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DESIGN

GUIDE
for midas Civil

Prestressed Box Girder Design


Composite Steel Box Girder Design
Composite Plate Girder Design

DESIGN
GUIDE
for midas Civil

DISCLAIMER
Developers and distributors assume no responsibility for the use of MIDAS Family Program (midas Civil, midas
FEA, midas FX+, midas Gen, midas Drawing, midas SDS, midas GTS, SoilWorks, midas NFX ; hereinafter referred
to as MIDAS package) or for the accuracy or validity of any results obtained from the MIDAS package.
Developers and distributors shall not be liable for loss of prot, loss of business, or nancial loss which may be
caused directly or indirectly by the MIDAS package, when used for any purpose or use, due to any defect or
deciency therein. Accordingly, the user is encouraged to fully understand the bases of the program and
become familiar with the users manuals. The user shall also independently verify the results produced by the
program.

Foreword
The objective of this design guide is to outline the design algorithms
which are applied in midas Civil nite element analysis and design
system. The guide aims to provide sucient information for the
user to understand the scope, limitations and formulas applied in
the design features and to provide relevant references to the
clauses in the Design standards.
The design guide covers prestressed box girder, composite steel box
girder and composite plate girder as per Eurocode.
It is recommended that you read this guide and review corresponding tutorials, which are found on our web site,
http://www.MidasUser.com, before designing. Additional information can be found in the online help available in the programs main
menu.

Organization
This guide is designed to help you quickly become productive with
the design options of EN 1992-2 and EN 1994-2.
Chapter 1 provides detailed descriptions of the design parameters,
ULS/SLS checks, design outputs used for prestressed box girder
design to EN 1992-2.
Chapter 2 provides detailed descriptions of the design parameters,
ULS/SLS checks, design outputs used for composite steel box girder
design to EN 1994-2.
Chapter 3 provides detailed descriptions of the design parameters,
ULS/SLS checks, design outputs used for composite plate girder
design to EN 1994-2.
Although there is a huge overlap between Chapter 2 and Chapter 3
due to the similarity of structural types, the composite steel box
girder and the composite plate girder are explained in two separate
chapters for the convenience of the readers.
As the table of contents is printed on the folded ap, the readers
can access the table of contents easily from any page of the book.

Contents
1.
01 Chapter
Prestressed Box Girder Design

(EN 1992-2)

Ultimate Limit States


1. Moment Resistance

02

2. Shear Resistance

12

3. Torsion Resistance

19

Serviceability Limit States


1. Stress for cross section at a construction stage

26

2. Stress for cross section at service loads

30

3. Tensile stress for Prestressing tendons

31

4. Principal stress at a construction stage

34

5. Principal stress at service loads

36

6. Check crack width

38

2.
46 Chapter
Composite Steel Box Girder Design

(EN 1994-2)

Ultimate Limit States


1. Bending Resistance

46

2. Resistance to Vertical Shear

64

3. Resistance to Longitudanal Shear

71

Serviceability Limit States


1. Stress Limitation

76

2. Longitudinal shear in SLS

79

DESIGN GUIDE
for midas Civil

3.
82 Chapter
Composite Plate Girder Design

(EN 1994-2)

Ultimate Limit States


1. Bending Resistance

82

2. Resistance to Vertical Shear

101

3. Resistance to Lateral-Torsional Buckling

108

4. Resistance to Transverse Forces

112

5. Resistance to Longitudanal Shear

116

6. Resistance to Fatigue

119

Serviceability Limit States


1. Stress Limitation

122

2. Longitudinal shear in SLS

125

Chapter 1.

Prestressed Box
Girder Design
EN 1992-2

Chapter 1.

Prestressed Box Girder Design (EN 1992-2)


Prestressed box girder needs to be designed to satisfy the following limit states.

Ultimate Limit States


Moment Resistance
Shear Resistance
Torsion Resistance

Serviceability Limit States


Stress for cross section at a construction stage
Stress for cross section at service loads
Tensile stress for Prestressing tendons
Principal stress at a construction stage
Principal stress at service loads
Check crack width

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

UltimateLimitStates

1.Momentresistance

Limitstateofmomentresistanceshouldsatisfythecondition,MEdMRd.
Momentresistance,MRd,iscalculatedusingthestraincompatibilitymethodasshownbelow.

1.1Designstrengthofmaterial
(1)Designcompressivestrengthofconcrete

f cd cc f ck / c

(1.1)

EN199211:2004
3.1.6(1)

where,
cc: The coefficient taking account of long term effects on the compressive strength and of unfavourable
effects resulting from the way the load is applied.
fck : The characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days.
c : The partial safety factor for concrete.

(2)Designyieldstrengthofreinforcement

f yd f yk / s

(1.2)

EN199211:2004
3.2.7(2)

(1.3)

EN199211:2004
3.3.6(6)

where,
fyk: The characteristic yield strength of reinforcement.
s : The partial safety factor for reinforcement or prestressing steel.

(3)Designtensilestrengthoftendon.

f pd f p 0 ,1k / s

where,
fp0,1k: The characteristic 0.1% proof-stress of prestressing steel.
s : The partial safety factor for reinforcement or prestressing steel.

Partialfactorsformaterialsc,s
If User Input Data option is checked on, the partial factors will be applied as the user
definedvalue.However,iftheoptionischeckedoff,thevaluesinTable1.1willbeapplied.

[Table1.1]PartialfactorsformaterialsforULS

sforreinforcing sforprestressing
steel
steel

DesignSituations

cforconcrete

Persistent&Transient

1.5

1.15

1.15

Accidental

1.2

1.0

1.0

EN199211:2004
Table2.1N

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

Partialsafetyfactorc,s /Coefficientforlongtermcc,ct

MaindesignparametersformaterialscanbeenteredinModifyDesignParametersdialogbox.
Amongtheinputvalues,ccisconsideredwhencalculatingmomentresistanceinUltimateLimit
Stateanditisappliedas1.0forshearandtorsionalresistance.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignParameters>ModifyDesignParameters

c,s

cc,ct

[Fig.1.1]ModifyDesignParametersInputDialog

When defining partial factors for materials, Persistent & Transient and Accidental design
situationscanbespecifiedasshowninTable1.2.

[Table1.2]Classificationofdesignsituations

Designsituations
Persistent&Transient

Accidental

Description
LoadcombinationnotAccidentalsituation
Loadcombinationincludefollowingloadcase type,
LiveLoadImpact(IL,IM)
CollisionLoad(CO)
VehicularCollisionForce(CT)
VesselCollisionForce(CV)

LoadcasetypeneedtobespecifiedinStaticLoadCasesdialogbox.
Load>StaticLoadCases

[Fig.1.2]StaticLoadCasesInputDialog

DesignGuideformidasCivil


StrengthofConcrete/Reinforcement
DefinethematerialstrengthsofconcreteandsteelinPSCDesignMaterialdialogbox.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignMaterial

fck

fyk
fywk

[Fig.1.3]Definefck,fyk,fywk

Select'None'intheCodefieldandenterthenameofthematerialtobeusedintheNamefield.
Then,eachdatafieldisactivatedandthestrengthofmaterialscanbeentered.

StrengthofTendon
DefinethestrengthoftendoninTendonPropertydialogbox.

Load>PrestressLoads>TendonProperty

fpk
fp0,1k

[Fig.1.4]Definefpk,fp0.1k

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

1.2Calculateneutralaxisdepth

Calculatethepositionofneutralaxisbyiterativeapproachasshowninthefigurebelow.

[Fig.1.5]Flowcharttocalculateneutralaxisdepth,x

(1)Calculateforceofconcrete,Fc.

Fc f cd x

(1.4)

dA

where,
: The effective height of the compression zone factor.
: The effective strength factor.

Condition

fck50MPa

0.8

1.0

50<fck90MPa

0.8(fck50)/400

1.0(fck50)/200

fck>90MPa

0.7

0.8

EN199211:2004
(3.19)~(3.22)

x: The neutral axis depth.

InmidasCivil,arectangularstressdistributionisusedasshowninthefigurebelow.
(Ultimatestrainofconcretecu=cu3)

EN199211:2004
Figure3.5

[Fig.1.6]Rectangularstressdistribution

DesignGuideformidasCivil

(2)Calculateforceofreinforcement,Fs,Fs.

Fs As f s , Fs ' As ' f s '

(1.5)

where,
As, As: The cross sectional area of tensile and compressive reinforcement.
fs , fs : The stress of tensile and compressive reinforcement.

Inordertocalculatethestressofreinforcingsteel,fsandfs,calculatetheappropriatestrainby
thestraincompatibilitycondition.Andthencalculatethecorrespondingstressesinthestress
straindiagram.
Calculationmethodofstrainandstressisasfollow.

Calculatethestrainsofreinforcementbyassumingalinearstraindistributionandthestrainof
cu3attheextremefiberoftheconcreteincompression.

dt x
x dc
cu , s '
cu
x
x

(1.6)

where,
s : The strain of tensile reinforcement.
s: The strain of compressive reinforcement.
cu: The ultimate compressive strain in the concrete. (cu = cu3)
x : The neutral axis depth.
dt : Distance from the tensile rebar to the extreme top fiber of the element
dc : Distance from the compressive rebar to the extreme top fiber of the element

EN199211:2004
Figure6.1

[Fig.1.7]Possiblestraindistributionsintheultimatelimitstate

Calculatethereinforcementstressesappropriatetothecalculatedreinforcementstrains.
(fromthestressstrainidealizations)

s Es ( s yd )
s ' Es ( s ' yd )
fs
, f s '

( s ' yd )
f yd ( s yd )
f yd

(1.7)

yd f yd / E s

(1.8)

f yd f yk / s

(1.9)

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

where,
Es : The design value of modulus of elasticity of reinforcement.
fyd : The design yield strength of reinforcement. (See 1.1(2))
yd : The yield strain of reinforcement.

EN199211:2004
Figure3.8

[Fig.1.8]Idealizedanddesignstressstraindiagramforreinforcingsteel

(3)Calculateforceoftendon,Fp.

Fp Api f pi

(1.9)

where,
Api : The cross sectional area of tendon.
fpi : The stress of tendon.

Inordertocalculatethestressoftendon,fpi,calculatetheappropriatestrainbythestrain
compatibilitycondition.Andthencalculatethecorrespondingstressesinthestressstrain
diagram.
Calculationmethodofstrainandstressisasfollow.

Calculatethestrainsofreinforcementbyassumingalinearstraindistributionandthestrainof
cu3attheextremefiberoftheconcreteincompression.

p p p ( 0) cu

d x eff

x
Ep

(1.10)

where,
p : The change in strain in prestressing steel.
p(0): The initial strain in prestressing steel.
eff : The stress under the effective prestress, Pe
Ep : The design value of modulus of elasticity of prestressing steel.

EN199211:2004
Figure6.1

[Fig.1.9]Possiblestraindistributionsintheultimatelimitstate

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Calculatethereinforcementstressesappropriatetothecalculatedreinforcementstrains.
(fromthestressstrainidealizations)

EN199211:2004
Figure3.10

[Fig.1.10]Idealizedanddesignstressstraindiagramsforprestressingsteel

[Table1.3]Stressoftendon,fp

TendonType

BondType

Internal(Pretension)

Bonded

f p p E p p p ( 0) E p f pd

Bonded

f p p E p p p ( 0) E p f pd

Unbonded

f p f pe p ,ULS f pe 100MPa

Unbonded

f p f pe p ,ULS f pe 100MPa

Internal(Posttension)
External

fp

EN199211:2004
5.10.8(2)

where,
p,ULS : The increase of the stress from the effective prestress to the stress in the ultimate limit state. The
recommended value is 100MPa.

(4)Checkifresultantforceiszero.
Determinetheneutralaxispositionbyiterativeapproachoftheclause(1)to(3)untilthe
compressivestrength(C=Fc+Fs)andtensilestrength(T=Fs+Fp)becomeidentical.InmidasCivil,
convergenceconditionforC=Tisappliedasfollows.

Convergencecondition:

C
1.0 0.001
T

(Tolerance)

(1.11)

where,

C Fc Fs ', T Fs Fp

(1.12)

ReassumeneutralaxisdepthbyBisectionmethod(Numericalanalysis)beforemeet
followingstopcondition.

[Table1.4]Stopconditionforiterativeapproach

Stopcondition
Converge

Notconverge

Description
C
1.0 0.001
T

Repeatcount>20
OutputNotconvergeinMessagewindow.
Needtomodifymodelasfollowing.
Increasesectionsize.
Modifyprestressingforcesintendons.
Modifythepositionoftendons.

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

TendonType
DefinethetendontypeandbondtypeinTendonPropertydialogbox.
Load>PrestressLoads>TendonProperty

[Fig.1.11]TendonPropertyInputDialog

1.3CalculatemomentresistanceMRd
Oncetheneutralaxisiscalculated,momentresistancecanbecalculatedbymultiplyingtheaxial
forcesandeccentricityfromtheneutralaxis.

M Rd Fc a c Fs ' a s ' Fs a s F pi a pi

(1.13)

where,
ac, as, as, api : The distance from neutral axis depth, x to concrete, reinforcement rebar, tendon.

[Fig.1.12]ForcesanddistancesfromneutralaxisdepthforMRd

1.4Checkmomentresistance

M Ed M Rd

(1.14)

where,
MEd : Design value of the applied internal bending moment.
MRd : Design moment resistance.

Designloadcombination
InmidasCivil,loadcombinationtobeusedinPSCdesigncanbedefinedinResults>Load
combinations>ConcreteDesigntab.Momentresistanceisverifiedwiththemostcriticalpositive
andnegativedesignmomentamongtheloadcombinationsspecifiedasStrength/Stressin
Activecolumn.

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Results>LoadCombinations

[Fig.1.13]LoadCombinationsInputDialog

1.5Verificationofmomentresistance

ByResultTables
Thedesignresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignResultTables>CheckFlexuralStrength

[Fig.1.14]Resulttableformomentresistance

Elem:Elementnumber
Part:Checklocation(IEnd,JEnd)ofeachelement.
Positive/Negative:Positivemoment,negativemoment.
LComName:Loadcombinationname.
Type:Displaysthesetofmemberforcescorrespondingtomovingloadcaseorsettlementloadcasefor
whichthemaximumstressesareproduced.
CHK:Flexuralstrengthcheckforelement
M_Ed:Designmoment
M_Rd:Momentresistance.
M_Ed/M_Rd:Theratioofdesignmomenttomomentresistance.
Aps:Crosssectionalareaoftensiletendons.

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

10

ByExcelReport
Detaildesignresultsincludingappliedequationsanddesignparameterscanbefoundinthe
ExcelReport.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignCalculation

[Fig.1.15]Excelreportformomentresistance

11

DesignGuideformidasCivil

2.Shearresistance
Limitstateofshearresistanceshouldsatisfythecondition,VEdVRd.
Shearresistance,VRd,iscalculatedasfollows.

2.1Designstrengthofmaterial
(1)Designcompressivestrengthofconcrete.

f cd cc f ck / c

(1.15)

EN199211:2004
3.1.6(1)

(1.16)

EN199211:2004
3.2.7(1)

(1.17)

EN199211:2004
3.3.6(6)

Usingcc=1.0forshearregardlessofinputvalue.

(2)Designyieldstrengthofreinforcement.

f yd f yk / s

(3)Designtensilestrengthoftendon.

f pd f p 0 ,1k / s

Refertotheclause1.1fordetailexplanationofmaterialstrength.

2.2CalculateshearresistanceVRd

[Fig.1.16]FlowcharttocalculateVRd

(1)CalculateVRd,c

[Table1.5]Shearstrengthbyconcrete,VRd,c

Flexuraltensilestress

VRd,c

fctk,0.05/c

V Rd ,c C Rd , c k

<fctk,0.05/c

VRd ,c

1
100 l f ck 3

V Rd , c v min k1 cp b w d

Ibw
S

k1 cp bw d

f ctd 2 l cp f ctd

EN199211:2004
(6.2.a),(6.2.b)
EN199211:2004
(6.4)

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

12

where,
VRd,c : The design shear resistance without shear reinforcement.
bw : The smallest width of the cross-section in the tensile area. When the user specifies the web
thickness directly in PSC tap of Section Data dialog box, the minimum value among the specified
values will be applied. When Auto option is selected in Web Thick. Field, the program can
automatically calculate the section size and apply the minimum value.
d
: The effective depth of cross-section. In midas Civil, the value of d is calculated as the maximum
value of [dp, ds, 0.85h].
dp : Distance from the centroid of tendon to the extreme fiber of cross-section
ds : Distance from the centroid of tensile rebar to the extreme fiber of cross-section
h : Height of section.

[Fig.1.17]Parameterstocalculated

fctk,0.05 : The characteristic axial tensile strength of concrete (5% fractile).

f ctk , 0.05 0 .7 f ctm

(1.18)

EN199211:2004
Table3.1

fctm : The mean value of axial tensile strength of concrete

[Table1.6]Meanvalueofaxialtensilestrengthofconcrete,fctm
Condition
fctm

EN199211:2004
Table3.1

0.3fck2/3
2.12ln(1+(fcm/10)),fcm=fck+8MPa

C50/60
>C50/60

0.18

(1.19)

k 1 200 / d 2.0

(1.20)

C Rd ,c

Asl
0.02
bw d

(1.21)

k1 0.15

cp

f ctd

(1.22)

N Ed
0.2 f cd
Ac

vmin 0.035k 3 / 2 f ck

EN199211:2004
6.2.2(1)
(6.3N)

1/ 2

(1.23)

ct f ck
c

(1.24)
(1.25)

InmidasCivil,thevalueof lisappliedas1.0regardlessofthetendontype.

13

DesignGuideformidasCivil

(2)CalculateVRd,s
Shearresistanceofmemberswithshearreinforcementcanbecalculateddependingonthetype
ofshearreinforcement.

[Table1.7]VRd,sandVRd,max,Asw,max
Type
Verticalshearreinforcement
Inclinedshearreinforcement
Asw
zf ywd cot
s
cwbw zv1 f cd

cot tan

VRd,s
VRd,max

Asw,max f ywd

Asw,max

bw s

1
cwv1 f cd
2

Asw
zf ywd cot cot sin
s
cwbw zv1 f cd
cot cot
1 cot 2
Asw, max f ywd 1 cwv1 f cd

bw s
2 sin

EN199211:2004
(6.8),(6.13)
(6.9),(6.14)
(6.12),(6.15)

where,
VRd,s : The design value the shear force which can be sustained by the yielding shear reinforcement.
: The angle between the concrete compression strut and the beam axis perpendicular to the shear
force.

: The angle between shear reinforcement and the beam axis perpendicular to the shear force.

EN199211:2004
Figure6.5

[Fig.1.18]Trussmodelandnotationforshearreinforcedmembers

Asw : The cross-sectional area of the shear reinforcement.


s : The spacing of stirrups.
z : Inner lever arm, z=0.9d.
fywd : The design yield strength of the shear reinforcement.
1 : Strength reduction factor for concrete cracked in shear.
[Table1.8]Strengthreductionfactorforconcretecrackedinshear,v1

NationalAnnex

fywd0.8fywk

Recommended

0.61 ck
250

UK

0.61 ck
250

Italy

0.71 ck
250

fywd<0.8fywk
fck60MPa
0 .6

fck60MPa
0 .9

f ck
0 .5
200

EN199211:2004
(6.10.aN),(6.10.bN)

0 .54 1 0 .5 cos 0.84 ck (1 0.5 cos ) 0.5


200

0 .7

f ck
200 0.5
0.85

0 .9

cw : Coefficient taking account of the state of the stress in the compression chord.

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

14

[Table1.9]Coefficientcw

Condition

cw

0<cp0.25fcd

1+cp/fcd

0.25fcd<cp0.5fcd

1.25

0.5fcd<cp1.0fcd

2.5(1cp/fcd)

EN199211:2004
(6.11.aN)~(6.11.cN)

cp : The mean compressive stress, measured positive, in the concrete due to the design axial force.

(3)CalculateshearresistanceVRd.
Theshearresistanceofamemberwithshearreinforcement.

V Rd V Rd , s V ccd V td

(1.26)

EN199211:2004
(6.1)

where,
Vccd : The design value of the shear component of the force in the compression area, in the case of an
inclined compression chord.
Vtd : The design value of the shear component of the force in the tensile reinforcement, inthe case of an
inclined tensile chord.

EN199211:2004
Figure6.2

[Fig.1.19]Shearcomponentformemberswithinclinedchords

Inmidascivil,inclinedchordisnotconsidered.Thereforetheshearresistanceiscalculatedusing
shearreinforcementonly.

V Rd V Rd , s

InregionsofthememberwhereVEdVRd,cnocalculateshearreinforcementisnecessary.

EN199211:2004
6.2.1(3)

V Rd V Rd ,c

Shearreinforcement
InmidasCivil,shearreinforcementinformationcanbedefinedinSectionManager.
When the shear rebar angle is entered as 90 degree, it is considered as vertical shear
reinforcement. For the angle other than 90 degree, it is considered as inclined shear
reinforcement.

15

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Model>Properties>SectionManager

Asw

[Fig.1.20]Inputshearreinforcement

Strutangleforshearresistance,
The angle between the concrete compression strut and the beam axis perpendicular to the
shearforcecanbeenteredinPSCDesignParametersdialogbox.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignParameters

[Fig.1.21]Inputstrutangleforshearresistance,

Smallestwidthofthecrosssection,bw
ShearforcesarecalculatedatthepartscriticaltoshearinthePSCsection.
Theusercandirectlyentertheposition.IftheAutooptionischeckedon,theprogramchecks
shearatthetopandbottomendsofthewebs(Z1andZ3inthePSCViewerdialog).

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

16

Model>Properties>Section>PSCtab

[Fig.1.22]Inputbwforshearresistance

2.3Checkshearresistance

V Ed V Rd
where,
VEd : Design value of the applied shear force.
VRd : Design shear resistance.

Designloadcombination
InmidasCivil,loadcombinationtobeusedinPSCdesigncanbedefinedinResults>Load
combinations>ConcreteDesigntab.Shearresistanceisverifiedwiththemostcriticalminimum
andmaximumdesignshearforceamongtheloadcombinationsspecifiedasStrength/Stress
inActivecolumn.

2.4Checktheratioandspacingofshearreinforcement
Whennoshearreinforcementisrequired,minimumshearreinforcementshouldbeprovided.

0.08 f ck
Asw
w, min

sbw sin
f yk

s s l , max 0 .75 d 1 cot

(1.27)

EN199211:2004
(9.4),(9.5N)

(1.28)

EN199211:2004
(9.6N)

17

DesignGuideformidasCivil

2.5Verificationofshearresistance

ByResultTables
Thedesignresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignResultTables>CheckShearStrength

[Fig.1.23]Resulttableforshearresistance
Elem:Elementnumber
Part:Checklocation(IEnd,JEnd)ofeachelement
Max./Min.:Maximumshear,minimumshear
LCom.Name:Loadcombinationname.
Type:Displaysthesetofmemberforcescorrespondingtomovingloadcaseorsettlementloadcasefor
whichthemaximumstressesareproduced.
CHK:Shearstrengthcheckforelement
V_Ed:MaximumshearforceamongStrength/Stressloadcombinations
V_Rd:Shearresistance.
V_Rd,c:Shearresistanceofconcrete.
V_Rd,s:Shearresistanceofshearreinforcement.
V_Rd,max:MaximumV_Rd,s
V_Ed/V_Rd:Theratioofshearforcetoshearresistance.

ByExcelReport
Detail design results including applied equations and design parameters can be found in the
ExcelReport.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignCalculation

[Fig.1.24]Excelreportforshearresistance

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

18

3.TorsionResistance

Themaximumresistanceofamembersubjectedtotorsionandshearislimitedbythecapacity
oftheconcretestrut.Inordernottoexceedthisresistancethefollowingconditionshouldbe
satisfied.

T Ed

T Rd , max

V Ed
V Rd , max

1 .0

(1.29)

EN199211:2004
(6.29)

(1.30)

EN199211:2004
3.1.6(1)

(1.31)

EN199211:2004
3.2.7(1)

(1.32)

EN199211:2004
3.3.6(6)

3.1Designstrengthofmaterial
(1)Designcompressivestrengthofconcrete.

f cd cc f ck / c

Usingcc=1.0fortorsionregardlessofinputvalue.

(2)Designyieldstrengthofreinforcement.

f yd f yk / s

(3)Designtensilestrengthoftendon.

f pd f p 0 ,1k / s

Refertotheclause1.1toseethedetailexplanationofmaterialstrength.

3.2Calculatetorsionalresistance
(1)Checksectiontypefortorsion.
If the section is complex shapes, such as Tsections, it may be divided into a series of sub
sections.

[Table1.10]Sectiontypefortorsion

ClosedSectionType

EN199211:2004
6.3.1(3)

OpenSectionType

subsections.

(2)Calculatethetorsionalmomentsoverthesubsections.(OnlyOpensectiontype)

T Ed ,i

I xx ,i
I xx

T Ed

(1.33)

EN199211:2004
6.3.1(3),(5)

19

DesignGuideformidasCivil

where,
TEd,i : The torsional moments of sub-section.
Ixx : The uncracked torsional stiffness of whole section.
Ixx,i : The uncracked torsional stiffness of sub-section.

(3)Calculatethetransversereinforcementrequired.

Ast ,req

st

TEd

2 Ak f yd cot

(1.34)

EN199211:2004
(6.8),(6.26),(6.28)

where,
Asl : The cross sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement.
st : The spacing of transverse reinforcement for torsion.
Ak : The area enclosed by the centre-lines of the connecting walls, including inner hollow areas.
uk : The perimeter of the area Ak.

[Fig.1.24]Ak,ukinclosedsection

(4)Calculatethelongitudinalreinforcementrequired.

sl

uk

f yd

TEd
T u
cot Asl , req Ed k cot
2 Ak
2 Ak f yd

(1.35)

EN199211:2004
(6.28)

where,
Asl : The cross sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement.
uk : The perimeter of the area Ak.
Ak : The area enclosed by the centre-lines of the connecting walls, including inner hollow areas.

(5)Calculatedesigntorsionalresistancemoment.

T Rd , max 2 cw f cd Ak t ef ,i sin cos

(1.36)

EN199211:2004
(6.30)

[Fig.1.25]Notationsanddefinitionfortorsion
where,
: Strength reduction factor for concrete cracked in shear.

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

20

[Table1.11]Strengthreductionfactorforconcretecrackedinshear,v

NationalAnnex

Recommended

0.61 ck
250

UK

0.61 ck
250

Italy

0.71 ck
250

EN199211:2004
6.2.2(6),(6.6N)

cw : Coefficient taking account of the state of the stress in the compression chord.
[Table1.12]Coefficientcw

Condition

cw

0<cp0.25fcd

1+cp/fcd

0.25fcd<cp0.5fcd

1.25

0.5fcd<cp1.0fcd

2.5(1cp/fcd)

EN199211:2004
(6.11.aN)~(6.11.cN)

Ak : The area enclosed by the centre-lines of the connecting walls, including inner hollow areas.
tef,i : The effective wall thickness

t ef ,i

(1.37)

EN199211:2004
6.3.2(1)

A : The total area of the section within the outer circumference, including inner hollow areas.
u : The outer circumference of the section.

21

DesignGuideformidasCivil

SectionTypefortorsion
In midas Civil,closedtypeandnumber of division for PSC DB sections are shown in the table
below. Closed type section has zero number of divisions since it is considered as a unified
section.

[Table1.13]Sectiontypeandsubsectionsfortorsion

SectionShape

ClosedType

Noofdivisions

PSC1CELL

Closed

PSC2CELL

Closed

PSC3CELL

Closed

PSCnCELL

Closed

PSCnCELL2

Closed

None

Open

Circle

Open

Polygon

Open

Open

None

Open

Circle

Open

Polygon

Open

Open

Half

Open

1Cell

Closed

2Cell

Closed

T1>0andHT>0

Closed

T1>0andT2>0

Open

T1>0andT2=0,
T1=0andT2>0

Open

T1=0andT2=0

Open

Closed

PSCMID
PSCI
PSCHALF
PSCTEE
PSCPLAT

PSCVALUE

PSCCMPWEB

PSCSectionType

[Fig.1.26]PSCsectiontypelistinprogram

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

22

Subtypeofeachsectiontype.

[Fig.1.28]Subtypeofsection

Parametersfortorsion
In midas Civil, when calculating Ak and uk, section area and perimeter of closed section are
calculatedbasedonthecoverthicknessenteredinSectionManager.Inordertocalculatethem
based onthecenter lineasspecified inEurocode, enterthecover thickness value as section
thickness*.
Transverseandlongitudinalreinforcementfortorsioncanalsobedefined.

23

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Model>Properties>SectionManager>Reinforcements

st
Ast
Asl
Coverthickness
forAk,uk.
(atCenterline)

[Fig.1.29]SectionManagerDialog

3.3Checktorsionalmomentresistance

TEd TRd ,max


T Ed

T Rd , max

V Ed
V Rd , max

(1.38)

1 .0

EN199211:2004
(6.29)

(1.39)

where,
TEd
: The design torsional moment.
VEd
: The design transverse force.
TRd,max : The design torsional resistance moment.
VRd,max : The maximum design shear resistance.

Designloadcombination
In midas Civil, load combination to be used in PSC design can be defined in Results>Load
combinations>Concrete Design tab. Torsional resistance is verified with the most critical
minimum and maximum design torsional force among the load combinations specified as
Strength/StressinActivecolumn.

3.4Checkreinforcement

Asl , req Asl

s min u 8 , sl ,max
t

(1.40)

EN199211:2004
9.2.3(3)

where,
Asl : The cross sectional area of longitudinal reinforcement.
u
: The outer circumference of the section.
st
: The longitudinal spacing.
sl,max : The maximum longitudinal spacing between shear assemblies.

s l , max 0 .75 d 1 cot

(1.41)

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

24

3.5Verifytorsionalresistance

ByResultTables
Thedesignresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignResultTables>CheckCombinedShearandTorsionStrength

[Fig.1.30]Resulttablefortorsionresistance
Elem:Elementnumber
Part:Checklocation(IEnd,JEnd)ofeachelement
Max./Min.:Maximumtorsion/shear,minimumtorsion/shear
LComName:Loadcombinationname.
Type:Displaysthesetofmemberforcescorrespondingtomovingloadcaseorsettlementloadcasefor
whichthemaximumstressesareproduced.
CHK:Shearandtorsionstrengthcheckforelement
T_Ed:MaximumtorsionalmomentamongStrength/Stressloadcombinations
T_Rd,max:Designtorsionalresistancemoment.
V_Ed:MaximumshearforceamongStrength/Stressloadcombinations
V_Rd,max:Themaximumshearresistanceofthesection.
Ratio:TheratioTEd/TRd,max+VEd/VRd,max

ByExcelReport
Detail design results including applied equations and design parameters can be found in the
ExcelReport.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignCalculation

[Fig.1.31]Excelreportfortorsionresistance

25

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

ServiceabilityLimitStates

1.Stressforcrosssectionataconstructionstage

Forstressverificationintheconstructionstage,thefollowingconditionshouldbesatisfied.
The most critical compressive stress during the construction stage Allowable compressive
stressofconcretebeforelosses:cca
The most critical tensile stress during the construction stage Allowable tensile stress of
concretebeforelosses:tta

1.1Allowablestressofconcrete
(1)Allowablecompressivestressofconcrete

[Table1.14]Allowablecompressivestressofconcrete,ca

TendonType

ca

Posttension

k1fck(t)

Pretension

k6fck(t)

EN199211:2004
3.1.2(5)

where,
k1, k6 : If User Input Data option is checked on, the coefficients of k1 and k6 will be applied as
the user defined value. However, if the option is checked off, the values in Table 1.15 will be
applied.
[Table1.15]Coefficientk1,k6

NationalAnnex

k1

k6

Recommended

0.6

0.7

UK

0.6

0.7

Italy

0.65

0.65

t
: The age of concrete in days.
fck(t) : The concrete compressive strength at time t for a number of stages.

[Table1.16]Concretecompressivestrengthatt,fck(t)

Condition

fck(t)

3<t<28days

fcm(t)8MPa

t28days

fck

EN199211:2004
Table3.1

fcm(t) : The mean concrete compressive strength of concrete at an age of t days.

f cm (t ) cc (t ) f cm

(1.43)

EN199211:2004
(3.1)

fcm : The mean compressive strength at 28 days.

f cm f ck 8MPa

(1.44)

EN199211:2004)
Table3.1

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

26

28

cc (t ) exp s 1

1/ 2

(1.45)

EN199211:2004
(3.2)

s : A coefficient which depends on the type of cement.

[Table1.17]Coefficients

CementClass

ClassR

0.20

ClassN

0.25

ClassS

0.38

EN199211:2004
3.1.2(6)

(2)Allowabletensilestressofconcrete

[Table1.18]Allowabletensilestressofconcrete,ta

TendonType

ta

Posttension

k1fctm(t)

Pretension

k1fctm(t)

where,
fctm(t) : The mean concrete tensile strength of concrete at an age of t days.

f ctm (t ) cc (t ) f ctm

(1.46)

EN199211:2004
(3.4)

fctm : The mean value of axial tensile strength of concrete.


[Table1.19]Meanvalueofaxialtensilestrength,fctm

Condition

fctm

C50/60

0.30fck2/3

>C50/60

2.12ln(1+(fcm/10))

EN199211:2004
Table3.1

cc(t) : A coefficient which depends on the age of the concretet.


: A coefficient for fctm(t)

[Table1.20]Coefficient

Condition

t<28days

t28days

2/3

EN199211:2004
3.2.1(9)

Ifbothposttensionandpretensiontypetendonsareassignedinacrosssection,thetendon
typewillbedeterminedasthetypewhichhaslargertendonarea.

CementClass
CementclasscanbedefinedinPSCDesignParametersdialogbox.

27

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignParameters

[Fig.1.32]InputCementClass

Coefficientk1,k6forConcrete

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignParameters>ModifyDesignParameters

[Fig.1.33]Inputcoefficientk1,k6forstresslimitation

Ageofconcrete
Ageofconcrete,t,willbeappliedasthedayinthedurationfieldinComposeConstruction
Stagedialogbox.

Loads>ConstructionStageAnalysisData>DefineConstructionStage>ComposeConstruction
Stage

[Fig.1.34]Inputageofconcrete

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

28

1.2Checkstressforcrosssectionataconstructionstage

c ca , t ta

(1.47)

1.3Verificationofstressforcrosssectionataconstructionstage

ByResultTables
Thedesignresultscanbecheckedinthetablebelow.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignResultTables>Checkstressforcrosssectionataconstruction
stage

[Fig.1.35]Resulttableforstressataconstructionstage

Elem:Elementnumber
Part:Checklocation(IEnd,JEnd)ofeachelement
Comp./Tens.:CompressionorTensionStress
Stage:Constructionstageatwhichstressesaremaximumatthecorrespondingsection.
CHK:Combinedstresscheckforconstructionstages
FT:CombinedStressduetoMyandaxialforceatTopfiber
FB:CombinedStressduetoMyandaxialforceatBottomfiber
FTL:CombinedStressduetoMy,MzandaxialforceatTopLeftfiber
FBL:CombinedStressduetoMy,MzandaxialforceatBottomLeftfiber
FTR:CombinedStressduetoMy,MzandaxialforceatTopRightfiber
FBR:CombinedStressduetoMy,MzandaxialforceatBottomRightfiber
FMAX:Maximumcombinedstressoutoftheabovesixcomponents.
ALW:Allowablestressofcrosssectionatconstructionstage.

29

DesignGuideformidasCivil

2.Stressforcrosssectionatserviceloads
Stressduetoserviceloadcombinationsafterlossesshouldsatisfythefollowingconditions:
MaximumcompressivestressofconcreteafterlossesAllowablecompressivestressof
concrete:cca
MaximumtensilestressofconcreteafterlossesAllowabletensilestressofconcrete:tta

2.1Allowablestressofconcrete
(1)Allowablecompressivestressofconcrete

[Table1.21]Allowablecompressivestressofconcrete,ca

TendonType

ca

Posttension

k1fck

Pretension

k6fck

(2)Allowabletensilestressofconcrete

[Table1.22]Allowabletensilestressofconcrete,ta

TendonType

ta

Posttension

k1fctm

Pretension

k1fctm

Refertotheclause1.1forthedetailedexplanation.

2.2Checkstressforcrosssectionataserviceloads

c ca , t ta

(1.48)

2.3Verificationofstressforcrosssectionataserviceloads

ByResultTables
Thedesignresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignResultTables>Checkstressforcrosssectionatserviceloads

[Fig.1.36]Resulttableforstressataserviceloads

Comp./Tens.:CompressionorTensionStress
Type:Displaysthesetofmemberforcescorrespondingtomovingloadcaseorsettlementload
caseforwhichthemaximumstressesareproduced
FT:CombinedStressduetoMyandaxialforceatTopfiber
FB:CombinedStressduetoMyandaxialforceatBottomfiber
FTL:CombinedStressduetoMy,MzandaxialforceatTopLeftfiber
FBL:CombinedStressduetoMy,MzandaxialforceatBottomLeftfiber
FTR:CombinedStressduetoMy,MzandaxialforceatTopRightfiber
FBR:CombinedStressduetoMy,MzandaxialforceatBottomRightfiber
FMAX:Maximumcombinedstressoutoftheabovesixcomponents.
ALW:Allowablestressinconcreteatservicelimitstate.

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

30

3.TensilestressforPrestressingtendons

Verifytheinducedstressandallowablestressoftendonbytendongroups.
Beforelosses,tendonstressattheanchorrightaftergroutingAllowablestress
Afterimmediatelosses,maximumtendonstressAllowablestress
Afteralllosses,maximumtendonstressAllowablestress

3.1Allowablestressoftendon
(1)Allowablestressintendonimmediatelyafteranchorsetatanchorages

min k1 f pk , k2 f p 0.1k

p ,max

(1.49)

EN199211:2004
5.10.2.1(1)

where,
k1, k2 : If User Input Data option is checked on, the coefficients of k1 and k2 will be applied as the
user defined value. However, if the option is checked off, the values in Table 1.23 will be applied.
[Table1.23]Coefficientk1,k2

NationalAnnex

k1

k2

Recommended

0.8

0.9

UK

0.8

0.9

Italy

0.8

0.9

fpk : Characteristic tensile strength of prestressing steel.


fp0.1k : Characteristic 0.1% proof-stress of prestressing steel.

(2)AllowableStressinTendonimmediatelyafteranchorsetelsewhere

( x) min k7 f pk , k8 f p 0.1k
pm 0

(1.50)

EN199211:2004
5.10.3(2)

where,
k7, k8 : If User Input Data option is checked on, the coefficients of k7 and k8 will be applied as the
user defined value. However, if the option is checked off, the values in Table 1.24 will be applied.

[Table1.24]Coefficientk7,k8

NationalAnnex

k7

k8

Recommended

0.75

0.85

UK

0.75

0.85

Italy

0.75

0.85

fpk : Characteristic tensile strength of prestressing steel.


fp0.1k : Characteristic 0.1% proof-stress of prestressing steel.

(3)Allowablestressintendonatservicelimitstateafterlosses

p k 5 f pk

(1.51)

EN199211:2004
7.2.(5)

where,
k5 : If User Input Data option is checked on, the coefficient of k5 will be applied as the user defined
value. However, if the option is checked off, the value in Table 1.25 will be applied.

31

DesignGuideformidasCivil

[Table1.25]Coefficientk5

NationalAnnex

k5

Recommended

0.75

UK

0.75

Italy

0.6

fpk : Characteristic tensile strength of prestressing steel.

Coefficientfortendons
Parameters used in calculating tendon stress can be defined in PSC Design Parameters dialog
box.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignParameters>ModifyDesignParameters

[Fig.1.37]InputcoefficientofprestressingsteelinSLS

Strengthoftendon

Load>PrestressLoads>TendonProperty
TendonstrengthcanbeenteredinTendonPropertiesdialogbox.

fpk
fp0,1k

[Fig.1.38]Inputtendonstrength,fpk,fp0,1k

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

32

3.2Checktensilestressforprestressingtendons
(1)Posttensiontendon
Stressintendonatanchoragesmin[k1fpk,k2fp0.1k]

Maximumtressintendonalongthelengthofthememberawayfromanchorages
min[k7fpk,k8fp0.1k]

Maximumstressintendonafteralllossesatthelaststage k5fpk

(2)Pretensiontendon
Stressintendonmin[k1fpk,k2fp0.1k]

Stressintendonafteralllossesatthelaststage k5fpk

3.3Verificationofstressforcrosssectionataserviceloads

ByResultTables
Thedesignresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignResultTables>Checktensilestressforprestressingtendons

[Fig.1.39]Resulttablefortensilestressforprestressingtendons

Tendon:Tendonprofilename.
ForPosttensioned:
FDL1:Stressintendonatanchorages.
FDL2:Maximumstressintendonalongthelengthofthememberawayfromanchorages,
immediatelyafteranchorset.
FLL1:Maximumstressintendonafteralllossesatthelaststage.
AFDL1:Allowablestressintendonimmediatelyafteranchorsetatanchorages.
AFDL2:Allowablestressintendonimmediatelyafteranchorsetelsewhere.
AFLL1:Allowablestressintendonatservicelimitstateafterlosses.
ForPretensioned:
FDL1:Stressintendon.
FDL2:
FLL1:Maximumstressintendonafteralllossesatthelaststage.
AFDL1:Allowablestressintendonpriortotransfer.
AFDL2:
AFLL1:Allowablestressintendonatservicelimitstateafterlosses.

33

DesignGuideformidasCivil

4.Principalstressataconstructionstage
Verify the principal stress during the construction stage at the stress verification point 1~10
definedinSectionManagerdialogbox.
MaximumprincipalstressduringtheconstructionstageAllowablestress

4.1Allowabletensilestress

ca k t f ctm (t )

(1.52)

where,
kt = If User Input Data option is checked on, the coefficient of kt will be applied as the user defined
value. However, if the option is checked off, 0.6 will be applied.
fctm(t) : The mean compressive strength at an age of t days. Refer to the clause 1.1 for the calculation of
fctm(t).

4.2Maximumprincipalstress
Maximum principal stress during the construction stage can be calculated as the following
equation.

x z
ps

2
1

x z

2
4 s t p

(1.53)

where,
x : Sum of axial stresses in ECS x-direction
z : Sum of axial stresses in ECS z-direction
s : Shear stress due to shear.
t : Shear stress due to torsion.
p : Shear stress due to shear reinforcement.

BeamstressesofPSC
Stresscomponenttocalculatethemaximumprincipalstresscanbecheckedinthetablebelow.

Results>ResultTables>Beam>Stress(PSC)

[Fig.1.40]Resulttableforbeamstress

Sigxx(Axial):Axialstressduetotheaxialforce(Fx)intheECSxdirection
Sigxx(Momenty):StressduetoMy(momentabouttheECSyaxis)inECSxdirection
Sigxx(Momentz):StressduetoMz(momentabouttheECSzaxis)inECSxdirection
Sigxx(Bar):AxialstressduetoshearsteelbarsintheECSxdirection
Sigxx(Summation):SumoftheaxialstressintheECSxdirectionandtheaxialstressdueto
shearsteelbarsintheECSxdirection
Sigzz:StressintheECSzdirection
Sigxz(shear):Sumofshearstressesduetoshearforceandshearsteelbars
Sigxz(torsion):Shearstressduetotorsion
Sigxz(bar):Shearstressduetoshearsteelbars

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

34

SigIs(shear):Diagonalstressduetoshearforce
SigIs(shear+torsion):Diagonalstressduetotorsionandshearforce
SigPs(Max):Maximumprincipalstress
SigPs(Min):Minimumprincipalstress

4.3Checkprincipalstressataconstructionstage

ps ta kt f ctm (t )

(1.54)

4.4Verificationofprincipalstressataconstructionstage

ByResultTables
Thedesignresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignResultTables>Principalstressataconstructionstage

[Fig.1.41]Resulttableforprincipalstressataconstructionstage

Elem:Elementnumber.
Part:Checklocation(IEnd,JEnd)ofeachelement.
Comp./Tens.:CompressionorTensionStress.
Stage:Constructionstage.
CHK:Principalstresscheckforconstructionstages.
Sig_P1:PrincipalStressatthelefttopoftopflange.
Sig_P2:PrincipalStressattherighttopoftopflange.
Sig_P3:PrincipalStressattherightbottomofbottomflange.
Sig_P4:PrincipalStressattheleftbottomofbottomflange.
Sig_P5:PrincipalStressatthetopofleftweb.(atZ1Level)
Sig_P6:PrincipalStressatthetopofrightweb.(atZ1Level)
Sig_P7:PrincipalStressattheneutralaxisinleftweb.(atZ2Level)
Sig_P8:PrincipalStressattheneutralaxisinrightweb.(atZ2Level)
Sig_P9:PrincipalStressatthebottomofleftweb.(atZ3Level)
Sig_P10:PrincipalStressatthebottomofrightweb.(atZ3Level)
Sig_MAX:ThemaximumPrincipalstressamongP1P10.
Sig_AP:Allowableprincipalstressatneutralaxisintheweb.

35

DesignGuideformidasCivil

5.Principalstressatserviceloads
Verify the principal tensile stress at the stress verification point 1~10 defined in Section
Managerdialogbox.
MaximumprincipalstressundertheserviceabilityloadcombinationAllowablestress

5.1Allowabletensilestress

ca kt f ctm

(1.55)

where,
kt : If User Input Data option is checked on, the coefficient of kt will be applied as the user defined
value. However, if the option is checked off, 0.6 will be applied.
fctm : The mean compressive strength at 28 days. Refer to the clause 1.1 for the calculation of fctm

5.2Maximumprincipalstress
Themaximumprincipalstressattheservicestatecanbecalculatedasthefollowingequation.

1
ps 2 x z

x z

2
4 s t p

(1.56)

where,
x : Sum of axial stresses in ECS x-direction
z : Sum of axial stresses in ECS z-direction
s : Shear stress due to shear.
t : Shear stress due to torsion.
p : Shear stress due to shear reinforcement.

BeamstressesofPSC
Stresscomponentstocalculatethemaximumprincipalstresscanbecheckedinthetablebelow.

Results>ResultTables>Beam>Stress(PSC)

[Fig.1.42]Resulttableforbeamstress

Sigxx(Axial):Axialstressduetotheaxialforce(Fx)intheECSxdirection
Sigxx(Momenty):StressduetoMy(momentabouttheECSyaxis)inECSxdirection
Sigxx(Momentz):StressduetoMz(momentabouttheECSzaxis)inECSxdirection
Sigxx(Bar):AxialstressduetoshearsteelbarsintheECSxdirection
Sigxx(Summation):SumoftheaxialstressintheECSxdirectionandtheaxialstressdueto
shearsteelbarsintheECSxdirection
Sigzz:StressintheECSzdirection
Sigxz(shear):Sumofshearstressesduetoshearforceandshearsteelbars
Sigxz(torsion):Shearstressduetotorsion
Sigxz(bar):Shearstressduetoshearsteelbars
SigIs(shear):Diagonalstressduetoshearforce

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

36

SigIs(shear+torsion):Diagonalstressduetotorsionandshearforce
SigPs(Max):Maximumprincipalstress
SigPs(Min):Minimumprincipalstress

5.3Checkprincipalstressataserviceloads

ps ta kt f ctm

(1.57)

5.4Verificationofprincipalstressataserviceloads

ByResultTables
Thedesignresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignResultTables>Principalstressataserviceloads

[Fig.1.43]Resulttableforprincipalstressataserviceloads

Elem:Elementnumber.
Part:Checklocation(IEnd,JEnd)ofeachelement.
Comp./Tens.:CompressionorTensionStress.
LCom.Name:Loadcombinationname.
Type : Displays the set of member forces corresponding to moving load case or settlement
loadcaseforwhichthemaximumstressesareproduced
CHK:Principalstresscheckforserviceloadsatmaximumshearforce.
Sig_P1:PrincipalStressatthelefttopoftopflange.
Sig_P2:PrincipalStressattherighttopoftopflange.
Sig_P3:PrincipalStressattherightbottomofbottomflange.
Sig_P4:PrincipalStressattheleftbottomofbottomflange.
Sig_P5:PrincipalStressatthetopofleftweb.(atZ1Level)
Sig_P6:PrincipalStressatthetopofrightweb.(atZ1Level)
Sig_P7:PrincipalStressattheneutralaxisinleftweb.(atZ2Level)
Sig_P8:PrincipalStressattheneutralaxisinrightweb.(atZ2Level)
Sig_P9:PrincipalStressatthebottomofleftweb.(atZ3Level)
Sig_P10:PrincipalStressatthebottomofrightweb.(atZ3Level)
Sig_MAX:ThemaximumPrincipalstressamongP1P10.
Sig_AP:Allowableprincipalstressatneutralaxisintheweb.

37

DesignGuideformidasCivil

6.Checkcrackwidth

Crackingshallbelimitedtosatisfythefollowingcondition.
Crackwidth,wkCrackwidthlimit,wmax

6.1Calculatecrackwidths
(1)Determinesmcm

s kt
sm cm

f ct ,eff

p ,eff

1
e

p ,eff

0.6

Es

s
Es

(1.58)

EN199211:2004
(7.9)

where,
sm : The mean strain in the reinforcement under the relevant combination of loads, including the effect of
imposed deformations and taking into account the effects of tensile stiffening.
cm : The mean strain in the concrete between cracks.
s : The stress in the tension reinforcement assuming a cracked section.
e : The ratio of Es/Ecm.
Es : The design value of modulus of elasticity of reinforcing steel.
Ecm : The secant modulus of elasticity of concrete.

f ct ,eff f ctm

(1.59)

EN199211:2004
(7.10)

p ,eff

As 12 Ap '
Ac ,eff

(1.60)

Ap : The area of pre or post-tensioned within Ac,eff.


Ac,eff : The effective area of concrete in tension surrounding the reinforcement of prestressing tendons of
depth, hc,ef.

hc ,ef min 2.5 h d ,

hx
,
3

h
2

(1.61)

EN199211:2004
7.3.2(3)

EN199211:2004
Figure7.1

[Fig.1.44]Effectivetensionarea(typicalcases)

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

38

(1.62)

Ifonlyprestressingsteelisusedtocontrolcracking,1=

:theratioofbondstrengthofprestressingandreinforcingsteel.

[Table1.26]Ratioofbondstrength,

PrestressingSteel

Pretensioned

Smoothbarsandwires Notapplicable

Bonded,posttensioned
C50/60

C70/80

0.3

0.15

Strands

0.6

0.5

0.25

Indentedwires

0.7

0.6

0.3

0.7

0.35

Ribbedbars

EN199211:2004
Table6.2

s : The largest bar diameter of reinforcing steel.


p : The equivalent diameter of tendon.
kt : A factor dependent on duration of the load.
[Table1.27]Factork

Condition

kt

Shorttermloading

0.6

Longtermloading

0.4

EN199211:2004
7.3.4(2)

DefinitionofShortandLongtermloads

[Table1.28]Definitionofdurationoftheload

Condition

Description

Longtermloading

Loadcombinationcomposedoflongtermloadcasesonly

Shorttermloading

Loadcombinationsotherthanlongtermloadcombination

Whentheuserdoesnotdefinethelongtermorshorttermloadcase,itwillbeclassifiedas
showninthefollowingtable.

[Table1.29]Classificationfordurationoftheload

Durationoftheload

Description

Longtermloadcase

Followingstaticloadcase
D:DeadLoad
DC:DeadLoadofComponentandAttachments.
DW:DeadLoadofWearingSurfacesandUtilities.
L:LiveLoad.
LR:RoofLiveLoad.

Shorttermloadcase

Loadcasesotherthanlongtermloadcases

39

DesignGuideformidasCivil

(2)Determinesr,max
Themaximumcrackspacing,sr,maxiscalculatedasshowninthetablebelow.

[Table1.30]Maximumcrackspacing,sr,max

Condition
Spacing5(c+/2)
Spacing>5(c+/2)or
Nobondedreinforcement

sr,max
k 3c

k1k 2 k4

p , eff

EN199211:2004
(7.12)

EN199211:2004
(7.14)

1.3h x

EN199211:2004
Figure7.2

[Fig.1.45]Crackwidth,w,atconcretesurfacerelativetodistancefrombar
where,
: The bar diameter. Where a mixture of bar diameters is used in a section, an equivalent diameter, eq,
should be used.

Forasectionwithn1barsofdiameter1andn2barsofdiameter2.

n112 n222
eq n n
1 1
2 2

(1.63)

c : The cover to the longitudinal reinforcement.


k1 : A coefficient which takes account of the bond properties of the bonded reinforcement.

[Table1.31]Coefficientk1

Condition

k1

Highbondbars

0.8

Barswithaneffectivelyplansurface

1.0

EN199211:2004
7.3.4(2)

k2 : A coefficient which takes account of the distribution of strain.

[Table1.32]Coefficientk2

Condition

k2

Bending

0.5

PureTension

1.0

k3, k4 : If User Input Data option is checked on, the coefficient of k3 and k4 will be applied as the
user defined value. However, if the option is checked off, it will be applied as the following value.
k3 = 3.4
k4 = 0.425

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

40

(3)Calculatethedesigncrackwidth,wk

wk sr ,max sm cm

(1.64)

EN199211:2004
(7.8)

Coefficientk3,k4forcrack

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignParameters

[Fig.1.46]Inputcoefficientk3,k4forcrack

Prestressingsteeltypefor
InmidasCivil,thefollowingprestressingsteeltypesareavailable.

[Table1.33]Prestressingsteeltypesupportedinprogram

PrestressingSteel
Smoothbarsandwires

Strands

Description
OtherthanStrands
Whenthematerialpropertiesoftendonisspecified
asfollows:
Standard=EN05(S)
DB=Y1670Series,Y1770Series,Y1860Series

Load>PrestressLoads>TendonProperty

[Fig.1.47]Definematerialoftendon

41

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Model>Properties>Material

[Fig.1.48]SteelmateriallistofEN05(S)standard

Durationofload(Short/Longterm)

Design>CommonParameter>Short/LongtermLoadCase

[Fig.1.49]Defineshort/longtermloadcase

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

42

6.2Getalimitingcalculatedcrackwidth,wmax
(1)Recommendedvaluesofwmax(mm)

[Table1.34]Limitingcrackwidth,wmax

Exposure
Class
X0
XC1

Unbonded
Frequent

Quasi

Frequent

0.3

Not
Checked

Not
Check

0.2

Not
Check

0.0
(Decom
Pression)

0.2

Not
Checked

Not
Check

Decom
pression

Not
Checked

XC3
XD1

0.3

Not
Checked

XD2
XD3
XS1
XS2

Others

Quasi

XC2
XC4

Bonded

0.3

Not
Checked

Not
Checked

0.0
(Decom
pression)

Not
Checked

0.3

Not
Checked

Not
Checked

0.3

Not
Checked

XS3

EN199211:2004
Table7.1N

XF1*
XF2*
XF3*
XF4*
XA1*
XA2*
XA3*

(*)InmidasCivil,thelimitvalueofFreeze/Thawattackclass(XF1~XF4)andChemicalattack
class(XA1~XA3)isappliedas0.3mm.

ExposureClass
Exposureclasscanbedefinedbymembersinthefollowingdialogbox.

Design>PSCDesign>ExposureClass

[Fig.1.50]Defineexposureclassforcrack

43

DesignGuideformidasCivil

6.3Checkcrackwidthatserviceloads

wk wmax

(1.65)

6.4Verificationofcrackwidthatserviceloads

ByResultTables
Thedesignresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>PSCDesign>PSCDesignResultTables>Checkcrackwidthatserviceloads

[Fig.1.51]Resulttableforcrackwidthatserviceloads

Elem:Elementnumber
Part:Checklocation(IEnd,JEnd)ofeachelement
Top/Bottom:Attopofelement,atbottomofelement
LCom.Name:Loadcombinationname.
ServiceabilityLoadType:Frequent/QuasiStatic
Type:producemaximumandminimummemberforcecomponentsfortheloadcombinations
includingmovingloadcasesorsettlementloadcases.
Check:OK/NG
M_Ed:MaximumMomentintheSection.
Sig_T:Stressatthetop.
Sig_B:Stressatthebottom.
wk:Crackwidth
wmax:Allowablecracklimit

Chapter1.PrestressedBoxGirderDesign:EN19922

44

Chapter 2.

Composite
Steel Box
Girder Design
EN 1994-2

Chapter 2.

Composite Steel Box Girder Design (EN 1994-2)


Composite steel box girder needs to be designed to satisfy the following limit states.

Ultimate Limit States


Bending Resistance
Resistance to Vertical Shear
Resistance to Longitudanal Shear
Resistance to Fatigue

Serviceability Limit States


Stress limitation for concrete

For Quasi-permanent, Characteristic


Load Combination

Stress limitation for reinforcing steel

For Quasi-permanent, Characteristic,


Frequent Load Combination

Stress limitation for structral steel

For Characteristic Load Combination

Resistance to Longitudinal Shear

For Quasi-permanent, Characteristic,


Frequent Load Combination

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

UltimateLimitStates

1.Bendingresistance

LimitstateofBendingResistancewillsatisfythecondition,MEdMRd.
Momentresistance,MRd,shallbecalculatedasfollows:

1.1Designvaluesofmaterial
(1)Partialfactorsformaterials
Partialfactorformaterialsconsideredinultimatelimitstatesareshowninthetablebelow.
InmidasCivil,partialfactorformaterialscanbespecifiedbytheuserinDesignParameter
dialogbox.ThedefaultvaluesaredeterminedasbelowasperEurocode4.

[Table2.1]Partialfactorformaterials

Materials
Concrete
Reinforcingsteel
Structuralsteel
Shearconnection
Fatigueverification
ofheadedstuds

Condition

PartialFactor

Persistent&Transient

c=1.5

Accidental

c=1.2

Persistent&Transient

s=1.15

Accidental

s=1.0

Crosssections

M0=1.0

Memberstoinstabilityassessed
memberstoinstability

M1=1.0

Strength

Mf=1.0

Strengthofstudsinshear

Mf,s=1.0

EN19942:2005
2.4.1.2

V=1.25

(2)Designcompressivestrengthofconcrete.

f cd f ck / c

EN19942:2005
(2.1)

(2.1)

where,
fck : The characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days.
c : The partial safety factor for concrete.

(3)Designyieldstrengthofsteelreinforcement.

f sd f sk / s

(2.2)

where,
fsk : The characteristic value of the yield strength of reinforcing steel.
s : The partial factor for reinforcing steel.

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

46

(4)Designyieldstrengthofstructuralsteel.

f yd f y / M 0

(2.3)

where,
fy : The nominal value of the yield strength of structural steel.
M0 : The partial factor for structural steel applied to resistance of cross-sections.

Thenominalvaluesoftheyieldstrengthfyandtheultimatestrengthfuforstructuralsteel
shallbeobtainedbyusingthesimplificationgiveninFig.2.1.

EN199311:2005
Table3.1

[Fig.2.1]Nominalvaluesofyieldstrengthfyandultimatetensilestrengthfu

Partialsafetyfactor
Parametersrelatedtothematerialsuchaspartialfactors,damageequivalencefactors,and
shear resistance reduction factor can be defined in Composite Steel Girder Design
Parameters dialogbox.
Thedefaultvaluesofpartialfactorsaredefinedas 1.0.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignParameters

[Fig.2.2]DesignParametersDialog

47

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Designstrengthofmaterials
Design strength of concrete, reinforcement, and steel can be defined in Modify SRC
Materialdialogbox.
In Steel Design Selection field, when Code is entered as EN05, Fy1 is tensile strength of
thesteelforwhichthethicknessislessorequalto40mmandFy2istensilestrengthofthe
steelforwhichthethicknessislargerthan40mm.
Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignMaterial

[Fig.2.3]Compositesteelgirderdesignmaterial

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

48

1.2Classificationofcrosssection
The classification system defined in EN199311:2005, 5.5.2 applies to crosssections of
compositebeams.

[Table2.2]Classesofcrosssections

Class
1
2

Definedas
whichcanformaplastichingewiththerotationcapacityrequiredfrom
plasticanalysiswithoutreductionoftheresistance
whichcandeveloptheirplasticmomentresistance,buthavelimited
rotationcapacitybecauseoflocalbuckling
inwhichthestressintheextremecompressionfibreofthesteelmember
assuminganelasticdistributionofstressescanreachtheyieldstrength,
butlocalbucklingisliabletopreventdevelopmentoftheplasticmoment
resistance
inwhichlocalbucklingwilloccurbeforetheattainmentofyieldstress
inoneormorepartsofthecrosssection

(1) The classification of a crosssection depends on the width to thickness ratio of the parts
subjecttocompression.

ClassificationofClassinflange
Classofflangecanbeclassifieddependingonthepositiveandnegativemoment.

[Table2.3]Classofcompressionflange
Moment

Position

Classofcompressionflange

Positive

Top
Flange

Asteelcompressionflangethatisrestrainedfrombucklingby
effectiveattachmenttoaconcreteflangebyshearconnectors
maybeassumedtobeinClass1.

Negative

Bottom
Flange

CompositeI:CheckforoutstandflangesinFig.2.4.
CompositeBox : Check for outstand flanges and internal
compressionpartinFig.2.5.

EN199311:2005
5.5.2

EN199311:2005
Table5.2

[Fig.2.4]MaximumwidthtothicknessratiosforcompressionpartsOutstand

49

DesignGuideformidasCivil

ClassificationofClassinweb:CheckforinternalcompressionpartinFig. 2.5.

EN199311:2005
Table5.2

[Fig.2.5]MaximumwidthtothicknessratiosforcompressionpartsInternal

(2)Classificationofacrosssection:Acrosssectionisclassifiedaccordingtothehighest(least
favorable)classofitscompressionpartsasfollows.

[Table2.4]Classofsectionaccordingtoclassofcompressionparts

ClassofSection

Classof
Web

ClassofFlange
1

*:CrosssectionswithwebsinClass3andflangesinClass1or2maybetreatedasan
effectivecrosssectionsinClass2withaneffectivewebinaccordancewithEN199311:2005,
6.2.2.4.(Thisclauseisappliedtoboxgirder.)

EN199311:2005
5.5.2(6)

EN199311:2005
5.5.2(11)

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

50

1.3Calculateplasticbendingresistance,Mpl,Rd.
Forpositivemoment:Compressiverebarinthedeckwillbeignored.
Fornegativemoment:Concreteareaofdeckwillbeneglectedandonlythetensilerebarin
thedeckwillbeconsidered.

EN199311:2005
Figure6.2

[Fig.2.6]Plasticstressdistributionsforacompositebeam

1.4Calculateelasticbendingresistance,Mel,Rd

Mel, Rd M a, Ed kMc, Ed

(2.4)

[Fig.2.7]CalculationofMel,Rd
where,
Ma,Ed : The design bending moment applied to structural steel section before composite behavior.
Bending moment obtained during the construction stage analysis is used in midas Civil.
Mc,Ed : The part of design bending moment acting on the composite section. Bending moment obtained
from the final construction stage is used in midas Civil.
k
: The lowest factor such that a stress limit in EN1994-2:2005, 6.2.1.5(2) is reached. In midas Civil,
the value of k is calculated as below.

[Table2.5]Calculationofk

Type
SteelGirder
Slab

ka

kc

f yd M a , Ed ( z a / I y ,a )
M c, Ed ( z c / I y ,c )

min[ka,kc]

DesignGuideformidasCivil

ForNegativeMoment

ka

f cd

M c, Ed ( z c ,slab / I y ,c,slab )

Reinforcement

51

ForPositiveMoment

f yd M a , Ed ( z a / I y ,a )
M c, Ed ( z c / I y ,c )

ks

f sd

M c , Ed ( z c ,bar / I y ,c ,bar )

min[ka,ks]

1.5CalculateeffectivecrosssectionforClass4section
(1)Calculateeffectivecrosssection
For crosssections in Class4, the effective structural steel section should be determined in
accordancewithEN199315,4.3.
InmidasCivil,theeffectofsharelagisnotconsideredinthecalculationofeffectivearea.Only
theplatebucklingeffectisconsidered.

TheeffectiveareaAeffshouldbedeterminedassumingthatthecrosssectionissubjectonlyto
stressesduetouniformaxialcompression.

EN199315:2006
Figure4.1

[Fig.2.8]Class4crosssectionsaxialforce

TheeffectivesectionmodulusWeffshouldbedeterminedassumingthatthecrosssectionis
subjectonlytobendingstresses.

EN199315:2006
Figure4.2

[Fig.2.9]Class4crosssectionsbendingmoment

Thecalculationofeffectiveareadependingonthelongitudinalstiffenerwillbeexplainedinthe
clause1.6and1.7inthismanual.

(2)Considerationofadditionalmomentduetotheeccentricityofgravitycenterbetweenthe
grossareaandtheeffectivearea

In case of the section with Class 4 classification under the compressive force, the additional
momentduetothedifferentgravitycenterbetweengrossareaandeffectiveareaistakeninto
accountinthedesignmoment.

M Ed NEdeN NEd Cz,c Cz,c,eff

where,
: Eccentricity between the gross area and effective area
eN
Cz,c : Gravity center of the gross area
Cz,c,eff : Gravity center of the effective area

(2.5)

EN199311:2005
6.2.2.5(4)

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

52

EN199315:2006
4.4

1.6Plateelementswithoutlongitudinalstiffeners
TheeffectiveareasofflatcompressionelementsshouldbeobtainedusingTable2.7forinternal
elementsandTable2.8foroutstandelements.Theeffectiveareaofthecompressionzoneof
plateshouldbeobtainedfrom:

Ac,eff Ac

(2.6)

where,
Ac,eff : The effective cross sectional area.
Ac : The gross cross sectional area.

: The reduction factor for plate buckling.

(1)Effectivewidthbeff
Refer to thefollowing table and figure to see thedefinition of internal element and outstand
elementinmidasCivil.

[Table2.6]Definitionofinternalandoutstandelement

Type

Shape

Definedas

Internal
element

Web

Box

Web/Flangesbetweenweb

Flange

Box

Outstandflangewhichistheoutsideofwebs

Outstand
element

[Fig.2.10]Internalandoutstandelement

Forinternalcompressionelements

[Table2.7]Internalcompressionelements

EN199315:2006
Table4.1

53

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Foroutstandcompressionelements

[Table2.8]Outstandcompressionelements

EN199315:2006
Table4.2

(2)Reductionfactor

[Table2.9]Calculationofreductionfactor

Type
Internal
element

Outstand
element

Condition

p 0.673

1.0

p 0.673

where, 3 0

p 0.0553
p

p 0.748
p 0.748

EN199315:2006
4.4(2)

1.0

1.0
p 0.188
p

1.0

where,

bt

y
p 28.4 k
cr

(2.7)

b : The appropriate width to be taken as follow.


bs : For webs
b : For internal flange elements.
c : For outstand flanges.

EN199311:2005
Table5.2

[Fig.2.11]Dimensionofoutstandflanges

: The stress ratio.


k : The buckling factor corresponding to the stress ratio and boundary conditions.
t : The thickness.
cr : The elastic critical plate buckling stress.

235
f y N mm2

(2.8)

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

54

1.7Stiffenedplateelementswithlongitudinalstiffeners
The effective section area of each subpanel should be determined by a reduction factor in
accordancewith1.6toaccountforlocalbuckling.Thestiffenedplatewitheffectivesectionarea
forthestiffenersshouldbecheckedforglobalplatebucklingandareductionfactorshouldbe
determinedforoverallplatebuckling.

Theeffectiveareaofthecompressionzoneofthestiffenedplateshouldbetakenas:

Ac,eff c Ac,eff ,loc bedge, off t

(2.9)

Ac ,eff ,loc Asl ,eff locbc ,loct

(2.10)

where,
Ac,eff,loc : The effective section areas of all the stiffeners and subpanels that are fully or partially in the
compression zone except the effective parts supported by an adjacent plate element with the width
bedge,eff.
applies to the part of effective section of all longitudinal stiffeners with gross area Asl located in the
compression zone.
bc,loc : The width of the compressed part of each subpanel.
loc : The reduction factor for each subpanel.

EN199315:2006
4.5

EN199315:2006
(4.5),(4.6)

EN199315:2006
Figure4.4

[Fig.2.12]Stiffenedplateunderuniformcompression

(1)Effectivewidthandreductionfactorforindividualsubpanelsbetweenstiffeners.
Calculatetheeffectivewidthofsubpanelsbetweenstiffenersaspertheclause1.6.
Thevalueof b istakenasthesmallervaluebetweenthefollows:
Clearspacingbetweenflangeandstiffener
Clearspacingbetweenstiffeners

(2)Elasticcriticalplatebucklingstresscr,pforstiffenedweb.
withsinglestiffenerinthecompressionzone
cr,pcanbecalculatedasfollowsignoringstiffenersinthetensionzone:

cr, p cr, sl

[Table2.10]Calculationofcr,sl

Condition

aac

a<ac

55

DesignGuideformidasCivil

EN199315:2006
A.2.2(1)

(2.11)

cr,sl
1.05E
Asl ,1

EI sl ,1
2

Asl ,1a

I sl ,1t 3b
b1b2
3

Et ba

4 1 2 Asl ,1b12b22
2

EN199315:2006
(A.4)

where,
ac 4.334

I sl ,1b12b22
t3b

(2.12)

Asl,1 : The gross area of the column.


Isl,1 : The second moment of area of the gross cross-section of the column.
b1, b2 : The distances from the longitudinal edges of the web to the stiffener.

EN199315:2006
FigureA.2

[Fig.2.13]Notationsforawebplatewithsinglestiffenerinthecompressionzone

withtwostiffenersinthecompressionzone
cr,pshouldbetakenasthelowestofthosecomputedforthe3casesusingequation(2.13)
withb1=b1*,b2=b2*,b=B*.Thestiffenersintensionzoneshouldbeignored.

cr , p min cr , sl , I , cr , sl , II , cr , sl ,lumped

EN199315:2006
A.2.1(7)

(2.13)

EN199315:2006
FigureA.3

[Fig.2.14]Notationsforplatewithtwostiffenersinthecompressionzone

Itisassumedthatoneofstiffenersbuckleswhiletheotheroneactsasarigidsupport.
Bucklingofboththestiffenerssimultaneouslyisaccountedforbyconsideringasinglelumped
stiffenerthatissubstitutedforbothindividualonessuchthat:
(a)itscrosssectionalareaanditssecondmomentofareaIstarerespectivelythesumoffor
theindividualstiffeners.
(b)itispositionedatthelocationoftheresultantoftherespectiveforcesintheindividual
stiffeners.

withatleastthreestiffenersinthecompressionzone

cr, p k , p E

(2.14)

where,

2Et2
12(1 2 )b2

(2.15)

EN199315:2006
A.1(2)

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

56

k,p : The buckling coefficient.


b is defined in Fig. 2.15.
t : The thickness of the plate.
E : The modulus of elasticity of structural steel.
: The poissons ratio

EN199315:2006
FigureA.1

[Fig.2.15]Notationsforlongitudinallystiffenedplates(1)

k,pmaybeapproximatedasshowninthefollowingtable.

[Table2.11]Calculationofk,p

EN199315:2006
(A.2)

Condition

k,p

2
2 1 2 1

2 11

4 1

11

where,

2
0.5
1

(2.16)

I sl
Ip

Asl
Ap

(2.17)

(2.18)

a
0 .5
b

(2.19)

Isl : The sum of the second moment of area of the whole stiffened plate.
Asl : The sum of the gross area of the individual longitudinal stiffener.
Ip : The second moment of area for bending of the plate.

Ip

bt 3
12(1 2 )

Ap : The gross area of the plate = bt.


1 : The larger edge stress.
2 : The smaller edge stress.
a, b, t : As defined in Fig. 2.16.

57

DesignGuideformidasCivil

(2.20)

EN199315:2006
FigureA.1

[Fig.2.16]Notationsforlongitudinallystiffenedplates(2)

(3)Platetypebehavior.
Therelativeplateslenderness p oftheequivalentplate

A, c f y
cr , p

(2.21)

where,

A, c

Ac , eff ,loc
Ac

(2.22)

Ac

: The gross area of the compression zone of the stiffened plate except the parts of subpanels
supported by an adjacent plate.
Ac,eff,loc : The effective area of the same part of the plate with due allowance made for possible plate
buckling of subpanels and/or of stiffened panels.

Thereductionfactor

[Table2.12]Calculationof

Element
Internal
element

Condition

p 0.673

1.0

p 0.673

where, 3 0

p 0.748
Outstand
element

p 0.748

1.0

1.0
p 0.188
p

EN199315:2006
4.4(2)

p 0.0553
p

EN199315:2006
4.5.2(1)

1.0

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

58

(4)Columntypebehavior.
Theelasticcriticalcolumnbucklingstresscr,c

2 Et 2
12(1 2 )a 2

(a)Unstiffenedplate:

cr ,c

(b)Stiffenedplate:

cr ,c cr , sl

(2.23)

bc
bsl ,1

(2.24)

where,
a : Length of a stiffened or unstiffened plate.

cr ,sl

2 EI sl ,1
Asl ,1a2

(2.25)

Isl,1 : The second moment of area of the stiffener, relative to out-of-plane bending of the plate.
Asl,1: The gross cross-sectional area of the stiffener and the adjacent parts of the plate.

Therelativecolumnslenderness c

(a)Unstiffenedplate:
p 0.673

(2.26)

(b)Stiffenedplate:

A, c f y
cr , c

Asl ,1, eff

(2.28)

Asl ,1

Asl,1,eff : The effective cross-sectional area of the stiffener with due allowance for plate buckling.

Thereductionfactorc

1
c
2

1 .0

(a)Unstiffenedplate:

where, = 0.21

(b)Stiffenedplate:

(2.29)

2
0.51 c 0.2 c

(2.30)

2
0.51 e c 0.2 c

(2.31)

where,

0.09
i/e

I sl ,1
Asl ,1

(2.33)

e = max(e1, e2) is the largest distance from the respective centroids of the plating and the one-sided
stiffener (or of the centroids of either set of stiffeners when present on both sides) to the neutral axis of
the column.
= 0.34 (for closed section stiffener), 0.49 (for open section stiffener)

59

DesignGuideformidasCivil

EN199315:2006
4.5.3(4)

EN199311:2005
6.3.1.2

EN199315:2006
4.5.3(5)

(2.32)

(2.27)

where,

A, c

EN199315:2006
4.5.3(2),(3)

(5)Finalreductionfactorc frominteractionbetweenplateandcolumnbuckling.

c c 2 c

(2.34)

where,

cr, p
1
cr,c

0 1 .0

(2.35)

cr,p : The elastic critical plate buckling stress.


cr,c : The elastic critical column buckling stress.
c : The reduction factor due to column buckling.

Longitudinalstiffener
Longitudinalstiffenersofboxgirderneedtobeenteredbysectionproperties.Flat,Tee,URib
typestiffenercanbedefined.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>LongitudinalStiffener

[Fig.2.17]SectionManager,LongitudinalstiffenerDialog

1.8Calculatebendingresistance,MRd
Bendingresistance,MRd,canbecalculatedasfollowsbasedonitsclass.
Class1or2crosssectionscanbecheckedbyusingtheplasticorelasticbendingresistance.
Class3crosssectionsarecheckedwiththeelasticbendingresistance,orpossiblyreclassifiedas
effectiveClass2crosssectionandthencheckedwiththeplasticbendingresistance.
Class 4 crosssections are also checked with the elastic bending resistance but by using the
effectivecrosssection,reducedtotakeaccountofbuckling.

(1)Class1and2+PositiveMoment.
Thestrengthofthereinforcingsteelbarsincompressionisneglected.

Generalcase: M Rd M pl, Rd

(2.36)

EN199315:2006
4.5.4(1)

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

60

ForthestructuralsteelgradeS420orS460,MRd iscalculatedasshowninthetablebelow.

[Table2.13]CalculationMRd

Condition

MRd
M

xpl0.15h

EN19942:2005
6.2.1.4(6)

pl , Rd

M pl , Rd

0.15h<xpl0.4h
NcNc,el

M a, Ed M el , Rd M a, Ed

Nc,el<NcNc,f

NNc
c , el

xpl>0.4h

M el , Rd M pl , Rd M el , Ed

NN

c, f

N c , el
N c , el

where,
Mpl,Rd : Design value of the plastic resistance moment of the composite section with full shear
connection.
Mel,Rd : Design value of the elastic resistance moment of the composite section.

: The reduction factor.


Nc : Design value of the compressive normal force in the concrete flange.
Nc,el : Compressive normal force in the concrete flange corresponding to Mel,Rd.
Nc,f : Design value of the compressive normal force in the concrete flange with full shear connection.

[Fig.2.18]ReductionfactorforMpl,Rd

(2)Class1and2+NegativeMoment.
Thestrengthoftheconcreteintensionisneglected.
Bendingresistance

M Rd M pl, Rd

(2.37)

(3)Class3
Bendingresistance

M Rd Mel, Rd M a, Ed kMc, Ed

EN19942:2005
(6.4)

(2.38)

(4)Class4
Section properties should be calculated by considering the effective area. If the section is
under the compression, the additional moment must be taken in to account due to the
eccentricitybetweenthegravitycenterofgrosssectionandeffectivesection.
Refertotheclause1.5toseehowtocalculatetheeffectiveareaandadditionalmoment.

Bendingresistance

M Rd Mel, Rd M a, Ed kMc, Ed
(2.39)

61

DesignGuideformidasCivil

EN19942:2005
(6.4)

1.9Checkbendingresistance

M Ed M Rd

(2.40)

where,
MEd : Design bending moment.
MRd : Design moment resistance.

Loadcombination
In midas Civil, bending resistance will be verified for the load combinations that the Active
columnisspecifiedasStrength/StressinResults>Loadcombinations>SteelDesigntab.

1.10VerificationofBendingResistance

ByResultTable
Bendingresistancecanbeverifiedinthetableformatasshownbelow.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignResultTables>BendingResistance

Elem:Element
Position:I/Jend
Positive/Negative:Positive/Negativemoment
Lcom:Loadcombination
Type:Loadcombinationtype(Fxxmax,Fxxmin,...Mzzmin)
TopClass:Classoftopflange
BotClass:Classofbottomflange
WebClass:Classofweb
Sect.Class:Classofcrosssection
Ma,Ed:Thedesignbendingmomentappliedtostructuralsteelsectionbefore
compositebehavior
Mc,Ed:Thepartofthedesignbendingmomentactingonthecompositesection
Mpl,Rd:Designvalueoftheplasticresistancemomentofthecompositesection
Mel,Rd:Designvalueoftheelasticresistancemomentofthecompositesection
M_Rd:Designvalueoftheresistancemomentofacompositesection

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

62

ByExcelReport
DetailresultswithappliedequationsandparameterscanbecheckedintheExcelReport.

63

DesignGuideformidasCivil

2.Resistancetoverticalshear
Limitstateofverticalshearresistancewillsatisfythecondition, VEd VRd .

Shear resistance, VRd , will be determined as smaller value between Vpl,Rd and Vb,Rd when
consideringshearbuckling.Whentheshearbucklingisnotconsidered,Shearresistance, VRd ,
will be determined as Vpl,Rd. The plastic resistance and buckling resistance are calculated as
follows.

2.1Plasticresistancetoverticalshear

Vpl, Rd Vpl,a, Rd

Av ( f y / 3 )

M0

EN19942:2005
6.2.2.2
EN199311:2005
(6.18)

EN199311:2005
6.2.6(3)d)

(2.41)

where,
M0 : The partial factor for resistance of cross-sections whatever the class is.
Av : The shear area. In midas Civil, only welded I, H and box sections are considered.

Av hwt w

(2.42)

hw : The depth of the web


tw : The web thickness
: The coefficient that includes the increase of shear resistance at web slenderness
[Table2.14]Coefficient

SteelGrade

S235toS460

1.20

OverS460

1.00

2.2Shearbucklingresistance
Plateswith

h
hw 72
31
foranunstiffenedweb,or w k forastiffenedweb,shouldbe

checkedforresistancetoshearbucklingandshouldbeprovidedwithtransversestiffenersat
thesupports.

f ywhwt
Vb, Rd Vbw, Rd Vbf , Rd
(2.43)
3 M 1

EN19942:2005
6.2.2.3
EN199315:2006
(5.1)

EN199315:2006
(5.2)

(1)ContributionfromthewebVbw,Rd

Vbw, Rd

w f yw hwt
3 M 1

(2.44)

where,
fyw : Yield strength of the web.
hw : Clear web depth between flanges.
t : Thickness of the plate.
M1 : Partial factor for resistance of members to instability assessed by member checks.
w : Factor for the contribution of the web to the shear buckling resistance.

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

64


EN199315:2006
Table5.1

EN199315:2006
Figure5.1

[Table2.15]Contributionfromthewebw

Condition

Rigidendpost

Nonrigidendpost

w 0.83/

0.83/ w 1.08

0.83/ w

0.83/ w

w 1.08

1.37/(0.7 w )

0.83/ w

[Fig.2.19]Endsupports
w : Slenderness parameter.

[Table2.16]Calculationofw

EN199315:2006
5.3(3)

EN199315:2006
5.3(5)

Condition
Transversestiffenersatsupportsonly.
(InmidasCivil,whenlongitudinalstiffenerexistsonly)

Transversestiffenersatsupportsandintermediatetransverse
orlongitudinalstiffenersorboth(InmidasCivil,exceptforthe
conditionwhenlongitudinalstiffenerexistsonly)

hw

86.4t

hw
37.4t k

For webs with longitudinal stiffeners,

hwi
37.4t ki

(2.45)

hwi and ki refer to the subpanel with the largest slenderness parameter w of all subpanels within the web
panel under consideration. (kst = 0)

235
fy

(2.46)

k : The minimum shear buckling coefficient for the web panel.

[Table2.17]Calculationk

No.oflongitudinal
stiffeners
=0or>2

1or2

65

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Condition

a/hw1.0

k 5.34 4.00(hw / a)2 kst

a/hw<1.0

k 4.00 5.34(hw / a)2 kst

=a/hw3.0

k 5.34 4.00(hw / a)2 kst

=a/hw<3.0

6.3 0.18
k 4.1

EN199315:2006
A.3

I sl
t hw
3

2.23

I sl

t 3hw

h
kst 9 w
a

I
2.1 I sl
4 sl
3
t 3h
t hw
w

(2.47)

a : The distance between transverse stiffeners.

EN199315:2006
Figure5.3

[Fig.2.20]Webwithtransverseandlongitudinalstiffeners

Isl : The second moment of area of the longitudinal stiffener about z-axis. The value of Isl will be
multiplied by 1/3 when calculating k.
: The coefficient that includes the increase of shear resistance at web slenderness

[Table2.18]Calculation

SteelGrade

S235toS460

1.20

OverS460

1.00

(2)Calculationoftheshearstressintheflange Ed,max

Structuralsteelboxsection

Ed ,a

VEd ,a Q f ,a
Ia t f

(2.48)

Compositeboxsection

Ed ,c

VEd ,c Q f ,c
Ic t f

(2.49)

Ed ,max Ed ,a Ed ,c

(2.50)

Rd

f yf

(2.51)

3 M 1

where,
Qf,a : Geometric moment of area in flange before composite
Qf,c : Geometric moment of area in flange after composite
Ia : Second moment of area in flange before composite
Ic : Second moment of area in flange after composite
fyf : Yield strength of the flange.
VEd,a : Shear force of girder before composite
VEd,c : Shear force of girder after composite
M1 : Partial factor for resistance of members to instability assessed by member checks.

: Apply the value of 1.2.

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

66

In case of box girder, shear resistance verification in flange will be done by comparing the
maximumshearforce, Ed,max,totheshearresistance, Rd.

Transversestiffener
Transversestiffenerscanbespecifiedbymembers.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>TransverseStiffener

a:Spacingofrigidtransverse
stiffeners

[Fig.2.21]Transversestiffener

Transversestiffenerofendsupport
Transversestiffenerofendsupportcanbeenteredfromthefollowingdialogbox.Endsupport
typebynodesandrelatedparametercanbedefined.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>TransverseStiffenerofEndSupport

Typeofendsupport
(SeeFig.2.17)

[Fig.2.22]TransverseStiffenerofEndSupport

67

DesignGuideformidasCivil

2.3Resistancetoverticalshear
VRdiscalculateddependingonthevalueofhw/tasshowninthetablebelow.

[Table2.19]CalculationofVRd

Condition

Unstiffened

Stiffened

VRd

hw 72

VRd V pl, Rd

hw 72

VRd Vb, Rd

hw 31
k

VRd V pl, Rd

hw 31
k
t

VRd Vb, Rd

where,
Vpl,Rd : The plastic resistance to vertical shear.
Vb,Rd : The shear buckling resistance.

2.4Interactionbendingandverticalshear
(1)Verificationconditionofinteractionbetweensearforceandbendingmoment
When the following condition is satisfied, combined effects of bending and shear need to be
verified.

EN19942:2005
6.2.2.4(1)

EN19942:2005
6.2.2.4(2)
Figure6.7

VEd
0.5
Vbw, Rd

(2.52)

where,
VEd : The design shear force including shear from torque.
Vbw,Rd : The design resistance for shear of contribution from the web.

(2)ForcrosssectionsinClass1or2
Applythereduceddesignsteelstrength(1)fydinthesheararea.Itisnotconsideredinmidas
Civil.

2VEd

VRd

(2.53)

[Fig.2.23]Plasticstressdistributionmodifiedbytheeffectofverticalshear

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

68

(3)ForcrosssectionsinClass3and4
3 0.5 :MRd,NRdneednotbereduced.
3 0.5 :ThecombinedeffectsofbendingandshearinthewebofanIorboxgirdershould
satisfy.

1 1

M f , Rd
2
23 1 1.0

M pl , Rd

M f , Rd
M Ed

M pl , Rd M pl , Rd

(2.55)

VEd
Vbw, Rd

(2.56)

2.5Checkresistancetoverticalshear

VEd VRd

(2.57)

where,
VEd : Design value of the shear force acting on the composite section.
VRd : Design value of the resistance of the composite section to vertical shear.

2.6Verificationofverticalshearresistance

ByResultTable
Theverificationresultscanbecheckedinthetablebelow.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignResultTables>ResistancetoVerticalShear

Position:I/Jend
Lcom:Loadcombination
Type:Loadcombinationtype(Fxxmax,Fxxmin,...Mzzmin)
TopClass:Classoftopflange
BotClass:Classofbottomflange
WebClass:Classofweb
Sect.Class:Classofcrosssection
N_Ed:Designvalueofthecompressivenormalforce
M_Ed:Designbendingmoment
V_Ed:Designvalueoftheshearforceactingonthecompositesection
Vpl,Rd:Designvalueoftheplasticresistanceofthecompositesectiontoverticalshear
Vb,Rd:Designvalueoftheshearbucklingresistanceofasteelweb

69

DesignGuideformidasCivil

EN199315:2006
7.1(1)

(2.54)

where,

ByExcelReport
DetailresultswithappliedequationsandparameterscanbecheckedintheExcelReport.

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

70

3.Resistancetolongitudinalshear
ResistancetolongitudinalisverifiedonlyfortheplateIgirderandthefollowingconditionmust
besatisfied.

L, Ed L, Rd

L, Ed , L, Rd shallbecalculatedasfollows.

3.1Designshearresistanceofheadedstud

PRd minPRd 1 , PRd 2

EN19942:2005
6.6.3.1(1)

EN19942:2005
(6.20),(6.21)

(2.58)

PRd1

0.8 fud 2 / 4

(2.59)

PRd 2

0.29d 2 fck Ecm

(2.60)

where,
V : The partial factor.
d : The diameter of the shank of the stud.
fu : The specified ultimate tensile strength of the material of the stud.
fck : The characteristic cylinder compressive strength of the concrete at the age considered.
hsc : The overall nominal height of the stud.
[Table2.20]Calculationof

3hsc/d4
hsc
1
d

0.2

hsc/d>4
=1

Shearconnector
Forshearconnectors,enterthenumberofconnectors,tensilestrength,dimension,height(hsc),
transversespacing(st),andlongitudinalspacing(sc).

[Fig.2.24]Notationofshearconnector

71

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>ShearConnector

[Fig.2.25]ShearconnectorInputDialog

3.2Bearingshearstressofshearconnector,L,Rd

L, Rd

PRd N
sc

(2.61)

where,
N : The number of the shear connector.
sc : The space of the shear connector.

3.3Shearstressattheconnectionbetweengirderanddeck,L,Ed
(1) Beams with crosssections in Class 1 or 2 and under the sagging moment and inelastic
behavior(MEd>Mel,Rd)

L , Ed

where,

VL,Ed

VL , Ed
Lv

c, f

(2.62)

Nc,el M ED M el , Rd
M pl , Rd M el , Rd

(2)Othercases

VEdQs
Iy

EN19942:2005
6.6.2.2

(2.63)

Lv : Length of shear connection. (Lv = beff = Bc)

L, Ed

(2.64)

where,
Qs : Geometric moment of area at the shear connector position (contact point between girder and slab)

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

72

[Table2.21]CalculationofQs

Condition

Qs

Gravitycenterofcompositesection
<Heightofgirder

Calculatethegeometricmomentofarea
withslab

Gravitycenterofcompositesection
Heightofgirder

Calculatethegeometricmomentofarea
withgirder

3.4Checkresistancetolongitudinalshear

L, Ed L, Rd

(2.65)

where,
L,Ed : Design longitudinal shear force per unit length at the interface between steel and concrete.
L,Rd : Resistance to longitudinal shear.

3.5Verificationoflongitudinalshearresistance

ByResultTable
Verificationresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>Composite Steel Girder Design>Design Result Tables>Resistance to Longitudinal


Shear

Elem:Element
Position:I/Jend
Lcom:Loadcombination
Type:Loadcombinationtype(Fxxmax,Fxxmin,...Mzzmin)
V_L,Ed:Longitudinalshearforceactingonlength oftheinelasticregion
v_L,Ed:Designlongitudinalshearforceperunitlengthattheinterfacebetweensteelandconcrete
P_Rd:Designvalueoftheshearresistanceofasingleconnector
v_L,Rd:
v_Ed:Designlongitudinalshearstress

73

DesignGuideformidasCivil

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Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

74

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

ServiceabilityLimitStates

1.Stresslimitation

Forthestresslimitcheckofboxgirder,thefollowingstresswillbecalculatedandcomparedto
itsallowablestress:Normalstressofgirders,Shearstressofgirders,Combinedstressofgirders,
stressinslab,andstressinrebar.Eachstresscanbecalculatedasfollows.

1.1Stresslimitationforgirder
(1)NormalstressEd,ser

Ed , ser allow

fy

M , ser

(2.66)

Stressingirder,Ed,ser,iscalculatedbythestressessummationofbeforecompositeandafter
compositestateat4differentpoints.Memberforcesandsectionpropertiesarecalculatedas
showninthetablebelow.

[Table2.22]Memberforcesforcalculatinggirderstress

Type

Beforecomposite

Section
Properties

Girder

Member
Calculateusinggirderonly
Force

Aftercomposite
Saggingmoment:Deckconcrete+Girder
Calculateconsideringdeckconcreteandgirder

In midas Civil, applied section properties can be verified in the excel report. The section
propertiesofbeforecompositeactionisshownasBefore,aftercompositeactionisshown
asAfter,negativemomentwithconsideringcrackedsectionisshownasCrack.

(2)ShearstressEd,ser

Ed , ser allow

fy
3 M , ser

EN19932:2006
(7.2)

(2.67)

where,

Ed , ser

VEd
Av

(2.68)

VEd : Shear force after composite action


Av : Shear area. For I-girder, Av = hwtw. For the other sections, Av = Aweb.

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

76

(3)CombinedstressEd,com,ser

Ed ,com, ser allow

fy

M ,ser

(2.69)

where,

Ed ,com, ser

2
Ed
, ser

2
3 Ed
, ser

Stresslimitationparameters

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignParameters

M,ser

k1,k2,k3

[Fig.2.26]CompositeGirderDesignParameters

1.2Stresslimitationforconcreteofslab

c allow kf ck

(2.71)

where,
k : It is used as the user defined value.
[Table2.23]Recommendedvalueofkforconcrete

ServiceabilityLoad
combinationType

Applied

Recommended

Characteristic

k1

0.6

Quasipermanent

k2

0.45

fck : The characteristic value of the cylinder compressive strength of concrete at 28 days.

77

DesignGuideformidasCivil

EN19932:2006
(7.3)

(2.70)

EN19942:2005
7.2.2(5)

EN19932:2006
(7.1)

EN19942:2005
7.2.2(2)

1.3Stresslimitationforreinforcementofslab

s allow k3 f sk

(2.72)

where,
k3 : It is used as the user defined value.
[Table2.24]Recommendedvalueofkforreinforcement

EN19942:2005
7.2.2(4

ServiceabilityLoad
combinationType

Applied

Recommended

Characteristic

k3

0.45

fsk : Characteristic value of the yield strength of reinforcing steel.

1.4Verificationofstresslimitationresistance

ByResultTable
Theverificationresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignResultTables>StressLimitation

Sigma_Ed,ser,Tau_Ed,ser:Nominalstressesinthestructuralsteelfromthecharacteristic
loadcombination.RefertoEN199327.3.
ALW:Stresslimit.
Sigma_c:Stressintheconcretedeck.
k*fck:Stresslimit.
Sigma_s:stressinthereinforcement.
k*fsk:stresslimit.

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Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

78

2.LongitudinalshearinSLS(ServiceabilityLimitStates)
ResistancetolongitudinalshearcanbeverifiedfortheIgirderandfollowingconditionmustbe
satisfied.

L, Ed L, Rd

L, Ed , L, Rd shallbecalculatedasfollows.

2.1Designshearresistanceofheadedstud

PRd minPRd 1 , PRd 2

(2.73)

EN19942:2005
6.6.3.1(1)

EN19942:2005
(6.20),(6.21)

PRd1

0.8 fud 2 / 4

(2.74)

PRd 2

0.29d 2 fck Ecm

(2.75)

where,
V : The partial factor.
d : The diameter of the shank of the stud, 16mm d 25mm.
fu : The specified ultimate tensile strength of the material of the stud, 500N/mm2.
fck : The characteristic cylinder compressive strength of the concrete at the age considered.
hsc : The overall nominal height of the stud.
: Refer to Table 2.20.

Shearconnectorparameters
Shearconnectorisenteredbymembers.Refertotheclause3.1fortheinputmethod.

2.2Bearingshearstressofshearconnector,L,Rd

L, Rd

k s PRd N conn
sconn

where,
ks : Reduction factor for shear resistance of stud connector.
Nconn : The number of the shear connector.
sconn : The space of the shear connector.

79

DesignGuideformidasCivil

(2.76)

Reductionfactorks
Reductionfactorforstud,ks,canbeenteredinCompositeSteelGirderDesignParametersdialog
box.

[Fig.2.27]CompositeGirderDesignParameters

2.3Shearstressattheconnectionbetweengirderanddeck,L,Ed
(1) Beams with crosssections in Class 1 or 2 and under the sagging moment and inelastic
behavior(MEd>Mel,Rd).

L , Ed

where,

VL,Ed

VL , Ed
Lv

(2.77)

c, f

Nc,el M ED M el , Rd
M pl , Rd M el , Rd

(2)Othercases

VEdQs
Iy

(2.79)

where,
Qs : Geometric moment of area at the shear connector position (contact point between girder and slab).
Refer to Table 2.21 to see the calculation method.

2.4CheckresistancetolongitudinalshearinSLS

L, Ed L, Rd

(2.80)

where,
L,Ed : Design longitudinal shear force per unit length at the interface between steel and concrete.
L,Rd : Resistance to longitudinal shear.

EN19942:2005
6.6.2.2

(2.78)

Lv : Length of shear connection. (Lv = beff = Bc)

L, Ed

Chapter2.CompositeSteelBoxGirderDesign:EN19942

80

2.5VerificationoflongitudinalshearinSLS

ByResultTable
Verificationresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignResultTables>LongitudinalshearinSLS

V_c,Ed: Vertical shear force acting on the composite section.


v_L,Ed: Longitudinal shear force per unit length in the shear connector.
P_Rd_ser: Shear resistance of a single shear connector for SLS.
v_L,Rd: Longitudinal shear resistance per unit length for the shear connector.

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81

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Chapter 3.

Composite Plate
Girder Design
EN 1994-2

Chapter 3.

Composite Plate Girder Design (EN 1994-2)

Composite Plate needs to be designed to satisfy the following limit states.

Ultimate Limit States


Bending Resistance
Resistance to Vertical Shear
Resistance to Lateral-Torsional Buckling
Resistance to Transverse Forces

Olny check for


Steel-ISection

Resistance to Longitudanal Shear


Resistance to Fatigue

Serviceability Limit States


Stress limitation for concrete

For Quasi-permanent, Characteristic


Load Combination

Stress limitation for reinforcing steel

For Quasi-permanent, Characteristic,


Frequent Load Combination

Stress limitation for structral steel

For Characteristic Load Combination

Resistance to Longitudinal Shear

For Quasi-permanent, Characteristic,


Frequent Load Combination

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

UltimateLimitStates

1.Bendingresistance

LimitstateofBendingResistancewillsatisfythecondition,MEdMRd.
Momentresistance,MRd,shallbecalculatedasfollows:

1.1Designvaluesofmaterial
(1)Partialfactorsformaterials
Partialfactorformaterialsconsideredinultimatelimitstatesareshowninthetablebelow.
InmidasCivil,partialfactorformaterialscanbespecifiedbytheuserinDesignParameter
dialogbox.ThedefaultvaluesaredeterminedasbelowasperEurocode4.

[Table3.1]Partialfactorformaterials

Materials
Concrete
Reinforcingsteel
Structuralsteel
Shearconnection
Fatigueverification
ofheadedstuds

Condition

PartialFactor

Persistent&Transient

c=1.5

Accidental

c=1.2

Persistent&Transient

s=1.15

Accidental

s=1.0

Crosssections

M0=1.0

Memberstoinstabilityassessed
memberstoinstability

M1=1.0

Strength

Mf=1.0

Strengthofstudsinshear

Mf,s=1.0

V=1.25

(2)Designcompressivestrengthofconcrete.

f cd f ck / c

EN19942:2005
2.4.1.2

EN19942:2005
(2.1)

(3.1)

where,
fck : The characteristic compressive cylinder strength of concrete at 28 days.
c : The partial safety factor for concrete.

(3)Designyieldstrengthofsteelreinforcement.

f sd f sk / s

(3.2)

where,
fsk : The characteristic value of the yield strength of reinforcing steel.
s : The partial factor for reinforcing steel.

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

82

(4)Designyieldstrengthofstructuralsteel.

f yd f y / M 0

(3.3)

where,
fy : The nominal value of the yield strength of structural steel.
M0 : The partial factor for structural steel applied to resistance of cross-sections.

Thenominalvaluesoftheyieldstrengthfyandtheultimatestrengthfuforstructuralsteel
shallbeobtainedbyusingthesimplificationgiveninFig.3.1.

[Fig.3.1]Nominalvaluesofyieldstrengthfyandultimatetensilestrengthfu

Partialsafetyfactor
Parameters related to the material such as partial factors, damage equivalence factors, and
shear resistance reduction factor can be defined in Composite Steel Girder Design
Parametersdialogbox.
Thedefaultvaluesofpartialfactorsaredefinedas1.0.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignParameters

[Fig.3.2]DesignParametersDialog

83

DesignGuideformidasCivil

EN199311:2005
Table3.1

Designstrengthofmaterials
Designstrengthofconcrete,reinforcement,andsteelcanbedefinedinModifySRCMaterial
dialogbox.
In SteelDesign Selection field, when Code is entered asEN05,Fy1 istensile strength of the
steelforwhichthethicknessislessorequalto40mmandFy2istensilestrengthofthesteelfor
whichthethicknessislargerthan40mm.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignMaterial

[Fig.3.3]Compositesteelgirderdesignmaterial

1.2Classificationofcrosssection
The classification system defined in EN199311:2005, 5.5.2 applies to crosssections of
compositebeams.

[Table3.2]Classesofcrosssections
Class
Definedas

whichcanformaplastichingewiththerotationcapacityrequiredfromplastic
analysiswithoutreductionoftheresistance

whichcandeveloptheirplasticmomentresistance,buthavelimitedrotation
capacitybecauseoflocalbuckling

inwhichthestressintheextremecompressionfibreofthesteelmemberassuming
anelasticdistributionofstressescanreachtheyieldstrength,butlocalbucklingis
liabletopreventdevelopmentoftheplasticmomentresistance

inwhichlocalbucklingwilloccurbeforetheattainmentofyieldstressinoneor
morepartsofthecrosssection

EN199311:2005
5.5.2

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

84

(1) The classification of a crosssection depends on the width to thickness ratio of the parts
subjecttocompression.

ClassificationofClassinflange
ClassofflangecanbeclassifieddependingonthePositiveandnegativemoment.

[Table3.3]Classofcompressionflange
Moment Position
Classofcompressionflange
Positive

Top
Flange

Asteelcompressionflangethatisrestrainedfrombucklingby
effectiveattachmenttoaconcreteflangebyshearconnectors
maybeassumedtobeinClass1.

Negative

Bottom
Flange

CompositeI:CheckforoutstandflangesinFig. 3.4.
CompositeBox : Check for outstand flanges and internal
compressionpartinFig.3.5.

EN199311:2005
Table5.2

[Fig.3.4]MaximumwidthtothicknessratiosforcompressionpartsOutstand

85

DesignGuideformidasCivil

ClassificationofClassinweb:checkforinternalcompressionpartinFig. 3.5.

EN199311:2005
Table5.2

[Fig.3.5]MaximumwidthtothicknessratiosforcompressionpartsInternal

(2)Classificationofacrosssection
Acrosssectionisclassifiedaccordingtothehighest(leastfavorable)classofitscompression
partsasfollowingtable.

[Table3.4]Classofsectionaccordingtoclassofcompressionparts
ClassofFlange
ClassofSection
1
2
3
4
1
Classof
Web

2*

2*

EN199311:2005
5.5.2(6)

EN199311:2005
5.5.2(11)

EN199311:2005
6.2.2.4(1)

*: Crosssections with webs in Class3 and flanges in Class1 or 2 may be treated as an


effectivecrosssectionsinClass2withaneffectivewebinaccordancewithEN199311:2005,
6.2.2.4.ThisclauseisappliedtoIshapesectiononly.

EffectiveClass2crosssection
Theproportionofthewebincompressionshouldbereplacedbyapartof20twadjacentto
thecompressionflange,withanotherpartof20twadjacenttotheplasticneutralaxisofthe
effectivecrosssectioninaccordancewithfollowingfigure.

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

86

EN199311:2005
Figure6.3

[Fig.3.6]Effectiveclass2web

1.3Calculateplasticbendingresistance,Mpl,Rd.
Forpositivemoment:Compressiverebarinthedeckwillbeignored.
Fornegativemoment:Concreteareaofdeckwillbeneglectedandonlythetensilerebarin
thedeckwillbeconsidered.

EN19942:2005
Figure6.2

[Fig.3.7]Plasticstressdistributionsforacompositebeam

ForIshapegirderundersaggingmoment,Mpl,Rdcanbecalculateddependingonthepositionof
plasticneutralaxis.

(1)Locatedintheslabdepthforpositivemoment

[Fig.3.8]PNAintheslabdepthforpositivemoment
[Table3.5]Mpl,Rdintheslabdepthforpositivemoment

Part

Force

Distance

Slab

Nc 0.85 fcd Bc x pl

TopFlange

Na,top f ydbtf ttf

atop tc Hh 0.5ttf 0.5x pl

Web

Na,web f ydtwhw

aweb tc Hh ttf 0.5tw 0.5x pl

BottomFlange

Na,bot f ydbbf tbf

abot tc Hh t f tw 0.5tbf 0.5x pl

Mpl,Rd

87

DesignGuideformidasCivil

M pl, Rd Na,topatop Na,webaweb Na,botabot

(2)Locatedinthewebofsteelgirderforpositivemoment

[Fig.3.9]PNAinthewebofsteelgirderforpositivemoment

[Table3.6]Mpl,Rdinthewebofsteelgirderforpositivemoment

Part

Force

Distance

Slab

N c 0.85 f cd Bc t c

TopFlange

Na,top f ydbtf ttf

atop 0.5tc Hh 0.5ttf

Web(Comp)

Na, web,c f yd tw ( x pl tc H h ttf )

aweb,c 0.5( x pl Hh ttf )

Web(Tens)

Na, web,t f ydtw (tc Hh ttf hw x pl )

aweb,t 0.5( x pl Hh ttf hw )

BottomFlange

Na,bot f ydbbf tbf

abot 0.5tc Hh ttf tw 0.5tbf

Mpl,Rd

M pl, Rd Na,topatop Na, web,caweb,c Na, web,t aweb,t Na,botabot

ForIshapegirderunderhoggingmoment,whenplasticneutralaxisislocatedintheweb,Mpl,Rd
canbecalculatedasfollows.Themomentiscalculatedbasedonthepositionofplasticneutralaxis.

(3)Locatedinthewebofsteelgirderfornegativemoment

[Fig.3.10]PNAinthewebofsteelgirderfornegativemoment

[Table3.7]Mpl,Rdinthewebofsteelgirderfornegativemoment

Part

Force

SlabRebar

N si f sd Asi

Distance
asi x pl d si

TopFlange

Na,top f yd Btf ttf

atop x pl tc H h 0.5ttf

Web(Tens)

Na,web,t f yd ( x pl tc H h ttf )t w

aweb,t 0.5( x pl tc H h ttf )

Web(Comp)

Na,web,c f yd (tc H h ttf hw x pl )t w

aweb,c 0.5(tc H h ttf hw x pl )

BottomFlange

Na,bot f yd Bbf tbf

Mpl,Rd

abot tc H h ttf hw 0.5tbf x pl

M pl ,Rd N si asi N a,top atop N a,web,t aweb,t N a,web,c aweb,c N a,bot abot

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

88

1.4Calculateelasticbendingresistance,Mel,Rd

Mel, Rd M a, Ed kMc, Ed

[Fig.3.11]CalculationofMel,Rd

where,
Ma,Ed : Design bending moment applied to structural steel section before composite behavior. Bending
moment obtained during the construction stage analysis is used in midas Civil.
Mc,Ed : The part of design bending moment acting on the composite section. Bending moment obtained
from the final construction stage is used in midas Civil.
k
: The lowest factor such that a stress limit in EN1994-2:2005, 6.2.1.5(2) is reached. In midas Civil,
the value of k is calculated as below.

[Table3.8]Calculationofk

Type
SteelGirder
Slab

EN19942:2005
(6.4)

(3.4)

ForPositiveMoment
ka

kc

f yd M a , Ed ( z a / I y ,a )
M c, Ed ( z c / I y ,c )

f cd
M c ,Ed ( z c,slab / I y ,c ,slab )

Reinforcement

min[ka,kc]

ForNegativeMoment
ka

f yd M a , Ed ( z a / I y ,a )
M c, Ed ( z c / I y ,c )

ks

f sd

M c , Ed ( z c ,bar / I y ,c ,bar )

min[ka,ks]

1.5CalculateeffectivecrosssectionforClass4section
(1)Calculateeffectivecrosssection
For crosssections in Class4, the effective structural steel section should be determined in
accordancewithEN199315,4.3.
InmidasCivil,theeffectofsharelagisnotconsideredinthecalculationofeffectivearea.Only
theplatebucklingeffectisconsidered.

TheeffectiveareaAeffshouldbedeterminedassumingthatthecrosssectionissubjectonlyto
stressesduetouniformaxialcompression.

EN199315:2006
4.3

EN199315:2006
Figure4.1

[Fig.3.12]Class4crosssectionsaxialforce

89

DesignGuideformidasCivil

TheeffectivesectionmodulusWeffshouldbedeterminedassumingthatthecrosssectionis
subjectonlytobendingstresses.

EN199315:2006
Figure4.2

[Fig.3.13]Class4crosssectionsbendingmoment

Thecalculationofeffectiveareadependingonthelongitudinalstiffenerwillbeexplainedinthe
clause1.6and1.7inthismanual.

(2)Considerationofadditionalmomentduetotheeccentricityofgravitycenterbetweenthe
grossareaandtheeffectivearea
In case of the section with Class 4 classification under the compressive force, the additional
momentduetothedifferentgravitycenterbetweengrossareaandeffectiveareaistakeninto
accountinthedesignmoment.

M Ed NEdeN NEd Cz,c Cz,c,eff

(3.5)

where,
eN: Eccentricity between the gross area and effective area
Cz,c: Gravity center of the gross area
Cz,c,eff: Gravity center of the effective area

1.6Plateelementswithoutlongitudinalstiffeners
TheeffectiveareasofflatcompressionelementsshouldbeobtainedusingTable2.8forinternal
elementsandTable2.9foroutstandelements.Theeffectiveareaofthecompressionzoneof
plateshouldbeobtainedfrom:

Ac,eff Ac

where,
Ac,eff : Effective cross sectional area.
Ac : The gross cross sectional area.

: The reduction factor for plate buckling.

(3.6)

EN199311:2005
6.2.2.5(4)

EN199315:2006
4.4

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

90

(1)Effectivewidthbeff
Refertothefollowingtableandfiguretoseethedefinitionofinternalelementandoutstand
elementinmidasCivil.

[Table3.9]Definitionofinternalandoutstandelement

Type

Shape

Definedas

Internal
element

Web

Box

Web/Flangesbetweenweb

Flange

Box

Outstandflangewhichistheoutsideofwebs

Outstand
element

[Fig.3.14]Internalandoutstandelement

Forinternalcompressionelements
[Table3.10]Internalcompressionelements

EN199315:2006
Table4.1

EN199315:2006
Table4.2

Foroutstandcompressionelements
[Table3.11]Outstandcompressionelements

91

DesignGuideformidasCivil

(2)Reductionfactor
[Table3.12]Calculationofreductionfactor

Type
Internal
element

Condition

p 0.673

1.0

p 0.673

where, 3 0

p 0.0553
p

p 0.748

Outstand
element

p 0.748

EN199315:2006
4.4(2)

1.0

1.0
p 0.188
p

1.0

where,

fy

cr

b/t

(3.7)

28.4 k

b : The appropriate width to be taken as follow.


bw : For webs
b : Forinternal flange elements.
c : For outstand flanges.

EN199311:2005
Table5.2

EN199315:2006
4.5

[Fig.3.15]Dimensionofoutstandflanges

: The stress ratio.


k : The buckling factor corresponding to the stress ratio and boundary conditions.
t : The thickness.
cr : The elastic critical plate buckling stress.

235
f y [ N/mm2 ]

(3.8)

1.7Stiffenedplateelementswithlongitudinalstiffeners
The effective section area of each subpanel should be determined by a reduction factor in
accordance with 1.6 to account for local buckling. The stiffened plate with effective section
area for the stiffeners should be checked for global plate buckling and a reduction factor
shouldbedeterminedforoverallplatebuckling.
Theeffectiveareaofthecompressionzoneofthestiffenedplateshouldbetakenas:

Ac ,eff c Ac,eff ,loc bedge,off t

(3.9)

Ac,eff ,loc Asl ,eff locbc,loct

(3.10)

EN199315:2006
(4.5),(4.6)

where,
Ac,eff,loc : The effective section areas of all the stiffeners and subpanels that are fully or partially in the
compression zone except the effective parts supported by an adjacent plate element with the
width bedge,eff.

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

92

applies to the part of effective section according to 1.6 of all longitudinal stiffeners with gross area
Asl located in the compression zone.
bc,loc : The width of the compressed part of each subpanel.
loc : The reduction factor from 1.5 for each subpanel.

EN199315:2006
Figure4.4

[Fig.3.16]Stiffenedplateunderuniformcompression

(1)Effectivewidthandreductionfactorforindividualsubpanelsbetweenstiffeners.
Calculatetheeffectivewidthofsubpanelsbetweenstiffenersaspertheclause1.6.
Thevalueof b istakenasthesmallervaluebetweenthefollows:
Clearspacingbetweenflangeandstiffener
Clearspacingbetweenstiffeners

(2)Elasticcriticalplatebucklingstresscr,pforstiffenedweb.
withsinglestiffenerinthecompressionzone
cr,pcanbecalculatedasfollowsignoringstiffenersinthetensionzone:

cr, p cr, sl

EN199315:2006
A.2.2(1)

EN199315:2006
(A.4)

(3.11)

[Table3.13]Calculationofcr,sl

Condition

aac

cr,sl
1.05E
Asl ,1

2 EI sl ,1

a<ac

Asl ,1a

I sl ,1t 3b
b1b2

Et 3ba 2

4 2 1 2 Asl ,1b12b22

where,

ac 4.334

I sl ,1b12b22
t3b

Asl,1 : The gross area of the column.


Isl,1 : The second moment of area of the gross cross-section of the column.
b1, b2 : The distances from the longitudinal edges of the web to the stiffener.

[Fig.3.17]Notationsforawebplatewithsinglestiffenerinthecompressionzone

93

DesignGuideformidasCivil

(3.12)

EN199315:2006
FigureA.2

EN199315:2006
A.2.1(7)

EN199315:2006
FigureA.3

withtwostiffenersinthecompressionzone
cr,pshouldbetakenasthelowestofthosecomputedforthe3casesusingequation(3.13)
withb1=b1*,b2=b2*,b=B*.Thestiffenersintensionzoneshouldbeignored.

cr , p min cr ,sl , I , cr ,sl , II , cr ,sl ,lumped

(3.13)

[Fig.3.18]Notationsforplatewithtwostiffenersinthecompressionzone

Itisassumedthatoneofstiffenersbuckleswhiletheotheroneactsasarigidsupport.
Bucklingofboththestiffenerssimultaneouslyisaccountedforbyconsideringasinglelumped
stiffenerthatissubstitutedforbothindividualonessuchthat:

(a)ItscrosssectionalareaanditssecondmomentofareaIstarerespectivelythesumofforthe
individualstiffeners.
(b) It is positioned at the location of the resultant of the respective forces in the individual
stiffeners.

withatleastthreestiffenersinthecompressionzone

cr, p k , p E

2 Et2
12(1 2 )b2

(3.15)

k,p : The buckling coefficient.


b is defined in Fig. 3.19.
t : The thickness of the plate.
E : The modulus of elasticity of structural steel.
: The poissons ratio

[Fig.3.19]Notationsforlongitudinallystiffenedplates(1)

k,p may be approximated as in the following table.

EN199315:2006
A.1(2)

(3.14)

where,

EN199315:2006
FigureA.1

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

94


EN199315:2006
(A.2)

[Table3.14]Calculationofk,p

Condition

k,p

2
2 1 2 1

2 11

41

11

where,

2
0.5
1

(3.16)

I sl
Ip

(3.17)

Asl
Ap

a
0.5
b

(3.18)

(3.19)

Isl : The sum of the second moment of area of the whole stiffened plate.
Asl : The sum of the gross area of the individual longitudinal stiffener.
Ip : The second moment of area for bending of the plate.

Ip

bt 3
12(1 2 )

(3.20)

Ap : The gross area of the plate = bt.


1 : The larger edge stress.
2 : The smaller edge stress.
a, b, t : as defined in Fig.3.20.

EN199315:2006
FigureA.1

[Fig.3.20]Notationsforlongitudinallystiffenedplates(2)

95

DesignGuideformidasCivil

(3)Platetypebehavior.
Therelativeplateslenderness p oftheequivalentplate

A, c f y
cr , p

(3.21)

where,

A,c

Ac,eff ,loc
Ac

(3.22)

: The gross area of the compression zone of the stiffened plate except the parts of subpanels
supported by an adjacent plate.
Ac,eff,loc : The effective area of the same part of the plate with due allowance made for possible plate
buckling of subpanels and/or of stiffened panels.
Ac

Thereductionfactor

[Table3.15]Calculationof

Element
Internal
element

Condition

p 0.673

1.0

p 0.673

where, 3 0

p 0.748

Outstand
element

1.0

1.0
p 0.188

p 0.748

1.0

(4)Columntypebehavior.
Theelasticcriticalcolumnbucklingstresscr,c

(a)Unstiffenedplate: cr ,c

2 Et 2
12(1 2 )a 2

(3.23)

(b)Stiffenedplate: cr ,c cr, sl

bc
bsl ,1

(3.24)

where,
a : Length of a stiffened or unstiffened plate.

cr ,sl

2 EI sl ,1

(3.25)

Asl ,1a2

Isl,1 : The second moment of area of the stiffener, relative to out-of-plane bending of the plate.
Asl,1 : The gross cross-sectional area of the stiffener and the adjacent parts of the plate

EN199315:2006
4.4(2)

p 0.0553

EN199315:2006
4.5.2(1)

EN199315:2006
4.5.3(2),(3)

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

96

Therelativecolumnslenderness c

(a)Unstiffenedplate: c

fy

cr,c

EN199315:2006
4.5.3(4)

EN199311:2005
6.3.1.2

(3.26)

(b)Stiffenedplate: c

A,c f y
cr,c

(3.27)

where,

A,c

Asl ,1,eff
Asl ,1

(3.28)

Asl,1,eff : The effective cross-sectional area of the stiffener with due allowance for plate buckling.

Thereductionfactorc

1
2 c

1.0

(3.29)

2
(a)Unstiffenedplate: 0.51 c 0.2 c

(3.30)

where, = 0.21

2
(b)Stiffenedplate: 0.51 e c 0.2 c

(3.31)

where,

0.09
i/e

EN199315:2006
4.5.3(5)

EN199315:2006
4.5.4(1)

(3.32)

I sl ,1

Asl ,1

(3.33)

e = max(e1, e2) is the largest distance from the respective centroids of the plating and the one-sided
stiffener (or of the centroids of either set of stiffeners when present on both sides) to the neutral axis of
the column.
= 0.34 (for closed section stiffener), 0.49 (for open section stiffener)

(5)Finalreductionfactorcfrominteractionbetweenplateandcolumnbuckling.

c c 2 c

(3.34)

where,

cr , p
1 , 0 1.0

cr ,c

cr,p : The elastic critical plate buckling stress.


cr,c : The elastic critical column buckling stress.
c : The reduction factor due to column buckling.

97

DesignGuideformidasCivil

(3.35)

Longitudinalstiffener
Longitudinal stiffeners of plate girder need to be entered by section properties. Flat type
stiffenercanbedefined.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>LongitudinalStiffener(PlateGirderOnly)

[Fig.3.21]LongitudinalstiffenerDialog

1.8Calculatebendingresistance,MRd
Bendingresistance,MRd,canbecalculatedasfollowsbasedonitsclass.
Class1or2crosssectionscanbecheckedbyusingtheplasticorelasticbendingresistance.
Class3crosssectionsarecheckedwiththeelasticbendingresistance,orpossiblyreclassified
aseffectiveClass2crosssectionandthencheckedwiththeplasticbendingresistance.
Class 4 crosssections are also checked with the elastic bending resistance but by using the
effectivecrosssection,reducedtotakeaccountofbuckling.

(1)Class1and2+PositiveMoment.
Thestrengthofthereinforcingsteelbarsincompressionisneglected.

Generalcase: M Rd M pl, Rd

(3.36)

ForthestructuralsteelgradeS420orS460,MRdiscalculatedasshowninthetablebelow.

[Table3.16]CalculationMRd

Condition

MRd

xpl0.15h

M pl , Rd

0.15h<xpl0.4h

M pl , Rd

NcNc,el
xpl>0.4h
Nc,el<NcNc,f

M a , Ed M el , Rd M a , Ed

EN19942:2005
6.2.1.4(6)

NNc
c , el

M el , Rd M pl , Rd M el , Ed

NN

c, f

N c , el
N c , el

where,
Mpl,Rd : Design value of the plastic resistance moment of the composite section with full shear
connection.
Mel,Rd : Design value of the elastic resistance moment of the composite section.

: The reduction factor.

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

98

Nc : Design value of the compressive normal force in the concrete flange.


Nc,el : Compressive normal force in the concrete flange corresponding to Mel,Rd.
Nc,f : Design value of the compressive normal force in the concrete flange with full shear connection.

[Fig.3.22]ReductionfactorforMpl,Rd

(2)Class1and2+NegativeMoment.
Thestrengthoftheconcreteintensionisneglected.
Bendingresistance

M Rd M pl, Rd

(3.37)

(3)Class3
Bendingresistance

M Rd Mel, Rd M a, Ed kMc, Ed

(3.38)

(4)Class4
Section properties should be calculated by considering the effective area. If the section is
under the compression, the additional moment must be taken in to account due to the
eccentricitybetweenthegravitycenterofgrosssectionandeffectivesection.
Refertotheclause1.5toseehowtocalculatetheeffectiveareaandadditionalmoment.

Bendingresistance

EN19942:2005
(6.4)

EN19942:2005
(6.4)

M Rd Mel, Rd M a, Ed kMc, Ed

(3.39)

1.9Checkbendingresistance

M Ed M Rd

(3.40)

where,
MEd : Design bending moment.
MRd : Design moment resistance.

Loadcombination
InmidasCivil,bendingresistancewillbeverifiedfortheloadcombinationsthattheActive
columnisspecifiedasStrength/StressinResults>Loadcombinations>SteelDesigntab.

99

DesignGuideformidasCivil

1.10Verificationofbendingresistance

ByResultTable
Bendingresistancecanbeverifiedinthetableformatasshownbelow.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignResultTables>BendingResistance

Positive/Negative: Positive/Negative moment


Lcom: Load combination
Type: Load combination type (Fxx-max, Fxx-min, ... Mzz-min)
Top Class: Class of top flange
Bot Class: Class of bottom flange
Web Class: Class of web
Sect. Class: Class of cross section
Ma,Ed: The design bending moment applied to structural steel section before composite behavior
Mc,Ed: The part of the design bending moment acting on the composite section
Mpl,Rd: Design value of the plastic resistance moment of the composite section
Mel,Rd: Design value of the elastic resistance moment of the composite section
M_Rd: Design value of the resistance moment of a composite section

ByExcelReport
DetailresultswithappliedequationsandparameterscanbecheckedintheExcelReport.

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

100

2.Resistancetoverticalshear
Limitstateofverticalshearresistancewillsatisfythecondition, VEd VRd .
Shear resistance, VRd , will be determined as smaller value between Vpl,Rd and Vb,Rd when
consideringshearbuckling.Whentheshearbucklingisnotconsidered,Shearresistance, VRd ,
will be determined as Vpl,Rd. The plastic resistance and buckling resistance are calculated as
follows:

2.1Plasticresistancetoverticalshear

V pl , Rd V pl , a, Rd

Av ( f y / 3 )

M0

EN19942:2005
6.2.2.2
EN199311:2005
(6.18)

EN199311:2005
6.2.6(3)d)

(3.41)

where,
M0 : The partial factor for resistance of cross-sections whatever the class is.
Av : The shear area. In midas Civil, only welded I, H and box sections are considered.

Av hwt w

(3.42)

hw : The depth of the web


tw : The web thickness
: The coefficient that includes the increase of shear resistance at web slenderness
[Table3.17]Coefficient

SteelGrade

S235toS460

1.20

OverS460

1.00

EN19942:2005
6.2.2.3
EN199315:2006
(5.1)

EN199315:2006
(5.2)

2.2Shearbucklingresistance
Plateswith

h
hw 72
31
foranunstiffenedweb,or w k forastiffenedweb,should

becheckedforresistancetoshearbucklingandshouldbeprovidedwithtransversestiffeners
atthesupports.

Vb, Rd Vbw, Rd Vbf , Rd

f ywhwt
3 M 1

(3.43)

(1)ContributionfromthewebVbw,Rd

Vbw, Rd

w f yw hwt
3 M 1

where,
fyw : Yield strength of the web.
hw : Clear web depth between flanges.
t : Thickness of the plate.
M1 : Partial factor for resistance of members to instability assessed by member checks.
w : Factor for the contribution of the web to the shear buckling resistance.

101

DesignGuideformidasCivil

(3.44)

[Table3.18]Contributionfromthewebw

Condition

Rigidendpost

Nonrigidendpost

w 0.83/

0.83/ w 1.08

0.83/ w

0.83/ w

w 1.08

1.37/(0.7 w )

0.83/ w

EN199315:2006
Table5.1

EN199315:2006
Figure5.1

[Fig.3.23]Endsupports
w : Slenderness parameter.

[Table3.19]Calculationofw

EN199315:2006
5.3(3)

EN199315:2006
5.3(5)

Condition
Transversestiffenersatsupportsonly.
(InmidasCivil,whenlongitudinalstiffenerexistsonly)

Transversestiffenersatsupportsandintermediate
transverseorlongitudinalstiffenersorboth
(InmidasCivil,exceptfortheconditionwhenlongitudinal
stiffenerexistsonly)

hw

86.4t
hw

37.4t k

Forwebswithlongitudinalstiffeners,

hwi

37.4t ki

(3.45)

hwi and ki refer to the subpanel with the largest slenderness parameter w of all subpanels
withinthewebpanelunderconsideration.(kst=0)

235
fy

(3.46)

k : The minimum shear buckling coefficient for the web panel.


[Table3.20]Calculationk

Longitudinal
stiffenersnum.
=0or>2

1or2

Condition

a/hw1.0

k 5.34 4.00(hw / a)2 kst

a/hw<1.0

k 4.00 5.34(hw / a)2 kst

=a/hw3.0

k 5.34 4.00(hw / a )2 kst

=a/hw<3.0

6.3 0.18
k 4.1

EN199315:2006
A.3

I sl
t 3hw

2.23

I sl

t hw
3

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

102

h
kst 9 w
a

2
4

I sl
2.1 I sl

3
t 3h t h
w
w

(3.47)

a : The distance between transverse stiffeners.

EN199315:2006
Figure5.3

[Fig.3.24]Webwithtransverseandlongitudinalstiffeners

Isl : The second moment of area of the longitudinal stiffener about z-axis. The value of Isl will be
multiplied by 1/3 when calculating k.
: The coefficient that includes the increase of shear resistance at web slenderness

[Table3.21]Calculation

SteelGrade

S235toS460

1.20

OverS460

1.00

(2)ContributionfromtheflangeVbf,Rd

Vbf , Rd

b f t 2f f yf M Ed
1

c M 1 M f , Rd

(3.48)

where,
bf and tf are taken for the flange which provides the least axial resistance.
bf being taken as not larger than 15tf on each side of the web.
fyf : Yield strength of the flange.

1.6b f t 2f f yf
c a 0.25

thw2 f yw

(3.49)

M1 : Partial factor for resistance of members to instability assessed by member checks.


MEd : Design bending moment.
Mf,Rd : The moment of resistance of the cross section consisting of the area of the effective flanges only.

103

DesignGuideformidasCivil

EN199315:2006
5.4(1)
EN199315:2006
(5.8)

[Table3.22]CalculationofMf,Rd

Condition

Mf,Rd

NEd=0

Mf,RdiscalculatedasMpl,Rdbutneglectingthewebcontribution.

Itiscalculatedbymultiplyingthereductionfactorfromthevalue
ofMf,RdwhenNEd=0.
NEdispresent

N Ed

( A f 1 A f 2 ) f yf

EN199315:2006
(5.9)

M0

Transversestiffener
Transversestiffenerscanbespecifiedbymembers.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>TransverseStiffener

a:Spacingofrigid
transversestiffeners

[Fig.3.25]Transversestiffener

Transversestiffenerofendsupport
Transversestiffenerofendsupportcanbeenteredfromthefollowingdialogbox.Endsupport
typebynodesandrelatedparametercanbedefined.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>TransverseStiffenerofEndSupport

Typeofendsupport
(SeeFig.3.23)

[Fig.3.26]TransverseStiffenerofEndSupport

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

104

2.3Resistancetoverticalshear
VRdiscalculateddependingonthevalueofhw/tasshowninthetablebelow.

[Table3.23]CalculationofVRd

Unstiffened

Stiffened

Condition

VRd

hw 72

VRd Vpl, Rd

hw 72

VRd Vb, Rd

hw 31
k

VRd Vpl, Rd

hw 31
k
t

VRd Vb, Rd

where,
Vpl,Rd : The plastic resistance to vertical shear.
Vb,Rd : The shear buckling resistance.

2.4Interactionbendingandverticalshear
(1)Verificationconditionofinteractionbetweensearforceandbendingmoment
Whenthefollowingconditionissatisfied,combinedeffectsofbendingandshearneedtobe
verified.

VEd
0.5
Vbw, Rd

(3.50)

where,
VEd : The design shear force including shear from torque.
Vbw,Rd : The design resistance for shear of contribution from the web.

(2)ForcrosssectionsinClass1or2
Applythereduceddesignsteelstrength(1)fydinthesheararea.

2V

Ed 1
V
Rd

(3.51)

EN19942:2005
6.2.2.4(1)

EN19942:2005
6.2.2.4(2)
Figure6.7

[Fig.3.27]Plasticstressdistributionmodifiedbytheeffectofverticalshear

105

DesignGuideformidasCivil

(3)ForcrosssectionsinClass3and4
3 0.5 :MRd,NRdneednotbereduced.
3 0.5 :ThecombinedeffectsofbendingandshearinthewebofanIorboxgirdershould
satisfy.

1 1

M f , Rd
2
23 1 1.0
M pl , Rd

(3.52)

where,

M f , Rd
M Ed

M pl , Rd M pl , Rd

VEd
Vbw, Rd

(3.53)

(3.54)

2.5Checkresistancetoverticalshear

VEd VRd

(3.55)

where,
VEd : Design value of the shear force acting on the composite section.
VRd : Design value of the resistance of the composite section to vertical shear.

2.6Verificationofverticalshearresistance

ByResultTable
Theverificationresultscanbecheckedinthetablebelow.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignResultTables>ResistancetoVerticalShear

Position: I/J-end
Lcom: Load combination
Type: Load combination type (Fxx-max, Fxx-min, ... Mzz-min)
Top Class: Class of top flange
Bot Class: Class of bottom flange
Web Class: Class of web
Sect. Class: Class of cross section
N_Ed : Design value of the compressive normal force
M_Ed: Design bending moment
V_Ed : Design value of the shear force acting on the composite section
Vpl,Rd: Design value of the plastic resistance of the composite section to vertical shear
Vb,Rd: Design value of the shear buckling resistance of a steel web

EN199315:2006
7.1(1)

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

106

ByExcelReport
DetailresultswithappliedequationsandparameterscanbecheckedintheExcelReport.

107

DesignGuideformidasCivil

3.Resistancetolateraltorsionalbuckling
Resistance to lateraltorsional buckling is verified only for the plate girder. The following
conditionsmustbesatisfied.

M Ed Mb, Rd

NEd
M
Ed 1.0
Nb, Rd M b, Rd

Nb, Rd , Mb, Rd shallbecalculatedasfollows.

3.1DesignbucklingresistancemomentMb,Rd

Mb, Rd LT M Rd

(3.56)

where,
LT : The reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling corresponding to the relative slenderness LT
MRd : The design resistance moment at the relevant cross-section.

(1)ThereductionfactorLT

LT

1
2

1.0

LT 2LT LT

where,

(3.57)

2
LT 0.51 LT LT 0.2 LT

(3.58)

[Table3.24]Lateraltorsionalbucklingcurveforcrosssection

Crosssection
WeldedISection

Limits

BucklingCurve

h/b2

h/b>2

InmidasCivil,plateIgirderisconsideredasweldedsection.Rolledsectionisnotconsidered.

LT : An imperfection factor.

[Table3.25]Imperfectionfactorforlateraltorsionalbucklingcurves

BucklingCurve

LT

0.21

0.34

0.49

0.76

LT 1.103

L fy
A
1 wc
b Em
3 Af

(3.59)

6.4.2(1)








EN199311:2005(E)

6.3.2.2


EN19942:2005

6.4.2(1)

EN199311:2005(E)

Table6.4

EN199311:2005

6.3.2.2

EN199311:2005(E)

Table6.3

EN199311:2005

Table6.4

DesignersGuideto

EN19942,(D6.14)





EN199311:2005

Table6.3

DesignersGuideto

EN19942,(D6.14)

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

108

L : The span length between the rigid supports.


B : The width of the compression flange.
Awc : The area of the compression zone of the web.
Af : The area of the compression flange.
m min[m1 , m2 ]

m1 1.0 0.441 1,5

3 2
350 50

(3.60)

0.5

m2 1.0 0.441 1,5 0.195 0.05



100

(3.61)

cL4
EI

(3.62)

Cd
l

(3.63)

Cd : The spring stiffness.


L : The distance between the springs.

V2
V1

V2 V1

[Table3.26]Calculationof

Bendingmoment

Changesign
Notchangesign

21 M 2 / M1
M 2 M1
1
,

(2)ThedesignresistancemomentMRd

[Table3.27]Designresistancemomentforsectionclass

SectionClass

MRd

1,2

Mpl,Rd

Mel,Rd=Ma,Ed+kMc,Ed

InmidasCivil,theverificationoflateraltorsionalbucklingforClass4isdonebyapplyingthe
identicalequationasClass3.

109

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Lateraltorsionalbucklingdata
Parameters required for the verification of lateral torsional buckling can be entered in the
followingdialogbox.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>LateralTorsionalBucklingData(PlateGirderOnly)

[Fig.3.28]Lateraltorsionalbucklingdata

3.2AxialbucklingresistanceofthecrackedcompositecrosssectionNb,Rd

Nb, Rd LT NRd

(3.64)

where,
LT : The reduction factor for lateral-torsional buckling corresponding to the relative slenderness LT
NRd : The design resistance moment at the relevant cross-section.

(1)ThereductionfactorLT
Thereductionfactor,LT,iscalculatedaspertheclause3.1.Whenthereductionfactordueto
axialforce,LT,iscalculated,m=1.0willbeapplied.

(2)ThedesignresistanceaxialNRd

NRd Af yd

(3.65)

where,
A : Cross-sectional area of the effective composite section neglecting concrete in tension.
fyd : The design value of the yield strength of structural steel.

3.3Checkresistancetolateraltorsionalbuckling

M Ed Mb, Rd

(3.66)

NEd
M
Ed 1.0
Nb, Rd M b, Rd

(3.67)

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

110

3.4Verificationoflateraltorsionalbucklingresistance

ByResultTable
Verificationresultscanbecheckedinthetablebelow.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignResultTables>ResistancetoLateralTorsional
buckling

Elem: Element
Position: I/J-end
Lcom: Load combination
Type: Load combination type (Fxx-max, Fxx-min, ... Mzz-min)
Sect. Class: Class of cross section
N_Ed: Design value of the compressive normal force
M_Ed: Design bending moment
Nb,Rd: Design buckling resistance of the compression member
Mb,Rd: Design buckling resistance moment
Interaction Ratio: NEd/Nb,Rd+MEd/Mb,Rd 1.0

ByExcelReport

111

DesignGuideformidasCivil

4.Resistancetotransverseforce
ResistancetotransverseforcecanbeverifiedforplateIgirder.
Thefollowingconditionmustbesatisfied.

2 1 .0
2 0.81 1.4

1 , 2 shallbecalculatedasfollows.

4.1Typeofloadapplication

EN199315:2006
Figure6.1

[Fig.3.29]Bucklingcoefficientsfordifferenttypesofloadapplication

Typesofloadapplication
Typesofloadapplicationandtherelatedparameterscanbespecifiedasfollows.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>TypeofLoadApplication(PlateGirderOnly)

Typeofloading
(SeeFig.2.25)

[Fig.3.30]TypeofloadapplicationInputDialog

4.2DesignresistancetolocalbucklingundertransverseforcesFRd

FRd

f ywLeff tw

M1

(3.68)

where,
fyw : The yield strength of the web.
Leff : The effective length for resistance to transverse forces.
tw : The thickness of the web.
M1 : The partial factor for resistance of members to instability assessed by member checks.

EN199315:2006
(6.1)

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

112

EN199315:2006
(6.2)

(1)EffectivelengthLeff

Leff F l y

(3.69)

where,
ly : The effective loaded length.
F : The reduction factor due to local buckling.

(2)Effectiveloadedlengthly

[Table3.28]Calculationofly

Typeofloading

ly

(a),(b)

l y ss 2t f 1 m1 m2

(c)

l y min l y1, l y 2 , le

EN199315:2006
6.5(2),(3)

EN199315:2006
Figure6.2

where,
ss : The length of stiff bearing.
hw : Clear web depth between flanges.

[Fig.3.31]Lengthofstiffbearing

tf : The thickness of the flange

m1

EN199315:2006
6.5(1)

f yf b f
f ywtw

(3.70)

h
0.02 w (F 0.5)
m2
t
0
(F 0.5)

(3.71)

hw
isapplied.

InmidasCivil,only m2 0.02

EN199315:2006
6.5(3)

l y1 le t f

m1 le
m2

2 t f

(3.72)

l y 2 le t f m1 m2

(3.73)

le

k F Etw2
ss c
2 f ywhw

113

DesignGuideformidasCivil

(3.74)

(3)ReductionfactorforeffectivelengthforresistanceF

0.5

1.0

(3.75)

where,

l ytw f yw
Fcr

Fcr 0.9kF E

(3.76)

tw3
hw

(3.77)

kF : The buckling coefficient for concentrated load.


b1 : The depth of the loaded subpanel taken as the clear distance between the loaded flange and the
stiffener.

s 10.9

a
b

13 210 0.3 1
3
a
hwt w

hw

I sl ,1

(3.78)

Isl,1 : The second moments of area of the stiffener closest to the loaded flange including contributing
parts of the web.

[Table3.29]CalculationofkF

Typeofloading

Condition

kF
2

0.05b1/hw0.3
andb1/a0.3

b
h

kF 6 2 w 5.44 1 0.21 s
a
a

Others

h
kF 6 2 w
a

(b)

h
kF 3.5 2 w
a

(c)

s c
6
k F 2 6 s

hw

(a)

4.3Verificationfortransverseforce

FEd
1.0
FRd

(3.79)

where,
FEd : The design transverse force.
FRd : The resistance to transverse force.

4.4Verificationforuniaxialbending

N Ed
M N Ed eN
Ed
1.0
f y Aeff
f yWeff

M0

M0

where,
NEd : The design axial force.

(3.80)

EN199315:2006
6.4(1)

EN199315:2006
6.4(2)

EN199315:2006
6.6

EN199315:2006
4.6

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

114

MEd : The design bending moment.


eN : The shift in the position of neutral axis.
fy : The yield strength of girder.
Aeff : The effective cross-section area.
Weff : The effective elastic section modulus.
M0 : The partial factor.

4.5Checkresistancetotransverseforce

2 1 .0

(3.81)

2 0.81 1.4

(3.82)

4.6Verificationoftransverseforceresistance

ByResultTable
Verificationresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>Composite Steel Girder Design>Design Result Tables>Resistance to Transverse


Force

Lcom: Load combination


Type: Load combination type (Fxx-max, Fxx-min, ... Mzz-min)
F_Ed: Design transverse force
N_Ed: Design value of the compressive normal force
My,Ed: Design bending moment applied to the composite section about the y-y axis
Mz,Ed: Design bending moment applied to the composite section about the z-z axis
F_Rd: Design resistance to local buckling under transverse forces
Eta2: FEd/FRd 1.0
Eta1: Member verification for uniaxial bending (EN 1993-1-5, (4.14))
Interaction Ratio: 2+0.81 1.4

ByExcelReport

115

DesignGuideformidasCivil

EN199315:2006
6.6and7.2

5.Resistancetolongitudinalshear
Resistance to longitudinal shear is verified only for the plate Igirder and the following
conditionmustbesatisfied.

L, Ed L, Rd

L, Ed , L, Rd shallbecalculatedasfollows.

5.1Designshearresistanceofheadedstud

PRd minPRd 1 , PRd 2

(3.83)

PRd1

0.8 fud 2 / 4

(3.84)

PRd 2

0.29d 2 f ck Ecm

(3.85)

where,
V : The partial factor.
d : The diameter of the shank of the stud.
fu : The specified ultimate tensile strength of the material of the stud.
fck : The characteristic cylinder compressive strength of the concrete at the age considered.
hsc : The overall nominal height of the stud.
[Table3.30]Calculationof

3hsc/d4
hsc
1
d

0.2

EN19942:2005
6.6.3.1(1)

EN19942:2005
(6.20),(6.21)

hsc/d>4
=1

Shearconnector
Forshearconnectors,enterthenumberofconnectors,tensilestrength,dimension,height(hsc),
transversespacing(st),andlongitudinalspacing(sc).

[Fig.3.32]Notationofshearconnector

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

116

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>ShearConnector

[Fig.3.33]ShearconnectorInputDialog

5.2Bearingshearstressofshearconnector,L,Rd

L, Rd

PRd N
sc

(3.86)

where,
N : The number of the shear connector.
sc : The space of the shear connector.

5.3Shearstressattheconnectionbetweengirderanddeck,L,Ed
(1) Beams with crosssections in Class 1 or 2 and under the sagging moment and inelastic
behavior(MEd>Mel,Rd).

L, Ed
where,

VL, Ed

VL , Ed
Lv

(3.87)

c, f

Nc,el M ED M el , Rd
M pl , Rd M el , Rd

(3.88)

Lv : Length of shear connection. (Lv = beff = Bc)

(2)Othercases

L, Ed

VEdQs
Iy

(3.89)

where,
Qs : Geometric moment of area at the shear connector position (contact point between girder and slab)

117

DesignGuideformidasCivil

EN19942:2005
6.6.2.2

[Table3.31]CalculationofQs

Condition

Qs

Gravitycenterofcompositesection
<Heightofgirder

Calculatethegeometricmomentofarea
withslab

Gravitycenterofcompositesection
Heightofgirder

Calculatethegeometricmomentofarea
withgirder

5.4Checkresistancetolongitudinalshear

L, Ed L, Rd

(3.90)

where,
L,Ed : Design longitudinal shear force per unit length at the interface between steel and concrete.
L,Rd : Resistance to longitudinal shear.

5.5Verificationoflongitudinalshearresistance

ByResultTable
Verificationresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>Composite Steel Girder Design>Design Result Tables>Resistance to Longitudinal


Shear

Elem: Element
Position: I/J-end
Lcom: Load combination
Type: Load combination type (Fxx-max, Fxx-min, ... Mzz-min)
V_L,Ed: Longitudinal shear force acting on length of the inelastic region
v_L,Ed: Design longitudinal shear force per unit length at the interface between steel and concrete
P_Rd: Design value of the shear resistance of a single connector
v_Ed: Design longitudinal shear stress

ByExcelReport

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

118

6.Resistancetofatigue
Resistancetofatigueshouldsatisfythefollowingcondition.

c
Ff E,2
Mf , s

E,2 , c willbecalculatedasfollows.

6.1Partialfactorsforfatigue
(1)PartialfactorforfatigueresistanceMf

[Table3.32]Recommendedvaluesforpartialfactor

Lowconsequence

Highconsequence

Damagetolerant

1.00

1.15

Safelife

1.15

1.35

(2)PartialfactorforfatigueloadsFf
Recommendvalue=1.0

Designparametersforfatigue
Partial factor and design life of the bridge in year can be entered in Composite Steel Girder
DesignParametersdialogbox.

Mf,Mf,s
tLd

[Fig.3.34]CompositeSteelGirderDesignParameters

119

DesignGuideformidasCivil

EN199319:2005
Table3.1

Consequenceoffailure

Assessment
Method

6.2Equivalentconstantrangeofshearstressfor2millioncyclesE,2

E,2 v

EN19942:2005
6.8.6.2(1)

EN19942:2005
6.8.6.2(3)~(5)

(3.91)

where,
v :The damage equivalent factor depending on the spectra and the slope m of the fatigue strength
curve.
: The range of shear stress due to fatigue loading.

(1)Damageequivalentfactorv

v v,1v,2v,3v,4

(3.92)

where,
v,1 : The factor for the damage effect of traffic and depends on the length of the critical influence line or
area.
v,2 : The factor for the traffic volume.
v,3 : The factor for the design life of the bridge.

EN19932:2006
9.5.2(5)

1/ 5

v,3

t
Ld
100

(3.93)

tLd : The design life of the bridge in years.


v,4 : The factor for the traffic on other lanes.

InmidasCivilv,1isappliedas1.55andtLdforcalculatingv,2,v,4,andv,3canbeenteredby
theuser.Refertotheclause6.1fortheinputparameter.

(2)Rangeofshearstress
Calculatetheshearstressperashearconnector.

Damageequivalentfactor
Thevaluesforv,2andv,4canbespecifiedbythemembersasshowninthefigurebelow.

[Fig.3.35]DamageEquivalenceFactors

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

120


EN19942:2005
6.8.3(3)

EN19942:2005
6.8.7.2

6.3Referencevalueoffatiguestrengthat2millioncyclesc
2

Thevalueofcisappliedas90N/mm .

6.4Checkresistancetofatigue

Ff E,2

c
Mf , s

(3.94)

where,
Ff : The partial factor for fatigue loading.
Mf,s : The partial factor for head studs in shear.

6.5Verificationoffatigueresistance

ByResultTable
Theverificationresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignResultTables>ResistancetoFatigue

Elem: Element
Position: I/J-end
Lcom: Load combination
Type: Load combination type (Fxx-max, Fxx-min, ... Mzz-min)
lamda_v: Damage equivalent factors
delta Tau: Range of shear stress for fatigue loading
delta Tau_E,2: Equivalent constant amplitude range of shear stress related to 2 million cycles
delta Tau_c: Reference value of the fatigue strength at 2 million cycles
Ratio: delta Tau_E,2/ delta Tau_c

ByExcelReport

121

DesignGuideformidasCivil

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

ServiceabilityLimitStates

1.Stresslimitation

EN19942:2005
7.2.2(5)

EN19932:2006
(7.1)

Forthestresslimitcheckofplategirder,thefollowingstresswillbecalculatedandcomparedto
itsallowablestress:Normalstressofgirders,Shearstressofgirders,Combinedstressofgirders,
stressinslab,andstressinrebar.Eachstresscanbecalculatedasfollows.

1.1Stresslimitationforgirder
(1)NormalstressEd,ser

Ed , ser allow

fy

(3.95)

M , ser

Stressingirder,Ed,ser,iscalculatedbythestressessummationofbeforecompositeandafter
compositestateat4differentpoints.Memberforcesandsectionpropertiesarecalculatedas
showninthetablebelow.

[Table3.33]Memberforcesforcalculatinggirderstress

Type

Beforecomposite

Section
Properties

Girder

Aftercomposite
Saggingmoment:Deckconcrete+Girder
Hoggingmoment:Deckrebar+Girder

Member
Calculateusinggirderonly Calculateconsideringdeckconcreteandgirder
Force

In midas Civil, applied section properties can be verified in the excel report. The section
propertiesofbeforecompositeactionisshownasBefore,aftercompositeactionisshown
asAfter,negativemomentwithconsideringcrackedsectionisshownasCrack.

(2)ShearstressEd,ser

Ed , ser allow

fy
3 M , ser

(3.96)

where,

Ed , ser

VEd
Av

VEd : Shear force after composite action


Av : Shear area. For I-girder, Av = hwtw. For the other sections, Av = Aweb.

(3.97)

EN19932:2006
(7.2)

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

122

(3)CombinedstressEd,com,ser

Ed ,com, ser allow

fy

M , ser

EN19932:2006
(7.3)

(3.98)

where,
2
2
Ed ,com, ser Ed
, ser 3 Ed , ser

(3.99)

Stresslimitationparameters

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignParameters

M,ser

k1,k2,k3

[Fig.3.36]CompositeGirderDesignParameters

1.2Stresslimitationforconcreteofslab

c allow kf ck

(3.100)

where,
k : It is used as the user defined value. Refer to 3.1.1.1 for the input parameter of k1, k2.

[Table3.34]Recommendedvalueofkforconcrete

ServiceabilityLoad
combinationType

Applied

Recommended

Characteristic

k1

0.6

Quasipermanent

k2

0.45

fck : The characteristic value of the cylinder compressive strength of concrete at 28 days.

123

DesignGuideformidasCivil

EN19942:2005
7.2.2(2)

1.3Stresslimitationforreinforcementofslab

s allow k 3 f sk

(3.101)

where,
k3 : It is used as the user defined value.
[Table3.35]Recommendedvalueofkforreinforcement

ServiceabilityLoad
combinationType

Applied

Recommended

Characteristic

k3

0.45

EN19942:2005
7.2.2(4)

fsk : Characteristic value of the yield strength of reinforcing steel.

1.4Verificationofstresslimitationresistance

ByResultTable
Theverificationresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignResultTables>StressLimitation

Sigma_Ed,ser, Tau_Ed,ser: Nominal stresses in the structural steel from the characteristic load
combination. Refer to EN 1993-2 7.3.
ALW: Stress limit.
Sigma_c: Stress in the concrete deck.
k*fck: Stress limit.
Sigma_s: stress in the reinforcement.
k*fsk: stress limit.

ByExcelReport

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

124

2.LongitudinalshearinSLS(ServiceabilityLimitStates)
ResistancetolongitudinalshearcanbeverifiedfortheIgirderandfollowingconditionmustbe
satisfied.

L, Ed L, Rd

L, Ed , L, Rd shallbecalculatedasfollows.

2.1Designshearresistanceofheadedstud

PRd minPRd 1 , PRd 2

0.8 fud / 4
2

(3.103)

PRd 2

0.29d 2 f ck Ecm

(3.104)

where,
V : The partial factor.
d : The diameter of the shank of the stud, 16mm d 25mm.
fu : The specified ultimate tensile strength of the material of the stud, 500N/mm2.
fck : The characteristic cylinder compressive strength of the concrete at the age considered.
hsc : The overall nominal height of the stud.
: Refer to Table 3.30.

Shearconnectorparameters
Shearconnectorisenteredbymembers.RefertoFig.3.33fortheinputmethod.

2.2Bearingshearstressofshearconnector,L,Rd

k s PRd N conn
sconn

where,
ks : Reduction factor for shear resistance of stud connector.
Nconn : The number of the shear connector.
sconn : The space of the shear connector.

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DesignGuideformidasCivil

EN19942:2005
(6.20),(6.21)

L, Rd

EN19942:2005
6.6.3.1(1)

(3.102)

PRd1

(3.105)

Reductionfactorks
Reduction factor for stud, ks, can be entered in Composite Steel Girder Design Parameters
dialogbox.

[Fig.3.37]CompositeGirderDesignParameters

2.3Shearstressattheconnectionbetweengirderanddeck,L,Ed
(1) Beams with crosssections in Class 1 or 2 and under the sagging moment and inelastic
behavior(MEd>Mel,Rd)

L , Ed
where,

VL, Ed

VL , Ed
Lv

(3.106)

c, f

Nc,el M ED M el , Rd
M pl , Rd M el , Rd

(3.107)

Lv : Length of shear connection. (Lv = beff = Bc)

EN19942:2005
6.6.2.2

(2)Othercases

L, Ed

VEdQs
Iy

(3.108)

where,
Qs : Geometric moment of area at the shear connector position (contact point between girder and slab).
Refer to Table 3.31 to see the calculation method.

2.4CheckresistancetolongitudinalshearinSLS

L, Ed L, Rd

(3.109)

where,
L,Ed : Design longitudinal shear force per unit length at the interface between steel and concrete.
L,Rd : Resistance to longitudinal shear.

Chapter3.CompositePlateGirderDesign:EN19942

126

2.5VerificationoflongitudinalshearinSLS

ByResultTable
Verificationresultscanbecheckedasshowninthetablebelow.

Design>CompositeSteelGirderDesign>DesignResultTables>LongitudinalShearinSLS

V_c,Ed: Vertical shear force acting on the composite section.


v_L,Ed: Longitudinal shear force per unit length in the shear connector.
P_Rd_ser: Shear resistance of a single shear connector for SLS.
v_L,Rd: Longitudinal shear resistance per unit length for the shear connector.

ByExcelReport

127

DesignGuideformidasCivil

DESIGN GUIDE
for midas Civil

Prestressed Box Girder Design : EN 1992-2

Composite Steel Box Girder Design : EN 1994-2

Composite Plate Girder Design : EN 1994-2