beings are motivated by primary needs .Maslows
proposed that all motives can be arranged in a hierarchy from the lowest to the highest
motives
According to Maslow higher motives will only appear after the lower ones have been
satisfied Hence the motives are interrelated. The satisfaction of the higher motives will
depend on the satisfaction off the lower ones.

13

Application of Maslows theory can ensure that we meet children 's holistic needs
physiological needs e.g food shelter water good temperature should be provided to the
child by parents.
HIV/Aid has become a major barrier for children to get an access to these neds .An Ailing
parents is fighting for his/her life children are entirely left for survival by chance .In some
critical conditions the very children who are supposed to be provided for are depended
on for provision This automatically hinder the performance.

2.6 Web Site 2007


IN 2007 ,The number of HIV/Aid orphans under the age of 15 years was estimated to be
more than 2 Million in Kenya Most of these children lack proper care and supervision
they need at this critical stage of their development .
Orphaned children have the content with discriminatory practices that ostracize them as
outcast. They are denied the essential family care by reason of death or terminal illness of
their parents These children will have learning hence low performance in their school
work.
Children affected by HIV/Aids are those who have lost their parents or dear ones through
the syndrome .Medical statistics 2007 indicated that about 700 people died every day in
Kenya due to HIV/Aids related disease. Three quarters if these dead people were
parents .Their children are left to survival by chances
According to operant conditioning by highly by giving them reinforcements which will
drive their inner motives to reach a targeted behavior .This is to be done by caregivers
who apparently have been swallowed by HIV/Aids .
Unfortunately some of the children have acquired the syndrome which weakens their
immunity system against disease .Besides the rising number of orphans due to aids as
mentioned above the disease is causing early painful death among learners infected ar
birth or through breast feeding. These children who survive often experience social and
psychological difficulties such as being self-esteem hence low performance in schools.
HIV/Aids pandemic is now the single most series setback in the effort to fulfill the rights
of Kenyans learners, particularly those guaranteeing Life survival education and
participation in development activities.

14

2.7 Creating an enabling environment inside and outside the school ECDE centres
Despite the phenomenon that has befallen our learners an actions should be developed to
assist theses children to read a normal life and achieve highly in schools .
Due to these the ECDE centres management committee should develop an actions plan
for better health within the school development plan so as to cater for those children who
have fallen victims of HIV/Aid through infections or affections.
The caregivers should learn about teaching and learning activities to support behaviours
Modifications and motivate these children towards a conducive learning environment
They should also train other teachers to incorporate HIV/Aids knowledge and awareness
within the normal curriculum through the use of improved resources materials innovative
teaching methodologies and creative teaching methodologies and creative forms of
children self-expression so as to improve their self-esteem and confidence hence high
performance in the schools
Teachers should also lease with the DEO'S Officers who are responsive for the
monitoring of Hiv/Aids educations in schools as to launch campaigns against The
phenomenon and lobby support from the stakeholders the centres to assist the affected
children lead a normal life by providing the basic needs and unconditional love.
The centres /schools should help children cope with future challenges and give them
encouragement ,help them make healthy and positive choices prepare children to live a
building motivate children to reach high goals and help children to understand the
phenomenon and strive to obtain a better future hence high performance in schools.
The community should also create an enabling environment by nurturing its children to
useful citizens who will take over leadership in various field in growth of the nations .The
medical statistical 2009 indicated that in every three homes in a community. One family
is either infected or affected thus through existing cultural religious or societal set ups can
make positively participating in community initiatives that will create an enabling
environment for children of both sexes to enjoying equal opportunities and protection
However the caregivers should also apply in insight gained through the programmes
researcher to know the needs of children and teachers better.

15

2.7.1 Case Study (JFCH2012)


Arap Rono was thirty five years old and employed as a tea plucker at Kapsongoi estate in
James Finlays limited His wife is a house wife. They have six children ,three boys and
three girls .When they got married they were both employed but later Many lost her job
learning her husband as the sole breadwinner.
Arap Rono started coughing .His health deteriorate and he was later referred to James
Finlay central hospital where he was diagnosed as HIV positive. Due to his thus low
wages.
The rising inflation increased family expebses and a wage that could not sustain the
family put a strain on Arap Rono and Mary .As a result Arap Rono began to take alcohol
so as to suppress his problem .This quickened his illness and he eventually died learning.
Mary with the burden of bringing up the children alone.This had a negative impact on the
family.
The girls were pulled out of school and forced to be employed as house helps in order to
supplement the family's income and assist to educate their brothers Food was a problems
in this family .The boys started performing poor in schools They were also traumatized
and opted to run to the streets for survival hence became drop outs.

2.8 The role of the school regarding HIV/Aids


Adults, both parents and teachers alike are ready to take part in protecting young children
from HIV infections.HIV/Aids is a sensitive subject for several reasons .The main mode
of transmission is sexual yet talking matters in a public setting is not easy and direct
discussion has long been a taboo views on which reduction methods are morally
acceptable are also very varied and make people reluctant to express a public opinion.
A powerful stigma still surrounds anyone associated with Aids or suspected of being HIV
in one way or the other and the topic is in extricably linked with grief and distress for
those who have been bereaved.
Given the chance in our families and lifestyle such as the separation of family members
or the hence pace of life brought about by our constant search for a living ,the school
becomes an obvious place for HIV and Aids education.
A day in an ECDE centre is already a busy day , full of activities from before the

16

register is called until the final bell is rung .And no one should ask the centre to do
anything more than the ministry of education. Science and technology has already
instructed .Hiv /Aids is part of the existing timetable.KIE has provided the HIV/Aids
syllabuses which is being faced on children should sing songs on Hiv Aids in a learning
situations .This will create awareness in them on what HIV Aids is
Accurate information is a good foundation for healthy and behaviour ,but it is just the
beginning and not an end by itself .During the lesson the participants learn to integrate
and infuse HIV/Aid materials into the existing classrooms subjects. As self expressions is
an important part of internalizing behaviour change .This will help them to cope with
unfavorable situated hence better performance.

2.9 Separating facts from fictions


2.9.1 Myths surrounding HIV/Aids
The myths and legends abound in African Folk lore .They told stories of great valour and
wisdom .They taught diligence and respect.They extrolled on virtues .Sadly the myths
that surround Hiv Aids are mostly destructive .They arise to fill a great gap in
knowledge .The only way we can counter the destructive myths is by spreading accurate
information

to every man and woman ,every boy and girl.

Some say that the virus ,having been created by western counties ,was then mixed into
vaccines .Food stuff and condoms and shipped to African countries .Yet those who know
about the fragile characteristics of HIV virus will know that it is easily destroyed by
extreme cold or heat ,Acids detergents jik and some virucides .It cannot withstand the
conditions of manufacture,storage or the vetting of vaccines .There is no basis in
knowledge for this myth.
Other believes that HIV can be spread by shaking hands ,hugging being in the same room
with a person with Aids .Yet others believe that Mosquitos and other insects that bite
human beings can spread Hiv. Here again lack of knowledge of the specific methods of
the spread of HIV is fueling theses untrue myths.
Myths on the prevention of infections also exist Some men belive that having sexual with
virgin girls can cleanse them .This is very untrue and it has had devastating effects on the
spread of HIV in young girls.Others believe that playing sex quickly before the virus

17

wakes up is protective .To some using many condoms at ago or at the same time and
washing the genitals after sex is thought to keep them safe from infections.
Some people want to create invisible and non-existent barriers between them and Hiv by
believing that they are invincible .That it only happens to "Them" and not to "me".Others
advocate herbal cures or say that western countries do not want African Countries to
benefit from a cure.
All these myths are false and are untrue .The only way to avoid failing into false belief is
by arming yourself with facts.

2.9.2 Vulnerability
Many factors and forces exist in life that leave some of us particularly exposed to Hiv
infections or vulnerable means at a risk.Vulnerable groups in HIV Aids means those
susceptible to be infected or affected by the pandemic .
These groupps of people are at high risk due the reasons outside their control.
The list of what create vulnerable groups is along one and varies from place to place .it
includes
Discrimination against people with known or suspected HIV Infections
Lower status of women.
Abuse of power by older or weather individuals
Lack of care and support for orphans.
Scarcity of HIV counseling and testing facilities and of condoms
Intolerance of racial religious or sexual minorities
Lack of care and support for infected and affected
Poverty that lead to prostitutions
Military conflict and labour migration which split up families
While those groups remain unprotected and unsupported ,The epidemic will continue to
have a strong foothold in our societies.
Many of the causes of vulnerability can best be understood within the universal principle
of human rights Promoting human rights and tolerance is therefore as important in
fighting Aids as well as in it right.

18

2.9.3 Reasons for vulnerability


Women are vulnerable because of biological reasons .They have 8-10 times more risk of
getting infected for every sexual encounter.This is due to longer exposure time of mucosa
to risky fluid .Younger girls are more at risk due to immature Mucosa.
Due to cultural reasons women are burdened with care of families have less nutritions
diet are poorer have less access toi medication and are victims of rape and violence .
If already they are HIV positive they are more at a risk of progressing to Aids stage when
pregnant .Wife inheritance also is a factor that have put women at a high risk .This is due
to not being informed of the status of the other partner.
Orphans are at a risk because of ignorance ,lack of education and poverty.
Risk life styles for example commercial sex workers and Iv drugs users also put people at
high risk of contracting the virus.

2.9.4 Actions for reducing vulnerability


Attention should be focused on the following key areas of strategic action.
Decreasing vulnerability to HIV/Aids through providing and expanding access to
universal,good quality and safe education .This is particularly important to girls,orphans
and young sex worker.
Eliminations of stigma and discriminations with a view to respecting human rights and
encouraging greater openness concerning the epidemic.
Promotion policies and practices that favour gender equity ,school attendance and
effective learning all of which positively affect health ,nutritions and the capacity to learn
School health programme need to tackle the particular factors rendering some children
and young people more vulnerable than others.They can do this through the provision of
skills based health education to ensure people to acquire the knowledge ,attitudes valves
and life skills needed to avid HIV infections.

19

CHAPTER THREE
METHODOLOGY
3.0 Introduction
The chapter describes in detail what is to be done and how. This involves the type of
research design the researcher has decided to use and why. Also, the area of study which
involves the geographical location, relief, human and economic activities .The people
targeted is also highlighted, how the population was selected and the research instruments
used in data collection. The procedures used in collecting and analyzing data are also
described why they were used and how.

3.1 Research Design


The researcher used a descriptive approach of research and this was because she needed
to conduct a formal study of hypothesis testing .In this approach the objectives of
research are evaluated as the methods of data collection are designed and sample
collection applied to arrive at the required data.

3.2 Location
The researcher carried out the research in Kericho County where she visited eight ECDE
centres in James finlays tea estates .The area is one of the Kenya Highlands bordering
Kuresoi to the north,Mau forest to the East,Bomet to the south and Litein in Bureti
district to the north.
It has a gentle sloping with red volcanic soil suitable for quality production of tea.
This product is used locally and exported to different continents of the world.Three
quarters o f the area is covered with tea leaves and man made forest where blue and
grivelea Robusta have been planted.
This is made possible due to high rainfall experienced throughout the year.The site was
selected by the researcher since it is reachable by road and the estate employees,stay
together hence easy to meet them.
Also the estate employees have a common central hospital where they are refereed to
when sick.It was easier for the researcher to get an access to their history through the
hospital personnel.
20

3.3 Population Target


The study targeted all the employees in James finlays estates where ECDE centres are
located.The centres are Kapsongoi,Saramek,Tiluet,Flower I,Flower II, Worskshop,
Kitumbe matinyin, Saosa and Kipketer.Each estate named above has two or three ECDE
centres which forms the residence of the subject.

3.4 Sampling procedures


The researcher selected 5% of the targeted population as the sample size was represented
by 66 personnels.The kind of sampling used was a random sample method since it was
suitable for the different on estates visited.

3.5 Research Instruments


Qualitative research method was used to record,analyze and interpret information.The
data was collected using questionnaires and observing the subject interviewing also was
used by the researcher to get the information.

3.6 Data collection Technique


The researcher travelled to the respondent and administered the instruments to avoid
inaccuracy of the data.The Researcher was able to identify the physical domains of the
study which needs to be attended to according to the findings in literature.

21

Signs which can be seen in a child who is emotionally affected due to loss of parents
through H.I.V Aids.

CRITICAL REVIEW
HIV/AIDS is one of the greatest health and socio-economic challenges of all time .It is
because of the epidemics severe impact that the government has declared total war
against HIV Aids.
The ministry of health has adopted a comprehensive care strategies that embraces a team
approach to the care of people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHAs)including provision of
anti-retroviral therapy.The comprehensive care concept require a complete mix of health
workers,physicians,nurses,pharmacists,nutritionists counsellors,social workers and others.

The comprehensive care approach also implies a holistic outlook to care.All the needs
of PLWHAs are looked at,and not just physical health needs.They receive health care and
education importantly including nutrition information as well as psycho-social and
spiritual support.

Home Based Care(HBC)is one cornerstone of a comprehensive continuum of care for


people living with HIV/AIDS(PLWHAs) in Kenya.This continuum includes medical and
clinical care as well as community and developmental components that address
non-clinical needs such as orphan and family support and food security.
The James Finlays Limited company has also joined hands with the government to fight
against HIV/AIDS .The company has launched campaign against HIV/AIDS by
mobilizing all its workers and creating awareness of HIV/Aids and behaviour
modification.
Home based care has also been taken as first choice to take care of PLWHAs.James
Finlays central hospital has allocated it's nurses to some HIV/AIDS patients so that they
can be taken care of at their homes.The caregivers teach the patients to:
That the feelings ,depression and anxiety are normal but should be controlled as much as
possible.Recognizing the problem is the first step in dealing with it,therefore the
PLWHAs should ask for help if they have symptoms such as loss of appetite,excessive

22

anxiety and panic.


They should also be assisted to plan and take appropriate actions to bring about change in
their lives.Considering the choices that must be made to improve their lives.
A step should be taken in beginning to plan for the future for children and spouse who
may be left behind.

PLWHA should also find out a step which is necessary to live positively e.g eat well,tend
to illnesses as they occur and practise safer sex.

In this case,children who are infected and affected are well taken care of by the James
finlays Limited Company.Finmax is a community based organization in James finlays
that caters for destitute children.
In the year 2008,Kipgaa children's home was established by Finmax.It was to be a home
for orphans under 8 years of age that are found in the company.
The company has gone as far as teaching the employees on:
How to feed the children with balanced diet maintaining good personal and food
hygiene.Have the infected and affected children immunized as required against common
childhood disease(diphtheria,whooping cough,tetanus,measles,polio).
Ensuring that children are given love at home or whenever care is being provided.The
children should also be treated infections promptly to play with others.If the employees
are going to practise all the above ,high performance will be experiences in the schools
more so in the ECDE centres because caregivers will motivate their children extrisically
& extrinsically.

SUMMARY
HIV Aids has hindered performance in schools at James finlays Estates.As per the
knowledge of the field;it was learnt that children's needs should be met by the caregivers
for them to be motivated to learning.Safety and security should also be provided and
unconditional love should be bestowed so as meet

the interest in learning .

The research came out that due to low wages and the impact of the disease ,most

23

children are suffering despite the fact that the company is making an effort to curb with
the phenomenon.The infected percentage is high for the company therefore cannot meet
their demand wholesomely;
Due to these,low performance is experience in schools/ECDE centres in James finlays.

MEMORY BOOKS
One of the things that worries PLWHAs the most is that they won't be around to see their
children grow up.So some PLWHAs.Make "memory Books for their children.In the
memory book they write about themselves,their dreams ,their children.In the memory
book they write about themselves ,their dreams,their hopes for the children.
They describe their family background the place where they grew up,where they went
to school what their children were like when they were small and other things parents
normally want to pass along to their children .
They also write the kind o f people they hope the children will be when they grow up,the
values they will hold and other aspects of character.If there are any family health problem
they should be included as well.Sometimes if they can afford it,they include photos of
themselves their home the children.
The book itself can be nothing more than a ruled exercise book the important thing is that
it provides the children with a record of the parents life and tangible expression of the
parents love.
As the children struggle along the streets of life for survival the memory book will
motivate them to strive to live and be to the expectation of the parents. This will
encourage them to perform highly in their academic levels. It will also instill a sense of
love and belonging as they look at the photos of their parents and read what is expected
of them in the absence of their parents.
Through the guiding and counseling therapy the James Finlays encourages PLWHAs in
company to have such a book for their children. So that incase the parents are no more
children will trace their background.

24

3.7 James Finlays Limited Health Survey 2009 Statistics

GRAPH

Although the prevalence of HIV is declining in James finlays tea Estates there statistics
would suggest that mothers to children transmission is likely to remain a significant
source of infection for children.

3.8 Sample Procedure


The researcher selected 10.5% of the targeted population as the sample and was
represented by 666 personnel. The kind of sampling used was a random sample since it
was suitable for the different estates visited.
Table 3.1 Sample population
NUMBER OF EMPLOYEES

No. of orphans
Total population

25

JAMES FINLAYS TEA ESTATE

TOTAL POPULATION SAMPLE

TARGET PERSONS

Kapsongoi estate

70

Saramek estate

70

Tiluet estate

70

Workshop estate

325

16

Marinyin estate

211

Saosa estate

70

Flower 1 estate

211

11

Flower 11 estate

196

10

Kitumbe estate

70

Kipketer estate

165

3.9 Research Instrument


The researcher who was to find out the effects of HIV Aids on children's performance
used questionaries.
This is the unstructured questions used for gathering information from the staff where a
set of well formulated questions were given to respondents who filled them.
The researcher preferred to use this method because it is free of interview distortions and
errors enabling them to be more honest in responding to the respondents.It was also the
cheapest method to apply as it saves time.

3.6 Procedure of data collection


A pilot testing instrument was used on the respondent to find out the effects the HIV Aids
had caused. There was a good relationship between the James finlays Central hospital
personnel and the James finlays limited company tea pluckers, thus this promoted data
collection.
In most data employees were sincere and willing to respond to the researchers questions
and appointment were in time hence the researcher finished her work as per schedule.

26

3.7 Data Analysis Technique


The respondents received from James finlays tea estate was computed into percentages
and represented in a table and pre charts. Statistics tools like calculating the percentage
of sample used on the population are applied.
For example the percentage representation of the targeted population is
Workshop population is 325
5% of 325
5X 325 = 16.25
100

16 People
3.8 Validity and Reliability of data collection
Instrument
Macmillan and Schomacher(1993)show validity as the extent to which decisions made on
the basis of scores from instrumentation is meaningful and useful. It is in the essence an
appropriate judgment of measures of decision that result from scores that are granted to
ensure validity of research instrument. The researcher sees to it research instrument .The
researcher sees to it that

the questionnaires are submitted to the supervisor to be

checked so as to ascertain the relevance of content.


Reliability on the other hand can be achieved if the instrument attracts

the same

response and carries the same meaning to an individual or group of people over time.
The pilot study was taken in James Finlays limited company where 66 questionnaires in
total were given to the respondents chosen randomly ;the reason being to test the validity
and reliability of the research instrument and to highlight any difficulties relating to data
collection analysis and other corrections and adjustments before embarking on actual
data collection.

27

CHAPTER FOUR
DATA ANALYSIS AND PRESENTATIONS
4.0 Introduction
The major aim of this research was to survey on the effects of HIV .Aids on children's
performance in ECD.
Under the case study company visited located in Kericho County, the research was
carried out and data was obtained through the use of questionnaire which was presented
to various employees in the company including the top management team. The data
obtained will be interpreted by looking at the patterns of relationship existing among the
respondent data and the outcome of the findings will also be explained.
The findings in this case will be analyzed so as to simplify the data by trying to confirm
whether the hypothesis has been tested or whether the research up with the
hypothesis .The results of the study are therefore recorded and raw data gathered takes on
the meaning
4.1 Categorization of Data Analysis and Presentation
The researcher targeted a population of 90 personnel from the case study company on
average of both genders were involved but due to the unavoidable circumstance the
researcher covered a sample size of 66 individuals from the difference levels of the
company including the James Finlays central hospital.
Pie charts bar graphs tables were used to analyses and present the collected data.
4.2 Response Rate
Under suitable subtitles of :age brackets, marital status ,service duration educational
background and levels of HIV injections as Follows.

28

Table 4.2.1: Respondents age bracket


Age bracket

Number of Respondent

Percentage

15-19

9.09%

20-24

7.58%

25-29

15

22.72%

30-34

20

30.30%

35-39

7.58%

40-44

7.58%

45-49

6.06%

Total

66

100%

Fig 4.2.2 Respondent Age Bracket

20
18
16
14
12
10
8
6
4
2
0

15-19
20-24
24-29
30-34
35-39
40-44
45-49

Respondents

29

4.2.3 Marital Status


Marital status

Number of employees

Married

31

Single

34

Total

66

Figure 4.2.4 marital status

Married
Single

The married personnel are represented by 1690 degrees while the single are represented
by 1850 degrees as shown in the pie chart below.

30

The period in which the respondent have served the organization is clearly summarized
below.
Table 4.3.1 Duration Representation
Years worked

Number of employees

One or less than one year

12

Two to five years

34

More than five years

10

Total

66

Figure 4.3.2 Service duration Representation.

35
30
25

1 or less than 1
year

20

2 to 5 years

15
More than 5 years

10
5
0
No. of employees

31

Table 4.4.0
Performance

Number of employees

Management level

Hospital personnel

Tea pluckers

25

Flowers harvesters

25

Flower harvesters

Total

66

Figure 4.4.1 performance level of employees

25
Management level

20

Hospital personnel

15

Tea pluckers

10

Flower harvesters

ECDE Centres

No. employees

32

Table 4.5.0 educational background

Educational background

Number of employees

Degrees

Primary and below

32

175

"O"

20

109

"A"

16

College / university

11

60

Figure 4.5.1. Educational background

Primary level and


below
O level
A level
College/University

33

Figure 4.5.2 population in ECDE centres


Name of the centre

No.of children

No of orphans

Kipketer ECDE Centres

132

Kapsongoi ECDE Centres

139

Saosa ECDE Centres

96

10

Kitumbe ECDE Centres

147

Saramek B ECDE Centres

52

Flowers I ECDE Centres

154

14

Flowers II ECDE Centres

192

12

Tiluet ECDE Centres

70

TOTAL

982

71

The total population of ECDE centres in James Finlays is represented by 3340 while
orphans are represented by 260

No. of orphans

34

Total population

4.6 The role of HIV Aids in low performance in the company


Questions: Has HIV Aids played a role regarding the performance of children in CEDE
in James finlay Estates.?
From the data collected HIV/Aids seems to have effected the performance in the ECDE
centres in the company ,negatively and to analyses this generally .Most of the respondent
agreed that HIV/Aids has played a major role regarding the performance of
children .Those who have no idea on the role played by HIV Aids took a smaller
percentage of the population.
4.7 Qualitative Analysis
HIV/Aids is understood by most of my respondent as a tool that is finishing the strengths
for the employee. It is threatening their lives . It has killed the morale of those diagnosed
needs..
In some cases children have been left to head their families in the absence of their parents
due to HIV/Aids .The researcher found out that most of the people infected by Hiv Aids
do not have the capability to bring up children holistically because they are struggling
with the killer disease.
The researcher found out that HIV/Aids has affected ECDE in the following ways.
Children are orphaned leaving them homeless and in need of basic needs.
Some are left to be cared for by elderly grandparents who have no means to provide
the required care and service.
In some areas child headed families rampant and such children lack the opportunity
to be children if not well supported they will not develop as well as their counterparts
who are not orphaned.
Children affected or infected with HIV /Aids are unlikely to join pre-school or other
ECDE programmes .This in turn affects the preschool enrollment .Those enrolled
may be affected to the extent that they are not able to cope with activities in the
ECDE programmes ,especially if they are living with relatives suffering from
HIV/Aids stigmatization rejection and discrimination leads children to anti social
behaviour .
The researcher found out also that some people who are infected engage in sexual
intercourse with children .They tend to believe that they will be cured if they step

35

with a

young.This has put children in the company at risk of being infected.

Frequent ailments and other early childhood diseases are common among those
infected .This strains healthy care services for children .the care givers time and
resources are constrained as more time is spent caring for them leading to negligence
of the healthy one s.Teachers and guardians are unable to give adequate care and
support to those affected,infected and the healthy.

4.7.1 Strengths of the company towards performance of children.


Provisions of feeding programmes in all ECDE centres in James Finlays tea Estates
Initiating a community based organization Finmax to meet the needs of orphans or
destitute children especially in paying their school levies
Putting a health centre across the company in every tea estate for an easier access for
medication before referring to James Finalys Central Hospital if need be.
Offering a counseling therapy in all the estates for behaviour modification.

4.7.2 Weakness of the company towards performance of children


Due to too many orphans in the company the medical services offered are not up to
standard.
Biases sometimes is seen in enrollment of children in the children home Also it is seen
CBO Finmax where children are given bursaries .
The main objectives of the company is to organize resources for productivity thus it tends
to neglect other emerging issues eg Hiv Aids
Sometimes employees who have shown the Aids blown out stage are terminated and
given their dues. These forces them to their initials homes where their children will be left
for survival by chances .

36

CHAPTER FIVE
SUMMARY CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS
5.0 Introduction
This chapter summaries effects of HIV Aids children's performance in form of research
findings ,conclusions and recommendations.

5.1 Summary of the Findings


The research study objectives were tested against the findings and the following
observations were made.
It was reported that their is low performance of children in schools/ECDE centres due to
low motivation of caregivers.The children's psychological needs are not fully met.HIV
Aids has taken an upper hand and therefore it's not giving caregivers time to meet the
needs of their children.92% of the respondents participate well towards this research and
this proved that both employees of the company and their children in Early Childhood are
affected hence meeting the low performance level target in ECDE /Schools.

The most limiting factor encountered by the researcher is that most of the

tea pluckers

feared being victimized through the general respondents were fairly good.
Poor economic stability of the entity the company was tempted to lack funds of
maintaining and curbing with the mass orphans and mass ailing of its employees .
Both employees performance and children's performance are affected negatively by HIV
Aids.
The findings of the research was not very reliable because of some hindering factors
during the research exercise and this involved:1.

Inadequate time to gather data from the targeted population.

2.

Lack of knowledge about HIV Aids and its effects on children's performance in
ECD among some respondents hence they at times give unreliable information
basing on the topic in question.

3.

The state of personality also became a limited factor in that some of the respondents
especially the senior management staff felt so superior to come to the level of the
37

researcher hence they would at times develop no interest in the subject being raised
by the researcher.

5.2 Conclusions
This chapter concludes the research findings in the study and this entails:That most respondents preferred a well-balanced feeding programmes in ECDE
centres/school. A well balanced diet provides the body with all the essential nutrients
required for good health hence children will intrinsically be motivated for learning.
The caregivers (teachers)should ensure that children are receiving unconditional love and
they are accepted the way they are. This will promote their self-esteem. The children
should also acknowledge that death is real. They should learn to cope with it. Teachers
and guardians should try to ensure that safety and security is given to children .This will
enable them to have asense of belonging hence high performance in school/ECDE
centres.

5.3 Recommendations:
After the findings were summarized ,it is therefore necessary to make some
recommendations and suggestions as follows:Close monitoring should be done to children's performance through progress
checking .Monitoring will assist the teacher in ensuring that the pupils attitudes and
behaviours are improving so that he /she can make appropriate recommendations on
referrals or placements. This will also enable the teacher to find out the challenges and
constrains affecting the performance of individual in ECDE centres. This will help the
teacher to take appropriate corrective measures to overcome them.
The teachers should also equip their children with knowledge and life skills. This will
enable them to accept and love self as well as acknowledge their gifts, abilities and
achievements. The children need to be supported by the community and the families they
belong to. Accepting and valuing one as a member of the family is very comforting and
builds one's self esteem. Guardians should be educated to build loving homes and
communicate acceptance to their children.
Teachers should also enhance collaboration with the ministry of education through the

38

district education officers and the Local authority such as chiefs in the area, existing
government arms to enforce the law with regard to children's Education Act and child
right act.
Lastly ,in the normal classroom situation the teacher should apply "child-centers
approach. The child centred approach demands that the teacher possess qualities such as
acceptance, patience ,love, empathy and genuineness. These qualities encourage the
children to participate actively in

class and to trust their ability to contribute to their

learning. This boosts their self-confidence.


Also the teacher should apply the theory of cognitive behavioral therapy. This is a form of
intervension that deals with identifying and correcting ***thoughts and perceptions,
wrong attitudes and beliefs and wrong behaviours.The aim of this therapy is to change
problematic thoughts, perceptions and behaviour through learning experiences.

39