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Code No: 2320204 Set No. 1


III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April/May 2009
INSTRUMENTATION
(Electrical � Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

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Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
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1. (a) Define ‘repeatability’ and ‘reproducibility’ and discuss why instruments should
possess these characteristics.
(b) Explian how the ‘nonlinearity’ of a measuring system is defined and estimated.
[8+8]

2. (a) Explain the rectangular, pulse and unit impulse function with its frequency
spectrum of aperiodic signal.
(b) Give the functions of rectangular wave and rectangular pulse train of periodic
signal. [8+8]

3. (a) Derive an expression for the vertical deflection of an electron beam in the
CRT.
(b) The deflection sensitivity of an oscilloscope is 35 v/cm. If the distance from
deflection plates to CRT screen is 16cm, length of the deflection plate is 2.5cm
and the distance between the deflecting plates is 1.2cm. What is the acceler-
ation anode voltage?

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[8+8]

4. Explain with a neat circuit diagram of a R.M.S voltmeter. [16]

5. (a) Mention a few applications of heterodyne wave analyzers.


(b) Explain the principle and operation of basic spectrum analyzer with a neat
block diagram. [4+12]

6. A piezoelectric transducer has a capacitance of 1000pF and a charge sensitivity of


40� 10 ­ 3 C/m. The connecting cable has a capacitance of 300pF while the oscil-
loscope used for readout has an input resistance of 1MΩ and a parallel capacitance
of 50pF.

(a) what is the sensitivity of the transducer alone?


(b) (V/m) of the entire measuring system?
(c) what is the lowest frequency that can be measured with a 5� amplitude error
by the entire system
(d) what is the value of external shunt capacitance that can be connected in order
to extend the range of 5� error down to 10 Hz.?
(e) What is the high frequency sensitivity, when the external shunt capacitance
calculated in
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Code No: 2320204 Set No. 1


(f) is connected in the circuit. [16]

7. (a) Describe adjacent arm compensating gauge method of temperature compen-


sation for strain gauges.

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(b) A strain gauge bridge comprises of two fixed resistors each of value 120 Ω, one
active gauge and an unstrained temperature compensated gauge. The two
gauges are of unstrained resistance120 Ω and a gauge factor of 2.2. Find the
bridge output voltage for a supply of 3V, when active gauge is subjected to
600μ Strain. (with output open) [10+6]

8. (a) Differentiate between themistors and thermocouples.


(b) Explain the principle and working of total radiation pyrometer. [6+10]

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Code No: 2320204 Set No. 2


III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April/May 2009
INSTRUMENTATION
(Electrical � Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

www.andhracolleges.com
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
�����

1. (a) What is drift? Explain different types of drifts with sketches of input-output
relationships in each case.
(b) A 600v voltmeter is specified to be accurate within � 2� at full scale. Calcu-
late the limiting error when the instrument is used measure a voltage of 250v.
[8+8]

2. Explain how angle modulation of a signal is done. Distinguish between angle and
Phasemodulation. [16]

3. (a) Derive an expression for the vertical deflection of an electron beam in the
CRT.
(b) The deflection sensitivity of an oscilloscope is 35 v/cm. If the distance from
deflection plates to CRT screen is 16cm, length of the deflection plate is 2.5cm
and the distance between the deflecting plates is 1.2cm. What is the acceler-
ation anode voltage?
[8+8]

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4. (a) Explain the phase meter principles employed in measuring equipment.
(b) Give the advantage of Digital voltmeters. [8+8]

5. (a) Explain the principle and working of peak reading voltmeter with a neat block
diagram.
(b) A coil of unknown impedance is connected in series with a capacitor of 224μF
and an ammeter of negligible impedance is connected to a variable frequency of
constant voltage and negligible impedance. The frequency was adjusted both
above and below the resonance frequency till the reading of the ammeter was
reduced to 70.7� of its value at resonance. This occurred at the frequencies
of 876 and 892 kHz. Determine effective resistance, inductance and Q of the
coil. [10+6]

6. A piezoelectric transducer has a capacitance of 1000pF and a charge sensitivity of


40× 10 ­ 3 C/m. The connecting cable has a capacitance of 300pF while the oscil-
loscope used for readout has an input resistance of 1MΩ and a parallel capacitance
of 50pF.

(a) what is the sensitivity of the transducer alone?


(b) (V/m) of the entire measuring system?
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Code No: 2320204 Set No. 2


(c) what is the lowest frequency that can be measured with a 5� amplitude error
by the entire system
(d) what is the value of external shunt capacitance that can be connected in order
to extend the range of 5� error down to 10 Hz.?

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(e) What is the high frequency sensitivity, when the external shunt capacitance
calculated in
(f) is connected in the circuit. [16]

7. (a) Describe the following methods of temperature compensation for strain gauges
i. use of dummy gauge
ii. half bridge method.
(b) A single electrical resistance strain gauge of resistance 120Ω and having a
gauge factor of 2 is bonded to steel having elastic limit stress of 400MN/m2 .
and modulus of elasticity 200GN/m2 .Calculate the change in resistance due
to
i. change in stress equal to 1/10th of the elastic range
ii. change of temperature of 20 0 C if the material is advanced alloy. The
resistance temperature coefficient of alloy is 20 × 10 ­ 6 / 0 C.
iii. Calculate the strain due to the differential expansion of the guage metal
and steel, if coefficient of linear expansion of the steel is 12 × 10 ­ 6 / 0 C
and that of the advanced alloy is 16 × 10 ­ 6 / 0 C. [8+8]

8. (a) Differentiate between themistors and thermocouples.

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(b) Explain the principle and working of total radiation pyrometer. [6+10]

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Code No: 2320204 Set No. 3


III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April/May 2009
INSTRUMENTATION
(Electrical � Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

www.andhracolleges.com
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
�����

1. Explain the types of test signals used for determination of dynamic characteristics.
[16]

2. Write about

(a) Sidebands of a modulated signal


(b) Modulated index
(c) ‘Distortion’ of signal
(d) Analog signals. [4+4+4+4]

3. Explain with a neat block diagram of horizontal deflection system. [16]

4. (a) Explain the Phase Meter principles employed in measuring equipment?


(b) Draw and explain Digital phase meter? [8+8]

5. Write a short notes on the following:

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(a) Spectral displays
(b) Q meters
(c) THD. [7+5+4]

6. A piezoelectric transducer has a capacitance of 1000pF and a charge sensitivity of


40� 10 ­ 3 C/m. The connecting cable has a capacitance of 300pF while the oscil-
loscope used for readout has an input resistance of 1MΩ and a parallel capacitance
of 50pF.

(a) what is the sensitivity of the transducer alone?


(b) (V/m) of the entire measuring system?
(c) what is the lowest frequency that can be measured with a 5� amplitude error
by the entire system
(d) what is the value of external shunt capacitance that can be connected in order
to extend the range of 5� error down to 10 Hz.?
(e) What is the high frequency sensitivity, when the external shunt capacitance
calculated in
(f) is connected in the circuit. [16]

7. (a) Discuss in detail about strain gauge Rosettes.


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Code No: 2320204 Set No. 3


(b) The strain gauge having a gauge factor of 2 is connected in a bridge circuit
having an excitation voltage 8V. The resistances are equal.It is subjected to a
strain of 0.006. If this output is to represent 2/3rd of full scale deflection of a
recorder, what should be the gain of the amplifier. The full scale input

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voltage of the recorder is 1V. [10+6]

8. Write a short notes on the following:

(a) Inductive torque transducer


(b) Pirani gauge
(c) RTD. [16]

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Code No: 2320204 Set No. 4


III B.Tech II Semester Regular Examinations, April/May 2009
INSTRUMENTATION
(Electrical � Electronic Engineering)
Time: 3 hours Max Marks: 80

www.andhracolleges.com
Answer any FIVE Questions
All Questions carry equal marks
�����

1. (a) Classify and explain different types of errors that occur in measurements.
(b) 0-150 volts voltmeter has a guaranteed accuracy of 1�of full scale reading.
The voltage measured by this instrument is 150volts. Calculate the limiting
error in percentage. Comment upon the result. [8+8]
2. Write about
(a) Sidebands of a modulated signal
(b) Modulated index
(c) ‘Distortion’ of signal
(d) Analog signals. [4+4+4+4]
3. (a) Define deflection sensitivity and deflection factor of a cathode ray tube.
(b) In a cathode ray tube the distance between the deflecting plates is 3.0cm, the
length of the deflecting plates is 5.5cm and the distance of the screen from the
centre of the deflecting plates is 33cm. If the accelerating voltage supply is

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200volt, calculate deflection sensitivity of the tube. [8+8]
4. Explain the voltage to time conversion of linear ramp technique with a neat sketch.
[16]
5. (a) What are spectrum analyzers? Classify them.
(b) Explain the principle and operation of basic spectrum analyzer with a neat
block diagram. [4+12]
6. (a) Define transducer. Classify transducers.
(b) Explain the ouput characteristics of the transducers. [10+6]
7. (a) Explain the principle and operation of a moving magnet type linear velocity
transducer with a neat sketch.
(b) Explain the principle and operation of a stroboscope with a neat sketch. [8+8]
8. (a) Explain the principles of temperature measurement with thermistors.
(b) State the thermoelectric laws and explain them briefly.
(c) Describe the construction of resistance wire thermometers. [6+5+5]

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