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International Journal of Civil Engineering and Technology (IJCIET)

Volume 7, Issue 3, MayJune 2016, pp. 252261, Article ID: IJCIET_07_03_025


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ISSN Print: 0976-6308 and ISSN Online: 0976-6316
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ASSESSMENT OF PARTICULATE MATTER


CONCENTRATION AMONG LAND USE
TYPES IN OBIGBO AND ENVIRONS IN
RIVERS STATE NIGERIA
R. U. Enotoriuwa
African Centre of Excellence,
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
E. O. Nwachukwu
Department of Plant Science and Biotechnology,
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
J. N. Ugbebor
Department of Environmental Engineering,
University of Port Harcourt, Nigeria
ABSTRACT
Air pollution has become a serious issue especially in fast developing
urban areas. Particulate matter (PM) inhalation is injurious to man at
significant concentration because it can accumulate in the lungs and some of
the particulate compositions have been established as carcinogenic. This study
assessed the level of particulate matter (PM) mass concentration in selected
oil operating areas in Rivers State in Nigeria. Areas around other land use
types were considered such as schools (SCH), market (MKT), commercial
center (COM), bus stops (BST), residential areas (RES), hospitals (HSP) and
vegetation (VEG). PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM7 and PM10 were monitored using a
digital read out electronic instrument, Aerocet Model 531. Meteorological
parameters (wind speed, temperature and humidity) were monitored using
Kestrel 3000 portable weather tracker. Monitoring was done for one year
starting from March 2015 to February 2016. Results showed that the BST4
recorded the highest PM1 and PM2.5 values ( 12.4 g/m3and 75.7 g/m3
respectively ) PM4, and PM7 had highest values of 115.5 g/m3, 151.9 g/m3
respectively at COM while PM10 was highest at MKT 4 with a value of 240.1
g/m3. The highest values of PM were all recorded during the dry season. One
way ANOVA analysis revealed that there is significant temporal and seasonal
variation in PM values (p<0.05). Geostatistical analysis result estimated that
over 131,699 persons in the study area are exposed to PM 2.5 and PM10 based

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Assessment of Particulate Matter Concentration Among Land Use Types In Obigbo and
Environs In Rivers State Nigeria

on values exceeding WHO annual limits. The air quality in the area is poor
and the results recorded by this study justify the need for epidemiological
study to ascertain the health effect this poor air quality has on the affected
population and also the need for government to improve existing air quality
policy.
Key words: Land Use, Air Quality, Particulate Matter, Obigbo, Rivers State.
Cite this Article: R. U. Enotoriuwa, E. O. Nwachukwu and J. N. Ugbebor,
Assessment of Particulate Matter Concentration Among Land Use Types In
Obigbo and Environs In Rivers State Nigeria, International Journal of Civil
Engineering and Technology, 7(3), 2016, pp. 252261.
http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/issues.asp?JType=IJCIET&VType=7&IType=3

1. INTRODUCTION
Improvement on the level of air quality especially in urban cities in the world requires
a conscious effort and this is because anthropogenic activities impacting on the
atmosphere by way of air pollutant emissions are increasing. Industrial emissions,
human induced bush burning, refuse burning, vehicular emissions negatively impact
on the atmosphere. There is no doubt that what goes up will come down. Pollutant
escape to the stratosphere and beyond is relatively insignificant. Dry depositions due
to gravity and wind action combined with wet deposition through rain out and wash
out mechanism. This ensures that these pollutants come back to the surface either in
the same composition to which they were emitted or in their chemically transformed
state. Some of these pollutants can be in breathable height. Particulate matter (PM)
emission is an issue in Nigeria especially in the Niger Delta region. PM are finely
divided solids or liquids that are dispersed throughout the air and are produced from
combustion processes, domestic and industrial activities, as well from natural sources
such as volcanoes, dust and forest fires [1]. Gas flaring, power plant emission,
vehicular emissions, movement of vehicles in Untarred roads, bush burning by
farmers during pre-planting seasons emits PM to the atmosphere. PM load in an area
consists of direct emission from natural and anthropogenic sources and indirectly
from secondary PM sources such as those formed from gaseous precursors [2]. The
level and composition of the PM varies with location, human and natural activities in
the area, topography, meteorological and atmospheric condition of an area. For
example, the south-east Nigerian air environment is characterized by observable high
levels of suspended particulate matter in the dry season due to dust//biomass burning,
soil resuspension, wind-blown dust and Sahara dust transport that are prevalent in the
dry season [2]. Researches have shown that PM especially PM2.5 and PM10 is a health
risk factor and can increase number of hospital admissions [3, 4, 5, 6]
PM
inhalation is injurious to man at significant concentration because it can accumulate in
the lungs and some of the particulate compositions have been established as
carcinogenic. Moreover, PM10 and PM2.5 are criteria air pollutants. PM reduces
visibility, affects precipitation, formation of fog, loss of aesthetics of buildings and
sculptures reduce agricultural productivity due to blockage of stomata openings.
WHO also estimates that 3.7 million people die prematurely every year due to outdoor
air pollution (with a similar number due to indoor air pollution) more than HIV,
malaria and TB together. The main culprit is vehicle emissions, which are responsible
for the majority of this small PM pollution [7].
Researches on PM concentration in the Niger Delta region especially in Rivers
State are available in literature [3, 8, 9, 10] but there are no information on the
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R. U. Enotoriuwa, E. O. Nwachukwu and J. N. Ugbebor

concentration of PM around oil operating areas in Obigbo and environs with


consideration to other land use types. This study therefore seeks to address this gap by
assessing the concentration of PM around this area and also determine the level of
seasonal variation and estimate the population exposed to PM concentration
exceeding WHO PM limits.

2. METHODOLOGY
2.1. Study Area

Figure 1 study area map showing sampling locations


Source: Arcmap 10.0

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Assessment of Particulate Matter Concentration Among Land Use Types In Obigbo and
Environs In Rivers State Nigeria

Oyigbo is a local government in Rivers State with coordinates 4.8781N and


7.1283E (Figure 1). Access roads are numerous in the area. Most noticeable is the
Port HarcourtAba road. The area is a fast expanding area due to the constant inflow
of people. This increase in population is also attributed to relatively low housing rate
as compared to main Port Harcourt city. Some Port Harcourt workers that live in these
areas commute to Port Harcourt for work hence heavy traffic is usually experienced
on the roads. There are at least 12 oil and gas facilities and a power plant in this area.
Agricultural and commercial activities are also evident in the area. The mean
temperature all year round in the area is 30C. The monthly rain fall in area is almost
predictable as it follows a temporal sequence of increase towards July-August before
decreasing in the dry season months of November to February. Rainfall is usually at
its peak in July and September.

2.2. Data Collection


The monitoring stations and their coordinates as in indicated in the study map are
presented in Table 1. The sampling locations coordinates were gotten using etrex
Garmin GPS device. The particulate matter (PM) (PM1, PM2.5, PM4 PM7 and PM10)
mass concentrations in the monitored locations were monitored using a digital read
out electronic instrument, Aerocet Model 531 (Metone Inc. U.S.A.). It is an in-built
particle count data for six different particle size ranges. The sampler was held at the
human breathing zone of height 2m above ground level. The PM concentration
reading recorded is displayed on the instrument's screen. Sampling time for each
parameter was two minutes. Repeated sampling were done and the average taken.
Meteorological parameters were collected using Kestrel weather tracker. Monitoring
was done for one year on a bimonthly basis from March 2015 to February 2016.

2.3. Data Analysis


Descriptive statistics was used to present result of findings. Analysis of variance
(ANOVA) was used to test for significant difference in PM values across the
sampling period and seasons. One-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to
test hypothesis that several means are equal. The test is usually done using p<0.05.
Geostatistical analysis was used to estimate the population exposed to PM2.5 and PM10
and was performed in the geoprossesing environment in ArcGIS 10 software. A 1km
buffer was created for locations with PM2.5 and PM10 exceeding WHO standards
(annual mean) of 10 and 20 to estimate population exposed to PM. Population raster
was added to the map. Zonal statistics as a table was computed using the buffer data
set on the population raster. The resulting table was selected by attribute with the
criteria of PM 2.5 >10 or PM10 >20. The populations in the selected buffers were
summed up.

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Table 1 Sampling locations with location ID, coordinates and elevation


S/N

LOCATION

ID

LATITUDE

LONGITUDE

ELEVATION (m)

MKT 1

4.846536

7.245831

24.03

Ndoki-okoloma market

Afam Power Plant

OF 1

4.848178

7.256875

32.06

Afam GRF

OF 2

4.851692

7.256069

29.08

okoloma gas plant

OF 3

4.846583

7.253944

26.94

Ndoki comprehensive school

SCH 1

4.849867

7.324406

35.72

Ndoki market

MKT 2

4.849056

7.326917

38.92

Ndoki health center

HSP 1

4.852119

7.318367

32.18

Umusibunku comprehensive school

SCH 2

4.85125

7.289361

30.6

Afam-Okoloma round about

BST 1

4.85125

7.2375

27.11

10

AfamObiama-Asa

RES 1

4.847

7.205778

26.06

11

ObigboAfam bus stop

BST 2

4.861278

7.15725

29.3

12

Obigbo market round about

BST 3

4.875639

7.149833

26.58

13

Obigbo market

MKT 3

4.875517

7.144539

25.21

14

Obigbo express bus stop market

MKT4

4.881333

7.132528

27

15

obigbo Flow station

OF 4

4.893647

7.120733

27.32

16

Crisitus Hospital

HSP 2

4.896278

7.114056

23.89

17

Location road Vegetation

VEG 1

4.909889

7.091667

23.34

18

Residential 2

RES 2

4.884806

7.118667

21.69

19

Cherry Pick Hospital

HSP3

4.895972

7.121361

25.47

20

Residential 3

RES 3

4.901722

7.119833

26.65

21

Along Aba road

COM

4.871064

7.110064

21.25

22

Okro Market

MKT 5

4.874528

7.108056

20.12

23

Imo River 1 Flowstation

OF 5

4.979047

7.184956

22.78

24

Imo River 3 Flowstation

OF 6

4.979028

7.178842

21.22

25

NkaliFlowstation

OF 7

4.983636

7.116756

18.46

26

Aba/PH Express Road

BST 4

4.885263

7.144888

17.58

27

Residential 4

RES 4

4.886941

7.126921

26.36

28

Owaza road

VEG 2

4.93813

7.18512

19.83

29

Garden Avenue road

RES 5

4.91311

7.131221

29.21

30

owaza road junction

BST 5

4.90411

7.183233

18.24

31

Control

CON

4.844297

7.398789

39.83

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Assessment of Particulate Matter Concentration Among Land Use Types In Obigbo and
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3. RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS


The results of Particulate matter and data analyses are presented in Tables and in
charts. Monitoring results for wet and dry seasons as well as full season meteorology
results are presented in Table 2
Wet season PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM7 and PM10 ranged from 0.9 g/m3 to 8.5
g/m3, 3.1 g/m3 to 32.2 g/m3 , 7.6 g/m3 to 42.4 g/m3, 15.7 g/m3 to 59.9
g/m3 and 10.8 g/m3 to 76.8 g/m3 respectively. The mean values of the controls
for PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM7 and PM10 during the wet season were 0.6 g/m3, 1.8
g/m3, 2.8 g/m3, 4.8 g/m3 and 9.3 g/m3 respectively (Figure 2).
Dry season PM1, PM2.5, PM4, PM7 and PM10 ranged from 2.5 g/m3 to 12.4
g/m3, 7.2 g/m3 to 75.7 g/m3, 20.8 g/m3 to 115.5 g/m3, 28.1 g/m3 to 151.9
g/m3 and 29.3 g/m3 to 211.9 g/m3 respectively while the mean values of PM1,
PM2.5, PM4, PM7 and PM10 for the controls during the dry season were 1.6 g/m3,
4.3 g/m3, 7.6 g/m3, 13.0 g/m3 and 25.2 g/m3 respectively (Figure 3).
Mean wind speed ranged from 0.5 m/s to 0.9 m/s across both seasons. Mean
ambient temperature ranged from 29.8 oC to 33.9 oC and humidity values ranged
from 57.8% to 82.8%
The relatively low value of PM1 observed at OF 2 and OF 3 in both seasons can
be attributed to the location and operation of the facilities as they are far from the
road. OF 2 is used as a gas receiving facility for the power plant. OF 3 is a gas plant
with high flare stack. The relatively high value observed in BST 1, BST 4 and COM
is due to persistent vehicular movement at these locations during the day and usually
occasioned by traffic jam. Vehicular emission is a major source of particulate matter
[11]. The roads around these bus stops especially during the dry season are dusty
because of unmaintained pot holes. MKT 3, 4 and 5 are busy markets with lots of
activities. Biomass burning is also a practice as they burn wood and charcoal to dry
fish, roast plantain and yam. Small pockets of refuse burning is occasionally done as
an easy way to get rid of refuse. Values obtained are in line with those obtained by [2,
3] and relatively less than those obtained by [9]. PM 2.5 and PM10 poses great risk to
health thus can cause or make one susceptible to respiratory related diseases. Air
quality policies in Nigeria just as with other underdeveloped African countries are still
rudimentary [12]. In nigeria, Little concern is given to vehicular and other non
industrial sourece [13]. Even at that, implementation of existing policies is also a
challenge. The available environment laws designed to curb air pollution in Nigeria
are not given the desired enforcement by government agencies responsible for the
protection of the environment where defaulting companies or polluters are penalized
by payment of a trivial sum of money that is imposed on them as fines [14]. Periodic
air quality review is necessary to help capture more aspects of air pollution and should
tend to proactively abate and mitigate air pollution. Such reviews should involve
necessary stake holders.

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100
80
60

PM 1

40

PM 2.5

20

PM 4

PM 7

MKT 1
OF 1
OF 2
OF 3
SCH 1
MKT 2
HSP 1
SCH 2
BST 1
RES 1
BST 2
BST 3
MKT 3
MKT4
OF 4
HSP 2
VEG 1
RES 2
HSP3
RES 3
COM
MKT 5
OF 5
OF 6
OF 8
BST 4
RES 4
VEG 2
RES 5
BST 5
CON

PM concentration (g/m3)

Wet season PM concentration across land use types

PM 10

Monitoring locations

Figure 2 Wet season PM concentration across monitoring locations


Dry season PM concentration across land use types

200
150

PM 1
PM 2.5

100

PM 4
50

PM 7

PM 10

MKT 1
OF 1
OF 2
OF 3
SCH 1
MKT 2
HSP 1
SCH 2
BST 1
RES 1
BST 2
BST 3
MKT 3
MKT4
OF 4
HSP 2
VEG 1
RES 2
HSP3
RES 3
COM
MKT 5
OF 5
OF 6
OF 8
BST 4
RES 4
VEG 2
RES 5
BST 5
CON

PM concentration (g/m3)

250

Monitoring locations

Figure 3 Dry season PM concentration across monitoring locations

One way ANOVA was performed on the dataset to ascertain if there was
statistically significant difference (p<0.05) in the values of the monitored parameters
across the monitoring periods during the wet and dry seasons. Results are presented in
Table 3. Result showed that there is significant temporal variation in the values of the
particulate matter. One way ANOVA was also done to check for seasonal variation.
Results revealed that PM values were significantly different (p<0.05) in the wet and
dry seasons (Table 4).Wet season PM values were significantly less than PM values
for dry season and this can be attributed to atmospheric clean up through wash out
and rain out. Wet season usually records low PM values due to clean up from the rain
[2]. Small size PM can serve as condensation nuclei during cloud formation also PM
can coagulate to form larger particles that are washed down by rain. High values
during the dry season could also be influenced by southerly transport of windblown
suspended sahara dust.

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Assessment of Particulate Matter Concentration Among Land Use Types In Obigbo and
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Table 1 ANOVA result showing level of significance across monitoring period
S/N

Pollutant
parameter

PM 1

PM 2.5

PM 4

PM 7

PM 10

Season

F.calc

F.crit

Wet
Dry
Wet
Dry
Wet
Dry
Wet
Dry
Wet
Dry

18.53345
17.43125
21.1588
9.446813
20.71704
15.94578
21.68534
16.8718
15.87497
11.78655

1.744308
1.912236
1.744308
1.912236
1.744308
1.912236
1.744308
1.912236
1.744308
1.912236

Level of
Significance
Significant
Significant
Significant
Significant
Significant
Significant
Significant
Significant
Significant
Significant

Table 2 ANOVA result showing level of significance in seasonal variation


F.calc

F.crit

Pollutant
parameter
PM 1

39.56513

4.006873

Level of
significance
Significant

PM2.5

19.59052

4.006873

Significant

PM4

47.05166

4.006873

Significant

PM7

48.05614

4.006873

Significant

PM10

36.79956

4.006873

Significant

S/N

Geostatistical analysis result estimated that over 131699 persons in the study area
are exposed to PM2.5 and PM10 based on values exceeding WHO annual limits. The
reason for this is the pattern of settlement in the area as people live around monitored
locations with relatively high particulate matter values.

4. CONCLUSION
The Niger Delta region of Nigeria has over the years been a subject of discussion in
terms of pollution. Most environmental studies especially air quality researches have
been directed towards the impact of oil and gas industries on the environment. This
study considered oil and gas facilities and other land use types. Assessment of the
mass concentration of particulate matter around the selected land use types was
carried out. Results recorded showed that the air quality is poor with most of the PM
values exceeding WHO limits. Higher values of PM were observed in the dry season
with highest records around bus stops and markets. There were significant differences
in the values of the monitored parameters across the monitoring periods during the
wet and dry seasons hence values of air quality parameters in the study area are
affected by seasonality. The air quality in the area is poor and the results obtained
from this study justify the need for epidemiological study to ascertain the health effect
this poor air quality has on the affected population and also the need for government
to improve existing air quality policy.

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS
The authors thank the World Bank and The World Bank African Center of Excellence
for Oilfields Chemicals Research for offer of scholarship and research support.
Thanks also go to Center leaders Prof. Joel Ogbonna, Prof. Akaranta for their
leadership role and encouragement. We thank University of Port Harcourt for the
immense support received.

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Assessment of Particulate Matter Concentration Among Land Use Types In Obigbo and
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APPENDIX
Table 3 Wet and dry season particulate matter concentrations and full season meteorological
values
Wet season PM Values (g/m3)

Dry Season PM Values (g/m3)

Code

PM
1

PM
2.5

PM
4

PM
7

PM
10

PM
1

PM
2.5

PM
4

PM
7

PM
10

MKT 1
OF 1
OF 2
OF 3
SCH 1
MKT 2
HSP 1
SCH 2
BST 1
RES 1
BST 2
BST 3
MKT 3
MKT4
OF 4
HSP 2
VEG 1
RES 2
HSP3
RES 3
COM
MKT 5
OF 5
OF 6
OF 8
BST 4
RES 4
VEG 2
RES 5
BST 5
CON

1.4
1.1
0.9
1.2
2.1
1.8
1.7
1.5
8.5
2.8
2.6
3.1
4.1
4.9
3.8
2.9
2.3
3.3
2.6
1.7
1.9
1.3
1.2
1
1.1
5.1
2.9
2.2
3.2
3.1
0.6

4.2
4
3.2
3.1
6.3
4.6
4.7
4.2
13.6
13.8
13.7
20.9
24
31.6
17.9
19.6
9.6
26.7
18.1
10.3
24.4
28.8
7.2
6.7
7.7
32.2
18.4
9.1
29.4
19
1.8

8.8
9.9
7.6
9
11.3
9.8
9.4
11.9
19.5
19.2
26.1
31.5
38.3
34.8
37.3
22.1
14.9
34.5
26.6
20.8
42.4
31.5
19.1
20
18.1
34.2
31.7
16.6
18.7
33.8
2.8

17.9
15.7
16.2
15.7
19
19.8
16.5
16.7
35.1
39.4
25.3
48.2
52.7
48.4
45.8
30.5
18.4
32.3
27
25.3
59.9
51.6
34.8
40.3
33.5
53.7
19.2
16.1
16.2
31.6
4.8

25.8
17.7
18.5
16.1
16.1
10.8
13.5
18.8
76.8
61.8
56.9
54.8
56.4
74.8
46.7
40.3
22.6
52.6
24.2
23.1
76.3
55.9
28.5
29.6
27.9
75.7
41.1
23
53.7
34.8
9.3

3.8
3.1
2.5
3.2
5.7
4.8
4.5
4.1
6.6
6.9
7.2
8.3
11.1
12.3
10.4
7.9
6.2
8.9
7.2
4.7
5.3
3.5
3.2
2.6
2.9
12.4
7.7
6
8.8
8.6
1.6

9.9
9.5
7.5
7.2
14.9
10.7
11.1
9.9
30.8
27.5
32.2
49.1
56.4
74.3
42.1
46
22.6
62.7
42.5
24.2
57.3
67.6
16.8
15.8
18.1
75.7
43.2
21.3
69
44.6
4.3

23.9
27.1
20.8
24.5
30.9
26.6
25.8
32.4
50.4
45.7
71.2
85.8
104.4
92.9
101.7
60.3
40.7
94
72.6
56.7
115.5
85.8
52.1
54.5
49.3
91.1
86.5
45.2
50.9
92.1
7.6

43.3
42.9
44.2
28.1
51.8
54
45.1
45.5
82.1
95.7
69
131.3
143.7
127.9
124.7
83
50.1
84.2
73.5
69
151.9
140.5
94.7
109.9
91.2
142
52.4
43.7
44.2
73.9
13

70.3
48.3
43.9
43.9
43.9
29.3
36.6
51.2
197.6
146.4
155.2
169.3
158.7
240.1
133.4
109.8
61.5
137.6
65.9
68
211.9
152.2
77.6
80.5
76.1
202.3
112
62.7
140.4
94.9
25.2

http://www.iaeme.com/IJCIET/index.asp

261

Full Season
WIND TEMP
SPPE
ERAT
D
URE
(m/s)
(oC)
0.5
30.9
0.6
31.2
0.6
31.2
0.6
31.2
0.6
31.5
0.5
31.6
0.5
31.8
0.6
31.9
0.7
32
0.6
31.9
0.6
32.4
0.6
33
0.6
32.4
0.5
32.3
0.8
33.4
0.8
33.1
0.8
32.3
0.7
32.9
0.7
33
0.7
32.9
0.8
33.9
0.8
33.6
0.7
33.6
0.8
33.3
0.7
33.8
0.6
32.7
0.9
33.7
0.8
29.8
0.8
31.3
0.7
33.3
0.5
33.4

editor@iaeme.com

HUM
IDIT
Y
(%)
61
60.8
57.9
61.6
60.7
59.5
61
57.8
61.7
59.2
61
67.4
68.8
68.7
71.5
69.5
71.9
73.8
75.9
68.2
69.7
64.4
74.2
73
74.9
81.8
81.6
80.3
82.4
82.8
75.2